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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

   REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

   ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended February 28, 2022.

OR

   TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from___to____.

OR

   SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report

Commission file number: 001-34900

TAL Education Group

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

N/A

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

Cayman Islands

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

5/F, Tower B, Heying Center

Xiaoying West Street, Haidian District

Beijing 100085

People’s Republic of China

(Address of principal executive offices)

Alex Zhuangzhuang Peng, Chief Financial Officer

Telephone: +86-10-5292-6658

Email: ir@tal.com

5/F, Tower B, Heying Center

Xiaoying West Street, Haidian District

Beijing 100085

People’s Republic of China

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.

Title of each class

    

Trading Symbol(s)

    

Name of each exchange on which registered

American Depositary Shares, each three representing one Class A common share*

 

NYSE: TAL

 

The New York Stock Exchange

Class A common shares, par value $0.001 per share**

NYSE: TAL**

The New York Stock Exchange

*     Effective on August 16, 2017, the ratio of ADSs to Class A common shares was changed from one ADS representing two Class A common shares to three ADSs representing one Class A common share.

**   Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing on The New York Stock Exchange of American depositary shares.

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.

None

(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.

None

(Title of Class)

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

As of February 28, 2022, 166,786,023 Class A common shares, par value $0.001 per share

and 49,153,604 Class B common shares, par value $0.001 per share were outstanding.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes                   No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Yes                   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes                   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes                   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

  Large accelerated filer          Accelerated filer          Non-accelerated filer          Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 U.S. GAAP

   International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board

  Other

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

Item 17                            Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

Yes                   No

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.

Yes                   No

The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

INTRODUCTION

1

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

2

PART I

3

Item 1.

Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

3

Item 2.

Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

3

Item 3.

Key Information

3

Item 4.

Information on the Company

57

Item 4A

Unresolved Staff Comments

89

Item 5.

Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

89

Item 6.

Directors, Senior Management and Employees

106

Item 7.

Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions

114

Item 8.

Financial Information

115

Item 9.

The Offer and Listing

117

Item 10.

Additional Information

118

Item 11.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

127

Item 12.

Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities

127

PART II

129

Item 13.

Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies

129

Item 14.

Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds

129

Item 15.

Controls and Procedures

129

Item 16.

[Reserved]

131

Item 16A.

Audit Committee Financial Expert

131

Item 16B.

Code of Ethics

131

Item 16C.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

131

Item 16D.

Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees

131

Item 16E.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

132

Item 16F.

Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant

132

Item 16G.

Corporate Governance

132

Item 16H.

Mine Safety Disclosure

132

Item 16I.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

132

PART III

133

Item 17.

Financial Statements

133

Item 18.

Financial Statements

133

Item 19.

Exhibits

133

INTRODUCTION

In this annual report, except where the context otherwise requires, unless otherwise indicated and for purposes of this annual report only:

“China” or “PRC” refers to the People’s Republic of China, and for the purpose of this annual report, excluding Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau;

“we,” “us,” “our company” and “our” refer to TAL Education Group, a Cayman Islands company, and its subsidiaries, and, in the context of describing our operations and consolidated financial information, the Consolidated Affiliated Entities (as defined below);

“shares” or “common shares” refers to our Class A and Class B common shares, par value $0.001 per share;

“ADSs” refers to our American depositary shares, each three of which represent one Class A common share;

“VIEs” or variable interest entities refers to entities including, among others, Beijing Xueersi Network Technology Co., Ltd., or Xueersi Network, Beijing Xueersi Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Xueersi Education, and Xinxin Xiangrong Education Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd. (the original name of which is Beijing Dididaojia Education Technology Co., Ltd.), or Xinxin Xiangrong, all of which are domestic PRC companies in which we do not have equity interests but whose financial results have been consolidated into our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP; and “Consolidated Affiliated Entities” refers to the VIEs and the VIEs’ direct and indirect subsidiaries and schools;

“U.S. GAAP” refers to generally accepted accounting principles in the United States;

“student enrollments of normal priced long-term course” for a certain period refers to the total number of normal priced long-term courses enrolled in and paid for by our students during that period, including multiple courses enrolled in and paid for by the same student, excluding courses offered at significant discounts for promotional purposes or short-term courses offered on an ad hoc basis (as opposed to long-term courses that tend to track the school semesters and vacations);

“K-12” refers to the year before the first grade through the last year of high school;

“K9 Academic AST Services” refers to the offering of academic subjects to students from kindergarten through grade nine;

“RMB” or “Renminbi” refers to the legal currency of China; and

“$,” “US$” or “U.S. dollars” refers to the legal currency of the United States.

Our financial statements are expressed in U.S. dollars, which is our reporting currency. Certain of our financial data in this annual report on Form 20-F are translated into U.S. dollars solely for the reader’s convenience. Unless otherwise noted, all convenient translations from Renminbi to U.S. dollars in this annual report on Form 20-F were made at a rate of RMB6.3084 to $1.00, the exchange rate set forth in the H.10 statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board on February 28, 2022. We make no representation that any RMB or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate, at the rate stated above, or at all.

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This annual report contains forward-looking statements that reflect our current expectations and views of future events. These forward looking statements are made under the “safe-harbor” provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.

You can identify some of these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “is/are likely to” or other similar expressions. These forward-looking statements include statements relating to:

PRC laws, regulations and policies relating to the learning solutions industry;
our anticipated growth strategies;
competition in the markets where we offer learning products and services;
our future business development, results of operations and financial condition;
expected changes in our revenues and certain cost and expense items;
our ability to increase learner enrollments and expand solution and product offerings; and
risks associated with the expansion of our geographic reach and our offering of new learning products and services.

We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. Although we believe that our expectations expressed in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, our expectations may later be found to be incorrect. You should read this annual report and the documents that we refer to in this annual report completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from and/or worse than what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements with these cautionary statements. Other sections of this annual report include additional factors which could adversely impact our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.

The forward-looking statements made in this annual report relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this annual report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

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PART I

Item 1.  Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

Not applicable.

Item 2.  Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

Not applicable.

Item 3.  Key Information

Our Holding Company Structure and Contractual Arrangements with the Consolidated Affiliated Entities

TAL Education Group is not a Chinese operating company but a Cayman Islands holding company with no equity ownership in the Consolidated Affiliated Entities. We conduct our operations in China through (i) our PRC subsidiaries and (ii) the Consolidated Affiliated Entities with which we have maintained contractual arrangements. PRC laws and regulations restrict and impose conditions on foreign investment in the education business and value-added telecommunication services in China. Accordingly, we operate substantially all of our learning business in China through the Consolidated Affiliated Entities and rely on contractual arrangements among our PRC subsidiaries, the Consolidated Affiliated Entities and their nominee shareholders to control the business operations of the Consolidated Affiliated Entities. Net revenues contributed by the Consolidated Affiliated Entities accounted for 93.4%, 94.4%, and 95.5% of our net revenues in the fiscal years ended February 28/29, 2020, 2021 and 2022, respectively. As used in this annual report, “we,” “us,” “our company,” and “our” refers to TAL Education Group, a Cayman Islands company, its subsidiaries, and, in the context of describing our operations and consolidated financial information, the Consolidated Affiliated Entities, including the VIEs and the VIEs’ direct and indirect subsidiaries and schools. Investors of our ADSs are not purchasing equity interest in the Consolidated Affiliated Entities in China but instead are purchasing equity interest in a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands, and may never hold equity interests in the Consolidated Affiliated Entities.

A series of contractual agreements, including exclusive business service agreements, call option agreement, equity pledge agreement, letters of undertaking, and power of attorney agreements by and among our PRC subsidiaries, the Consolidated Affiliated Entities and their respective shareholders. These contractual agreements include:

(i) exclusive business service agreements, pursuant to which TAL Beijing or its designated affiliates have the exclusive right to provide the VIEs and their subsidiaries and schools comprehensive intellectual property licensing and various technical and business support services and relevant VIEs agreed to pay service fees annually or regularly to TAL Beijing or its designated affiliates and adjust the service fee rates from time to time at TAL Beijing’s discretion, and TAL Beijing or its designated affiliates is entitled to charge the Consolidated Affiliated Entities service fees regularly that amount to substantially all of the net income of the Consolidated Affiliated Entities before the service fees;

(ii) call option agreements, pursuant to which the respective shareholders of the VIEs unconditionally and irrevocably granted TAL Beijing or its designated party an exclusive option to purchase from the shareholders part or all of the equity interests in the respective VIEs for the minimum amount of consideration permitted by the applicable PRC laws and regulations under the circumstances where TAL Beijing or its designated party is permitted under PRC laws and regulations to own all or part of the equity interests of the respective VIEs or where we otherwise deem it necessary or appropriate to exercise the option, and TAL Beijing has sole discretion to decide when to exercise the option, and whether to exercise the option in part or in full;

(iii) equity pledge agreements, as supplemented, pursuant to which the respective shareholders of the VIEs unconditionally and irrevocably pledged all of their equity interests in the respective VIEs to TAL Beijing to guarantee performance of the obligations of the respective VIEs and their respective subsidiaries and schools under the technology support and service agreements with TAL Beijing;

(iv) letters of undertaking, pursuant to which all shareholders of the VIEs covenanted with and undertook to TAL Beijing that, if, as the respective shareholders of the VIEs, such shareholders receive any dividends, interests, other distributions or remnant assets upon liquidation from the respective VIEs, such shareholders shall, to the extent permitted by applicable laws, regulations and

3

legal procedures, remit all such income after payment of any applicable tax and other expenses required by laws and regulations to TAL Beijing without any compensation therefore; and

(v) power of attorney agreements, pursuant to which each of the shareholders of the VIEs has executed an irrevocable power of attorney appointed TAL Beijing, or any person designated by TAL Beijing as their attorney-in-fact to vote on their behalf on matters of the respective VIEs requiring shareholder approval, and TAL Beijing has the ability to exercise effective control over each of the VIEs respectively through shareholder votes and, through such votes, to also control the composition of the board of directors.

In addition, the spouse of each shareholder, who is a natural person, of the VIEs has entered into a spousal consent letter to acknowledge that she is aware of, and consents to, the execution by her spouse of the call option agreement described above. Each such spouse further agrees that she will not take any actions or raise any claims to interfere with performance by her spouse of the obligations under the above mentioned agreements.

Terms contained in each set of contractual arrangements with the Consolidated Affiliated Entities and their respective shareholders are substantially similar. As a result of the contractual arrangements, we have effective control over and are considered the primary beneficiary of the Consolidated Affiliated Entities for accounting purposes, and we have consolidated the financial results of the Consolidated Affiliated Entities in our consolidated financial statements.

The following diagram sets out details of our significant subsidiaries and Consolidated Affiliated Entities as of February 28, 2022:

Graphic

4

(1)Mr. Bangxin Zhang is our chairman and chief executive officer who owned 26.3% of the common shares and 71.8% of the voting power of TAL Education Group as of April 30, 2022.
(2)Mr. Yachao Liu is our chief operating officer who owned 4.1% of the common shares and 5.4% of the voting power of TAL Education Group as of April 30, 2022.
(3)Mr. Yunfeng Bai is our director who owned less than 1.0% of the common shares and 0.3% of voting power of TAL Education Group as of April 30, 2022.
(4)Among the 63 schools, seven schools’ majority ownership are directly or indirectly held by Xueersi Education, and the remaining minority ownership are directly or indirectly held by Xueersi Network. For the other schools, Xueersi Education held either 100% or majority ownership for which the remaining minority ownership were held by third parties.

However, the contractual arrangements may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing us with control over the Consolidated Affiliated Entities. If we had direct ownership of the Consolidated Affiliated Entities, we would be able to exercise our rights as a shareholder to effect changes in the board of directors of these entities, which in turn could effect changes, subject to any applicable fiduciary obligations, at the management level. However, under the VIE Contractual Arrangements, we rely on the performance by the Consolidated Affiliated Entities and their respective shareholders of their obligations under the contracts to exercise control over and receive economic benefits from the Consolidated Affiliated Entities. In addition, we cannot assure you that when conflicts of interest arise, any or all of these individuals will act in the best interests of our company or such conflicts will be resolved in our favor. In addition, these individuals may breach, or cause the Consolidated Affiliated Entities to breach, or refuse to renew, the existing VIE Contractual Arrangements. If we cannot resolve any conflict of interest or dispute between us and these individuals, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which could result in disruption of our business and subject us to substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings. As such, we may incur substantial costs to enforce the terms of the arrangements. In addition, our contractual arrangements have not been tested in a court of law as of the date of this annual report. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—We rely on the VIE Contractual Arrangements for our PRC operations, which may not be as effective in providing operational control as direct ownership” and “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—The legal owners of the VIEs may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition” for further details.

Our corporate structure is subject to unique risks associated with our contractual arrangements with the Consolidated Affiliated Entities. If the PRC government deems that our contractual arrangements with the Consolidated Affiliated Entities do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change or are interpreted differently in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations. The PRC regulatory authorities could disallow the VIE structure, which would likely result in a material adverse change in our operations, and our ADSs may decline significantly in value or become worthless. Our holding company, our PRC subsidiaries and the Consolidated Affiliated Entities, and investors of our company face uncertainty about potential future actions by the PRC government that could affect the enforceability of the contractual arrangements with the Consolidated Affiliated Entities and, consequently, significantly affect the financial performance of the Consolidated Affiliated Entities and our company as a whole. In addition, our contractual arrangements have not been tested in a court of law as of the date of this annual report. For a detailed description of the risks associated with our corporate structure, please refer to risks disclosed under “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure.”

There are also substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations and rules regarding the status of the rights of our Cayman Islands holding company with respect to its contractual arrangements with the Consolidated Affiliated Entities and their nominee shareholders. It is uncertain whether any new PRC laws or regulations related to variable interest entity structures will be adopted or, if adopted, what they would provide. If we or any of the Consolidated Affiliated Entities is found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or fail to obtain or maintain any of the required licenses, permits or approvals, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion to take action in dealing with such violations or failures. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—If the PRC government determines that the agreements that establish the structure for operating our business in China are not in compliance with applicable PRC laws and regulations, we could be subject to severe penalties” and “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of the newly enacted Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.”

We face various risks and uncertainties related to doing business in China. Our business operations are primarily conducted in China, and we are subject to complex and evolving PRC laws and regulations. For example, we face risks associated with

5

regulatory approvals on offshore offerings, anti-monopoly regulatory actions, regulations on the use of variable interest entities, and oversight on cybersecurity and data privacy, as well as the lack of inspection on our auditors by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or the PCAOB, which may impact our ability to conduct certain businesses, accept foreign investments, or list and conduct offerings on a United States or other foreign exchange. These risks could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs, significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to continue to offer securities to investors, or cause the value of such securities to significantly decline. For a detailed description of risks related to doing business in China, “Item 3.D. Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China.”

The PRC government’s significant authority in regulating our operations and its oversight and control over offerings conducted overseas by, and foreign investment in, China-based issuers could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors. Implementation of industry-wide regulations in this nature may cause the value of such securities to significantly decline. For more details, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—The PRC government’s oversight and discretions over our business operation could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs.”

Risks and uncertainties arising from the legal system in China, including risks and uncertainties regarding the enforcement of laws and quickly evolving rules and regulations in China, could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs. For more details, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could have a material adverse effect on us.”

The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act

Our ADSs will be delisted and our ADSs and shares will be prohibited from trading in the over-the-counter market in 2024 under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCAA, if the PCAOB is unable to inspect or fully investigate auditors located in China, or in 2023 if proposed changes to the law are enacted. The PCAOB has been unable, and is currently unable, to inspect our auditor in relation to their audit work performed for our financial statements. On December 16, 2021, the PCAOB issued a report to notify the SEC of its determination that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely registered public accounting firms headquartered in Mainland China and Hong Kong. The PCAOB identified our auditor, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Certified Public Accountants LLP, as one of the registered public accounting firms that the PCAOB is unable to inspect or investigate completely. Under the current law, delisting and prohibition from over-the-counter trading in the United States could take place in 2024. The delisting of our ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment. In addition, the proposed changes to the law would decrease the number of non-inspection years from three years to two, thus reducing the time period before our ADSs may be prohibited from over-the-counter trading or delisted. If the proposed provision is enacted, our ADS could be delisted from the exchange and prohibited from over-the-counter trading in the United States in 2023. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risk Factors Related to Doing Business in China—Our ADSs will be prohibited from trading in the United States under the HFCAA in 2024 if the PCAOB is unable to inspect or fully investigate auditors located in China, or in 2023 if proposed changes to the law are enacted. The delisting of our ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.”

Permissions Required from the PRC Authorities for Our Operations

We conduct our business primarily through our subsidiaries and Consolidated Affiliated Entities in China. Our operations in China are governed by PRC laws and regulations. As of the date of this annual report, other than disclosed in “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—We are required to obtain various operating licenses and permits and to make registrations and filings for our current business in China; failure to comply with these requirements may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations” and “If we fail to obtain and maintain the licenses and approvals as well as registrations and filings required under the uncertain regulatory environment for online education in China, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected,” based on the advice of our PRC counsel, we believe our PRC subsidiaries and Consolidated Affiliated Entities have obtained the requisite licenses and permits from the PRC government authorities that are necessary for the business operations of our PRC subsidiaries and the Consolidated Affiliated Entities in China, including, among others, the Permit for Operating a Private School, license for internet information services, or ICP license, the License for the Production and Operation of Radio and Television Program, and the Permit for Operating Publications Business. Given the uncertainties of interpretation and implementation of relevant laws and regulations and the enforcement practice by relevant government authorities, we may be required to obtain additional licenses, permits, filings, or approvals for our business operations.

6

Furthermore, in connection with our issuance of securities to foreign investors in the past, under current PRC laws, regulations, and rules, as of the date of this annual report, we, our PRC subsidiaries, and the Consolidated Affiliated Entities (i) have not been required to obtain permissions from or complete filings with the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC, (ii) have not been required to go through cybersecurity review by the Cyberspace Administration of China, or the CAC, and (iii) have not received or have not been denied such requisite permissions by the CSRC or the CAC. Our PRC counsel has consulted the relevant government authorities, which acknowledged that, under the currently effective PRC laws and regulations, a company already listed in a foreign stock exchange before promulgation of the latest Cybersecurity Review Measures is not required to go through a cybersecurity review by the CAC to conduct a securities offering or maintain its listing status on the foreign stock exchange on which its securities have been listed. Therefore, we believe that under the currently effective PRC laws and regulations, we are not required to go through a cybersecurity review by the CAC for conducting a securities offering or maintain our listing status on the NYSE.

However, the PRC government has recently indicated an intent to exert more oversight over offerings that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers like us and published a series of proposed rules for public comments in this regard, the enaction timetable, final content, interpretation and implementation of most of which remains uncertain. Therefore, there are substantial uncertainties as to how PRC governmental authorities will regulate overseas listing in general and whether we are required to complete filing or obtain any specific regulatory approvals from the CSRC, CAC or any other PRC governmental authorities for our future offshore offerings. If we had inadvertently concluded that such approvals were not required, or if applicable laws, regulations or interpretations change in a way that requires us to obtain such approval in the future, we may be unable to obtain such necessary approvals in a timely manner, or at all, and such approvals may be rescinded even if obtained. Any such circumstance could subject us to penalties, including fines, suspension of business and revocation of required licenses, significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or be worthless. For more detailed information, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—The PRC government’s oversight and discretion over our business operations could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs.”

Cash and Asset Flows Through Our Organization

TAL Education Group is a holding company with no operations of its own. We conduct our operations in China primarily through our subsidiaries and the Consolidated Affiliated Entities in China. As a result, although other means are available for us to obtain financing at the holding company level, TAL Education Group’s ability to pay dividends to the shareholders and to service any debt it may incur depends upon dividends paid by our PRC subsidiaries and license and service fees paid by the Consolidated Affiliated Entities. If any of our subsidiaries incurs debt on its own behalf in the future, the instruments governing such debt may restrict its ability to pay dividends to TAL Education Group. In addition, to the extent cash or assets in our business is in the PRC or Hong Kong or a PRC or Hong Kong entity, such cash or assets may not be available to fund operations or for other use outside of the PRC or Hong Kong due to interventions in, or the imposition of restrictions and limitations on, the ability of our holding company, our PRC subsidiaries, or the Consolidated Affiliated Entities by the PRC government to transfer cash or assets. Cash may be transferred within our organization in the following manners:

(i) Under PRC law, TAL Education Group may directly provide funding to our PRC subsidiaries through capital contributions, loans and cross-border RMB fund pool established under applicable PRC laws and regulations, and to the Consolidated Affiliated Entities through loans and cross-border RMB fund pool established under applicable PRC laws and regulations, subject to satisfaction of applicable government registration and approval requirements. With respect to the cross-border RMB fund pool, TAL Education Group, Pengxin TAL Industrial Investment (Shanghai) Co., Ltd. (a wholly-owned subsidiary), five of our wholly-owned subsidiaries and one VIE as a Multinational Enterprise Group, started a Round-way Cross-border RMB Fund Pool Business and opened a special deposit account, where the Multinational Enterprise Group can optimize and balance cross-border RMB funds among its domestic and foreign members.

For the years ended February 28/29, 2020, 2021 and 2022, TAL Education Group, through its intermediate holding companies, provided capital contribution of $20.0 million, $10.0 million and $110.2 million to its subsidiaries in China, respectively. TAL Education Group provided $194.7 million, $0.4 million and $70.8 million, respectively, to other members in the Multinational Enterprise Group, for the years ended February 28/29, 2020, 2021 and 2022. For the years ended February 28/29, 2020, 2021 and 2022, there was no repayment from other members in the Multinational Enterprise Group to TAL Education Group.

7

(ii) Our subsidiaries, including our PRC subsidiaries, could declare dividends or other distributions to their shareholders and eventually to TAL Education Group. As of the date of this annual report, no dividends or distributions have been made to TAL Education Group by our PRC subsidiaries or other subsidiaries. Our PRC subsidiaries are permitted to pay dividends to their shareholders and eventually to TAL Education Group only out of their retained earnings, if any, as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. Such payment of dividends by entities registered in China is subject to limitations, which could result in limitations on the availability of cash to fund dividends or make distributions to shareholders of our securities. The amount of dividends paid by our PRC subsidiaries to us primarily depends on the service fees paid to our PRC subsidiaries from the Consolidated Affiliated Entities, and, to a lesser degree, our PRC subsidiaries’ retained earnings. For any amounts owed by the Consolidated Affiliated Entities to our PRC subsidiaries under the VIE agreements, unless otherwise required by the PRC tax authorities, we are able to have such amounts settled without limitations under the currently effective PRC laws and regulations, provided that the Consolidated Affiliated Entities have sufficient funds to do so. In the fiscal years ended February 28/29, 2020, 2021 and 2022, our relevant PRC subsidiaries collectively charged $726.7 million, $1,123.5 million and $1,174.6 million in service fees, respectively, to the Consolidated Affiliated Entities. The Consolidated Affiliated Entities collectively paid $776.3 million, $784.4 million and $839.9 million in service fees to relevant PRC subsidiaries in the fiscal years ended February 28/29, 2020, 2021 and 2022, respectively. As of February 28/29, 2020, 2021 and 2022, the balance of the amount payable for the service fees was $78.4 million, $417.5 million and $752.2 million, respectively. The Consolidated Affiliated Entities provided net funds to relevant PRC subsidiaries of $1,531.5 million in the fiscal year ended February 29, 2020 and collected net proceeds of $1,762.4 million and $1,536.3 million in the fiscal year ended February 28, 2021 and 2022, respectively.

For the details of the financial position, cash flows and results of operation of the Consolidated Affiliated Entities, please refer to the “Item 3. Key information—Financial Information Related to the Consolidated Affiliated Entities.”

Our PRC subsidiaries and the Consolidated Affiliated Entities are required to make appropriations to certain statutory reserve funds or may make appropriations to certain discretionary funds, which are not distributable as cash dividends except in the event of a solvent liquidation of the companies. For more details, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—B. Liquidity and Capital Resources—Holding Company Structure” and “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—We may rely on dividends paid by our subsidiaries for our cash needs, and any limitation on the ability of our subsidiaries to make payments to us could limit our ability to pay dividends to holders of our ADSs and common shares.”

In November 2010, we paid a $30 million cash dividend to our shareholders of record as of September 29, 2010, the date we declared this dividend out of our cash balance. In December 2012, we paid a $39.0 million cash dividend with $0.25 per share to our shareholders of record at the close of business on December 7, 2012 out of our cash balance. In May 2017, we paid $41.2 million special cash dividend with $0.25 per share to our shareholders of record at the close of business on May 11, 2017 out of our cash balance. No dividends or distributions have been made to the holding company by WFOEs, the Consolidated Affiliated Entities or other subsidiaries. See “Item 8. Financial Information—A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Dividend Policy.” For PRC and United States federal income tax considerations of an investment in our ADSs, see “Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation.”

We currently do not have cash management policies in place that dictate how funds are transferred between TAL Education Group, our subsidiaries, the Consolidated Affiliated Entities and the investors. Rather, the funds can be transferred in accordance with the applicable PRC laws and regulations. For purposes of illustration, the following discussion reflects the hypothetical taxes that might be required to be paid within mainland China, assuming that: (i) we have taxable earnings, and (ii) we determine to pay a dividend in the future:

    

Tax calculation (1)

 

Hypothetical pre-tax earnings(2)

 

100

%

Tax on earnings at statutory rate of 25%(3)

 

(25)

%

Net earnings available for distribution

 

75

%

Withholding tax at standard rate of 10%(4)

 

(7.5)

%

Net distribution to Parent/Shareholders

 

67.5

%

Notes:

(1)For purposes of this example, the tax calculation has been simplified. The hypothetical book pre-tax earnings amount, not considering timing differences, is assumed to equal taxable income in China.

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(2)Under the terms of the VIE agreements, our PRC subsidiaries may charge the VIEs for services provided to VIEs. These service fees shall be recognized as cost and expenses of the VIEs, with a corresponding amount as service income by our PRC subsidiaries and eliminate in consolidation. For income tax purposes, our PRC subsidiaries and VIEs file income tax returns on a separate company basis. The service fees paid are recognized as a tax deduction by our VIEs and as income by our PRC subsidiaries and are tax neutral.
(3)Certain of our subsidiaries and Consolidated Affiliated Entities qualify for a preferential income tax rate which is lower than the statutory rate of 25% in China. However, such rate is subject to qualification, is temporary in nature, and may not be available in a future period when distributions are paid. For purposes of this hypothetical example, the table above reflects a maximum tax scenario under which the full statutory rate would be effective.
(4)The PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law imposes a withholding income tax of 10% on dividends distributed by a foreign invested enterprise, or FIE, to its immediate holding company outside of China. A lower withholding income tax rate of 5% is applied if the FIE’s immediate holding company is registered in Hong Kong or other jurisdictions that have a tax treaty arrangement with China, subject to a qualification review at the time of the distribution. For purposes of this hypothetical example, the table above assumes a maximum tax scenario under which the full withholding tax would be applied.

The table above has been prepared under the assumption that all profits of the Consolidated Affiliated Entities will be distributed as fees to TAL Beijing under tax neutral contractual arrangements. If, in the future, the accumulated earnings of the Consolidated Affiliated Entities exceed the service fees paid to TAL Beijing (or if the current and contemplated fee structure between the intercompany entities is determined to be non-substantive and disallowed by Chinese tax authorities), the Consolidated Affiliated Entities could make a non-deductible transfer to our PRC subsidiaries for the amounts of the stranded cash in the Consolidated Affiliated Entities. This would result in such transfer being non-deductible expenses for the Consolidated Affiliated Entities but still taxable income for our PRC subsidiaries. Such a transfer and the related tax burdens would reduce our after-tax income to approximately 50.6% of the pre-tax income. Our management believes that there is only a remote possibility that this scenario would happen.

Financial Information Related to the Consolidated Affiliated Entities

The following table presents the condensed consolidating schedule of financial position for the Consolidated Affiliated entities and other entities as of the dates presented.

Selected Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations Information

For the Year Ended February 28, 2022

Consolidated

Affiliated

Consolidated

The Company

WFOEs(1)

Entities

Others

Eliminations

Total

US$

(In thousands)

Third-party net revenues

    

    

177,551

    

4,193,212

    

20,144

    

    

4,390,907

Inter-company revenues

 

 

1,173,049

 

11,449

 

5,175

 

(1,189,673)

 

Total costs and operating expenses

 

(521,184)

 

(812,986)

 

(4,812,029)

 

(70,319)

 

1,190,283

 

(5,026,235)

(Loss)/income from government subsidies and non-operations

 

(125,514)

 

9,534

 

(20,547)

 

2,157

 

(8,432)

 

(142,802)

Loss from subsidiaries and VIEs

 

(501,143)

 

(918,903)

 

 

(452,185)

 

1,872,231

 

Loss before income tax expenses

 

(1,147,841)

 

(371,755)

 

(627,915)

 

(495,028)

 

1,864,409

 

(778,130)

Less: income tax (expenses)/benefits

 

 

(80,454)

 

(316,832)

 

294

 

 

(396,992)

Income/(loss) from equity method investments

 

11,726

 

 

(939)

 

 

 

10,787

Net loss

 

(1,136,115)

 

(452,209)

 

(945,686)

 

(494,734)

 

1,864,409

 

(1,164,335)

9

For the Year Ended February 28, 2021

Consolidated

Affiliated

Consolidated

The Company

WFOEs(1)

Entities

Others

Eliminations

Total

US$

(In thousands)

Third-party net revenues

    

    

236,916

    

4,244,907

    

13,932

    

    

4,495,755

Inter-company revenues

 

 

1,141,716

 

12,272

 

14,547

 

(1,168,535)

 

Total costs and operating expenses

 

(216,782)

 

(657,460)

 

(5,182,473)

 

(65,157)

 

1,168,402

 

(4,953,470)

Income/(loss) from government subsidies and non-operations

 

10,772

 

76,857

 

145,836

 

(806)

 

433

 

233,092

Income/(loss) from subsidiaries and VIEs

 

83,269

 

(594,633)

 

 

120,898

 

390,466

 

(Loss)/income before income tax expenses

 

(122,741)

 

203,396

 

(779,458)

 

83,414

 

390,766

 

(224,623)

Less: income tax (expenses)/benefits

 

(63)

 

(82,518)

 

152,361

 

117

 

 

69,897

Income from equity method investments

 

6,814

 

 

4,862

 

 

 

11,676

Net (loss)/income

 

(115,990)

 

120,878

 

(622,235)

 

83,531

 

390,766

 

(143,050)

For the Year Ended February 29, 2020

Consolidated

Affiliated

Consolidated

The Company

WFOEs(1)

Entities

Others

Eliminations

Total

US$

(In thousands)

Third-party net revenues

    

    

204,527

    

3,058,285

    

10,496

    

    

3,273,308

Inter-company revenues

 

 

637,999

 

7,036

 

682

 

(645,717)

 

Total costs and operating expenses

 

(115,065)

 

(494,754)

 

(3,199,492)

 

(26,617)

 

690,596

 

(3,145,332)

(Loss)/income from government subsidies and non-operations

 

(247,320)

 

31,631

 

37,183

 

(127)

 

4

 

(178,629)

Income/(loss) from subsidiaries and VIEs

 

253,884

 

(107,762)

 

 

224,888

 

(371,010)

 

(Loss)/income before income tax expenses

 

(108,501)

 

271,641

 

(96,988)

 

209,322

 

(326,127)

 

(50,653)

Less: income tax (expenses)/benefits

 

(2,689)

 

(46,749)

 

(20,035)

 

145

 

 

(69,328)

Income/(loss) from equity method investments

 

995

 

 

(8,665)

 

 

 

(7,670)

Net (loss)/income

 

(110,195)

 

224,892

 

(125,688)

 

209,467

 

(326,127)

 

(127,651)

10

Selected Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets Information

As of February 28, 2022

Consolidated

Affiliated

Consolidated

The Company

WFOEs(1)

Entities

Others

Eliminations

Total

US$

(In thousands)

Assets

    

    

    

    

    

    

  

Cash and cash equivalents

 

812,377

 

456,595

 

359,208

 

10,009

 

 

1,638,189

Amount due from Group companies

 

612,066

 

3,256,687

 

480,722

 

44,309

 

(4,393,784)

 

Other current assets

 

1,657,282

 

54,842

 

276,804

 

2,259

 

 

1,991,187

Total current assets

 

3,081,725

 

3,768,124

 

1,116,734

 

56,577

 

(4,393,784)

 

3,629,376

Investment in subsidiaries and VIEs

 

882,221

 

 

 

1,145,901

 

(2,028,122)

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

79,995

 

206,030

 

3,587

 

(8,386)

 

281,226

Other non-current assets

 

251,808

 

26,479

 

883,759

 

9,880

 

 

1,171,926

Total assets

 

4,215,754

 

3,874,598

 

2,206,523

 

1,215,945

 

(6,430,292)

 

5,082,528

Liabilities

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Deferred revenue-current

 

 

19

 

182,337

 

5,362

 

 

187,718

Amount due to Group companies

 

182,926

 

736,275

 

3,165,700

 

300,368

 

(4,385,269)

 

Other current liabilities

 

2,677

 

123,887

 

583,051

 

5,251

 

 

714,866

Total current liabilities

 

185,603

 

860,181

 

3,931,088

 

310,981

 

(4,385,269)

 

902,584

Deficits of investment in subsidiaries and VIEs

 

 

1,858,676

 

 

 

(1,858,676)

 

Other non-current liabilities

 

 

9,834

 

164,169

 

3,679

 

 

177,682

Total liabilities

 

185,603

 

2,728,691

 

4,095,257

 

314,660

 

(6,243,945)

 

1,080,266

Total equity

 

4,030,151

 

1,145,907

 

(1,888,734)

 

901,285

 

(186,347)

 

4,002,262

Total liabilities and equity

 

4,215,754

 

3,874,598

 

2,206,523

 

1,215,945

 

(6,430,292)

 

5,082,528

As of February 28, 2021

Consolidated

The

Affiliated

Consolidated

    

Company

    

WFOEs(1)

    

Entities

    

Others

    

Eliminations

    

Total

US$

(In thousands)

Assets

Cash and cash equivalents

 

1,572,459

 

840,656

 

820,301

 

9,537

 

 

3,242,953

Amount due from Group companies

 

397,443

 

2,647,724

 

1,465,330

 

51,963

 

(4,562,460)

 

Other current assets

 

3,902,729

 

684,751

 

324,568

 

1,834

 

 

4,913,882

Total current assets

 

5,872,631

 

4,173,131

 

2,610,199

 

63,334

 

(4,562,460)

 

8,156,835

Investment in subsidiaries and VIEs

 

1,362,415

 

 

 

1,464,664

 

(2,827,079)

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

76,121

 

430,137

 

5,169

 

(12)

 

511,415

Other non-current assets

 

744,837

 

129,506

 

2,555,459

 

14,257

 

 

3,444,059

Total assets

 

7,979,883

 

4,378,758

 

5,595,795

 

1,547,424

 

(7,389,551)

 

12,112,309

Liabilities

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Deferred revenue-current

 

 

56,024

 

1,328,473

 

2,996

 

 

1,387,493

Amount due to Group companies

 

185,229

 

1,705,250

 

2,506,654

 

160,324

 

(4,557,457)

 

Other current liabilities

 

292,825

 

197,676

 

1,488,763

 

7,094

 

 

1,986,358

Total current liabilities

 

478,054

 

1,958,950

 

5,323,890

 

170,414

 

(4,557,457)

 

3,373,851

Deficits of investment in subsidiaries and VIEs

 

 

889,120

 

 

 

(889,120)

 

Other non-current liabilities

 

2,300,000

 

66,051

 

1,163,622

 

4,229

 

 

3,533,902

Total liabilities

 

2,778,054

 

2,914,121

 

6,487,512

 

174,643

 

(5,446,577)

 

6,907,753

Redeemable noncontrolling interests

 

 

 

 

 

1,775

 

1,775

Total equity

 

5,201,829

 

1,464,637

 

(891,717)

 

1,372,781

 

(1,944,749)

 

5,202,781

Total liabilities, mezzanine equity and equity

 

7,979,883

 

4,378,758

 

5,595,795

 

1,547,424

 

(7,389,551)

 

12,112,309

11

Selected Condensed Consolidated Cash Flows Information

For the Year Ended February 28, 2022

Consolidated

The

Affiliated

Consolidated

    

Company

    

WFOEs(1)

    

Entities

    

Others

    

Eliminations

    

Total

US$

(In thousands)

Net cash provided by / (used in) operating activities

74,281

433,808

(1,418,908)

(28,365)

(939,184)

Loan and fund pool to entities within the Group

 

(212,542)

 

(1,538,343)

 

 

 

1,750,885

 

Repayment of loan to entities within the Group

 

2,352

 

2,085

 

 

 

(4,437)

 

Investment in entities within the Group

 

 

 

 

(110,200)

 

110,200

 

Other investing activities

 

994,197

 

569,214

 

(194,349)

 

(346)

 

 

1,368,716

Net cash provided by / (used in) investing activities

 

784,007

 

(967,044)

 

(194,349)

 

(110,546)

 

1,856,648

 

1,368,716

Net proceeds from loan and fund pool from entities within the Group

 

 

70,757

 

1,538,343

 

141,785

 

(1,750,885)

 

Repayment of loan to entities within the Group

 

 

 

(2,085)

 

(2,352)

 

4,437

 

Proceeds from group capital contribution

 

 

110,200

 

 

 

(110,200)

 

Other financing activities

 

(2,766,679)

 

 

 

 

 

(2,766,679)

Net cash (used in) / provided by financing activities

 

(2,766,679)

 

180,957

 

1,536,258

 

139,433

 

(1,856,648)

 

(2,766,679)

    

For the Year Ended February 28, 2021

Consolidated

The

Affiliated

Consolidated

Company

    

WFOEs(1)

    

  Entities

    

Others

    

Eliminations

    

 Total

US$

(In thousands)

Net cash (used in) / provided by operating activities

 

(11,253)

 

2,053,596

 

(1,034,695)

 

(52,916)

 

 

954,732

Loan and fund pool to entities within the Group

 

(79,469)

 

(1,762,356)

 

 

 

1,841,825

 

Repayment of loan to entities within the Group

 

11,083

 

 

 

 

(11,083)

 

Investment in entities within the Group

 

 

 

 

(10,000)

 

10,000

 

Other investing activities

 

(1,842,514)

 

(574,720)

 

(224,235)

 

 

 

(2,641,469)

Net cash used in investing activities

 

(1,910,900)

 

(2,337,076)

 

(224,235)

 

(10,000)

 

1,840,742

 

(2,641,469)

Net proceeds from loan and fund pool from entities within the Group

 

 

367

 

1,762,356

 

79,102

 

(1,841,825)

 

Repayment of loan to entities within the Group

 

 

 

 

(11,083)

 

11,083

 

Proceeds from group capital contribution

 

 

10,000

 

 

 

(10,000)

 

Other financing activities

 

4,798,331

 

 

(3,518)

 

 

 

4,794,813

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

4,798,331

 

10,367

 

1,758,838

 

68,019

 

(1,840,742)

 

4,794,813

12

    

For the Year Ended February 29, 2020

Consolidated

The

Affiliated

Consolidated

Company

    

WFOEs(1)

    

  Entities

    

Others

    

Eliminations

    

 Total

US$

(In thousands)

Net cash provided by / (used in) operating activities

 

29,115

 

(905,998)

 

1,747,371

 

(14,638)

 

 

855,850

Loan and fund pool to entities within the Group

 

(234,757)

 

(8,244)

 

(1,539,722)

 

 

1,782,723

 

Repayment of loan to entities within the Group

 

4,496

 

 

 

 

(4,496)

 

Investment in entities within the Group

 

(500)

 

 

 

(20,000)

 

20,500

 

Other investing activities

 

(207,544)

 

5,907

 

(134,936)

 

(2,242)

 

 

(338,815)

Net cash used in investing activities

 

(438,305)

 

(2,337)

 

(1,674,658)

 

(22,242)

 

1,798,727

 

(338,815)

Net proceeds from loan and fund pool from entities within the Group

 

 

1,734,441

 

8,244

 

40,038

 

(1,782,723)

 

Repayment of loan to entities within the Group

 

 

 

 

(4,496)

 

4,496

 

Proceeds from group capital contribution

 

 

20,000

 

 

500

 

(20,500)

 

Other financing activities

 

150,713

 

(14,306)

 

(5,173)

 

(3)

 

 

131,231

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

150,713

 

1,740,135

 

3,071

 

36,039

 

(1,798,727)

 

131,231

Notes:

(1)As used in this section, “WFOEs” include WFOEs that are the primary beneficiary of the VIEs, their designated affiliates, also being WFOEs, which charged service fees on the VIEs and other PRC subsidiaries.

A.     [Reserved]

Selected Financial Data

The following selected consolidated statement of operations data for our company for the fiscal years ended February 28/29, 2020, 2021 and 2022 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of February 28, 2021 and 2022 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report. The selected consolidated statement of operations data for our company for the fiscal years ended February 28, 2018 and 2019 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of February 28/29, 2018, 2019 and 2020 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements not included in this annual report.

The selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with, and are qualified in their entirety by reference to, our consolidated financial statements and related notes and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” included elsewhere in this annual report. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

13

Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected in any future period.

    

For the Years Ended February 28/29,

    

2018

    

2019

    

2020

    

2021

    

2022

(in thousands of $, except for share, per share and per ADS data)

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Net revenues

$

1,715,016

$

2,562,984

$

3,273,308

$

4,495,755

$

4,390,907

Cost of revenues(1)

 

(882,316)

 

(1,164,454)

 

(1,468,569)

 

(2,048,561)

 

(2,203,336)

Gross profit

 

832,700

 

1,398,530

 

1,804,739

 

2,447,194

 

2,187,571

Operating expenses

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

 

Selling and marketing (1)

 

(242,102)

 

(484,000)

 

(852,808)

 

(1,680,050)

 

(1,118,141)

General and administrative (1)

 

(386,287)

 

(579,672)

 

(794,957)

 

(1,117,324)

 

(1,199,708)

Impairment loss on intangible assets and goodwill

 

(358)

 

 

(28,998)

 

(107,535)

 

(505,050)

Total operating expenses

 

(628,747)

 

(1,063,672)

 

(1,676,763)

 

(2,904,909)

 

(2,822,899)

Government subsidies

 

4,651

 

6,724

 

9,467

 

19,491

 

20,812

Income/(loss) from operations

 

208,604

 

341,582

 

137,443

 

(438,224)

 

(614,516)

Interest income

 

39,837

 

59,614

 

72,991

 

114,232

 

103,179

Interest expense

 

(16,640)

 

(17,628)

 

(11,820)

 

(16,946)

 

(7,871)

Other income/(expense)

 

17,406

 

131,727

 

(95,297)

 

140,878

 

16,950

Impairment loss on long-term investments

 

(2,213)

 

(58,091)

 

(153,970)

 

(24,563)

 

(275,872)

Income/(loss) before income tax (expense)/benefit and (loss)/income from equity method investments

 

246,994

 

457,204

 

(50,653)

 

(224,623)

 

(778,130)

Income tax (expense)/benefit

 

(44,653)

 

(76,504)

 

(69,328)

 

69,897

 

(396,992)

(Loss)/income from equity method investments

 

(7,678)

 

(16,186)

 

(7,670)

 

11,676

 

10,787

Net income/(loss)

 

194,663

 

364,514

 

(127,651)

 

(143,050)

 

(1,164,335)

Add: Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest

 

3,777

 

2,722

 

17,456

 

27,060

 

28,220

Net income/(loss) attributable to shareholders of TAL Education Group

 

198,440

 

367,236

 

(110,195)

 

(115,990)

 

(1,136,115)

Net income /(loss) per common share attributable to shareholders of TAL Education Group

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

 

Basic

$

1.13

$

1.93

$

(0.56)

$

(0.57)

$

(5.29)

Diluted

$

1.03

$

1.83

$

(0.56)

$

(0.57)

$

(5.29)

Net income /(loss) per ADS attributable to shareholders of TAL Education Group (2)

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

 

Basic

$

0.38

$

0.64

$

(0.19)

$

(0.19)

$

(1.76)

Diluted

$

0.34

$

0.61

$

(0.19)

$

(0.19)

$

(1.76)

Cash dividends per common share(3)

$

0.25

 

Weighted average shares used in calculating net income/(loss) per common share attributable to shareholders of TAL Education Group

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

 

Basic

 

174,979,574

 

189,951,643

 

198,184,370

 

203,603,391

 

214,825,470

Diluted

 

194,331,305

 

200,224,934

 

198,184,370

 

203,603,391

 

214,825,470

(1)Includes share-based compensation expenses as follows:

14

    

For the Years Ended February 28/29

    

2018

    

2019

    

2020

    

2021

    

2022

(in thousands of $)

Cost of revenues

$

366

$

706

$

1,074

$

1,803

$

1,134

Selling and marketing expenses

 

5,037

 

10,454

 

19,356

 

56,609

 

53,850

General and administrative expenses

 

41,747

 

66,117

 

97,513

 

146,533

 

119,848

Total

 

47,150

 

77,277

 

117,943

 

204,945

 

174,832

(2)Each three ADSs represent one Class A common share. Effective on August 16, 2017, we adjusted the ratio of our ADSs to Class A common shares from one ADS representing two Class A common shares to three ADSs representing one Class A common share. All earnings per ADS figures in this report give effect to the foregoing ADS to share ratio change.

    

As of February 28/29

    

2018

    

2019

    

2020

    

2021

    

2022

(in thousands of $)

Summary Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Cash and cash equivalents

$

711,519

$

1,247,140

$

1,873,866

$

3,242,953

$

1,638,189

Total assets

 

3,054,560

 

3,735,091

 

5,571,246

 

12,112,309

 

5,082,528

Deferred revenue

 

842,256

 

436,107

 

781,000

 

1,417,498

 

187,732

Total liabilities

 

1,414,096

 

1,204,614

 

3,027,049

 

6,907,753

 

1,080,266

Total mezzanine equity

1,775

Total equity

 

1,640,464

 

2,530,477

 

2,544,197

 

5,202,781

 

4,002,262

(3)Total cash dividends paid for the fiscal year ended February 28, 2018 was $41.2 million.

B.     Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C.     Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

D.     Risk Factors

Summary of Risk Factors

An investment in our ADSs involves significant risks. Below is a summary of material risks we face, organized under relevant headings. These risks are discussed in more details in “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors.”

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

If we are not able to develop new types of learning products or services under the recent regulatory policies in China to successfully attract prospective learners and customers in a timely or cost-effective manner or to continue to attract learners and customers to purchase our existing products or services, our business, results of operations and prospects will continue to be materially and adversely affected.
If we fail to successfully design and execute our growth strategies, our business and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.
If we are not able to maintain and enhance the value of our brands, our business and operating results may be harmed.
Significant uncertainties exist in relation to the interpretation and implementation of, or proposed changes to, the PRC laws, regulations and policies regarding the after-school tutoring industry. In particular, our compliance with the Opinions on

15

Further Alleviating the Burden of Homework and After-School Tutoring for Students in Compulsory Education and the implementation measures issued by the relevant PRC government authorities has had, and could have further, material adverse effect on us.
We are required to obtain various operating licenses and permits and to make registrations and filings for our current business in China; failure to comply with these requirements may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
We face significant competition, and if we fail to compete effectively, we may lose our market share or fail to gain additional market share, and our profitability may be adversely affected.
Our historical financial and operating results, growth rates and profitability may not be indicative of future performance.
We may not be able to recruit, train and retain qualified and dedicated teachers, who are critical to the success of our business and the effective delivery of our services to learners.

Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure

TAL Education Group is not a Chinese operating company but a Cayman Islands holding company with no equity ownership in the Consolidated Affiliated Entities. We conduct our operations in China through (i) our PRC subsidiaries and (ii) the Consolidated Affiliated Entities with which we have maintained contractual arrangements. Investors of our ADSs thus are not purchasing equity interest in the Consolidated Affiliated Entities in China but instead are purchasing equity interest in a Cayman Islands holding company. If the PRC government deems that the contractual arrangements with the Consolidated Affiliated Entities do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations. Our holding company, our PRC subsidiaries and the Consolidated Affiliated Entities, and investors of our company face uncertainty about potential future actions by the PRC government that could affect the enforceability of the contractual arrangements with the Consolidated Affiliated Entities and, consequently, significantly affect the financial performance of the Consolidated Affiliated Entities and our company as a group. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—If the PRC government determines that the agreements that establish the structure for operating our business in China are not in compliance with applicable PRC laws and regulations, we could be subject to severe penalties” on page 31 for details.
We rely on the VIE Contractual Arrangements for our PRC operations, which may not be as effective in providing operational control as direct ownership. See the risk factor on page 33 for details.
Any failure by the VIEs or their respective shareholders to perform their obligations under the VIE Contractual Arrangements would have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition. See the risk factor on page 34 for details.
The legal owners of the VIEs may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition. See the risk factor on page 34 for details.

Risks Related to Doing Business in China

Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could have a material adverse effect on us. Certain laws and regulations are relatively new and can change quickly with little advance notice. In addition, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always consistent, and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involve uncertainties, which may limit the available legal protections. Furthermore, the PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing or enforcing statutory rules and contractual terms, and it may be more difficult to predict the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we may enjoy in China than under some more developed legal systems. These uncertainties may affect our judgment on the relevance of legal requirements and our decisions on the measures and actions to be taken to fully comply therewith and may affect our ability to enforce our

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contractual or tort rights. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could have a material adverse effect on us” on page 36 for details.
We conduct our business primarily in China. Our operations in China are governed by PRC laws and regulations. The PRC government has significant oversight and discretion over the operation of our business, and it may influence our operations at any time, which could result in a material adverse change in our operation and the value of our ADSs. In addition, implementation of industry-wide regulations directly targeting our operations could cause the value of our securities to significantly decline. Therefore, investors of our company and our business face potential uncertainty from actions taken by the PRC government affecting our business. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—The PRC government’s oversight and discretion over our business operations could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs” on page 36 for details.
Our business is subject to various evolving PRC laws and regulations regarding data privacy and cybersecurity. Failure of cybersecurity and data privacy concerns could subject us to penalties, damage our reputation and brand, and harm our business and results of operations. See the risk factor on page 37 for details.
The PRC government has recently indicated an intent to exert more oversight over overseas offerings by and foreign investment in China-based issuers like us. On December 24, 2021, the CSRC published the Provisions of the State Council on the Administration of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (Draft for Comments) and the Administrative Measures for the Filing of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (Draft for Comments) for public comments. Pursuant to these drafts, PRC domestic companies that directly or indirectly seek to offer or list their securities on an overseas stock exchange, including a PRC company limited by shares and an offshore company whose main business operations are in China and who intends to offer securities or be listed on an overseas stock exchange based on its onshore equities, assets, or similar interests, are required to file with the CSRC within three business days after submitting their application documents. If the CSRC, CAC or other government authorities later promulgate new rules or explanations requiring that we obtain their approvals for our future overseas offerings, we may be unable to obtain such approvals in a timely manner, or at all, and such approvals may be rescinded even if obtained. Any such circumstance could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or be worthless. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—The approval of or filing with the CSRC or other PRC government authorities may be required in connection with our offshore offerings under PRC law, and, if required, we cannot predict whether or for how long we will be able to obtain such approval or complete such filing” on page 40 for details.
The PCAOB is currently unable to inspect our auditor in relation to their audit work performed for our financial statements and the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections over our auditor deprives our investors with the benefits of such inspections. See the risk factor on page 42 for details.