Company Quick10K Filing
TAL Education Group
20-F 2021-02-28 Filed 2021-05-07
20-F 2020-02-29 Filed 2020-06-30
20-F 2019-02-28 Filed 2019-05-16
20-F 2018-02-28 Filed 2018-06-26
20-F 2017-02-28 Filed 2017-06-28
20-F 2016-02-29 Filed 2016-05-31
20-F 2015-02-28 Filed 2015-05-28
20-F 2014-02-28 Filed 2014-05-12
20-F 2013-02-28 Filed 2013-06-28
20-F 2012-02-29 Filed 2012-06-27
20-F 2011-02-28 Filed 2011-07-25

TAL 20F Annual Report

Part I
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Item 3. Key Information
Item 4. Information on The Company
Item 4A Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees
Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions
Item 8. Financial Information
Item 9. The Offer and Listing
Item 10. Additional Information
Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 12. Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities
Part II
Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies
Item 14. Material Modifications To The Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds
Item 15. Controls and Procedures
Item 16. [Reserved]
Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert
Item 16B. Code of Ethics
Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Item 16D. Exemptions From The Listing Standards for Audit Committees
Item 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities By The Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Item 16F. Change in Registrant's Certifying Accountant
Item 16G. Corporate Governance
Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure
Part III
Item 17. Financial Statements
Item 18. Financial Statements
Item 19. Exhibits
EX-4.38 tal-20210228xex4d38.htm
EX-8.1 tal-20210228xex8d1.htm
EX-11.1 tal-20210228xex11d1.htm
EX-12.1 tal-20210228xex12d1.htm
EX-12.2 tal-20210228xex12d2.htm
EX-13.1 tal-20210228xex13d1.htm
EX-13.2 tal-20210228xex13d2.htm
EX-15.1 tal-20210228xex15d1.htm
EX-15.2 tal-20210228xex15d2.htm
EX-15.3 tal-20210228xex15d3.htm

TAL Education Group Earnings 2021-02-28

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

   REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

   ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended February 28, 2021.

OR

   TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from___to____.

OR

   SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report

Commission file number: 001-34900

TAL Education Group

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

N/A

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

Cayman Islands

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

15/F, Danling SOHO

6 Danling Street, Haidian District

Beijing 100080

People’s Republic of China

(Address of principal executive offices)

Rong Luo, Chief Financial Officer

Telephone: +86-10-5292-6658

Email: ir@tal.com

15/F, Danling SOHO

6 Danling Street, Haidian District

Beijing 100080

People’s Republic of China

(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.

Title of each class

    

Trading Symbol(s)

    

Name of each exchange on which registered

American Depositary Shares, each three representing one Class A common share*

 

NYSE: TAL

 

The New York Stock Exchange

Class A common shares, par value $0.001 per share**

NYSE: TAL**

The New York Stock Exchange

*     Effective on August 16, 2017, the ratio of ADSs to Class A common shares was changed from one ADS representing two Class A common shares to three ADSs representing one Class A common share.

**   Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing on The New York Stock Exchange of American depositary shares.

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.

None

(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.

Table of Contents

None

(Title of Class)

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

As of February 28, 2021, 147,995,578 Class A common shares, par value $0.001 per share

and 66,939,204 Class B common shares, par value $0.001 per share were outstanding.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes                   No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Yes                   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes                   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes                   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

  Large accelerated filer          Accelerated filer          Non-accelerated filer          Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 U.S. GAAP

   International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board

  Other

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

Item 17                            Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

Yes                   No

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.

Yes                   No

The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

INTRODUCTION

1

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

2

PART I

3

Item 1.

Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

3

Item 2.

Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

3

Item 3.

Key Information

3

Item 4.

Information on the Company

47

Item 4A

Unresolved Staff Comments

86

Item 5.

Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

86

Item 6.

Directors, Senior Management and Employees

109

Item 7.

Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions

118

Item 8.

Financial Information

119

Item 9.

The Offer and Listing

120

Item 10.

Additional Information

121

Item 11.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

130

Item 12.

Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities

131

PART II

133

Item 13.

Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies

133

Item 14.

Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds

133

Item 15.

Controls and Procedures

133

Item 16.

[Reserved]

136

Item 16A.

Audit Committee Financial Expert

136

Item 16B.

Code of Ethics

136

Item 16C.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

136

Item 16D.

Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees

136

Item 16E.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

137

Item 16F.

Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant

137

Item 16G.

Corporate Governance

137

Item 16H.

Mine Safety Disclosure

137

PART III

137

Item 17.

Financial Statements

137

Item 18.

Financial Statements

138

Item 19.

Exhibits

138

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

In this annual report, except where the context otherwise requires, unless otherwise indicated and for purposes of this annual report only:

“China” or “PRC” refers to the People’s Republic of China, and for the purpose of this annual report, excluding Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau;

“we,” “us,” “our company” and “our” refer to TAL Education Group, a Cayman Islands company, and its subsidiaries, and, in the context of describing our operations and consolidated financial data, also include the Consolidated Affiliated Entities (as defined below);

“shares” or “common shares” refers to our Class A and Class B common shares, par value $0.001 per share;

“ADSs” refers to our American depositary shares, each three of which represent one Class A common share;

“VIEs” refers to Beijing Xueersi Network Technology Co., Ltd., or Xueersi Network, and Beijing Xueersi Education Technology Co., Ltd., or Xueersi Education, Xinxin Xiangrong Education Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd. (the original name of which is Beijing Dididaojia Education Technology Co., Ltd.), or Xinxin Xiangrong, and Beijing Lebai Education Consulting Co., Ltd., or Lebai Education, all of which are domestic PRC companies in which we do not have equity interests but whose financial results have been consolidated into our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP; and “Consolidated Affiliated Entities” refers to our VIEs and the VIEs’ direct and indirect subsidiaries and schools;

“U.S. GAAP” refers to generally accepted accounting principles in the United States;

“student enrollments of normal priced long-term course” for a certain period refers to the total number of normal priced long-term courses enrolled in and paid for by our students during that period, including multiple courses enrolled in and paid for by the same student, excluding courses offered at significant discounts for promotional purposes or short-term courses offered on an ad hoc basis (as opposed to long-term courses that tend to track the school semesters and vacations);

“K-12” refers to the year before the first grade through the last year of high school;

“RMB” or “Renminbi” refers to the legal currency of China; and

“$” or “U.S. dollars” refers to the legal currency of the United States.

Our financial statements are expressed in U.S. dollars, which is our reporting currency. Certain of our financial data in this annual report on Form 20-F are translated into U.S. dollars solely for the reader’s convenience. Unless otherwise noted, all convenient translations from Renminbi to U.S. dollars in this annual report on Form 20-F were made at a rate of RMB6.4730 to $1.00, the exchange rate set forth in the H.10 statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board on February 26, 2021. We make no representation that any RMB or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate, at the rate stated above, or at all.

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This annual report contains forward-looking statements that reflect our current expectations and views of future events. These forward looking statements are made under the “safe-harbor” provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.

You can identify some of these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “is/are likely to” or other similar expressions. These forward-looking statements include statements relating to:

our anticipated growth strategies;
competition in the markets where we offer educational programs, services and products;
our future business development, results of operations and financial condition;
expected changes in our revenues and certain cost and expense items;
our ability to increase student enrollments and course fees and expand course offerings;
risks associated with the expansion of our geographic reach and our offering of new educational programs, services and products;
the expected increase in spending on private education in China; and
PRC laws, regulations and policies relating to private education and providers of after-school tutoring services.

We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. Although we believe that our expectations expressed in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, our expectations may later be found to be incorrect. You should read this annual report and the documents that we refer to in this annual report completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from and/or worse than what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements with these cautionary statements. Other sections of this annual report include additional factors which could adversely impact our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.

The forward-looking statements made in this annual report relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this annual report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date on which the statements are made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.

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PART I

Item 1.  Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

Not applicable.

Item 2.  Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

Not applicable.

Item 3.  Key Information

(a)Selected Financial Data

Our Selected Consolidated Financial Data

The following selected consolidated statement of operations data for our company for the fiscal years ended February 28/29, 2019, 2020 and 2021 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of February 28/29, 2020 and 2021 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this annual report. The selected consolidated statement of operations data for our company for the fiscal years ended February 28, 2017 and 2018 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of February 28, 2017, 2018 and 2019 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements not included in this annual report.

The selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with, and are qualified in their entirety by reference to, our consolidated financial statements and related notes and “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” included elsewhere in this annual report. Our consolidated financial statements are prepared and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

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Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of results to be expected in any future period.

    

For the Years Ended February 28/29,

    

2017

    

2018

    

2019

    

2020

    

2021

(in thousands of $, except for share, per share and per ADS data)

Consolidated Statements of Operations Data:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Net revenues

$

1,043,100

$

1,715,016

$

2,562,984

$

3,273,308

$

4,495,755

Cost of revenues(1)

 

(522,327)

 

(882,316)

 

(1,164,454)

 

(1,468,569)

 

(2,048,561)

Gross profit

 

520,773

 

832,700

 

1,398,530

 

1,804,739

 

2,447,194

Operating expenses

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

Selling and marketing (1)

 

(126,005)

 

(242,102)

 

(484,000)

 

(852,808)

 

(1,680,050)

General and administrative (1)

 

(263,287)

 

(386,287)

 

(579,672)

 

(794,957)

 

(1,117,324)

Impairment loss on intangible assets and goodwill

 

 

(358)

 

 

(28,998)

 

(107,535)

Total operating expenses

 

(389,292)

 

(628,747)

 

(1,063,672)

 

(1,676,763)

 

(2,904,909)

Government subsidies

 

3,113

 

4,651

 

6,724

 

9,467

 

19,491

Income/(loss) from operations

 

134,594

 

208,604

 

341,582

 

137,443

 

(438,224)

Interest income

 

18,133

 

39,837

 

59,614

 

72,991

 

114,232

Interest expense

 

(13,145)

 

(16,640)

 

(17,628)

 

(11,820)

 

(16,946)

Other income/(expense)

 

23,074

 

17,406

 

131,727

 

(95,297)

 

140,878

Impairment loss on long-term investments

 

(8,075)

 

(2,213)

 

(58,091)

 

(153,970)

 

(24,563)

Income/(loss) before income tax (expense)/benefit and (loss)/income from equity method investments

 

154,581

 

246,994

 

457,204

 

(50,653)

 

(224,623)

Income tax (expense)/benefit

 

(34,066)

 

(44,653)

 

(76,504)

 

(69,328)

 

69,897

(Loss)/income from equity method investments

 

(8,025)

 

(7,678)

 

(16,186)

 

(7,670)

 

11,676

Net income/(loss)

 

112,490

 

194,663

 

364,514

 

(127,651)

 

(143,050)

Add: Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest

 

4,390

 

3,777

 

2,722

 

17,456

 

27,060

Net income/(loss) attributable to shareholders of TAL Education Group

 

116,880

 

198,440

 

367,236

 

(110,195)

 

(115,990)

Net income /(loss) per common share attributable to shareholders of TAL Education Group

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

Basic

$

0.72

$

1.13

$

1.93

$

(0.56)

$

(0.57)

Diluted

$

0.66

$

1.03

$

1.83

$

(0.56)

$

(0.57)

Net income /(loss) per ADS attributable to shareholders of TAL Education Group (2)

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

Basic

$

0.24

$

0.38

$

0.64

$

(0.19)

$

(0.19)

Diluted

$

0.22

$

0.34

$

0.61

$

(0.19)

$

(0.19)

Cash dividends per common share(3)

 

$

0.25

 

Weighted average shares used in calculating net income/(loss) per common share attributable to shareholders of TAL Education Group

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

Basic

 

162,548,494

 

174,979,574

 

189,951,643

 

198,184,370

 

203,603,391

Diluted

 

188,508,419

 

194,331,305

 

200,224,934

 

198,184,370

 

203,603,391

(1)Includes share-based compensation expenses as follows:

    

For the Years Ended February 28/29

    

2017

    

2018

    

2019

    

2020

    

2021

(in thousands of $)

Cost of revenues

$

111

$

366

$

706

$

1,074

$

1,803

Selling and marketing expenses

 

3,368

 

5,037

 

10,454

 

19,356

 

56,609

General and administrative expenses

 

32,636

 

41,747

 

66,117

 

97,513

 

146,533

Total

 

36,115

 

47,150

 

77,277

 

117,943

 

204,945

(2)Each three ADSs represent one Class A common share. Effective on August 16, 2017, we adjusted the ratio of our ADSs to Class A common shares from one ADS representing two Class A common shares to three ADSs representing one Class A common share. All earnings per ADS figures in this report give effect to the foregoing ADS to share ratio change.

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As of February 28/29

    

2017

    

2018

    

2019

    

2020

    

2021

(in thousands of $)

Summary Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Cash and cash equivalents

$

470,217

$

711,519

$

1,247,140

$

1,873,866

$

3,242,953

Total assets

 

1,828,906

 

3,054,560

 

3,735,091

 

5,571,246

 

12,112,309

Deferred revenue

 

518,874

 

842,256

 

436,107

 

781,000

 

1,417,498

Total liabilities

 

1,148,042

 

1,414,096

 

1,204,614

 

3,027,049

 

6,907,753

Total mezzanine equity

1,775

Total equity

 

680,864

 

1,640,464

 

2,530,477

 

2,544,197

 

5,202,781

(3)Total cash dividends paid for the fiscal year ended February 28, 2018 was $41.2 million.

(b)

Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

(c)

Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

(d)

Risk Factors

Risks Related to Our Business

If we are not able to continue to attract students to enroll in our courses without significantly decreasing course fees, our business and prospects will be materially and adversely affected.

The success of our business depends primarily on the number of students enrolled in our courses and the amount of course fees that our students are willing to pay. Therefore, our ability to continue to attract students to enroll in our courses without a significant decrease in course fees is critical to the continued success and growth of our business. This in turn will depend on several factors, including our ability to continue to develop new programs and enhance or adapt existing programs to respond to changes in market trends, student demands and government policies, expand our geographic reach, manage our growth while maintaining consistent and high teaching quality, effectively market our programs to a broader base of prospective students, develop additional high-quality educational content and respond effectively to competitive pressures. If we are unable to continue to attract students without significantly decreasing course fees to enroll in our courses, our revenues may decline, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We may not be able to continue to recruit, train and retain qualified and dedicated teachers, who are critical to the success of our business and the effective delivery of our tutoring services to students.

Our teachers are critical to the quality of our services and our reputation. We seek to hire qualified and dedicated teachers who deliver effective and inspirational instruction. There is a limited pool of teachers with these attributes, and we must provide competitive compensation packages to attract and retain such teachers. We must also provide continued training to our teachers to ensure that they stay abreast of changes in student demands, academic standards and other key trends necessary to teach effectively. We may not be able to recruit, train and retain a sufficient number of qualified teachers in the future to keep pace with our growth while maintaining consistent teaching quality in the different markets we serve. In addition, PRC laws and regulations require the teachers to have requisite licenses if they teach, among others, academic subject such as Chinese, mathematics, English, physics, chemistry and other academic subjects in the compulsory education stage and academic subjects related to the entrance to a higher school, but we cannot assure you that our teachers can all apply for and obtain the teaching licenses in a timely manner or at all. If our teachers are not able to apply for and obtain the teaching licenses on a timely basis, or at all, we may need to rectify such noncompliance and may be subject to penalties and risk exposure to regulatory order to suspend operations or cancelation or revocation of the private school operating permit issued by relevant PRC authority in accordance with the PRC Private Education Law, or a Permit for Operating a Private School or other regulatory and disciplinary sanctions. Moreover, if the teachers for our online courses do not fully comply with the teacher qualification requirements, or these teachers are teaching at elementary or middle school at the same time, they may not be able to deliver such online courses, which would eventually adversely affect the delivery of our tutoring services to students. A shortage of qualified teachers or a decrease in the quality of our teachers’ services, whether actual or perceived, or a significant increase in compensation for us to retain qualified teachers, would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may not be able to improve the content of our existing courses or to develop new courses or services in a timely or cost-effective manner.

We constantly update and improve the content of our existing courses and develop new courses or services to meet changing market demands or requirements from related government authorities. Revisions to our existing courses and our newly developed courses or services may not be well received by existing or prospective students or their parents. If we cannot respond effectively to changes in market demands or requirements from related government authorities, our business may be adversely affected. Even if we are able to develop new courses or services that are well received, we may not be able to introduce them in a timely or cost-effective manner. If we do not respond adequately to changes in market demands, our ability to attract and retain students may be impaired and our financial results could suffer.

Offering new courses or services or modifying existing courses may require us to invest in content development, increase marketing efforts and re-allocate resources away from other uses. We may have limited experience with the content of new courses or services and may need to adjust our systems and strategies to incorporate new courses or services into our existing offerings. If we are unable to continuously improve the content of our existing courses, or offer new courses or services in a timely or cost-effective manner, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

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If we are not able to maintain and enhance the value of our brand, our business and operating results may be harmed.

We believe that market awareness of our “Xueersi” brand has contributed significantly to the success of our business, and that maintaining and enhancing the value of this brand is critical to maintaining and enhancing our competitive advantage. If we are unable to successfully promote and market our brand and services, our ability to attract new students could be adversely impacted and, consequently, our financial performance could suffer. We mainly rely on word-of-mouth referrals to attract prospective students. We also use integrated marketing tools and tactics such as the internet, WeChat, social media, public lectures, outdoor advertising campaigns, co-brand promotions, and distribution of marketing materials to promote our brand and service offerings. In order to maintain and increase our brand recognition and promote our new service offerings, we have increased our marketing personnel and expenses over the last several years. We have also sought to strengthen recognition for our other brands, such as our “Haoweilai” brand, which is the umbrella brand for all our brands, our “Xueersi” brand, through which we offer small classes covering major subjects in supplement to school learnings, our “Izhikang” brand, through which we offer personalized premium services, our “Mobby” and “Firstleap” brand, through which we offer small classes for young learners. A number of factors could prevent us from successfully promoting our brand, including student dissatisfaction with our services, the failure of our marketing tools and strategies to attract prospective students. In addition, our brand may be adversely affected by misconduct and non-compliance, including those related to license or qualification requirements, of our business partners who purchase our courses and system support. If we are unable to maintain and enhance our existing brand, successfully develop additional brands, or utilize marketing tools in a cost-effective manner, our revenues and profitability may suffer. See “— Our brand image, business and results of operations may be adversely impacted by illegal, fraudulent or collusive activities or other wrongdoings by our employees and third parties acting on our behalf.”

Moreover, we offer a variety of courses to primary, middle and high school students in some of the large cities in China. As we continue to grow in size, expand our course offerings and extend our geographic reach, it may be more difficult to maintain quality and consistent standards of our services and to protect and promote our brand name.

Furthermore, we cannot assure you that our sales and marketing efforts will be successful in further promoting our brand in a cost-effective manner. If we are unable to further enhance our brand recognition and increase awareness of our services, or if we incur excessive sales and marketing expenses, our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Our historical financial and operating results, growth rates and profitability may not be indicative of future performance.

Our net revenues increased from $2,563.0 million in the fiscal year ended February 28, 2019, to $3,273.3 million in the fiscal year ended February 29, 2020 and further to $4,495.8 million in the fiscal year ended February 28, 2021. Any evaluation of our business and our prospects must be considered in light of the risks and uncertainties encountered by companies at our stage of development. The after-school tutoring service market in China continually develops and evolves, which makes it difficult to evaluate our business and future prospects. In addition, our past results may not be indicative of future performance because of new businesses developed or acquired by us. Furthermore, our results of operations may vary from period to period in response to a variety of other factors beyond our control, including general economic conditions and regulations or government actions pertaining to the private education service sector in China, changes in spending on private education and non-recurring charges incurred under unexpected circumstances or in connection with acquisitions, equity investments or other extraordinary transactions. Due to these and other factors, our historical financial and operating results, growth rates and profitability as well as quarter-to-quarter comparisons of our operating results may not be indicative of our future performance and you should not rely on them to predict our future performance.

If our students’ level of performance deteriorates or satisfaction with our services declines, they may decide to withdraw from our courses and request refunds and our business, financial condition, results of operations and reputation would be adversely affected.

The success of our business depends on our ability to deliver a satisfactory learning experience and improved academic results. Our tutoring services may fail to improve a student’s academic performance and a student may perform below expectations even after completing our courses. We also face challenges to improve students’ overall ability on top of improving their academic performance. Additionally, student and parent satisfaction with our services may decline. A student’s learning experience may also suffer if his or her relationship with our teachers does not meet expectations. We generally offer refunds for the remaining classes in a course to students who withdraw from the course. If a significant number of students fail to improve their academic performance after attending our courses or if they are not satisfied with our service or their learning experiences, they may decide to withdraw from our courses and request refunds, and our business, financial condition, results of operations and reputation would be adversely affected.

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We face significant competition, and if we fail to compete effectively, we may lose our market share or fail to gain additional market share, and our profitability may be adversely affected.

The private education market in China is rapidly evolving, highly fragmented and competitive, and we expect competition to persist and intensify. We face competition in each type of services we offer and in each geographic market where we operate. Our competitors include online and offline after-school tutoring service providers.

Our student enrollments may decrease due to intense competition. Some of our competitors may be able to devote greater resources than we can to the development, promotion and sale of their programs, services and products and respond more quickly than we can to changes in student needs, testing materials, admission standards, market trends or new technologies. In addition, some smaller local companies may be able to respond more quickly to changes in student preferences in some of our targeted markets. Moreover, the increasing use of the internet and advances in internet, mobile internet, computer-related technologies, such as online live broadcasting technologies, are eliminating geographic and physical facility-related entry barriers to providing private education services. As a result, smaller local companies or internet-content providers may be able to use the internet or mobile internet to offer their programs, services and products quickly and cost-effectively to a large number of students with less capital expenditure than previously required. Consequently, we may be pressured to reduce course fees or increase spending in response to competition in order to retain or attract students or pursue new market opportunities, which could result in a decrease in our revenues and profitability. We will also face increased competition as we expand our operations. We cannot assure you that we will be able to compete successfully against current or future competitors. If we are unable to maintain our competitive position or otherwise effectively respond to competition, we may lose our market share or fail to gain additional market share, and our profitability may be adversely affected.

Failure to effectively and efficiently manage the expansion of our service network may materially and adversely affect our ability to capitalize on new business opportunities.

Our business has experienced growth in recent years. The number of our learning centers increased from 676 as of February 28, 2019 to 1,098 as of February 28, 2021. We plan to continue to expand our operations in different geographic markets in China. The establishment of new learning centers poses challenges and requires us to make investments in management, capital expenditures, marketing expenses and other resources. The expansion has resulted, and will continue to result, in substantial demands on our management and staff as well as our financial, operational, technological and other resources. In addition, we typically incur pre-opening costs associated with our new learning centers, and may incur losses during their initial ramp-up stage because we incur rent, salary and other operating expenses for new learning centers regardless of any revenues we may generate. If the ramp-up of our new learning centers is slower than expected, whether due to our inability to attract sufficient student enrollments or charge hourly rates for our courses that are high enough for us to recover our costs, our overall financial performance may be materially and adversely affected. Our planned expansion will also place significant pressure on us to maintain teaching quality and consistent standards, controls, policies and our culture to ensure that our brand does not suffer as a result of any decrease, whether actual or perceived, in the quality of our programs. To manage and support our expansion, we must improve our existing operational, administrative and technological systems and our financial and management controls, and recruit, train and retain additional qualified teachers and management personnel as well as other administrative and marketing personnel. We cannot assure you that we will be able to effectively and efficiently manage the growth of our operations, maintain or accelerate our current growth rate, maintain or increase our gross and operating profit margins, recruit and retain qualified teachers and management personnel, successfully integrate new learning centers into our operations and otherwise effectively manage our growth. If we are not successful in effectively and efficiently managing our expansion, we may not be able to capitalize on new business opportunities, which may have a material and adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.

If we fail to successfully execute our growth strategies, our business and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

Our growth strategies include further penetrating our existing markets, extending our geographic reach into new regions, further developing our online course offerings and online education platform and making acquisitions and investments to complement our existing business and offerings. We may not succeed in executing our growth strategies due to a number of factors, including, without limitation, the following:

we may fail to identify, and effectively market our services in, new markets with sufficient growth potential into which to expand our network or promote new courses in existing markets;

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it may be difficult to increase the number of learning centers in more developed cities;
although we have replicated our growth model in Beijing to certain other cities, we may not be able to continue to do so to additional geographic markets, especially to lower-tier cities, and we might experience decline in our Beijing business that would offset the growth we are experiencing in other geographic markets;
our analysis for selecting suitable new locations may not be accurate and the demand for our services at the newly selected locations may not materialize or increase as rapidly as we expect;
we may fail to obtain the requisite licenses and permits necessary to open learning centers at our desired locations from local authorities or face risks in opening without the requisite licenses and permits;
we may not be able to manage our personalized premium services business efficiently and cost-effectively;
we may not be able to continue to enhance our online offerings or expand them to new markets, generate profits from online offerings, or adapt online offerings to changing student needs and technological advances such that we will continue to face significant student acquisition costs in the markets we enter;
we may not be profitable in our new tutoring business and may encounter obstacles in expanding our new tutoring business to other markets; and
we may not be able to successfully integrate acquired businesses and may not be able to achieve the benefits we expect from recent and future acquisitions or investments.

If we fail to successfully execute our growth strategies, we may not be able to maintain our growth rate and our business and prospects may be materially and adversely affected as a result.

We are subject to risks related to global expansion.

We expect to expand our business globally. Since fiscal year 2020, we established a new school in the United States and expanded our business into other countries as well. Our business and operation are subject to a variety of laws and regulations in these jurisdictions which are evolving and subject to potentially differing interpretations, including the General Data Protection Regulation, or the GDPR, in the European Union, the Data Protection Act 2018 in the United Kingdom and anti-long-arm jurisdiction related laws and regulations such as the one newly promulgated in China. There is no harmonized approach to these laws and regulations globally. Consequently, we could face increased risk and uncertainty of non-compliance with applicable laws by expanding internationally. We may need to change and limit the way we operate our business and may have difficulty maintaining the current operating model that is compliant. As a general matter, compliance with laws and regulations may result in substantial costs and may necessitate changes to our business practices, and otherwise adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We derive a significant portion of our revenues from a limited number of cities. Any event negatively affecting the private education market in these cities, or any increase in the level of competition for the types of services we offer in these cities, could have a material adverse effect on our overall business and results of operations.

Although we have expanded our offerings into a broad range of cities in China, we derive a significant portion of our revenues from a limited number of cities. For the fiscal year ended February 28, 2021, we derived a significant portion of our total net revenues from our Xueersi small-class offering in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Nanjing and we expect these five cities to continue to constitute important sources of our revenues. If any of these cities experiences an event negatively affecting its private education market, such as a serious economic downturn, natural disaster or outbreak of contagious disease, adopts regulations relating to private education that place additional restrictions or burdens on us, or experiences an increase in the level of competition for the types of services we offer, our overall business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

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We may not achieve expected results from our new initiatives.

We engage in new initiatives from time to time to expand our offerings or market reach. For example, we may offer low-pricing and/or free courses to a large number of users. We may devote significant resources to our new initiatives, but fail to achieve expected results from such new initiatives. If such new initiatives are not well accepted, the reputation of our other class offerings and our overall brand and reputation may be harmed. As a result, our overall business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Our brand image, business and results of operations may be adversely impacted by illegal, fraudulent or collusive activities or other wrongdoings by our employees and third parties acting on our behalf.

Illegal, fraudulent or collusive activities or other wrongdoings by our employees or third parties acting on our behalf could subject us to liability or negative publicity and harm our business. Negative publicity generated as a result of actual or alleged wrongdoings by our employees or the third parties could damage our reputation and diminish the value of our brand, and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are exposed to the risk of various types of by illegal, fraudulent or collusive activities or other wrongdoings, including but not limited to taking kickbacks, forging documentation, etc. It is not always possible to deter or discover wrongdoings, and the precautionary or remedial measures we take may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses. An example of such incident is the one related to the “Light Class” business. See “Item 8. Financial Information-A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information-Legal and Administrative Proceedings-Internal Review and SEC Proceeding.”

Our reputation and the trading price of our ADSs may be negatively affected by adverse publicity or detrimental conduct against us.

Adverse publicity concerning our failure or perceived failure to comply with legal and regulatory requirements, alleged accounting or financial reporting irregularities, regulatory scrutiny and further regulatory action or litigation could harm our reputation and cause the trading price of our ADSs to decline and fluctuate significantly. For example, after Muddy Waters Capital LLC, an entity unrelated to us, issued a series of reports containing various allegations about us in June and July 2018, the trading price of our ADSs declined sharply and we received numerous investor inquiries. The negative publicity and the resulting decline of the trading price of our ADSs also led to the filing of two shareholder class action lawsuits against us and some of our senior executive officers.

We may continue to be the target of adverse publicity and detrimental conduct against us, including complaints, anonymous or otherwise, to regulatory agencies regarding our operations, accounting, revenues and regulatory compliance. Additionally, allegations against us may be posted on the internet by any person or entity which identifies itself or on an anonymous basis. We may be subject to government or regulatory investigation or inquiries, or shareholder lawsuits, as a result of such third-party conduct and may be required to incur significant time and substantial costs to defend ourselves, and there is no assurance that we will be able to conclusively refute each of the allegations within a reasonable period of time or at all. Our reputation may also be negatively affected as a result of the public dissemination of allegations or malicious statements about us, which in turn may materially and adversely affect the trading price of our ADSs.

We have been named as a defendant in a putative shareholder class action lawsuit and are subject to the SEC Investigation which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operation, cash flows and reputation.

We are defending against a putative shareholder class action lawsuit described in “Item 8. Financial Information—A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information-Legal and Administrative Proceedings-Litigation,” including any appeals of such lawsuit. Although we have reached an agreement in principle to settle all claims with plaintiffs, there is no guarantee that the Court will approve it. If the settlement fails and the litigation continues, we are unable to estimate the possible loss or possible range of loss, if any, associated with the resolution of this lawsuit. Any adverse outcome of this case could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operation, cash flows and reputation. In addition, there can be no assurance that our insurance carriers will cover all or part of the defense costs, or any liabilities that may arise from these matters. The litigation process may utilize a significant portion of our cash resources and divert management’s attention from the day-to-day operations of our company, all of which could harm our business. We also may be subject to claims for indemnification related to these matters, and we cannot predict the impact that indemnification claims may have on our business or financial results.

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In addition, as described in “Item 8. Financial Information—A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information-Legal and Administrative Proceedings-Internal Review and SEC Proceeding,” of this annual report, the SEC’s Division of Enforcement has sought the production of certain documents and information related to the transactions identified in the Muddy Water report, issues related to the “Light Class” business that we announced in April 2020, and the subsequent internal reviews regarding these issues and other related information. We are cooperating with the SEC. We cannot predict or provide any assurance as to the timing, outcome or consequences of the SEC investigation. We have incurred, and may continue to incur, significant expenses related to legal, accounting, and other professional services in connection with matters relating to or arising from the internal review and SEC investigation. Moreover, if the SEC were to determine that legal violations occurred, we could be required to pay significant civil penalties and/or other amounts and we could become subject to other remedies or conditions imposed as part of any resolution.

Failure to adequately and promptly respond to changes in PRC laws and regulations on school curriculum, examination systems and admission standards in China could render our courses and services less attractive to students.

Under the PRC education system, school admissions rely heavily on examination results. College and high school entrance examinations in most cases are mandatory for high school and middle school graduates to gain admission to colleges and high schools, respectively. Therefore, a student’s performance in these examinations is critical to his or her education and future employment prospects. It is therefore common for students to take after-school tutoring classes to improve performance, and the success of our business to a large extent depends on the continued use of assessment process by high schools and colleges in their admissions. However, this heavy emphasis on examination scores may decline or fall out of favor with educational institutions or education authorities in China. We face challenge to help students to improve their overall ability and quality other than improving their school grades.

Admission and assessment processes in China constantly undergo changes and developments in terms of subject and skill focus, question type, examination format and the manner in which the processes are administered. We are therefore required to continually update and enhance our curriculum, course materials and teaching methods. Any inability to track and respond to these changes in a timely and cost-effective manner would make our services and products less attractive to students, which may materially and adversely affect our reputation and ability to continue to attract students, and in turn have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Regulations and policies which focus on the efforts to de-emphasize scholastic competition achievements in college and high school admissions or the efforts to forbid academic competitions have had, and may continue to have, an impact on our enrollments. In particular, on February 13, 2018, the Ministry of Education, or MoE, together with three other government authorities, jointly promulgated the Circular on Special Enforcement Campaign concerning After-school Tutoring Institutions to Alleviate Extracurricular Burden on Students of Elementary Schools and Middle Schools, or Circular 3, pursuant to which private training organizations are strictly prohibited from organizing any academic competitions (such as Olympiad competitions) or level tests for students of elementary or middle schools and the elementary and middle schools are prohibited from taking the training results from private training organizations into account in the enrollment process. These policies and measures may adversely affect the demands for our after-school tutoring business and personalized premium services. We have adapted our operations which may be construed as competitions or ranking activities to these regulations. We cannot assure you whether relevant governmental authorities will find our operations in violation of such regulations.

Accidents or injuries suffered by our students or other people caused by us, or perceived to be caused by us may adversely affect our reputation, subject us to liability and cause us to incur substantial costs.

We have a large number of students and their parents on our premises to attend classes and/or use our facilities, and they may suffer accidents or injuries or other harm on our premises, including those caused by or otherwise arise from the actions of our employees or contractors. Although we have since enhanced preventive measures to avoid similar incidents, we cannot assure you that there will be no similar incidents in the future. We also organize overseas trips for students as a part of certain of our services, and our students may be involved in accidents or suffer injuries or other harm on these trips.

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In the event of accidents or injuries or other harm caused or perceived to be caused by us, our facilities and/or services may be perceived to be unsafe, which may discourage prospective students from attending our classes and participate in our activities. Although we carry certain liability insurance policies for our students and their parents, they may not be sufficient to cover the compensation or even applicable to the accidents or injuries occurred. We could also face claims alleging that we should be liable for the accidents or injuries, or we were negligent, provided inadequate supervision to our employees or contractors and therefore should be held jointly liable for harm caused by them. A material liability claim against us or any of our teachers or independent contractors could adversely affect our reputation, enrollment and revenues. Even if unsuccessful, such a claim could create unfavorable publicity, cause us to incur substantial expenses and divert the time and attention of our management.

Our advertising and promotional content may subject us to penalties and other administrative actions.

Under PRC advertising, pricing and anti-unfair competition laws and regulations, we are obligated to monitor our advertising and promotional content to ensure that such content is true and accurate and in full compliance with applicable laws and regulations. For example, the PRC Pricing Law provides that an operator is prohibited from using false or misunderstanding pricing methods to induce consumers or other operators into trading with it. In addition, education or training advertisement are further prohibited from containing content such as guarantee of passing of examination or the effect of education or training, recommendation and/or endorsement by scientific research institutes, academic institutions, educational organizations, industry associations, professionals or beneficiaries using their name or image. Violation of these laws and regulations may subject us to penalties, including fines, confiscation of our advertising income, orders to cease dissemination of the advertisements and orders to publish an announcement correcting the misleading information. In circumstances of our serious violations, government authorities may force us to terminate our advertising operations or revoke our licenses.

Relevant regulatory authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing the advertising, pricing and anti-unfair competition laws and regulations. We cannot assure you that all the content contained in our advertisements and promotional content is true and accurate as required by, and complies in all aspects with, the advertising, pricing and anti-unfair competition laws and regulations. We also cannot assure you that we can rectify such content which is deemed not in compliance with such laws and regulations in a timely manner or at all, especially given the uncertainty in the interpretation of these PRC laws and regulations. If we are found to be in violation of applicable PRC advertising, pricing and anti-unfair competition laws and regulations, we may be subject to penalties and our reputation may be harmed, which may negatively affect our operations, financial condition and prospects.

Our new courses and services may compete with our existing offerings.

We are constantly developing new courses and services to meet changes in student demands, school curriculum, testing materials, admission standards, market trends and technologies. While some of the courses and services that we develop will expand our current offerings and increase student enrollment, others may compete with or render obsolete our existing offerings without increasing our total student enrollment. For example, our online courses might attract students away from our classroom-based courses. If we are unable to increase our total student enrollment and profitability as we expand our course and service offerings, our business and growth may be adversely affected.

If we are not able to continually enhance our online courses and services and adapt to rapid changes in technological demands and student needs, we may lose market share and our business could be adversely affected.

Widespread use of the internet for educational purposes is a relatively recent occurrence, and the market for internet-based courses and services is characterized by rapid technological changes and innovations, such as artificial intelligence, augmented reality, virtual reality, as well as unpredictable product life cycles and user preferences. We have limited experience with online courses and services. We must be able to adapt quickly to changing student needs and preferences, technological advances and evolving internet practices in order to compete successfully in online education. Ongoing enhancement of our online offerings and technologies may entail significant expenses and technological risks, and we may not be able to use new technologies effectively and may fail to adapt to changes in the online education market on a timely and cost-effective basis. We began offering online courses through our www.xueersi.com in 2010 and revenues generated from our online course offerings through www.xueersi.com accounted for 13.3%, 18.9% and 28.4% of our total net revenues in the fiscal years ended February 28/29, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. We expect that revenues from our online course offerings will increase. However, if improvements to our online offerings and technologies are delayed, result in systems interruptions or are not aligned with market expectations or preferences, we may lose market share and our growth prospects could be adversely affected.

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Our success depends on the continuing efforts of our senior management team and other key personnel and our business may be harmed if we lose their services.

Our future success depends heavily upon the continuing services of the members of our senior management team. If any member of our senior management team leaves us and we fail to effectively manage a transition to new personnel in the future or if we fail to attract and retain qualified and experienced professionals on acceptable terms, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected. Competition for experienced management personnel in the education industry is intense, the pool of qualified candidates is very limited, and we may not be able to retain the services of our senior executives or key personnel, or to attract and retain high-quality senior executives or key personnel in the future.

Our success also depends on our having highly trained financial, technical, human resource, sales and marketing staff, management personnel and qualified and dedicated teachers for local markets. We will need to continue to hire additional personnel as our business grows. A shortage in the supply of personnel with requisite skills or our failure to recruit them could impede our ability to increase revenues from our existing courses and services, to launch new course and service offerings and to expand our operations, and would have an adverse effect on our business and financial results.

Failure to control rental costs, obtain leases at desired locations at reasonable prices or protect our leasehold interests could materially and adversely affect our business.

Our office space and service and learning centers are presently mainly located on leased premises. We may not be able to obtain new leases at desirable locations or renew our existing leases on acceptable terms or at all, which could adversely affect our business. We may have to relocate our operations for various other reasons, including increasing rentals, failure in passing the fire inspection in certain locations and the early termination of lease agreements. In addition, if the leased premises where our learning centers are located do not pass the fire inspection or do not comply with the relevant fire safety regulations, we may have to close such learning centers. We also have not registered most of our lease agreements with the relevant PRC governmental authorities as required by relevant PRC law. We may be required by the relevant governmental authorities to complete such registration, or otherwise be subject to fines ranging from RMB1,000 to RMB10,000 for each lease agreement that has not been registered. However, failure to complete such registration would not affect the enforceability of the relevant lease agreements in practice.

In addition, a few of our lessors have not been able to provide us with document proving completion of the fire inspection of the leased premises, copies of title certificates or other evidentiary documents to prove that they have authorization to lease the properties to us. Our business and legal teams followed an internal guideline to identify and assess risks in connection with leasing the properties, and a final business decision was made after our analysis of the likely impact of the defects on the leasehold interests and the value of the properties to our expansion plan. However, there is no assurance that our decision would always lead to the favorable outcome we expected to achieve. If any of our leases are terminated as a result of challenges by third parties or government authorities for lack of title certificates or proof of authorization to lease, we do not expect to be subject to any fines or penalties but we may be forced to relocate the affected learning centers and incur additional expenses relating to such relocation. If our use of the leased premises is challenged by relevant government authorities for lack of fire inspection, we may be further subject to fines and also be forced to relocate the affected learning centers and incur additional expenses. If we fail to find suitable replacement sites in a timely manner or on terms acceptable to us, our business and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Capacity constraints of our teaching facilities could cause us to lose students to our competitors.

The teaching facilities of our physical network are limited in size and number of classrooms. We may not be able to admit all students who would like to enroll in our courses due to the capacity constraints of our teaching facilities. This would deprive us of the opportunity to serve them and to potentially develop a long-term relationship with them for continued services. If we fail to expand our physical capacity as quickly as the demand for our classroom-based services grows, we could lose potential students to our competitors, and our results of operations and business prospects could suffer.

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If we fail to protect our intellectual property rights, our brand and business may suffer.

We consider our copyrights, trademarks, trade names, internet domain names, patents and other intellectual property rights invaluable to our ability to continue to develop and enhance our brand recognition. Unauthorized use of our intellectual property rights may damage our reputation and brands. Our “Xueersi” brand and logo is a registered trademark in China. Our proprietary curricula and course materials are protected by copyrights. However, preventing infringement on or misuse of intellectual property rights could be difficult, costly and time-consuming, particularly in China. The measures we take to protect our intellectual property rights may not be adequate to prevent unauthorized uses. Furthermore, application of laws governing intellectual property rights in China is uncertain and evolving, and could involve substantial risks to us. There have been several incidents in the past where third parties used our brand “Xueersi” without our authorization, and on occasion we have needed to resort to litigation to protect our intellectual property rights. In addition, we are still in the process of applying for the registration in China of the trademarks for our “Haoweilai” brand in certain categories. We cannot assure you that the relevant governmental authorities will grant us the approval to register such trademarks. As a result, we may be unable to prevent third parties from utilizing this brand name, which may have an adverse impact on our brand image. If we are unable to adequately protect our intellectual property rights in the future, we may lose these rights, our brand name may be harmed, and our reputation and business may suffer materially. Furthermore, our management’s attention may be diverted by violations of our intellectual property rights, and we may be required to enter into costly litigation to protect our proprietary rights against any infringement or violation.

We may encounter disputes from time to time relating to our use of the intellectual property of third parties.

We cannot assure you that our courses and marketing materials, online courses, products, and platform or other intellectual property developed or used by us do not or will not infringe upon valid copyrights or other intellectual property rights held by third parties. We may encounter disputes from time to time over rights and obligations concerning intellectual property, and we may not prevail in those disputes. We have adopted policies and procedures to prohibit our employees and contractors from infringing upon third-party copyright or intellectual property rights. However, we cannot assure you that our teachers or other personnel will not, against our policies, use third-party copyrighted materials or intellectual property without proper authorization in our classes, on our websites, at any of our locations or via any medium through which we provide our programs. Our users may also post unauthorized third-party content on our websites. We may incur liability for unauthorized duplication or distribution of materials posted on our websites or used in our classes. We have been involved in claims against us alleging our infringement of third-party intellectual property rights and we may be subject to such claims in the future. Any such intellectual property infringement claim could result in costly litigation, harm our reputation and divert our management attention and resources and pay substantial damage.

We may fail to successfully make necessary or desirable acquisition or investment, and we may not be able to achieve the benefits we expect from recent and future acquisitions or investments.

We have made and intend to continue to make acquisitions or equity investments in additional businesses that complement our existing business. We may not be able to successfully integrate our acquired businesses. If the businesses we acquire do not subsequently generate the anticipated financial performance or if any goodwill impairment test triggering event occurs, we may need to revalue or write down the value of goodwill and other intangible assets in connection with such acquisitions or investments, which would harm our results of operations.

We may not have any control over the businesses or operations of our minority equity investments, the value of which may decline over time. For the investments accounted for by the equity method, we book a gain or loss of share of net income or loss of the investments. If the investee’s operation or financial performance deteriorated, we may need to revalue or record impairment to the carrying amount of the long-term investment, which would harm our results of operations.

In addition, we may be unable to identify appropriate acquisition or strategic investment targets when it is necessary or desirable to make such acquisition or investment to remain competitive or to expand our business. Even if we identify an appropriate acquisition or investment target, we may not be able to negotiate the terms of the acquisition or investment successfully, finance the proposed transaction or integrate the relevant businesses into our existing business and operations. Furthermore, as we often do not have control over the companies in which we only have minority stake, we cannot ensure that these companies always will comply with applicable laws and regulations in their business operations. Material non-compliance by our investees may cause substantial harms to our reputations and the value of our investment.

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We face risks associated with the Firstleap franchisees.

A small portion of the Firstleap business is operated through franchisees, or the Firstleap franchisees, instead of Lebai Education and its subsidiaries and schools. These franchisees are typically located in lower-tier cities and operate their own learning centers not within our network. The Firstleap franchisees have very limited impact on our overall business and financial performance, and schools operated by them are not included in the counts of our schools, learning centers and service centers, and student enrollments from these schools are not included as our student enrollments. However, we are still subject to risks inherent to the franchising model and we have not had experience in operating the franchising model and dealing with such risks.

Our control over the Firstleap franchisees is based on contractual agreements, which may not be as effective as direct ownership and potentially makes it difficult for us to manage the franchisees. We do not have direct control over their service quality, and do not directly recruit, manage and train their employees. As a result, we may not be able to successfully monitor, maintain and improve the performance of the Firstleap franchisees and their employees. However, they carry out the Firstleap tutoring services and directly interact with students and their parents. In the event of any delinquent performance by the Firstleap franchisees and their employees, we may suffer from business reduction as well as reputational damage. In the event of any unlawful or unethical conduct by the Firstleap franchisees and/or their employees, we may suffer financial losses, incur liabilities and suffer reputation damage. Meanwhile, a franchisee may suspend or terminate its cooperation with us voluntarily or involuntarily due to various reasons, including disagreement or dispute with us, or failure to maintain requisite approvals, licenses or permits or to comply with other governmental regulations. We may not be able to find alternative ways to continue to provide the tutoring services formerly covered by such franchisee, and our student/parent satisfaction, reputation and financial performance may be adversely affected.

Seasonal and other fluctuations in our results of operations could adversely affect the trading price of our ADSs.

Our business is subject to fluctuations caused by seasonality or other factors beyond our control, which may cause our operating results to fluctuate from quarter to quarter. This may result in volatility and adversely affect the price of our ADSs. We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, seasonal fluctuations in our revenues and results of operations, primarily due to seasonal changes in student enrollments. However, our expenses vary, and certain of our expenses do not necessarily correspond with changes in our student enrollments and revenues. For example, we make investments in marketing and promotion, teacher recruitment and training, and product development throughout the year and we pay rent for our facilities based on the terms of the lease agreements. In addition, other factors beyond our control, such as special events that take place during a quarter when our student enrollment would normally be high, may have a negative impact on our student enrollments. We expect quarterly fluctuations in our revenues and results of operations to continue. These fluctuations could result in volatility and adversely affect the price of our ADSs. As our revenues grow, these seasonal fluctuations may become more pronounced.

If we cannot obtain sufficient cash when we need it, we may not be able to meet our payment obligations under our indebtedness.

On December 19, 2019, we entered into a loan facilities agreement with a group of lenders pursuant to which we can draw down up to RMB1,800 million, provided that the proceeds be used for our construction project in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu.

In January 2021, we issued certain convertible notes for a total proceed of approximately US$2.3 billion to a group of investors.

We cannot assure you that we will have sufficient funds to fulfill our payment obligations under our indebtedness. Our ability to meet our payment obligations under our indebtedness depends on our ability to generate sufficient cash flow, which is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative and regulatory factors as well as other factors that are beyond our control. Moreover, we are a holding company with no material operations of our own. As a result, we rely upon dividends and other cash distributions paid to us by our subsidiaries to meet our payment obligations under indebtedness incurred at the holding company level. Our subsidiaries are distinct legal entities and do not have any obligation, legal or otherwise, to provide us with dividends or other distributions. We may face tax or other adverse consequences, or legal limitations, on our ability to obtain funds from these entities.

In addition, our ability to obtain external financing in the future is subject to a variety of uncertainties, including:

our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows;
general market conditions for financing activities; and

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economic, political and other conditions in China and elsewhere.

If we are unable to obtain funding in a timely manner or on commercially acceptable terms, we may not be able to meet our payment obligations under our indebtedness.

We have experienced recent fluctuations in our margins and incurred net loss in fiscal years 2020 and 2021.

In recent years, we have experienced fluctuations in our margins. We incurred net loss in fiscal years 2020 and 2021. Many factors may cause our margins to decline or lead to net losses. For example, costs incurred in the expansion of our business and our physical network of learning centers and service centers may increase faster than our revenues. New investments and acquisitions may cause our margins to decline before we successfully integrate the acquired businesses into our operations and realize the full benefits of these investments and acquisitions. A significant increase in operating expenses or impairment loss on long-term investments and goodwill may lead to a net loss. Our ability to return to or maintain profitability and maintain or improve margins is affected by various factors that are beyond our control, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. There can be no assurance that our margins will not decline or fluctuate, or that we will not incur net loss again, in the future.

We have limited experience generating net income from some of our newer offerings.

Historically, our core businesses have been Xueersi small-class offerings and personalized premium services. We have expanded our offerings through internal development and external investments. Some of these new offerings have not generated significant or any profit to date. We have limited experience responding quickly to changes and competing successfully for certain of these new areas. In addition, newer offerings may require more financial and managerial resources than available. Furthermore, there is limited operating history on which you can base your evaluation of the business and prospects of these relatively more recent offerings.

We have limited liability insurance coverage and do not carry business disruption insurance.

We have limited liability insurance coverage for our students and their parents in most of our learning centers. A successful liability claim against us due to injuries suffered by our students or other people on our premises could materially and adversely affect our financial conditions, results of operations and reputation. Even if unsuccessful, such a claim could cause adverse publicity to us, require substantial cost to defend and divert the time and attention of our management. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—Accidents or injuries suffered by our students or other people on our premises may adversely affect our reputation, subject us to liability and cause us to incur substantial costs.” In addition, we do not have any business disruption insurance. Any business disruption event could result in substantial cost to us and diversion of our resources.

System disruptions to our websites or information technology systems, any significant cybersecurity incident or a leak of student data could damage our reputation, limit our ability to retain students and increase student enrollment or give rise to financial or legal consequences.

The performance and reliability of our online and technology infrastructure is critical to our reputation and ability to retain students and increase student enrollment. Any system error or failure, or a sudden and significant increase in online traffic, could disrupt or slow access to our websites. We cannot assure you that we will be able to expand our online infrastructure in a timely and cost-effective manner to meet the increasing demands of our students and their parents. In addition, our information technology systems store and process important information including, without limitation, class schedules, registration information and student data and could be vulnerable to interruptions or malfunctions due to events beyond our control, such as natural disasters and technology failures. For instance, we have in the past experienced interruptions to our operations due to temporary information technology system failures.

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Although we have a daily backup system that runs on different servers including a combination of internet data center and cloud servers for our operating data, we may still lose important student data or suffer disruption to our operations if there is a failure of the database system or the backup system. In addition, computer hackers may attempt to penetrate our network security and our website. We have in the past experienced several computer attacks, although they did not materially affect our operations. We may be required to invest significant resources in protecting against the foregoing technological disruptions and/or security breaches, or to remediate problems and damages caused by such incidents, which could increase the cost of our business and in turn adversely affect our financial conditions and results of operations. Unauthorized access to our proprietary business information or customer data may be obtained through break-ins, sabotage, breach of our secure network by an unauthorized party, computer viruses, computer denial-of-service attacks, employee theft or misuse, breach of the security of the networks of our third party providers, or other misconduct. Because the techniques used by computer programmers who may attempt to penetrate and sabotage our network security or our website change frequently and may not be recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques. It is also possible that unauthorized access to customer data may be obtained through inadequate use of security controls by customers. We would suffer economic and reputational damages if a technical failure of our systems or a security breach compromises student data, including identification or contact information, although there has not been any material compromise in the past. Any disruption to our computer systems could therefore have a material adverse effect on our on-site operations and ability to retain students and increase student enrollments.

Our business was materially adversely affected by the outbreak of COVID-19 and may be materially adversely affected by a similar outbreak in the future.

In 2020, outbreaks of COVID-19 resulted in the temporary closure of many business facilities across China. Normal economic life throughout China was sharply curtailed. While many of the restrictions on movement within China have been relaxed as of the date of this annual report, there is still uncertainty as to the future progress of the disease. Relaxation of restrictions on economic and social life may lead to new cases which may lead to the reimposition of restrictions.

The COVID-19 pandemic affected many aspects of our business since 2020, including:

Offline businesses. Our learning centers across the nation underwent temporary closure as part of precautionary measures we took with respect to our offline business and pursuant to government orders with respect to educational institutions as well as business activities in general to combat the outbreak. Following the closure, we immediately took measures to effectively move our offline course offerings online and provide our customers that already purchased offline courses with comprehensive remedies such as refunds, exchanges, or compensation for price differences. Despite our initiatives, there could still be cases of customer dissatisfaction and complaints as a result of the drastic changes. The decrease in revenues from offline learnings centers was partially offset by the increase in online revenues. In the later part of 2020, we were able to gradually reopen our learning centers. However, we again were required to close our learning centers in certain regions where new cases of COVID-19 were discovered between the end of 2020 and beginning of 2021. We moved those classes online. Any violation of government orders to suspend classes can lead to administrative actions and penalties.

Expansion. Pending further development of the pandemic, our offline capacity growth plans are subject to uncertainties. Moreover, we had two major facilities under construction, the progress of which were delayed due to restrictions on travel, suspension of business activities, and disease control protocols, that were in place. The construction delay may cause, among others, the projects to miss completion deadline, go over budget, or both, and the raw material cost may fluctuate as a result of the outbreak.

Financial condition and results of operations. The potential impact of development of COVID-19 and discovery of new cases can create uncertainty on our financial condition and results of operations. For example, we may have to make fair value adjustments or impairment to our long-term investments and goodwill as a result of such impact.

Beginning in the first fiscal quarter of fiscal year 2021, we experienced continued recovery and growth, driven by online courses and despite the lingering pressure on our offline business. However, we cannot assure you that the COVID-19 pandemic can be eliminated completely. Moreover, a second wave or a similar outbreak may occur, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

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We face risks related to natural and other disasters, including outbreaks of health epidemics, and other extraordinary events, which could significantly disrupt our operations.

In addition to the impact of COVID-19, our business could be materially and adversely affected by natural and other disasters, including earthquakes, fire, floods, environmental accidents, power loss, communication failures and similar events. Additionally, our business could be materially and adversely affected by the outbreak of H7N9 bird flu, H1N1 swine influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Ebola or another health epidemic. While we have not suffered any material loss or experienced any significant increase in costs as a result of any natural and other disaster or other extraordinary event, our student attendance and our business could be materially and adversely affected by any such occurrence in any of the cities in which we have major operations.

Failure to maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting could cause us to inaccurately report our financial results or fail to prevent fraud and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and the trading price of our ADSs.

We are subject to the reporting obligations under U.S. securities laws. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and related rules require public companies to include a report of management on their internal control over financial reporting in their annual reports. This report must contain an assessment by management of the effectiveness of a public company’s internal control over financial reporting. In addition, an independent registered public accounting firm for a public company must attest to and report on management’s assessment of the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting. Our efforts to implement standardized internal control procedures and develop the internal tests necessary to verify the proper application of the internal control procedures and their effectiveness are a key area of focus for our board of directors, our audit committee and senior management.

Our management and our independent registered public accounting firm, which had issued an attestation report, identified one material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting as of February 29, 2020 in accordance with the standards established by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board of the United States and concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was not effective due to this material weakness as of February 29, 2020. The material weakness identified related to our failure to timely update our design on controls with a sufficient level of precision to prevent and detect misstatements related to our newly developed business. The material weakness resulted in restatement of our unaudited quarterly financial statements for the periods ended May 31, August 31 and November 30, 2019, respectively, to reflect correction of errors which led to reversal of our net revenues and net income attributable to our company for the first nine months of fiscal year 2020 in the aggregate amount of US$86.1 million and US$26.6 million, respectively. We have taken a number of measures to remedy the material weakness and the deficiencies that have been identified. For details, see “Item 15. Controls and Procedures.” Our management and our independent registered public accounting firm, which has issued an attestation report, have concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of February 28, 2021 after the remediation. However, we cannot assure you that we will not identify any additional material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in the future.

If we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in the future, our management and our independent registered public accounting firm may not be able to conclude that we have effective internal control over financial reporting at a reasonable assurance level. Moreover, effective internal controls over financial reporting are necessary for us to produce reliable financial reports and are important to help prevent fraud. In addition, we need to continue to evaluate the consolidation of our VIEs and VIEs’ subsidiaries and schools given the change in the ownership or voting power of the Company by the nominee shareholders of the VIEs. As a result, although we have incurred and anticipate that we will continue to incur considerable costs, management time and other resources in an effort to continue to comply with Section 404 and other requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, any failure to maintain effective internal controls over financial reporting could in turn result in the loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements and negatively impact the trading price of our ADSs.

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We are subject to anti-corruption laws. Our failure to comply with these laws could result in penalties, which may harm our reputation and have an adverse impact on our business and results of operations.

We are subject to anti-corruption laws, including China’s anti-corruption laws and the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or the FCPA, which generally prohibits companies and anyone acting on their behalf from offering or making improper payments or providing benefits to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or keeping business and that requires an “issuer” like us to maintain accurate books and records. Our company policies require that our employees comply with applicable laws. However, there is no assurance that such policies will work effectively or protect us from liability under the FCPA or other anti-corruption laws for actions taken by our employees and intermediaries with respect to our business or any business that we may acquire. If we are found to be not in compliance with the FCPA and other applicable anti-corruption laws, we may be subject to penalties and other remedial measures, which may have an adverse impact on our reputation, business and results of operations. Any investigation of any potential violations of the FCPA or other anti-corruption laws by government authorities may cause us to incur significant expenses, divert management attention, and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

We may be the subject of anti-competitive, harassing, or other detrimental conduct by third parties including anonymous allegations, negative blog postings, and the public dissemination of malicious assessments of our business that could cause us to incur significant time and costs to address these allegations, harm our reputation and adversely affect the price of our ADSs.

We may be the target of anti-competitive, harassing, or other detrimental conduct by third parties. Such conduct includes allegations, anonymous or otherwise, sent to our auditors and/or other third parties regarding our operations, accounting, revenues, business relationships, business prospects and business ethics. Additionally, allegations, directly or indirectly against us, may be posted in internet chat rooms or on blogs or any websites by anyone, whether or not related to us, on an anonymous basis. We may be subject to government or regulatory investigation as a result of such third-party conduct and may be required to expend significant time and incur substantial costs to address such third-party conduct, and there is no assurance that we will be able to conclusively refute each of the allegations within a reasonable period of time, or at all. Our reputation may also be negatively affected as a result of the public dissemination of anonymous allegations or malicious statements about our business, which in turn may adversely affect the price of our ADSs.

We have granted and will continue to grant restricted shares, share options and other share-based awards in the future, which may materially reduce our net income.

In June 2010, we adopted a 2010 share incentive plan, as amended and restated in August 2013, that permits granting of options to purchase our Class A common shares, restricted shares, restricted share units, share appreciation rights, dividend equivalent rights and other instruments as deemed appropriate by the administrator under the plan. The amended and restated 2010 share incentive plan ceased to be used for grants of future awards upon the effectiveness of the 2020 Plan (defined below). In June 2020, we adopted a 2020 Share Incentive Plan, or the 2020 Plan, pursuant to which the maximum aggregate number of shares that may be issued pursuant to all awards (including incentive share options) (the “Award Pool”) is initially five percent (5%) of our total issued and outstanding shares as of the effective date of the 2020 Plan, provided that (A) the Award Pool shall be increased automatically if and whenever the number of shares that may be issued pursuant to ungranted awards pursuant to the 2020 Plan (the “Ungranted Portion”) accounts for less than one percent (1%) of the then total issued and outstanding shares of our company, so that for each automatic increase, the Ungranted Portion immediately after such increase shall equal five percent (5%) of the then total issued and outstanding shares of our company, and (B) the size of the Award Pool shall be equitably adjusted in the event of any share dividend, subdivision, reclassification, recapitalization, split, reverse split, combination, consolidation or similar transactions. As of March 31, 2021, 8,902,881 non-vested restricted Class A common shares and 538,583 share options to purchase 538,583 Class A common shares under the 2010 Plan and the 2020 Plan previously granted to our employees and directors are outstanding. As a result of the outstanding grants under the 2010 Plan and the 2020 Plan, we have incurred and will continue to incur share-based compensation expenses. We had share-based compensation expenses of $77.3 million, $117.9 million, and $204.9 million for the fiscal years ended February 28/29, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. As of February 28, 2021, the unrecognized compensation expenses amounted to $645.7 million related to the non-vested restricted shares, which will be recognized over a weighted-average period of 4.0 years for service based non-vested restricted shares and 3.4 years for performance based non-vested restricted shares, and $11.5 million related to share options, which will be recognized over a weighted-average period of 3.9 years. Expenses associated with share-based compensation awards granted under our share incentive plan may materially reduce our future net income. However, if we limit the size of grants under our share incentive plan to minimize share-based compensation expenses, we may not be able to attract or retain key personnel.

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Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure

If the PRC government determines that the agreements that establish the structure for operating our business in China are not in compliance with applicable PRC laws and regulations, we could be subject to severe penalties.

PRC laws and regulations currently require any foreign entity that invests in the education business in China to be an educational institution with relevant experience in providing education services outside China. None of our offshore holding companies is an educational institution or provides education services. To comply with PRC laws and regulations, we have entered into (i) a series of contractual arrangements among Beijing Century TAL Education Technology Co., Ltd., or TAL Beijing, on the one hand, and Xueersi Education, Xueersi Network, Xinxin Xiangrong and their respective shareholders, subsidiaries and schools, on the other hand, and (ii) a series of contractual arrangements among Beijing Lebai Information Consulting Co., Ltd., or Lebai Information, on the one hand, and Lebai Education and its sole shareholder, subsidiaries and schools, on the other hand. Accordingly, Xueersi Education, Xueersi Network, Xinxin Xiangrong and Lebai Education are our VIEs, and we rely on the contractual arrangements with our VIEs and their respective shareholders, subsidiaries and schools, or the VIE Contractual Arrangements, to conduct most of our services in China. Our VIEs, together with their respective subsidiaries and schools, are our Consolidated Affiliated Entities.

We have been and are expected to continue to be dependent on our Consolidated Affiliated Entities in China to operate our education business until we qualify for direct ownership of educational businesses in China. Pursuant to the VIE Contractual Arrangements, we, through our wholly owned subsidiaries in China, exclusively provide comprehensive intellectual property licensing, technical and business support services to our Consolidated Affiliated Entities in exchange for payments from them. In addition, the VIE Contractual Arrangements provide us with the ability to effectively control our VIEs and their respective existing and future subsidiaries and schools, as applicable.

It is uncertain whether any new PRC laws, rules or regulations relating to variable interest entity structures will be adopted or if adopted, what they would provide. In August 2018, the Ministry of Justice published a draft Implementation Rules for Private Education Law, or the draft Implementation Rules, for review. The draft Implementation Rules, among other things, provide that entities implementing group-based education shall not control non-profit schools by merger, acquisition, franchise or contractual arrangements. The draft Implementation Rules also provide that transactions among private schools and their affiliates shall be fair and open to the public. For those agreements entered into by non-profit schools and their affiliates which are long-term or involve important interests or repeated performance, the educational authorities shall audit the necessity, legitimacy and legal compliance of such agreements. Such requirements, if remained in the final version and signed into law, may challenge the validity and enforceability of our VIE Contractual Arrangements.

If the corporate structure and contractual arrangements through which we conduct our business in China are found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or such arrangements are determined as illegal and invalid by PRC courts, arbitration tribunals or regulatory authorities, or if we fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, we would be subject to potential actions by the relevant PRC regulatory authorities with broad discretion, which actions could include:

revoke our business and operating licenses;
require us to discontinue or restrict our operations;
limit our business expansion in China by way of entering into contractual arrangements;
restrict our right to collect revenues or impose fines;
block our websites;
require us to restructure our operations in such a way as to compel us to establish a new enterprise, re-apply for the necessary licenses or relocate our businesses, staff and assets;
impose additional conditions or requirements with which we may not be able to comply; or
take other regulatory or enforcement actions against us that could be harmful to our business.

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Any of these actions could cause significant disruption to our business operations and severely damage our reputation, which would in turn materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If any of these actions results in our inability to direct the activities of our Consolidated Affiliated Entities that most significantly impact their economic performance, and/or our failure to receive the economic benefits from our Consolidated Affiliated Entities, we may not be able to consolidate these entities in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. However, we do not believe that such actions would result in the liquidation or dissolution of our company, our wholly owned subsidiaries in China or our Consolidated Affiliated Entities.

We rely on the VIE Contractual Arrangements for our PRC operations, which may not be as effective in providing operational control as direct ownership.

We have relied and expect to continue to rely on the VIE Contractual Arrangements to operate our education business in China. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Organizational Structure—VIE Contractual Arrangements.” The VIE Contractual Arrangements may not be as effective in providing us with control over our Consolidated Affiliated Entities as direct ownership. If we had direct ownership of the Consolidated Affiliated Entities, we would be able to exercise our rights as a shareholder to effect changes in the board of directors of these entities, which in turn could effect changes, subject to any applicable fiduciary obligations, at the management level. However, under the VIE Contractual Arrangements, we rely on the performance by our Consolidated Affiliated Entities and their respective shareholders of their obligations under the contracts to exercise control over and receive economic benefits from our Consolidated Affiliated Entities.

We have entered into equity pledge agreements with our VIEs and their respective shareholders to guarantee the performance of the obligations of our Consolidated Affiliated Entities under the exclusive business cooperation agreements they have entered into with us. The equity pledge agreements with the shareholders of the VIEs provide that the pledged equity interest shall constitute continuing security for any and all of the indebtedness, obligations and liabilities under all of the principal service agreements and the scope of pledge shall not be limited by the amount of the registered capital of the VIEs. However, it is possible that a PRC court may take the position that the amount listed on the equity pledge registration forms represents the full amount of the collateral that has been registered and perfected. If this is the case, the obligations that are supposed to be secured in the equity pledge agreements in excess of the amount listed on the equity pledge registration forms could be determined by the PRC court as unsecured debt, which takes last priority among creditors.

In addition, we have not entered into agreements with our VIEs that pledge the assets of our Consolidated Affiliated Entities for the benefit of us or our wholly owned subsidiaries. Consequently, the assets of our Consolidated Affiliated Entities are not secured on behalf of our wholly owned subsidiary, and the amounts owed by our Consolidated Affiliated Entities are not collateralized. As a result, if our Consolidated Affiliated Entities fail to pay any amount due to us under, or otherwise breach, the exclusive business service agreements, we will not be able to directly seize the assets of our Consolidated Affiliated Entities. If the nominee shareholders of the VIEs do not act in the best interests of us when conflicts of interest arise, or if they act in bad faith towards us, they may attempt to cause our Consolidated Affiliated Entities to transfer or encumber the assets of the Consolidated Affiliated Entities without our authorization. In such a scenario, we may choose to exercise our option under the call option agreements to demand the shareholders of the VIEs to transfer their respective equity interests in the VIEs to a PRC person designated by us, and we may need to resort to litigation in the PRC courts to effect such an equity interests transfer and prevent the transfer or encumbrance of the VIEs’ assets without our authorization. However, uncertainties in the PRC legal system could limit our ability to enforce the VIE Contractual Arrangements. In the event we are unable to enforce the VIE Contractual Arrangements, we may not be able to have the power to direct the activities that most significantly affect the economic performance of our VIEs and their schools and subsidiaries, and our ability to conduct our business may be negatively affected, and we may not be able to consolidate the financial results of our VIEs and their schools and subsidiaries into our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

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Any failure by our VIEs or their respective shareholders to perform their obligations under the VIE Contractual Arrangements would have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.

If our VIEs or any of their respective subsidiaries or schools or any of their respective shareholders fail to perform its obligations under the VIE Contractual Arrangements, we may have to incur substantial costs and resources to enforce our rights under the contracts, and rely on legal remedies under the PRC law, including seeking specific performance or injunctive relief and claiming damages, which may not be effective. For example, if the shareholders of our VIEs were to refuse to transfer their equity interest in these entities to us or our designee when we exercise the call option pursuant to the VIE Contractual Arrangements, or if they were otherwise to act in bad faith toward us, we may have to take legal actions to compel them to perform their contractual obligations.

All the material agreements under the VIE Contractual Arrangements, which are summarized under “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—Organizational Structure—VIE Contractual Arrangements,” are governed by PRC law and provide for the resolution of disputes under the agreements through arbitration in Beijing. Accordingly, these contracts would be interpreted in accordance with PRC law and any disputes would be resolved in accordance with PRC legal procedures. The legal system in China is not as developed as in some other jurisdictions, such as the United States. As a result, uncertainties in the PRC legal system could limit our ability to enforce the VIE Contractual Arrangements. Under PRC law, rulings by arbitrators are final, parties cannot appeal the arbitration results in courts, and the prevailing parties may only enforce the arbitration awards in PRC courts through arbitration award recognition proceedings, which would incur additional expenses and delay. In the event we are unable to enforce the VIE Contractual Arrangements, we may not be able to exert effective control over our Consolidated Affiliated Entities, and our ability to conduct our business may be negatively affected.

The legal owners of our VIEs may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.

The four legal owners of Xueersi Education and Xueersi Network are Mr. Bangxin Zhang, Mr. Yachao Liu, Mr. Yunfeng Bai and Mr. Yundong Cao, and the three legal owners of Xinxin Xiangrong are Mr. Zhang, Mr. Liu and Mr. Bai, and the sole legal owner of Lebai Education is Xueersi Education. Mr. Zhang, Mr. Liu and Mr. Bai are shareholders and directors or officers of TAL Education Group. The interests of Mr. Zhang, Mr. Liu, Mr. Bai and Mr. Cao as beneficial owners of the VIEs may differ from the interests of our company as a whole, since these parties’ respective equity interests in the VIEs may conflict with their respective equity interests in our company.

We cannot assure you that when conflicts of interest arise, any or all of these individuals will act in the best interests of our company or such conflicts will be resolved in our favor. In addition, these individuals may breach, or cause our Consolidated Affiliated Entities to breach, or refuse to renew, the existing VIE Contractual Arrangements. In June 2013, we entered into a deed of undertaking with Mr. Zhang, which prevents Mr. Zhang from using his majority voting power to remove, replace or appoint any of our directors, and from casting any votes he has as our director or shareholder on any resolutions or matters concerning the deed itself. The deed is irrevocable, and applies to any and all periods during which Mr. Zhang beneficially owns shares representing more than 50% of the aggregate voting power of our then total issued and outstanding shares. However, there can be no assurance that such arrangement is sufficient to address potential conflicts of interests Mr. Zhang may encounter. Other than this deed of undertaking we have entered into with Mr. Zhang, we currently do not have any arrangements to address potential conflicts of interest Mr. Zhang, Mr. Liu and Mr. Bai may encounter in their capacity as direct or indirect nominee shareholders of the VIEs (and, as applicable, as directors of the VIEs), on the one hand, and as beneficial owners of our company (and, as applicable, director and/or officers of our company), on the other hand. To a large extent, we rely on the legal owners of the VIEs to abide by the laws of the Cayman Islands and China, which provide that directors and officers owe a fiduciary duty to our company that requires them to act in good faith and in the best interests of our company and not to use their positions for personal gains. If we cannot resolve any conflict of interest or dispute between us and these individuals, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which could result in disruption of our business and subject us to substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.

If the custodians or authorized users of our controlling non-tangible assets, including chops and seals, fail to fulfill their responsibilities, or misappropriate or misuse these assets, our business and operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Under PRC law, legal documents for corporate transactions, including agreements and contracts such as the leases and sales contracts that our business relies on, are executed using the chop or seal of the signing entity or with the signature of a legal representative whose designation is registered and filed with the relevant local branch of the SAIC. We generally execute legal documents by affixing chops or seals, rather than having the designated legal representatives sign the documents.

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We have three major types of chops, corporate chops, contract chops and finance chops. We use corporate chops generally for documents to be submitted to government agencies, such as applications for changing business scope, directors or company name, and for legal letters. We use corporate chops or contract chops for executing leases and commercial contracts. We use finance chops generally for making and collecting payments, including, but not limited to issuing invoices. Use of chops must be approved by the responsible departments and follow our internal procedure. Although we usually utilize chops to execute contracts, the registered legal representatives of our PRC subsidiaries, VIEs and their schools and subsidiaries have the apparent authority to enter into contracts on behalf of such entities without chops.

In order to maintain the physical security of our chops, we generally have them stored in secured locations accessible only to authorized employees. Our designated legal representatives generally do not have access to the chops. Although we monitor such employees and the designated legal representatives, the procedures may not be sufficient to prevent all instances of abuse or negligence. There is a risk that our employees or designated legal representatives could abuse their authority, for example, by binding the relevant subsidiary or Consolidated Affiliated Entity with contracts against our interests, as we would be obligated to honor these contracts if the other contracting party acts in good faith in reliance on the apparent authority of our chops or signatures of our legal representatives. If any designated legal representative obtains control of the chop in an effort to obtain control over the relevant entity, we would need to have a shareholder or board resolution to designate a new legal representative and to take legal action to seek the return of the chop, apply for a new chop with the relevant authorities, or otherwise seek legal remedies for the legal representative’s violation of the duties to us.

If any of the authorized employees or designated legal representatives obtain and misuse or misappropriate our chops and seals or other controlling intangible assets for whatever reason, we could experience disruption to our normal business operations. We may have to take corporate or legal action, which could involve significant time and resources to resolve while distracting management from our operations.

Our Consolidated Affiliated Entities may be subject to significant limitations on their ability to operate private schools or make payments to related parties, or otherwise be materially and adversely affected by changes in PRC laws governing private education providers.

The principal regulations governing private education in China are The Private Education Law, or Private Education Law, and The Implementation Rules for Private Education Law, or Implementation Rules. Before September 1, 2017, under the Private Education Law and Implementation Rules, a private school could elect to be a school that did not require reasonable returns or a school that required reasonable returns. At the end of each fiscal year, every private school was required to allocate a certain amount to its development fund for the construction or maintenance of the school or procurement or upgrade of educational equipment. In the case of a private school that required reasonable returns, this amount should be no less than 25% of the annual net income of the school, while in the case of a private school that did not require reasonable returns, this amount should be equivalent to no less than 25% of the annual increase in the net assets of the school, if any. A private school that required reasonable returns must publicly disclose such election and additional information required under the regulations. A private school should consider factors such as the school’s tuition, ratio of the funds used for education-related activities to the course fees collected, admission standards and educational quality when determining the percentage of the school’s net income that would be distributed to the investors as reasonable returns. However, none of the current PRC laws and regulations provides a formula or guidelines for determining “reasonable returns.” In addition, none of the current PRC laws and regulations sets forth clear requirements or restrictions on a private school’s ability to operate its education business based on such school’s status as one that does or does not require reasonable returns.

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On November 7, 2016, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress amended the Private Education Law, or the Amended Private Education Law, which took effect on September 1, 2017. Under the Amended Private Education Law, the term “reasonable return” is no longer used, and sponsors of private school may choose to establish non-profit or for-profit private schools at their own discretion. Sponsors of for-profit private schools are entitled to retain the profits from their schools and the operating surplus may be allocated to the sponsors pursuant to the PRC Company Law and other relevant laws and regulations. Sponsors of non-profit private schools are not entitled to any distribution of profits from their schools and all revenue must be used for the operation of the schools. If a pre-existing private school chooses to register as a non-profit school, it shall amend its articles of association, continue its operation and complete the new registration process. If a pre-existing private school chooses to register as a for-profit school, it shall conduct a financial liquidation process, have the property rights of its assets such as lands, school buildings and net balance authenticated by relevant government authorities, pay up relevant taxes, apply for a new Permit for Operating a Private School, re-register as a for-profit school and continue its operation. Specific provisions regarding the above registration process shall be introduced by governments at the provincial level. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation—The Private Education Law and the Implementation Rules for Private Education Law.”

We intend to register our pre-existing private schools as for-profit schools. However, as of the date of this annual report, only certain local governments, for example, Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Zhejiang Province, Hainan Province and Ningxia Province, have promulgated specific measures for registration of pre-existing private schools. And even for those places where specific measures for registration of pre-existing private schools have been promulgated, some local government authorities in practice have not started to accept application for registration of pre-existing private schools as for-profit schools. Therefore, we cannot assure you that our pre-existing private schools can all apply for and complete registration as for-profit schools in a timely manner or at all. And as measures for registration of pre-existing private schools in most provinces are yet to be introduced, we also cannot assure you whether there will be other risks associated with such registration.

Moreover, as of the date of this annual report, the implementation rules for the Amended Private Education Law and the relevant regulations adopted by competent government authorities in certain provinces have not been promulgated. It remains uncertain how the Amended Private Education Law will be interpreted and implemented and impact our business operations. There is no assurance that we will be able to operate our business in full compliance with the Amended Private Education Law or any relevant regulations in a timely manner or at all. Should we fail to fully comply with the Amended Private Education Law or any relevant regulations as interpreted by the relevant government authorities, we may be subject to administrative fines or penalties, an order to suspend the operation and refund the tuition fee or other negative consequences which could materially and adversely affect our brand name and reputation, and our business, financial condition and results of operations. As a holding company, we rely on dividends and other distributions from our PRC subsidiaries, including TAL Beijing and Lebai Information. TAL Beijing, Lebai Information and their designated affiliates are entitled to receive service fees from the schools according to the relevant exclusive business cooperation agreements. We do not believe that TAL Beijing, Lebai Information and their designated affiliates’ right to receive the service fees from the schools will be affected by the abovementioned elections, but if our judgment turns out to be incorrect, TAL Beijing, Lebai Information and our other PRC subsidiaries’ ability to make distributions or pay dividends to us may be materially and adversely impacted. If our schools choose to be non-profit private education entities, our contractual arrangements with such schools may be subject to more stringent scrutiny. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—If the PRC government determines that the agreements that establish the structure for operating our business in China are not in compliance with applicable PRC laws and regulations, we could be subject to severe penalties.”

The VIE Contractual Arrangements may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities and a finding that we or our Consolidated Affiliated Entities owe additional taxes could substantially reduce our consolidated net income and the value of your investment.

Under PRC laws and regulations, arrangements and transactions among related parties may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities within ten years after the taxable year when the transactions are conducted. We could face material and adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities determine that the VIE Contractual Arrangements do not represent an arm’s-length price and consequently adjust our Consolidated Affiliated Entities’ income in the form of a transfer pricing adjustment. A transfer pricing adjustment could, among other things, result in a reduction, for PRC tax purposes, of expense deductions recorded by our Consolidated Affiliated Entities, which could in turn increase their tax liabilities. In addition, the PRC tax authorities may impose late payment fees and other penalties to our Consolidated Affiliated Entities for unpaid taxes. Our consolidated net income may be materially and adversely affected if our Consolidated Affiliated Entities’ tax liabilities increase or if they are subject to late payment fees or other penalties.

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If any of our PRC subsidiaries or Consolidated Affiliated Entities becomes the subject of a bankruptcy or liquidation proceeding, we may lose the ability to use and enjoy certain important assets, which could reduce the size of our operations and materially and adversely affect our business, ability to generate revenue and the market price of our ADSs.

We currently conduct our operations in China mainly through the VIE Contractual Arrangements. As part of these arrangements, our Consolidated Affiliated Entities hold operating permits and licenses and some of the assets that are important to the operation of our business. If any of these entities goes bankrupt and all or part of their assets become subject to liens or rights of third-party creditors, we may be unable to continue some or all of our business activities, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We do not have priority pledges and liens against the assets of our Consolidated Affiliated Entities. As a contractual and property right matter, this lack of priority pledges and liens has remote risks. If any of our Consolidated Affiliated Entities undergoes an involuntary liquidation proceeding, third-party creditors may claim rights to some or all of its assets and we may not have priority against such third-party creditors on the assets. If any of our Consolidated Affiliated Entities liquidates, we may take part in the liquidation procedures as a general creditor under the PRC Enterprise Bankruptcy Law and recover any outstanding liabilities owed by the entity to our PRC subsidiaries under the applicable service agreements.

In the event that the shareholders of any of our VIEs initiates a voluntary liquidation proceeding without our authorization or attempts to distribute the retained earnings or assets of the relevant VIE without our prior consent, we may need to resort to legal proceedings to enforce the terms of the VIE Contractual Arrangements. Any such litigation may be costly and may divert our management’s time and attention away from the operation of our business, and the outcome of such litigation would be uncertain.

Risks Related to Doing Business in China

Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could have a material adverse effect on us.

The PRC legal system is a civil law system based on written statutes. Unlike the common law system, prior court decisions in a civil law system may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value. Since 1979, PRC legislation and regulations have significantly enhanced the protections afforded to various forms of foreign investments in China. However, since these laws and regulations are relatively new and the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always consistent, and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involve uncertainties, which may limit the available legal protections. In addition, the PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing or enforcing statutory rules and contractual terms, and it may be more difficult to predict the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we may enjoy in China than under some more developed legal systems. These uncertainties may affect our judgment on the relevance of legal requirements and our decisions on the measures and actions to be taken to fully comply therewith and may affect our ability to enforce our contractual or tort rights. In addition, the regulatory uncertainties may be exploited through unmerited legal actions or threats in an attempt to extract payments or benefits from us. Such uncertainties may therefore increase our operating expenses and costs, and materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

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Uncertainties exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of the newly enacted Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

On March 15, 2019, the National People’s Congress promulgated the Foreign Investment Law, which came into effect on January 1, 2020 and replaced the trio of existing laws regulating foreign investment in China, namely, the Sino-foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise Law, the Sino-foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Enterprise Law and the Wholly Foreign-invested Enterprise Law, together with their implementation rules and ancillary regulations. On December 26, 2019, the State Council published the Implementation Rules of Foreign Investment Law, which came into effect on January 1, 2020. The Foreign Investment Law and its Implementation Rules embody an expected PRC regulatory trend to rationalize its foreign investment regulatory regime in line with prevailing international practice and the legislative efforts to unify the corporate legal requirements for both foreign and domestic investments. The enacted Foreign Investment Law or its Implementation Rules do not mention concepts such as “actual control” and “controlling PRC companies by contracts or trusts” that were included in the previous drafts, nor did it specify regulation on controlling through contractual arrangements, and thus this regulatory topic remains unclear under the Foreign Investment Law. However, since it is relatively new, uncertainties still exist in relation to its interpretation and implementation. For instance, though the Foreign Investment Law or its Implementation Rules do not explicitly classify contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment, it contains a catch-all provision under the definition of “foreign investment,” which includes investments made by foreign investors in China through means stipulated in laws or administrative regulations or other methods prescribed by the State Council. Therefore, it still leaves leeway for future laws, administrative regulations or provisions promulgated by the State Council to provide for contractual arrangements as a form of foreign investment. Furthermore, if future laws, administrative regulations or provisions prescribed by the State Council mandate further actions to be taken by companies with respect to existing contractual arrangements, such as unwinding our existing contractual arrangements and/or disposal of our related business operations, we may face substantial uncertainties as to whether we can complete such actions in a timely manner, or at all. Failure to take timely and appropriate measures to cope with any of these or similar regulatory compliance challenges could materially and adversely affect our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.

Uncertainties with respect to PRC regulatory restrictions on after-school services could have a material adverse effect on us.

Under the regime of the Law on the Promotion of Private Education of China, the PRC government authorities have promulgated a number of regulations and implementation rules in 2018 governing the education industry and the after-school tutoring service market, including the Circular 3, the State Council Opinions 80, as well as Circular 10. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulations—Circular on Special Enforcement Campaign concerning After-school Tutoring Institutions to Alleviate Extracurricular Burden on Students of Primary and Secondary Schools” and “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulations—Opinions on Regulating Development of After-school Tutoring Institutions” for more details.

These new regulations and implementation rules provide a series of requirements in the operation of after-school tutoring business, which include that, among others: (1) key course information, including subjects, course schedules and course syllabi, for school academic courses, shall be filed with the local education administration authorities and be made publicly available; (2) the progress of the courses shall not surpass the same-period progress of local primary schools and secondary schools, and advanced trainings that do not follow the formal school curricula for the students in primary school and secondary school are prohibited; (3) training classes shall not be scheduled in conflict with the regular schooling time in local primary schools and secondary schools; (4) tutoring activities shall end before 8:30 p.m.; (5) homework shall not be assigned; (6) scored examination, competition or ranking in connection with the courses of primary schools or secondary schools shall not be arranged; (7) the periods for which tuition fees is charged shall be consistent with its respective curriculum, and the tuition fees for a period spanning more than three months should not be collected at one time; (8) no fees other than those that have been made public and no compulsory fund raising in any name may be made against the students; (9) student safety insurance shall be purchased by the after-school tutoring institutions; (10) teaching staff who teach Chinese, mathematics, foreign language, physics, chemistry and other subjects in the compulsory education stage as well as the academic subjects related to the entering of a higher school and their extension training shall have the requisite teacher qualifications; (11) online education institutions shall also make their teachers’ names, photographs, teaching classes and teaching qualification numbers public at a prominent location on their home page. In addition, the State Council Opinions 80 provides that relevant governmental authorities of market regulation, cyberspace administration, industry and information technology and others shall cooperate with the educational authorities to the extent of their respective scope of duties to regulate after-school tutoring institutions.

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We have been making efforts to ensure compliance with these regulations and implementation rules but there is no assurance that our operations comply with all applicable regulations in a timely manner due to various factors beyond our control. In particular, certain regulations and implementation provides new requirements and PRC government authorities have significant amount of discretion in interpreting, implementing and enforcing rules and regulations. If we fail to comply with the applicable legal requirements concerning the operation of after-school tutoring business in a timely manner, the relevant learning centers may be subject to the order of rectification, fines, confiscation of the gains derived from noncompliant operations or the suspension of noncompliant operations, which may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

In addition, uncertainties still exist as the competent authorities may set more specific and stringent operation requirements for after-school tutoring institutions on various aspects including the means and timing of fee collection, pricing, advertisements and promotion content, prepaid funds under supervision, teachers’ qualification licenses, refunds, course time and content, homework arrangement, and student enrollment, among others. For instance, with respect to educational fees supervision, on August 17, 2020, the MoE and other four departments jointly issued the Opinion on Further Strengthening and Regulating the Management of Educational Fees, which puts forward more specific and stricter requirements on educational fees supervision. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulations—Regulations on Educational Fees Management” for details. With respect to homework, the General Office of the MoE enacted the Notice of Strengthening the Management of Homework for Compulsory Education on April 8, 2021, which requires after-school tutoring institutions shall not leave homework to primary and secondary school student. Moreover, the MoE issued the Guiding Opinions on Promoting the Scientific Connection between Kindergarten and Primary School on March 30, 2021, which requires that after-school tutoring institutions shall not provide tutoring services to pre-school aged minors in violation of applicable regulations. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulations—Regulations on After-school Tutoring Institutions” for details. We may be unable to meet such requirements in a prompt manner or incur additional costs in complying with such requirements, which may adversely affect our business, financial conditions and results of operations.

Regulation and censorship of information disseminated over the internet in China may adversely affect our business and reputation and subject us to liability for information displayed on our websites.

The PRC government has adopted regulations governing internet access and the distribution of news and other information over the internet. Under these regulations, internet content providers and internet publishers are prohibited from posting or displaying over the internet content that, among other things, violates PRC laws and regulations, impairs the national dignity of China, or is reactionary, obscene, superstitious, fraudulent or defamatory. Failure to comply with these requirements may result in, and has previously resulted in, the revocation of licenses to provide internet content and other licenses, and the closure of the concerned websites. The website operator may also be held liable for such censored information displayed on or linked to the websites. If any of our websites, including those used for our online education business, are found to be in violation of any such requirements, we may be penalized by relevant authorities, and our operations or reputation could be adversely affected.

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Failure to comply with governmental regulation and other legal obligations concerning personal information may adversely affect our business, as we routinely collect, store and use personal information.

We routinely collect, store and use personal information during the ordinary course of our business. We are subject to PRC laws and regulations governing the receiving, storing, sharing, using, processing, disclosure and protection of personal information on the internet and mobile platforms. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation—Laws of Protection of Personal Information of Citizen.” The scope of these laws and regulations is evolving and further detailed implementation rules and interpretations may be promulgated. It is possible that these obligations may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our practices. In addition, the Office of the Central Cyberspace Affairs Commission, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Public Security, and the State Administration for Market Regulation jointly issued an announcement on January 23, 2019 regarding carrying out special campaigns against mobile internet application programs collecting and using personal information in violation of applicable laws and regulations, which prohibits business operators from collecting personal information irrelevant to their services, or forcing users to give authorization in disguised manner. As this announcement is relatively new, we cannot assure you we can adapt our operations to it in a timely manner. Evolving interpretations of existing laws and regulations or any future regulatory changes might impose additional restrictions on us generating and processing personal information. We may be subject to additional regulations, laws and policies adopted by the PRC government to apply more stringent social and ethical standards in data privacy resulting from the increased global focus on this area. To the extent that we need to alter our business model or practices to adapt to these announcement and provisions and future regulations, laws and policies, we could incur additional expenses.

If we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, we may be penalized by relevant authorities and be subject to litigation or negative publicity against us by consumer advocacy groups or others, and our operations or reputation could be adversely affected.

We are required to obtain various operating licenses and permits and to make registrations and filings for our tutoring services in China; failure to comply with these requirements may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

We are required to obtain and maintain various licenses and permits and fulfill registration and filing requirements in order to operate our tutoring service business. For instance, a duly approved private school will be granted a Permit for Operating a Private School, and shall be registered with the Ministry of Civil Affairs or its local branches as a non-profit school or registered with the relevant local branch of the SAIC as a for-profit school. In addition, pursuant to the State Council Opinions 80 and relevant RPC laws and regulations, opening branches or learning centers by any after-school tutoring institution shall also be subject to registration or filing requirements. As of February 28, 2021, certain of our learning centers had not completed filing requirements for permits or registrations, which in the aggregate accounted for an immaterial portion of our total net revenues for the fiscal year ended February 28, 2021.

We are in the process of preparing filings and applying for permits for these learning centers in accordance with the State Council Opinions 80 and relevant PRC laws and regulations but do not expect to complete all such filings or obtain all such permits in the near term. We are also considering other potential locations for certain learning centers and we may have difficulty obtaining those permits. We have been taking steps to meet these requirements, but there is no assurance that our efforts will result in full compliance given the significant amount of discretion PRC government authorities have in interpreting, implementing and enforcing rules and regulations and due to other factors beyond our control. However, if we fail to obtain or maintain requisite licenses and permits or fulfill requisite registration and filing requirements to operate our after-school tutoring business, including any failure to cure non-compliance in a timely manner, we may be subject to fines, confiscation of the gains derived from non-compliant operations or the suspension of non-compliant operations, which may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

We face risks and uncertainties with respect to our online education business.

We deliver certain tutoring services through our online course offerings.

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The MoE, jointly with certain other PRC government authorities, promulgated the Implementation Opinions on Regulating Online After-School Tutoring, or the Online After-School Tutoring Opinions, effective on July 12, 2019. The Online After-School Tutoring Opinions are intended to regulate academic after-school training involving internet technology provided to students in primary and secondary schools. Among other things, the Online After-School Tutoring Opinions require that online after-school training institutions shall file with the competent provincial education regulatory authorities and that such education regulatory authorities shall, jointly with other provincial government authorities, review such filings and the qualifications of the online after-school training institutions submitting such filings. The Online After-School Tutoring Opinions also impose a series of new regulatory requirements, including (i) each class shall not last longer than 40 minutes and shall be taken at intervals of not less than 10 minutes; (ii) live streaming courses provided to students receiving compulsory education shall not end later than 9:00 p.m.; (iii) the periods for which tuition is charged shall be consistent with its respective curriculum, where fees are charged based on the number of classes, fees are not allowed to be collected in a lump sum for more than 60 classes, and where fees are charged based on the length of the course, the fees shall not be collected for a course length of more than three months; (iv) instructors are required to obtain the necessary teacher qualification licenses; and (v) online after-school training institutions shall not engage in excessive marketing, make false or misleading promotion, or overstate the effect of the product. The Online After-School Tutoring Opinions provides that relevant governmental authorities of cyberspace administration, industry and information technology and others shall cooperate with the educational authorities to the extent of their respective scope of duties to regulate online after-school training institutions. According to the Online After-School Tutoring Opinions, provincial education regulatory authorities shall promulgate local implementing rules regarding the above-mentioned filing requirements. For details, see “Item 4. Information on the Company-B. Business Overview-PRC Regulation- Regulations on Online and Distance Education.” Moreover, the MoE, jointly with certain other PRC government authorities, issued the Opinions on Guiding and Regulating the Orderly and Healthy Development of Educational Mobile Apps on August 10, 2019, or the Opinions on Educational Apps, which requires that, among others, mobile apps that offer services for school teaching and management, student learning and student life, or home-school interactions, with school faculty, students or parents as the main users, and with education or learning as the main application scenarios, be filed with the competent provincial regulatory authorities for education. See “Item 4. Information on the Company-B. Business Overview-PRC Regulation- Regulations on Educational Applications (Apps).” Additionally, on March 23, 2021, the State Council’s Office of Education Steering Committee released an article warning parents of K-12 students about after-school tutoring service providers’ collection of tuition fees in ways that are in violation of the Online After-School Training Opinions.

We are making efforts to comply with the above-mentioned regulations. As these regulations were relatively newly promulgated, we cannot assure you that we will complete such filing and comply with other regulatory requirements under such regulations and their related local rules in a timely manner, or at all. The relevant governmental authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing, and may from time to time conduct inspections on compliance with the such regulations and the relevant local rules. If we fail to promptly complete such filing and comply with other applicable regulatory requirements, we may be subject to fines, regulatory orders to suspend our operations or other regulatory and disciplinary sanctions, which may materially and adversely affect our online education business and results of operations.

Besides, in relation to our online education business, we may be deemed to provide certain services or conduct certain activities and thus be subject to a wide range of licenses, approvals, permits, registrations and filings due to the lack of official interpretations of certain terms under internet-related PRC regulations and laws, and we cannot assure you that we have obtained all of them or will continue to maintain or renew all of them. For example, due to the ambiguity of the definition of “online publishing service,” the online distribution of content, including our course materials, through our mobile apps, may be regarded as an “online publishing service” and therefore we may be required to obtain an Online Publishing License. Also, we deliver certain courses in live-streaming format which the relevant authorities may regard as a live-streaming platform and may thus require us to make necessary filings as a live-streaming platform. Moreover, any of our Consolidated Affiliated Entities that provide online course services are required to obtain an ICP license from the appropriate telecommunications authorities or otherwise register each and all of their websites, on which we provide online courses, in the existing and effective ICP licenses held by the relevant Consolidated Affiliated Entities. If any of such entities fail to obtain the ICP license or complete the required registration in a prompt manner, we may become subject to rectification order, significant penalties, fines, legal sanctions or an order of closing our relevant websites.

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In addition, uncertainties still exist as new laws and regulations, including without limitation the amended Implementation Rules, may set more specific and stringent requirements for online educational institutions on various aspects including the means and timing of fee collection, pricing, advertisements and promotion content, prepaid funds under supervision, teachers’ qualification licenses, refunds, course time and content, homework arrangement, and student enrollment, among others, or requiring online educational institutions to obtain the Permit for Operating a Private School. We may be unable to comply with such new laws and regulations in a prompt manner or incur additional costs in complying with relevant requirements, which may adversely affect our business, financial conditions and results of operations. Meanwhile, there can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain our existing licenses, approvals, registrations or permits necessary to provide our current online services in China, renew any of them when their current term expires, or update existing licenses or obtain additional licenses, approvals, permits, registrations or filings necessary for our business expansion from time to time. If we fail to do so, our business, financial condition and operational results may be materially and adversely affected.

We face risks and uncertainties in printing and providing teaching handouts and other materials to our students.

Our certain wholly owned subsidiaries and Consolidated Affiliated Entities engage in printing and providing teaching handouts and other materials to our students. According to the Administrative Regulations on Publication, any entity engaging in the activities of publishing, printing, copying, importation or distribution of publications, shall obtain relevant permits of publishing, printing, copying, importation or distribution of publications. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulations—Regulations on Publishing and Distribution of Publications.” Under the new regulation, it is uncertain whether printing and providing teaching handouts and other materials to our students would be deemed publishing activities. If the General Administration of Press and Publication or its local branches or other competent authorities deem such activities as publishing, we may become subject to significant penalties, fines, legal sanctions or an order suspending our printing and provision of teaching handouts and other materials to our students.

Adverse changes in economic and political policies of the PRC government could have a material adverse effect on the overall economic growth of China, which could adversely affect our business.

Substantially all of our business operations are conducted in China. Accordingly, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects are affected significantly by economic, political and legal developments in China. The economy in China differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including the degree of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and currency conversion, access to financing and allocation of resources.

The PRC government has implemented various measures to encourage economic development and guide the allocation of resources. While some of these measures benefit the overall PRC economy, they may also have a negative effect on us. For example, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by government control over capital investments, conversion of foreign exchange into Renminbi or changes in tax regulations and practices that are applicable to us. In addition, future actions or policies of the PRC government to control the pace of economic growth may cause a decrease in the level of economic activity in China, which in turn could materially affect our liquidity and access to capital and our ability to operate our business.

In addition, the changes in the policies regarding the control of foreign exchange could adversely affect our business. In 2016, PRC government has implemented various measures and policies regarding strengthening the management and supervision control of foreign control in both capital items and current items, which resulted in extension of time in the filing, registration and approval procedures of local branches and authorized banks in foreign control activities, and could result in delayed payment of salary to foreign employees by our subsidiaries and subsidiaries of our VIEs. The continued policies regarding strengthening the management and supervision control of foreign control could adversely affect our business development.

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A severe or prolonged downturn in the global or PRC economy could materially and adversely affect our business and our financial condition.

The global macroeconomic environment is facing challenges, especially the challenges due to the COVID-19 pandemic. See also “—Our business was materially adversely affected by the outbreak of COVID-19 and may be materially adversely affected by a similar outbreak in the future.” The PRC economy has shown slower growth compared to the previous decade since 2012 and such slowdown may continue. In addition, there is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world’s leading economies, including the United States and China. Unrest, terrorist threats and potential for war in the Middle East and elsewhere may increase market volatility across the globe. There is significant uncertainty about the future relationship between the United States and China with respect to trade policies, treaties, government regulations and tariffs. There have also been concerns on the relationship between China and other countries, including the surrounding Asian countries, which may potentially have economic effects. Economic conditions in China are sensitive to global economic conditions, as well as changes in domestic economic and political policies and the expected or perceived overall economic growth rate in China. Any severe or prolonged slowdown in the global or PRC economy may materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, continued turbulence in the international markets may adversely affect our ability to access capital markets to meet liquidity needs.

Increases in labor costs and potential non-compliance with labor laws and regulations may adversely affect our business and our profitability.

The economy of China has been experiencing increases in labor costs in recent years. The overall economy and the average wage in China are expected to continue to grow. The average wage level for our employees has increased in recent years. In addition, we are required by PRC laws and regulations to pay various statutory employee benefits, including pensions, housing fund, medical insurance, work-related injury insurance, unemployment insurance and childbearing insurance to designated government agencies for the benefit of our employees. It is up to the relevant government agencies to determine whether an employer has made adequate payments of the requisite statutory employee benefits, and those employers who fail to make adequate payments may be subject to late payment fees, fines and/or other penalties. We expect that our labor costs, including wages and employee benefits, will continue to increase. Unless we are able to pass on these increased labor costs to our students by increasing prices for our services or improving the utilization of our teachers and our staff, our profitability and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Besides, we engaged certain independently contracted foreign teachers as independent contractors whose rights differ from those of employees at part of our English online education business. There are uncertainties in determining whether a service provider is an independent contractor or an employee due to vague terms in laws and regulations, and there are also uncertainties on whether such independently contracted foreign teachers, who work outside of PRC, shall comply with relevant PRC laws and regulations on qualification of foreign teachers.

Furthermore, the PRC government has stipulated new laws and regulations to enhance labor protection in recent years, such as the Labor Contract Law and the Social Insurance Law. Given that the interpretation and implementation of these new laws and regulations are still evolving and relevant laws and regulations are becoming stricter, our employment practice may not at all times be deemed in compliance with the new laws and regulations. If we are subject to penalties or incur significant liabilities in connection with labor disputes or investigation, our business and profitability may be adversely affected.

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We may rely on dividends paid by our subsidiaries for our cash needs, and any limitation on the ability of our subsidiaries to make payments to us could limit our ability to pay dividends to holders of our ADSs and common shares.

We are a holding company and conduct substantially all of our business through our operating subsidiaries and Consolidated Affiliated Entities. We may rely on dividends paid by our subsidiaries for our cash needs, including the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders, to service any debt we may incur and to pay our operating expenses. The payment of dividends by entities organized in China is subject to limitations. In particular, regulations in China currently permit payment of dividends only out of accumulated profits as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. PRC companies are also required to set aside at least 10% of their after-tax profit based on PRC accounting standards each year to their statutory surplus reserves until the accumulative amount of such reserves reaches 50% of their registered capital. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends. Furthermore, if our subsidiaries and Consolidated Affiliated Entities in China incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other payments to us. The PRC tax authorities may require us to adjust our taxable income under the contractual arrangements we currently have in place in a manner that would materially and adversely affect our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends and other distributions to us. Moreover, each of our affiliated schools is required to allocate certain amount of profits to its development fund for the construction or maintenance of school facilities or procurement or upgrade of educational equipment at the end of each fiscal year. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview— PRC Regulation—Regulations on Private Education—The Private Education Law and the Implementation Rules for Private Education Law” for a discussion on the requirements for private schools to make allocations to school development funds. Any direct or indirect limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to distribute dividends and other distributions to us could materially and adversely limit our ability to make investments or acquisitions at the holding company level, pay dividends or otherwise fund and conduct our business.

PRC laws and regulations may limit the use of the proceeds we received from our financing activities for our investment or operations in China.

In utilizing the proceeds we received from our financing activities as an offshore holding company with PRC subsidiaries, we may (i) make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, (ii) establish new PRC subsidiaries and make capital contributions to these new PRC subsidiaries, (iii) make loans to our PRC subsidiaries or our VIEs, or (iv) acquire offshore entities with business operations in China in an offshore transaction. However, most of these uses are subject to PRC regulations and approvals. For example:

capital contributions to our subsidiaries in China, whether existing ones or newly established ones, require that the PRC subsidiaries complete the relevant filing and reporting procedures with relevant governmental authorities and register with the local bank authorized by State Administration of Foreign Exchange, or SAFE;
loans by us to our subsidiaries in China, each of which is a foreign-invested enterprise, to finance their activities cannot exceed statutory limits and must be registered with local branches of SAFE; and
loans by us to our Consolidated Affiliated Entities, which are domestic PRC entities, cannot exceed statutory limits and must be registered with the National Development and Reform Commission and must also be registered with SAFE or its local branches.

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SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming the Administration of Foreign Exchange Settlement of Capital of Foreign-invested Enterprises, or SAFE Circular 19, effective in June 2015, in replacement of a former regulation. SAFE Circular 19 regulates the flow and use of the RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested company. According to SAFE Circular 19, RMB capital may not be used for the issuance of RMB entrusted loans, the repayment of inter-enterprise loans or the repayment of bank loans that have been transferred to a third party. Although SAFE Circular 19 allows RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested enterprise to be used for equity investments within China, it also reiterates the principle that RMB converted from the foreign currency-denominated capital of a foreign-invested company may not be directly or indirectly used for purposes beyond its business scope. Thus, it is unclear whether SAFE will permit such capital to be used for equity investments in China. SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming and Standardizing the Foreign Exchange Settlement Management Policy of Capital Account, or SAFE Circular 16, effective on June 9, 2016, which reiterates some of the rules set forth in SAFE Circular 19, but changes the prohibition against using RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested company to issue RMB entrusted loans to a prohibition against using such capital to issue loans to non-associated enterprises. Violations of SAFE Circular 19 and SAFE Circular 16 could result in administrative penalties. SAFE Circular 19 and SAFE Circular 16 may significantly limit our ability to transfer any foreign currency we hold, including the net proceeds from our offshore offerings, to our PRC subsidiaries, which may adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business in China. On October 23, 2019, the SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Further Promoting the Convenience of Cross-border Trade and Investment, or the SAFE Circular 28, which, among other things, allows all foreign-invested companies to use RMB converted from foreign currency-denominated capital for equity investments in China, as long as the equity investment is genuine, does not violate applicable laws, and complies with the negative list on foreign investment. However, due to lack of sufficient guidance, it is unclear how SAFE and competent banks will carry this out in practice.

We expect that PRC laws and regulations may continue to limit our use of proceeds from offshore offerings. We cannot assure you that we will be able to obtain these government registrations or approvals on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to our future plans to use the U.S. dollar proceeds we receive from offshore offerings for our investments and operations in China. If we fail to receive such registrations or approvals, our ability to use the proceeds of offshore offerings and to capitalize our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and ability to fund and expand our business.

PRC regulations relating to the establishment of offshore special purpose companies by PRC residents may subject our PRC resident beneficial owners to personal liability and limit our ability to acquire PRC companies or to inject capital into our PRC subsidiary, limit our PRC subsidiary’s ability to distribute profits to us, or otherwise materially and adversely affect us.

SAFE promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control on Domestic Residents’ Offshore Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 37, in July 2014. SAFE Circular 37 requires PRC residents to register with local branches of SAFE in connection with their direct establishment or indirect control of an offshore entity, for the purpose of overseas investment and financing, with such PRC residents’ legally owned assets or equity interests in domestic enterprises or offshore assets or interests, referred to in SAFE Circular 37 as a “special purpose vehicle.” The term “control” under SAFE Circular 37 is broadly defined as the operation rights, beneficiary rights or decision-making rights acquired by PRC residents in the offshore special purpose vehicles by such means as acquisition, trust, proxy, voting rights, repurchase, convertible bonds or other arrangements. SAFE Circular 37 further requires amendment to the registration in the event of any changes with respect to the basic information of the special purpose vehicle, such as changes in a PRC resident individual shareholder, name or operation period; or any significant changes with respect to the special purpose vehicle, such as increase or decrease of capital contributed by PRC individuals, share transfer or exchange, merger, division or other material event. If the shareholders of the offshore holding company who are PRC residents do not complete their registration with the local SAFE branches, the PRC subsidiaries may be prohibited from distributing their profits and proceeds from any reduction in capital, share transfer or liquidation to the offshore company, and the offshore company may be restricted in its ability to contribute additional capital to its PRC subsidiaries. Moreover, failure to comply with SAFE registration and amendment requirements described above could result in liability under PRC law for evasion of applicable foreign exchange restrictions. Further, the National Development and Reform Commission, or NDRC, issued the Administrative Measures for Outbound Investment by Enterprises, or Circular 11, on December 26, 2017, which took effect on March 1, 2018, pursuant to which outbound investments via the overseas enterprises controlled by PRC residents are subject to verification and approval, record-filing and reporting to the NDRC. Failure to comply with such verification and approval, record-filing and reporting requirements may subject such PRC Residents to personal liability. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation—Administrative Measures for Outbound Investment by Enterprises” for more detail of Circular 11.

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In June 2015, SAFE promulgated SAFE Circular 13, according to which, local banks authorized by the SAFE are the new registration authorities under the SAFE foreign exchange control policies, instead of the local SAFE branches, in order to simplify the procedures of foreign exchange control related to direct investment. And therefore, pursuant to the SAFE Circular 13, the registration and amendment of PRC residents under SAFE Circular 37 should be conducted with local banks authorized by SAFE. The PRC residents are also required to, by themselves or entrusting accounting firms or banks, file with the online information system designated by SAFE with respect to its existing rights under offshore direct investment each year prior to the requisite time.

The failure or inability of our PRC resident beneficial owners to make any required registrations or filings or comply with these requirements may subject such beneficial owners to fines and legal sanctions and may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital into or provide loans to our PRC operations, limit our PRC subsidiary’s ability to pay dividends or otherwise distribute profits to us, or otherwise materially and adversely affect us.

The M&A rules and certain other PRC regulations establish complex procedures for some acquisitions of PRC companies by foreign investors, and the NDRC Circular 11 establishes certain procedures for our offshore investing activities, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in and outside China.

The MOFCOM, the State Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, the State Administration of Taxation, or the SAT, the SAIC, the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or CSRC, and SAFE jointly adopted regulations commonly referred to as the M&A Rules. The M&A Rules establish procedures and requirements that could make some acquisitions of PRC companies by foreign investors more time-consuming and complex, including requirements in some instances that the MOFCOM be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise. Moreover, the Anti-Monopoly Law promulgated by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress which became effective in 2008 requires that transactions which are deemed concentrations and involve parties with specified turnover thresholds must be cleared by relevant governmental authorities before they can be completed. In February 2021, the Anti-Monopoly Commission of the State Council published the Anti-Monopoly Guidelines for the Internet Platform Economy Sector that aims at specifying some of the circumstances under which an activity of internet platforms may be identified as monopolistic act as well as classifying that concentrations involving variable interest entities shall also be subject to anti-monopoly review. In addition, the security review rules issued by the MOFCOM that became effective in September 2011 specify that mergers and acquisitions by foreign investors that raise “national defense and security” concerns and mergers and acquisitions through which foreign investors may acquire de facto control over domestic enterprises that raise “national security” concerns are subject to strict review by the MOFCOM, and the rules prohibit any activities attempting to bypass a security review, including by structuring a transaction through a proxy or contractual control arrangement.

Further, pursuant to the Circular 11 issued by NDRC, outbound investment via the overseas enterprises controlled by PRC residents are subject to verification and approval, record-filing and reporting requirements to the NDRC. According to Circular 11, sensitive projects, such as outbound investment in real estate, hotels, news media, cinemas or sports club, carried out by overseas enterprises controlled by PRC residents shall obtain verification and approval from the NDRC prior to the implementation of the project. The non-sensitive projects carried out by overseas enterprises directly controlled by PRC residents, including by means of making asset or equity investment, or providing financing or guarantee, shall complete record-filing with the competent authority prior to the implementation of the Project. The non-sensitive projects carried out by overseas enterprises indirectly controlled by PRC residents with an investment amount over RMB0.3 billion shall be reported to the NDRC of relevant information by submitting an information reporting form for large-amount non-sensitive projects. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—B. Business Overview—PRC Regulation—Administrative Measures for Outbound Investment by Enterprises” for more detail of Circular 11. Through our dual-class share structure, Mr. Bangxin Zhang, a PRC citizen, possesses and controls 69.5% of the voting power of our company as of March 31, 2021, thus our investments outside China are subject to the abovementioned verification and approval, record-filing and reporting requirements to the NDRC under Circular 11.

We may expand our business in part by acquiring complementary businesses. Complying with the requirements of the M&A Rules and Circular 11 to complete such transactions could be time-consuming, and any required verification, approval, record-filing and reporting processes, including obtaining approval from the MOFCOM or NDRC, may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.

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The discontinuation of any of the preferential tax treatments currently available to us in China could adversely affect our overall results of operations.

Pursuant to the EIT Law, as further clarified by subsequent tax regulations implementing the EIT Law, foreign-invested enterprises and domestic enterprises are subject to EIT at a uniform rate of 25%. Certain enterprises may benefit from preferential tax rate if they qualify as “High and New Technology Enterprises”, or HNTE, “Newly Established Software Enterprise” or “Key Software Enterprise” pursuant to EIT Law and the related regulations. See “Item 4. Information on the Company-B. Business Overview-PRC Regulation-PRC Enterprise Income Tax.”

A number of our PRC subsidiaries and Consolidated Affiliated Entities are, or are expected to be, entitled to applicable preferential tax treatment. However, there can be no assurance that any of these entities will continue to enjoy such preferential tax rate. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—A. Operating Results—Taxation—PRC Enterprise Income Tax.” The discontinuation of any of the above-mentioned preferential income tax treatments currently available to us in the PRC could have a material and adverse effect on our result of operations and financial condition. We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain our current effective tax rate in the future.

Under the EIT Law, we may be classified as a PRC “resident enterprise.” Such classification could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our non-PRC shareholders.

Under the EIT Law, an enterprise established outside China with a “de facto management body” within China is considered a “resident enterprise,” meaning that it can be treated in a manner similar to a PRC enterprise for enterprise income tax purposes, although the dividends paid to one resident enterprise from another may be qualified as “tax-exempt income.” The implementation rules of the EIT Law define de facto management as “substantial and overall management and control over the production and operations, personnel, accounting, and properties” of the enterprise. SAT has issued a circular providing that a foreign enterprise controlled by a PRC company or a PRC company group will be classified as a “resident enterprise” with its “de facto management body” located within China if all of the following requirements are satisfied: (i) the senior management and core management departments in charge of its daily operations function are mainly in China; (ii) its financial and human resources decisions are subject to determination or approval by persons or bodies in China; (iii) its major assets, accounting books, company seals, and minutes and files of its board and shareholders’ meetings are located or kept in China; and (iv) at least half of the enterprise’s directors with voting right or senior management reside in China.

In addition, the SAT issued bulletins to provide more guidance on the implementation of the above circular. These bulletins clarified certain matters relating to resident status determination, post-determination administration and competent tax authorities. It also specifies that when provided with a copy of a PRC tax resident determination certificate from a resident PRC-controlled offshore incorporated enterprise, the payer shall not be required to withhold 10% income tax when paying the PRC-sourced dividends, interest and royalties to the PRC-controlled offshore incorporated enterprise.

In addition, the SAT issued the Bulletin on Issues Concerning the Determination of Resident Enterprises on the Basis of their Actual Management Bodies in January 2014 to provide more guidance on the implementation of the above circular. This bulletin further provided that, among other things, an entity that is classified as a “resident enterprise” in accordance with the circular shall file the application for classifying its status of residential enterprise with the local tax authorities where its main domestic investors are registered. From the year in which the entity is determined as a “resident enterprise,” any dividend, profit and other equity investment gain shall be taxed in accordance with the Article 26 of the EIT law and Article 17 and Article 83 of its implementation rules. Although both the circular and these bulletins only apply to offshore enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises and not those controlled by PRC individuals, the determination criteria set forth in the circular and administration clarification made in the bulletin may reflect the SAT’s general position on how the “de facto management body” test should be applied in determining the tax residency status of offshore enterprises and the administration measures should be implemented, regardless of whether they are controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC individuals.

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As substantially all of our management members are based in China, it remains unclear how the tax residency rule will apply to our case. We believe that none of our offshore holding companies should be treated as a “resident enterprise” for PRC tax purposes. However, as the tax resident status of an enterprise is subject to determination by the PRC tax authorities, there are uncertainties and risks associated with this issue. If the PRC tax authorities determine that any of our offshore holding companies are “resident enterprises” for PRC enterprise income tax purposes, a number of unfavorable PRC tax consequences could follow. First, we may be subject to enterprise income tax at a rate of 25% on our worldwide taxable income, as well as PRC enterprise income tax reporting obligations. Second, although under the EIT Law and its implementation rules, dividend income between qualified resident enterprises is a “tax-exempt income,” we cannot guarantee that dividends paid to TAL Education Group from our PRC subsidiaries through TAL Holding Limited, or TAL Hong Kong, or dividends paid from our PRC subsidiaries to Firstleap Education, which is incorporated in the Cayman Islands, through Firstleap Education (HK) Limited, which is incorporated in Hong Kong, would qualify as “tax-exempt income” and will not be subject to withholding tax, as the relevant government authorities that enforce the withholding tax, have not yet issued guidance with respect to the processing of outbound remittances to entities that are treated as “resident enterprises” for PRC enterprise income tax purposes. Finally, the “resident enterprise” classification could result in a situation in which a 10% withholding tax is imposed on dividends we pay to our non-PRC enterprise shareholders and with respect to gains derived by our non-PRC and enterprise shareholders from transferring our notes, shares or ADSs, if such income is considered PRC-sourced income by the relevant PRC authorities. This could have the effect of increasing our and our shareholders’ effective income tax rates and may require us to deduct withholding tax from any dividends we pay to our non-PRC shareholders. In addition to the uncertainties regarding how the “resident enterprise” classification may apply, it is also possible that the rules may change in the future, possibly with retroactive effect.

Dividends we receive from our operating subsidiaries located in China may be subject to PRC withholding tax.

Pursuant to the Arrangement between the PRC and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region on the Avoidance of Double Taxation and Prevention of Fiscal Evasion, dividends declared after January 1, 2008 and distributed to our Hong Kong subsidiaries by our PRC subsidiaries are subject to withholding tax at a rate of 5%, provided that our Hong Kong subsidiaries are deemed by the relevant PRC tax authorities to be “non-PRC resident enterprises” under the EIT Law and hold at least 25% of the equity interest of our PRC subsidiaries. The SAT promulgated the Announcement on Issues concerning “Beneficial Owners” in Tax Treaties, or SAT Circular 9, which provides guidance for determining whether a resident of a jurisdiction with tax treaties with China is the “beneficial owner” of an item of income under PRC tax treaties and tax arrangements. According to SAT Circular 9, a beneficial owner generally must engage in substantive business activities. An agent or conduit company will not be regarded as a beneficial owner and, therefore, will not qualify for treaty benefits. A conduit company normally refers to a company that is set up for the purpose of avoiding or reducing taxes or transferring or accumulating profits. Although we may use our Hong Kong subsidiaries, namely TAL Holding Limited and Firstleap Education (HK) Limited, as a platform to expand our business in the future, our Hong Kong subsidiaries currently do not engage in any substantive business activities and thus it is possible that our Hong Kong subsidiaries may not be regarded as “beneficial owners” for the purposes of SAT Circular 9 and the dividends they receive from our PRC subsidiaries would be subject to withholding tax at a rate of 10%.

We face uncertainties with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in PRC resident enterprises by their non-PRC holding companies.

Pursuant to the Announcement of the State Administration of Taxation on Several Issues Concerning the Enterprise Income Tax on Indirect Property Transfer by Non-Resident Enterprises issued by the SAT in February 2015, or SAT Bulletin 7, where a non-resident enterprise indirectly transfers properties such as equity in PRC resident enterprises without any justifiable business purpose, aiming to avoid the payment of enterprise income tax, such indirect transfer must be reclassified as a direct transfer of equity in PRC resident enterprise, and gains derived from such transfer will be subject to PRC withholding tax at a rate of up to 10%. To assess whether an indirect transfer of PRC taxable properties has reasonable commercial purposes, all arrangements related to the indirect transfer must be considered comprehensively and factors set forth in SAT Bulletin 7 must be comprehensively analyzed in light of the actual circumstances. SAT Bulletin 7 also provides that, where a non-PRC resident enterprise transfers its equity interests in a resident enterprise to its related parties at a price lower than the fair market value, the competent tax authority has the power to make a reasonable adjustment to the taxable income of the transaction.

On October 17, 2017, the SAT issued the Announcement of the State Administration of Taxation on Issues Concerning the Withholding of Non-resident Enterprise Income Tax at Source, or SAT Bulletin 37, which came into effect and superseded Circular 698 on December 1, 2017. The SAT Bulletin 37 further clarifies the practice and procedure of the withholding of nonresident enterprise income tax.

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There is uncertainty as to the implementation details of SAT Bulletin 7 and Bulletin 37. It is possible that we or our non-PRC resident investors may become at risk of being taxed under SAT Bulletin 7 and may be required to expend valuable resources to comply with SAT Bulletin 7 and Bulletin 37 or to establish that we or our non-PRC resident investors should not be taxed under SAT Bulletin 7, which may have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations or such non-PRC resident investors’ investment in us.

We face risks and uncertainties with respect to the licensing requirement for internet audio-video programs.

The State Administration of Radio, Film and Television, or SARFT (which was merged with the General Administration of Press and Publication in 2013 to form the State Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film and Television, or SAPPRFT), and the Ministry of Information Industry, or MII (which was superseded in 2008 by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or MIIT), issued the Administrative Measures Regarding Internet Audio-Video Program Services, or the Internet Audio-Video Program Measures, revised August 2015. Among other things, the Internet Audio-Video Program Measures stipulate that no entities or individuals may provide internet audio-video program services without a License for Disseminating Audio-Video Programs through Information Network issued by the SARFT or SAPPRFT (as applicable) or the relevant local branches or completing the relevant registration with the SARFT or SAPPRFT (as applicable) or the relevant local branches, and only entities wholly owned or controlled by the PRC government may engage in the production, editing, integration or consolidation, and transmission to the public through the internet, of audio-video programs, or the provision of audio-video program uploading and transmission services. The SARFT and the MII have published a press release confirming that providers of audio-video program services established prior to the promulgation date of the Internet Audio-Video Program Measures that do not have any regulatory non-compliance records can re-register with the relevant government authorities to continue their current business operations. There are still significant uncertainties relating to the interpretation and implementation of the Internet Audio-Video Program Measures, in particular, the scope of Internet Audio-Video Programs.

Furthermore, the SARFT promulgated the Tentative Categories of Internet Audio-Visual Program Services (Trail), or the Audio-Visual Program Categories, which clarified the scope of internet audio-video program services. According to the Audio-Visual Program Categories, there are four categories of internet audio-visual program services which are further divided into seventeen sub-categories. The third sub-category to the second category covers the making and editing of certain specialized audio-video programs concerning, among other things, educational content, and broadcasting such content to the general public online.

On April 25, 2016, the SAPPRFT promulgated the Regulations of Management of Broadcasting Audio-Video Programs Service through Private Network and Directional Communication, or the Broadcasting Audio-Video Programs Regulations, which came into effect on June 1, 2016. The Broadcasting Audio-Video Programs Regulations provides, among other things, that a Permit for Broadcasting Audio-Video Programs via Information Network is required for engaging in broadcasting services through Private Network and Directional Communication. According to such Regulations, the broadcasting services through Private Network and Directional Communication shall mean the services and activities provided to the public through the private transmission channels that include internet, LAN and VPN based on internet and through the receiving terminals of televisions, and other handheld electronic equipment, and such services and activities include the activities of content supply, integrated broadcast control, transmission and distribution with IPTVs, private-network mobile televisions, internet televisions. According to such Regulations, only the entities wholly or substantially owned by the State could apply for such Permit.

We offer certain online courses on our platform. In the fiscal years ended February 28 /29, 2019, 2020 and 2021, revenues derived from audio-video program services offered through www.xueersi.com that may be subject to the Audio-Video Program Measures were 13.3%, 18.9% and 28.4%, respectively, of our total net revenues. Our teachers and students communicate and interact live with each other via our platforms. The audio and video data are transmitted through the platforms between specific recipients instantly without any further redaction. We believe the nature of the raw data we transmit distinguishes us from general providers of internet audio-visual program services, such as the operator of online video websites, and the provision of the Internet Audio-Video Program Measures and the Broadcasting Audio-Video Programs Regulations are not applicable with regard to our offering of the courses in live streaming format. However, we cannot assure you that the competent PRC government authorities will not ultimately take a view contrary to our opinion. In addition, we also offer video recordings of live streaming courses and certain other educational audio-video contents to our students on our online platforms. If the government authorities determine that our provision of online tutoring services falls within the Internet Audio-Video Program Measures or the Broadcasting Audio-Video Programs Regulations, we may not be able to obtain the required permit or license. If this occurs, we may become subject to significant penalties, fines, legal sanctions or an order to suspend our use of audio-video content.

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Fluctuations in exchange rates could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

Our revenues and costs are mostly denominated in RMB. The value of the RMB against the U.S. dollar and other currencies may fluctuate and is affected by, among other things, changes in China’s political and economic conditions and foreign exchange policies. After the PRC government changed its policy of pegging the value of RMB to the U.S. dollar in 2005, the RMB has fluctuated against the U.S. dollar, at times significantly and unpredictably. With the development of the foreign exchange market and progress towards interest rate liberalization and Renminbi internationalization, the PRC government may in the future announce further changes to the exchange rate system and there is no guarantee that the RMB will not appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against the U.S. dollar in the future. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy may impact the exchange rate between the RMB and the U.S. dollar in the future.

To the extent that we need to convert U.S. dollars into Renminbi for capital expenditures and working capital and other business purposes, appreciation of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar would have an adverse effect on the RMB amount we would receive from the conversion. Conversely, if we decide to convert Renminbi into U.S. dollars for the purpose of making payments for dividends on our common shares or ADSs, strategic acquisitions or investments or other business purposes, appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the Renminbi would have a negative effect on the U.S. dollar amount available to us.

We have invested in derivative financial instruments such as the exchange option contracts that may hedge our exposure to foreign currency risks to a certain extent. The availability and effectiveness of hedges may be limited and we may not be able to adequately hedge our exposure or at all. In addition, our currency exchange losses may be magnified by PRC exchange control regulations that restrict our ability to convert Renminbi into foreign currency. As a result, fluctuations in exchange rates may have a material adverse effect on your investment.

Governmental control of currency conversion may affect the value of your investment.

The PRC government imposes controls on the convertibility between the Renminbi and foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. We received substantially all of our revenues in RMB. Under our current corporate structure, our income at the holding company level may be primarily derived from dividend payments from our PRC subsidiaries. Shortages in the availability of foreign currency may restrict the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to remit sufficient foreign currency to pay dividends or other payments to us, or otherwise satisfy their foreign currency-denominated obligations. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, including profit distributions, interest payments and expenditures from trade-related transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval from SAFE by complying with certain procedural requirements. However, for any PRC company, dividends can be declared and paid only out of the retained earnings of that company under PRC law. Furthermore, approval from SAFE or its local branch or prior registrant with banks, is required where Renminbi is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses, such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies. Specifically, under the existing exchange restrictions, without a prior approval of SAFE or prior registrant with banks, cash generated from the operations of our subsidiaries in China may be used to pay dividends by our PRC subsidiaries to TAL Education Group through our Hong Kong subsidiaries and pay employees of our PRC subsidiaries who are located outside China in a currency other than the Renminbi. With a prior approval from SAFE, cash generated from the operations of our PRC subsidiaries and Consolidated Affiliated Entities may be used to pay off debt in a currency other than the Renminbi owed by our subsidiaries and Consolidated Affiliated Entities to entities outside China, and make other capital expenditures outside China in a currency other than the Renminbi. The PRC government may also at its discretion restrict access in the future to foreign currencies for current account transactions. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currency to satisfy our currency demands, we may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs.

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Employee participants in our share incentive plan who are PRC citizens may be required to register with SAFE. We also face regulatory uncertainties in China that could restrict our ability to grant share incentive awards to our employees who are PRC citizens.

Pursuant to the Notices on Issues concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in a Stock Incentive Plan of an Overseas Publicly-Listed Company issued by SAFE, or SAFE Circular 7, and the Notice on Relinquishing Power of Approving the First-time Application of Foreign Exchange Purchase Quotas, Opening of Special Bank Accounts issued by SAFE, a qualified PRC agent (which could be the PRC subsidiary of an overseas-listed company) is required to file, on behalf of “domestic individuals” (both PRC residents and non-PRC residents who reside in China for a continuous period of not less than one year, excluding the foreign diplomatic personnel and representatives of international organizations) who are granted shares or share options by an overseas-listed company according to its stock incentive plan, an application with SAFE to conduct the SAFE registration with respect to such stock incentive plan, and obtain approval for an annual allowance with respect to the purchase of foreign exchange in connection with the stock purchase or stock option exercise. Such PRC individuals’ foreign exchange income received from the sale of stocks and dividends distributed by the overseas listed company and any other income shall be fully remitted into a collective foreign currency account in China opened and managed by the PRC domestic agent before distribution to such individuals. In addition, such domestic individuals must also retain an overseas entrusted institution to handle matters in connection with their exercise of stock options and their purchase and sale of stock. The PRC domestic agent also needs to update registration with SAFE within three months after the overseas-listed company materially changes its stock incentive plan or make any new stock incentive plans.

Prior to the issuance of SAFE Circular 7, we received approval from SAFE’s Beijing branch in regards to applications we had submitted on behalf of certain of our employees who hold a significant number of restricted shares. Upon the issuance of SAFE Circular 7, we renewed our registration on behalf of these employees in accordance with SAFE Circular 7. From time to time, we need to apply for or to update our registration with SAFE or its local branches on behalf of our employees who are granted options or registered shares under our share incentive plan or material changes in our current share incentive plan. We may not always be able to make applications or update our registration on behalf of our employees who hold our restricted shares or other types of share incentive awards in compliance with SAFE Circular 7, nor can we ensure you that such applications or update of registration will be successful. If we or the participants of our share incentive plan who are PRC citizens fail to comply with SAFE Circular 7, we and/or such participants of our share incentive plan may be subject to fines and legal sanctions, there may be additional restrictions on the ability of such participants to exercise their stock options or remit proceeds gained from sale of their stock into China, and we may be prevented from further granting share incentive awards under our share incentive plan to our employees who are PRC citizens. Such events could adversely affect our business operations.

Our ADSs may be delisted under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act if the PCAOB is unable to inspect auditors who are located in China. The delisting of our ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment. Additionally, the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections deprives our investors with the benefits of such inspections.

The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCA Act, was enacted on December 18, 2020. The HFCA Act states if the SEC determines that we have filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspection by the United States Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or the PCAOB, for three consecutive years beginning in 2021, the SEC shall prohibit our shares or ADSs from being traded on a national securities exchange or in the over the counter trading market in the U.S.

Our auditor, the independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit report included elsewhere in this annual report, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess its compliance with the applicable professional standards. Since our auditor is located in China, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB has been unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the Chinese authorities, our auditor is currently not inspected by the PCAOB.

On March 24, 2021, the SEC adopted interim final rules relating to the implementation of certain disclosure and documentation requirements of the HFCA Act. We will be required to comply with these rules if the SEC identifies us as having a “non-inspection” year under a process to be subsequently established by the SEC. The SEC is assessing how to implement other requirements of the HFCA Act, including the listing and trading prohibition requirements described above.

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The SEC may propose additional rules or guidance that could impact us if our auditor is not subject to PCAOB inspection. For example, on August 6, 2020, the President’s Working Group on Financial Markets, or the PWG, issued the Report on Protecting United States Investors from Significant Risks from Chinese Companies to the then President of the United States. This report recommended the SEC implement five recommendations to address companies from jurisdictions that do not provide the PCAOB with sufficient access to fulfil its statutory mandate. Some of the concepts of these recommendations were implemented with the enactment of the HFCA Act. However, some of the recommendations were more stringent than the HFCA Act. For example, if a company was not subject to PCAOB inspection, the report recommended that the transition period before a company would be delisted would end on January 1, 2022.

The SEC has announced that the SEC staff is preparing a consolidated proposal for the rules regarding the implementation of the HFCA Act and to address the recommendations in the PWG report. It is unclear when the SEC will complete its rulemaking and when such rules will become effective and what, if any, of the PWG recommendations will be adopted. The implications of this possible regulation in addition to the requirements of the HFCA Act are uncertain. Such uncertainty could cause the market price of our ADSs to be materially and adversely affected, and our securities could be delisted or prohibited from being traded “over-the-counter” earlier than would be required by the HFCA Act. If our securities are unable to be listed on another securities exchange by then, such a delisting would substantially impair your ability to sell or purchase our ADSs when you wish to do so, and the risk and uncertainty associated with a potential delisting would have a negative impact on the price of our ADSs.

The PCAOB’s inability to conduct inspections in China prevents it from fully evaluating the audits and quality control procedures of our independent registered public accounting firm. As a result, we and investors in our ordinary shares are deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections. The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our independent registered public accounting firm’s audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to the PCAOB inspections, which could cause investors and potential investors in our stock to lose confidence in our audit procedures and reported financial information and the quality of our financial statements.

In May 2013, the PCAOB announced that it had entered into a Memorandum of Understanding on Enforcement Cooperation with the CSRC and the PRC Ministry of Finance, which establishes a cooperative framework between the parties for the production and exchange of audit documents relevant to investigations undertaken by the PCAOB in the PRC or by the CSRC or the PRC Ministry of Finance in the United States. The PCAOB continues to be in discussions with the CSRC and the PRC Ministry of Finance to permit joint inspections in the PRC of audit firms that are registered with the PCAOB and audit Chinese companies that trade on U.S. exchanges.

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Proceedings instituted by the SEC against certain PRC-based accounting firms, including auditors of our consolidated financial statements in our prior annual reports, could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act.

In December 2012, the SEC brought administrative proceedings against five accounting firms in China, including auditors of our consolidated financial statements in our annual reports, alleging that they had refused to produce audit work papers and other documents related to certain other China-based companies under investigation by the SEC. In January 2014, an initial administrative law decision was issued, censuring these accounting firms and suspending four of these firms from practicing before the SEC for a period of six months. The decision was neither final nor legally effective unless and until reviewed and approved by the SEC. In February 2014, four of these PRC-based accounting firms appealed to the SEC against this decision. In February 2015, each of the four PRC-based accounting firms agreed to a censure and to pay a fine to the SEC to settle the dispute and avoid suspension of their ability to practice before the SEC. Under the settlement, the SEC accepted that future requests by the SEC for the production of documents will normally be made to the CSRC. The firms were to receive matching Section 106 requests, and were required to abide by a detailed set of procedures with respect to such requests, which in substance require them to facilitate production via the CSRC. If they failed to meet the specified criteria during a period of four years starting from the settlement date, the SEC retained authority to impose a variety of additional remedial measures on the firms depending on the nature of the failure. Under the terms of the settlement, the underlying proceeding against the four China-based accounting firms was deemed dismissed with prejudice four years after entry of the settlement. The four-year mark occurred on February 6, 2019. While we cannot predict if the SEC will further challenge the four China-based accounting firms’ compliance with U.S. law in connection with U.S. regulatory requests for audit work papers or if the results of such a challenge would result in the SEC imposing penalties such as suspensions. If additional remedial measures are imposed on the Chinese affiliates of the “big four” accounting firms, including auditors of consolidated financial statements in our annual reports, we could be unable to timely file future financial statements in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act.

In the event that the Chinese affiliates of the “big four” become subject to additional legal challenges by the SEC or PCAOB, depending upon the final outcome, listed companies in the United States with major PRC operations may find it difficult or impossible to retain auditors in respect of their operations in the PRC, which could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act, including possible delisting. Moreover, any negative news about the proceedings against these audit firms may cause investor uncertainty regarding China-based, United States-listed companies and the market price of our ADSs may be adversely affected.

If auditors of our consolidated financial statements in our annual reports were denied, even temporarily, the ability to practice before the SEC and we were unable to timely find another registered public accounting firm to audit and issue an opinion on our financial statements, our financial statements could be determined not to be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act. Such a determination could ultimately lead to delisting of our securities from the New York Stock Exchange or deregistration from the SEC, or both, which would substantially reduce or effectively terminate the trading of our ADSs in the United States.

Risks Related to Our ADSs

The market price for our ADSs may be volatile.

The market price for our ADSs has fluctuated significantly since we first listed our ADSs. For the fiscal year ended February 28, 2021, the closing prices of our ADSs have ranged from $47.00 to $90.15 per ADS, and the last reported trading price on May 6, 2021 was $55.44 per ADS.

The market price for our ADSs is likely to be highly volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to factors such as:

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results;
changes in financial estimates by securities research analysts;
changes in the economic performance or market valuation of other education companies;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments;

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addition or departure of our executive officers and key personnel;
detrimental negative publicity about us, our competitors or our industry;
intellectual property litigation, regulatory investigation or other governmental proceedings against us;
substantial sales or perception of sales of our ADSs in the public market; and
general economic, regulatory or political conditions in China and the United States.

In addition, the stock market in general, and the market prices for companies with operations in China in particular, have experienced volatility that often has been unrelated to the operating performance of such companies. The securities of some PRC-based companies that have listed their securities in the United States have experienced significant volatility since their initial public offerings, including, in some cases, substantial price declines in the trading prices of their securities. The trading performances of these PRC-based companies’ securities after their offerings may affect the attitudes of investors toward PRC-based companies listed in the United States, which consequently may impact the trading performance of our ADSs, regardless of our actual operating performance. In addition, any negative news or perceptions about inadequate corporate governance practices or fraudulent accounting, corporate structure or other matters of other PRC-based companies may also negatively affect the attitudes of investors towards PRC-based companies in general, including us, regardless of whether we have conducted any inappropriate activities. Further, the global financial crisis, the ensuing economic recessions in many countries and the slowing PRC economy have contributed and may continue to contribute to extreme volatility in the global stock markets. These broad market and industry fluctuations may adversely affect operating performance. Volatility or a lack of positive performance in our ADS price may also adversely affect our ability to retain key employees, some of whom have been granted share incentive awards under our share incentive plan.

Our dual-class voting structure will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any change-of-control transactions that holders of our Class A common shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

Our common shares are divided into Class A common shares and Class B common shares. Holders of Class A common shares are entitled to one vote per share, while holders of Class B common shares are entitled to ten votes per share. We issued Class A common shares represented by our ADSs in our initial public offering in October 2010. As part of the redesignation of our capital structure at the time of our initial public offering, all of our existing shareholders as of September 29, 2010, including our founders, received Class B common shares, and our outstanding preferred shares at the time were automatically converted into Class B common shares immediately prior to the completion of our initial public offering. Each Class B common share is convertible into one Class A common share at any time by the holder thereof. Class A common shares are not convertible into Class B common shares under any circumstances.

Upon any transfer of Class B common shares by a holder thereof to any person or entity which is not an affiliate of such holder, such Class B common shares shall be automatically and immediately converted into the equal number of Class A common shares. In addition, if at any time, any of the persons who held Class B common shares immediately before our initial public offering and their affiliates collectively own less than 5% of the total number of the issued and outstanding Class B common shares, each issued and outstanding Class B common share owned by such Class B holder shall be automatically and immediately converted into one Class A common share, and no Class B common shares shall be issued by us thereafter. Due to the disparate voting powers attached to these two classes, as of March 31, 2021, holders of our Class B common shares (excluding any Class A common shares such holder may hold in the form of ADSs) collectively held approximately 81.9% the voting power of our outstanding shares and have considerable influence over matters requiring shareholder approval, including election of directors and significant corporate transactions, such as a merger or sale of our company or our assets. This concentrated control will limit your ability to influence corporate matters and could discourage others from pursuing any potential merger, takeover or other change-of-control transactions that holders of Class A common shares and ADSs may view as beneficial.

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Our corporate actions are substantially controlled by our officers, directors and their affiliated entities.

As of March 31, 2021, our executive officers, directors and their affiliated entities beneficially owned approximately 31.5% of our total outstanding shares, representing 82.0% of our total voting power. These shareholders, if they acted together, could exert substantial influence over matters requiring approval by our shareholders, including electing directors and approving mergers or other business combination transactions and they may not act in the best interests of other minority shareholders. This concentration of ownership may also discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company, which could deprive our shareholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their shares as part of a sale of our company and might reduce the price of our ADSs. These actions may be taken even if they are opposed by our other shareholders.

If securities or industry analysts publish negative reports about our business, the price and trading volume of our securities could decline.

The trading market for our securities depends, in part, on the research reports and ratings that securities or industry analysts or ratings agencies publish about us, our business and the K-12 after-school tutoring market in China in general. We do not have any control over these analysts or agencies. If one or more of the analysts or agencies who cover us downgrades us or our securities, the price of our securities may decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause the price of our securities or trading volume to decline.

Substantial future sales or the expectation of substantial sales of our ADSs in the public market could cause the price of our ADSs to decline.

Sales of our ADSs in the public market or the perception that these sales could occur, may cause the market price of our ADSs to decline and could materially impair our ability to raise capital through equity offerings in the future. We have Class A and Class B common shares outstanding, including Class A common shares represented by ADSs. All of our ADSs are freely transferable without restriction or additional registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Class A common shares not represented by ADSs, such as grants of share incentive awards which have vested, and Class B common shares are available for sale subject to volume and other restrictions as applicable under Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act. To the extent shares are sold into the market, the market price of our ADSs could decline.

We will issue new Class A common shares upon conversion of our convertible notes. The conversion of some or all of the convertible notes will dilute the ownership interests of existing shareholders and holders of the ADSs. The issuance and sale of a substantial number of ADSs, or the perception that such issuances and sales may occur, could adversely affect the trading price of our convertible notes and the market price of the ADSs and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities.

In addition, we may be required by our shareholders to register the sale of their shares under the Securities Act. Registration of these shares under the Securities Act would result in these shares becoming freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act immediately upon the effectiveness of the registration of these shares. Sales of these registered shares in the public market could cause the price of our ADSs to decline.

Our articles of association contain anti-takeover provisions that could discourage a third party from acquiring us, which could limit our shareholders’ opportunity to sell their shares, including Class A common shares represented by our ADSs, at a premium.

Our articles of association contain provisions that limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company or cause us to engage in change-of-control transactions. These provisions could have the effect of depriving our shareholders of an opportunity to sell their shares at a premium over prevailing market prices by discouraging third parties from seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similar transaction. For example, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our shareholders, to issue preferred shares. These preferred shares may have better voting rights than our Class A common shares, in the form of ADSs or otherwise, and could be issued quickly with terms calculated to delay or prevent a change in control of our company or make removal of management more difficult. If our board of directors decides to issue preferred shares, the price of our ADSs may fall and the voting rights of the holders of our common shares and ADSs may be diluted.

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Holders of ADSs have fewer rights than shareholders and must act through the depositary to exercise those rights.

Holders of ADSs do not have the same rights as our shareholders and may only exercise voting rights with respect to the underlying Class A common shares in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. Under our memorandum and articles of association, the minimum notice period required to convene a general meeting is ten days. When a general meeting is convened, you may not receive sufficient notice of a shareholders’ meeting to permit you to withdraw your common shares to allow you to cast your vote with respect to any specific matter. In addition, the depositary and its agents may not be able to send voting instructions to you or carry out your voting instructions in a timely manner. We will make all reasonable efforts to cause the depositary to extend voting rights to you in a timely manner, but we cannot assure you that you will receive the voting materials in time to ensure that you can instruct the depositary to vote your ADSs. Furthermore, the depositary and its agents will not be responsible for any failure to carry out any instructions to vote, for the manner in which any vote is cast or for the effect of any such vote. As a result, you may not be able to exercise your right to vote and you may lack recourse if the votes attaching to the common shares underlying your ADSs are not voted as you requested. In addition, in your capacity as an ADS holder, you will not be able to call a shareholders’ meeting.

You may not receive distributions on our common shares or any value for them if such distribution is illegal or if any required government approval cannot be obtained in order to make such distribution available to you.

The depositary of our ADSs has agreed to pay to you the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on common shares or other deposited securities underlying our ADSs, after deducting its fees and expenses. You will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of Class A common shares your ADSs represent. However, the depositary is not responsible if it decides that it is unlawful, inequitable or impractical to make a distribution available to any holders of ADSs. For example, it would be unlawful to make a distribution to a holder of ADSs if it consists of securities that require registration under the Securities Act but that are not properly registered or distributed under an applicable exemption from registration. The depositary may also determine that it is not feasible to distribute certain property through the mail. Additionally, the value of certain distributions may be less than the cost of mailing them. In these cases, the depositary may determine not to distribute such property. We have no obligation to register under U.S. securities laws any ADSs, common shares, rights or other securities received through such distributions. We also have no obligation to take any other action to permit the distribution of ADSs, common shares, rights or anything else to holders of ADSs. This means that you may not receive distributions we make on our common shares or any value for them if it is illegal or impractical for us to make them available to you. These restrictions may cause a material decline in the value of our ADSs.

You may be subject to limitations on transfers of your ADSs.

Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its transfer books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. In addition, the depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary deem it advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.

Your right to participate in any future rights offerings may be limited, which may cause dilution to your holdings.

We may from time to time distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire our securities. However, we cannot make rights available to you in the United States unless we register the rights and the securities to which the rights relate under the Securities Act or an exemption from the registration requirements is available. Also, under the deposit agreement, the depositary will not make rights available to you unless the distribution to ADS holders of both the rights and any related securities are either registered under the Securities Act, or exempted from registration under the Securities Act. We are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to any such rights or securities or to endeavor to cause such a registration statement to be declared effective. Moreover, we may not be able to establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act. Accordingly, you may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution in your holdings.

Conversion of our convertible notes may dilute the ownership interest of existing shareholders.

The conversion of some or all of our convertible notes may dilute the ownership interests of existing shareholders. Any sales in the public market of the common shares issuable upon such conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common shares. In addition, the existence of the notes may encourage short selling by market participants because the conversion of the notes could depress the market price of our common shares.

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Provisions of our convertible notes could discourage an acquisition of us by a third party.

In January 2021, we issued certain convertible notes for a total proceed of approximately US$2.3 billion to a group of investors. Certain provisions of our convertible notes could make it more difficult or more expensive for a third party to acquire us. For instance, holders of the notes will have the right to require us to repurchase for cash all or part of their notes upon the occurrence of certain fundamental changes at a repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest to, but excluding, the repurchase date. The indentures for these convertible notes define a “fundamental change” to include, among other things: any person (other than certain specified holders) becoming the beneficial owner of the Company’s common shares representing more than 50% of the voting power or more than 50% of the outstanding common shares, any recapitalization, reclassification or change of our Class A common shares or the ADSs as a result of which these securities would be converted into, or exchanged for, shares, other securities, other property or assets; any share exchange, consolidation or merger involving our company as a result of which holders of our all classes of common equity do not own 50% of all classes of common equity of the surviving corporation; and any sale, lease or other transfer of all or substantially all of our assets to a third party; and the adoption of any plan relating to the dissolution or liquidation of our company.

We are a Cayman Islands company and, because judicial precedent regarding the rights of shareholders is more limited under Cayman Islands law than that under U.S. law, you may have less protection for your shareholder rights than you would under U.S. law.

Our corporate affairs are governed by our memorandum and articles of association, as amended and restated from time to time, the Companies Act (As Revised) of the Company Islands and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against the directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as that from English common law, which has persuasive, but not binding, authority on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws than the United States. In addition, some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands.

As a result of all of the above, public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as shareholders of a U.S. public company.

You may experience difficulties in effecting service of legal process, enforcing foreign judgments or bringing original actions in China against us or our management.

We are a Cayman Islands company and substantially all of our assets are located outside the United States. Substantially all of our current operations are conducted in China. In addition, some of our directors and all of our officers are nationals and residents of China. As a result, it may be difficult for you to effect service of process within the United States or elsewhere outside China upon these persons. It may also be difficult for you to enforce in U.S. courts judgments obtained in U.S. courts based on the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws against us and our officers and directors, most of whom are not residents of the United States and the substantial majority of whose assets are located outside the United States. In addition, there is uncertainty as to whether the courts of the Cayman Islands or China would recognize or enforce judgments of U.S. courts against us or such persons predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the securities laws of the United States or any state and it is uncertain whether such Cayman Islands or PRC courts would be competent to hear original actions brought in the Cayman Islands or China against us or such persons predicated upon the securities laws of the United States or any state. In addition, since we are incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands and our corporate affairs are governed by the laws of the Cayman Islands, it is difficult for you to bring an action against us based upon PRC laws in the event that you believe that your rights as a shareholder have been infringed.

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It may be difficult for overseas regulators to conduct investigation or collect evidence within China.

Shareholder claims or regulatory investigation that are common in the United States generally are difficult to pursue as a matter of law or practicality in China. For example, in China, there are significant legal and other obstacles to obtaining information needed for regulatory investigations or litigations initiated outside China. Although the authorities in China may establish a regulatory cooperation mechanism with the securities regulatory authorities of another country or region to implement cross-border supervision and administration, such cooperation with the securities regulatory authorities in the Unities States may not be efficient in the absence of mutual and practical cooperation mechanism. Furthermore, according to Article 177 of the PRC Securities Law, or Article 177, which became effective in March 2020, no overseas securities regulator is allowed to directly conduct investigation or evidence collection activities within the territory of the PRC, and no organization or individual may provide documents or materials relating to securities business activities to overseas parties arbitrarily without the consent of the competent securities regulatory authority in China. While detailed interpretation of or implementation rules under Article 177 have yet to be promulgated, the inability for an overseas securities regulator to directly conduct investigation or evidence collection activities within China may further increase the difficulties you face in protecting your interests. See also “-Risks Related to Our ADSs-We are a Cayman Islands company and, because judicial precedent regarding the rights of shareholders is more limited under Cayman Islands law than that under U.S. law, you may have less protection for your shareholder rights than you would under U.S. law.” for risks associated with investing in us as a Cayman Islands company.

We may be classified as a passive foreign investment company for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. Holders of our ADSs or common shares.

Under U.S. federal income tax law, we will be classified as a PFIC for any taxable year if either (i) at least 75% of our gross income for the taxable year is passive income or (ii) at least 50% of the value of our assets (generally determined on the basis of a quarterly average) is attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income (the asset test). Although the law in this regard is unclear, we treat our VIEs and their respective subsidiaries and schools as being owned by us for U.S. federal income tax purposes, not only because we control their management decisions but also because we are entitled to substantially all of the economic benefits associated with these entities, and, as a result, we consolidate their operating results in our consolidated U.S. GAAP financial statements. If it were determined, however, that we are not the owner of the VIEs and their respective subsidiaries for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we would likely be treated as a PFIC for our current and any subsequent taxable year.

Assuming that we are the owner of our VIEs and their respective subsidiaries for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and based on our income and assets and the market price of our ADSs, we do not believe that we were a PFIC for the taxable year ended February 28, 2021 and do not anticipate becoming a PFIC for the foreseeable future. However, no assurance can be given in this regard because the determination of whether we will be or become a PFIC is a fact-intensive inquiry made on an annual basis that depends, in part, on the composition of our income and assets. Fluctuations in the market price of our ADSs may cause us to become a PFIC for the current or subsequent taxable years because the value of assets for the purpose of the asset test may be determined by reference to the market price of our ADSs from time to time (which may be volatile). The composition of our income and assets may also be affected by how, and how quickly, we use our liquid assets. Under circumstances where our revenue from activities that produce passive income significantly increase relative to our revenue from activities that produce non-passive income, or where we determine not to deploy significant amounts of cash for active purposes, our risk of becoming classified as a PFIC may substantially increase.

If we were to be or become classified as a PFIC, a U.S. Holder (as defined in “Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation—U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—General”) may be subject to reporting requirements and may incur significantly increased U.S. federal income tax on gain recognized on the sale or other disposition of the ADSs or common shares and on the receipt of distributions on the ADSs or common shares to the extent such gain or distribution is treated as an “excess distribution” under the U.S. federal income tax rules. Further, if we were a PFIC for any year during which a U.S. Holder held our ADSs or common shares, we generally would continue to be treated as a PFIC for all succeeding years during which such U.S. Holder held our ADSs or common shares. You are urged to consult your tax advisor concerning the U.S. federal income tax consequences of holding and disposing of ADSs or common shares if we are or become classified as a PFIC. See “Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation—U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—PFIC Considerations” and “Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation—U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—PFIC Rules.”

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Item 4.    Information on the Company

A.        History and Development of the Company

We started our operation in 2005 with the establishment of Xueersi Education, a domestic company in China. We then incorporated TAL Education Group to become our offshore holding company under the laws of the Cayman Islands on January 10, 2008, in order to facilitate foreign investment in our company. TAL Education Group established TAL Holdings Limited in Hong Kong in March 2008 as our intermediary holding company.

In August 2013, we changed the name of TAL Education Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd. to Beijing Century TAL Education Technology Co., Ltd. In addition, we changed our umbrella brand from “Xueersi” to “Haoweilai.”

We have made certain other principal expansion of our service offerings:

in January 2016, we completed the acquisition of Firstleap Education, a provider of small-class tutoring services in English to young learners in China;
in February 2016, we acquired majority equity interest of Beijing Yinghe Youshi Technology Co., Ltd., or Yinghe Youshi, which primarily provides online preparation services of English tests for study-abroad purposes, and purchased all its remaining noncontrolling interest in 2017;
in July 2016, we acquired majority interest in Beijing Shunshun Bida Information Consulting Co., Ltd., or Shunshun Bida, which primarily engages in providing professional counseling services to students who desire to study abroad;
in August 2016, we acquired majority equity interest in Shanghai Yaya Information Technology Co., Ltd., or Shanghai Yaya, which primarily operates an online platform focusing on children, babies and maternity market; in 2019, we acquired the remaining minority interest in steps;
in fiscal year 2019, we obtained control of Shanghai Xiaoxin Information and Technology Co., Ltd., a previously minority-owned investee. This investee is mainly engaged in the development of communication tools connecting teachers and students; and
in fiscal year 2019, we made two investments in Dada Education Group, or Dada, a company providing one-on-one online English tutoring for children. In April 2020, we completed the acquisition of a controlling interest in Dada.

We have also made certain material investments in other businesses that complement our existing business, including the following in recent years:

in January 2014, we made a minority equity investment in BabyTree Inc., an online parenting community and an online retailer of products for children, baby and maternity wear in China;
since April 2015, we have entered into a series of transactions to invest for minority equity interest in Changing Education Inc., which operates a customer-to-customer mobile tutoring platform and provides tutoring services in China;
in August 2016 and 2019, we completed two minority equity investment transactions in Shanghai Zhengda Ximalaya Technology Company Limited, an online Frequency Modulation radio platform; and
in December, 2018, we invested in minority equity interest in Xiamen Meiyou Information and Technology Co., Ltd, an internet company focusing on providing services to female clients.

For more information on our acquisitions and investments, see Note 3 “Business Acquisitions,” Note 10 “Long-term investments” and Note 15 “Fair Value” to the consolidated financial statements.

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For information on our capital expenditures, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—B. Liquidity and Capital Resources—Capital Expenditures.”

In October 2010, we completed an initial public offering of 13,800,000 ADSs. On October 20, 2010, we listed our ADSs on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “XRS” and changed the symbol to “TAL” effective from December 1, 2016.

In May 2014, we issued $230 million in aggregate principal amount of 2.50% convertible notes due 2019. The notes matured on May 15, 2019.

In January 2018, we issued certain numbers of Class A common shares to a long-term equity investment firm for a total proceed of approximately US$500 million.

In February 2019, we issued certain numbers of Class A common shares to a long-term equity investment firm for a total proceed of approximately US$500 million.

In November 2020, we issued certain numbers of Class A common shares to a global growth investment firm for a total proceed of approximately US$1.5 billion.

In January 2021, we issued certain numbers of Class A common shares for a total proceed of approximately US$1.0 billion and convertible notes for a total proceed of approximately US$2.3 billion to a group of investors.

Our principal executive offices are located at 15/F, Danling SOHO, 6 Danling Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100080, People’s Republic of China. Our telephone number at this address is +86 (10) 5292 6658. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at Maples Corporate Services Limited, PO Box 309, Ugland House, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands. As of February 28, 2021, we had branch offices in 109 cities in China and three branch offices in other countries. Our agent for service of process in the United States in connection with our registration statement on Form F-1 for our initial public offering in October 2010 is Law Debenture Corporate Services Inc., located at 400 Madison Avenue, 4th Floor, New York, New York 10017.

B.        Business Overview

We are a leading K-12 after-school tutoring service provider in China. We mainly offer comprehensive tutoring services to K-12 students covering core academic subjects, including among others, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, history, geography, political science, English and Chinese. In order to diversify K-12 tutoring services, we also provide consulting services for overseas studies and preparation courses for major standardized tests, as well as operate several online community platforms including through www.jzb.com (together with the “Jiazhang Bang” app) and www.mmbang.com (together with the “Mama Bang” app). We also provide support in various forms such as educational products, contents, technologies, services and other learning resources to educational institutions and public schools in China through our various programs and solutions.

We have successfully established “Xueersi” as a leading brand in the PRC K-12 private education market closely associated with high teaching quality and academic excellence, as evidenced by our students’ academic performance, our ability to recruit students through word-of-mouth referrals and the numerous recognitions and awards we have received. In August 2013, we changed our umbrella brand from “Xueersi” to “Haoweilai,” and now we offer different service offerings under different brands, such as “Xueersi,” “Mobby” and “Firstleap,” through which we offer small-class services, “Izhikang,” through which we offer personalized premium services, and “Shunshun Liuxue,” through which we offer consulting services on overseas studies.

We deliver our tutoring services primarily through small classes (including Xueersi tutoring services, Mobby tutoring services and Firstleap tutoring services), personalized premium services and online course offerings. We are constantly working to expand and supplement our service offerings, through both internal development and strategic investments. As of February 28, 2021, our extensive educational network consisted of 1,098 learning centers and 990 service centers in 109 cities throughout China and one city in the United States, as well as our online courses and online education platform. Our average student enrollments of normal priced long-term course per quarter increased by 54.4% from over 3.0 million in the fiscal year ended February 29, 2020 to approximately 4.7 million in the fiscal year ended February 28, 2021.

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We operate www.jzb.com (formerly www.eduu.com), a leading online education platform in China. The website serves as a gateway to our other websites, including (i) those offering online courses, such as small-class training, personalized premium services and tutoring services for thinking development, and (ii) those dedicated to specific topics and offerings, such as college entrance examinations, high school entrance examinations, graduate school entrance examinations, preschool education, mathematics, English, Chinese composition, and raising infants and toddlers. We also offer select educational content through mobile applications. We are constantly working to expand our online offerings, with learning materials and services in varying stages of development. Our online platform enables us to continue to roll out and expand our online course offerings. Our online platform is protected by a combination of PRC laws and regulations that protect trademarks, copyrights, domain names, know-how and trade secrets, as well as confidentiality agreements. In addition to our online education platform, we also operate www.mmbang.com and the “Mama Bang” app, an online platform focusing on children, baby and maternity market.

Our total net revenues increased from $3,273.3 million in the fiscal year ended February 29, 2020 by 37.3% to $4,495.8 million in the fiscal year ended February 28, 2021. Net loss attributable to TAL Education Group was $110.2 million in the fiscal year ended February 29, 2020, compared to net loss attributable to TAL Education Group of $116.0 million in the fiscal year ended February 28, 2021.

Our K-12 Tutoring Services

We deliver our K-12 tutoring services to our students through small-class offerings, personalized premium services and online courses.

Small-Class Offerings

We have been delivering courses in small-class offerings since the inception of our company through Xueersi small classes, which currently cover major subjects as supplement to school learning. Xueersi small-class courses consist of four semesters, namely the two school semesters in Spring and Fall and the two holiday semesters in summer and winter. Throughout the years, we have increasingly integrated online technologies into the course offerings. As of February 28, 2021, 879 of our 1,098 learning centers and 771 of our 990 service centers offered Xueersi small classes and international education classes.

In 2011, we began offering our Mobby tutoring services. Mobby small classes typically have up to 12 to 16 children per class and are currently focused on comprehensive development based on STEM education, namely science, technology, engineering and mathematics, for young learners.

In January 2016, we acquired 100% of equity interest in Firstleap Education, which provides small-class tutoring in English to young learners. Firstleap small classes typically have up to 14 students per class. Most of the Firstleap business is carried out through Lebai Education and its subsidiaries and schools which offered Firstleap small classes. A small portion of the Firstleap business is carried out through franchisees, who are typically located in lower-tier cities and operate their own learning centers not within our network. As of February 28, 2021, 82 of our learning centers and 82 of our service centers offered Firstleap or Mobby small classes, or both.

We believe that, under small-class offerings, students can receive more individual attention from teachers than what they would typically experience in a large class setting and are able to learn in an interactive group environment. We design curricula catering to our students’ different educational requirements and needs.

To maximize transparency, improve learning experience and build trust with students and parents, we allow parents to audit most of the small classes their children attend, and for all of our Xueersi small classes, also offer unconditional refunds for any remaining unattended classes net of the costs of materials.

In 2010, we launched the Intelligent Classroom System (ICS), a proprietary classroom teaching solution used in small-class instruction. Through ICS, teachers at each of our learning centers are able to upload over the internet all of our internally developed multi-media teaching content, including instructional videos and audio materials, and project this content onto white boards to make the instructional process more efficient and the learning experience more interactive and stimulating.

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Personalized Premium Services

We began to offer personalized premium services in 2007 under our “Izhikang” brand. As of February 28, 2021, our Izhikang network included 137 learning centers and 137 service centers in 18 cities.

Our personalized premium services mainly provide customized curricula and course materials and flexible schedules to suit each student’s educational focus in a one-on-one student-teacher setting. We provide personalized premium services to cater to the specific requirements of our students, such as addressing weaknesses in particular subjects or topics, providing intensive examination and tailoring the pace of learning to accommodate above- or below-average learning curves. Key features of our personalized premium services include:

Customized tutoring solution. Each prospective student of our personalized premium services must meet with our educational planner and undergo a diagnostic assessment of the student’s strengths, weaknesses and potential. We then design and recommend a customized tutoring solution to the student in consultation with the student’s parents with respect to timing, cost and other considerations specific to the students’ circumstances. During the entire course of our personalized premium services for a student, we actively monitor the student’s progress and adjust the curriculum and learning pace for the student when necessary.

Tailor-made course materials. The course materials used in our personalized premium services are selected by subject teachers from our comprehensive course material database for the benefits of each student. We leverage our strong curriculum and course material development capability to provide high quality course materials to our students.

One-on-one student-teacher setting, supported by a team of experienced teachers. Each student in our personalized premium service has access to a large pool of experienced teachers. Teachers are chosen by students and their parents based on the interests and needs of each student. Our personalized premium services are mostly offered in one-on-one format, with a small portion of small-group classes, which typically consist of only two to eight students.

Personalized attention. For most students, we assign a coordinator, who routinely communicates with the student and the student’s parents to address their questions and concerns and to closely monitor the quality of our services. The coordinator also solicits monthly feedback from students and parents. We also accommodate any request by students or parents to change teachers to the extent practicable.

Online Courses

We began to offer online courses in 2010 through www.xueersi.com. Through www.xueersi.com, we offer online courses on mathematics, English, Chinese, physics, chemistry, biology, programming and other subjects. We also offer select online courses through other websites. Online courses enable us to leverage our proprietary curricula and course materials and high quality teachers to target markets beyond the reach of our physical network. It also enables our students to access our courses through the internet at times and places most convenient for them and enable more students to access quality courses with affordable prices.

In the past, our online courses were mostly in the format of pre-recorded classes. In March 2015, we launched a new TEPC (standing for teaching, examination, practice and communication) flipped classroom format, which was intended to serve as a major upgrade from the traditional model of recorded classes, and to enable our students to participate in more proactive and interactive learnings. This new format was further developed into live-broadcasting classes starting from October 2015, which has become the principal format of our online courses.

Currently, our online courses mainly feature interactive, live-broadcasting lectures by experienced teachers. We seek to engage teachers who have a strong command of the respective subject areas and superior communication skills. By offering live broadcasting classes, our teachers can adjust the pace and content of each class according to student performance and reaction. Under this format, students can proactively participate in the class and obtain a more personalized learning experience. We also conduct in-class examination and have dedicated tutoring teachers who focus on the correction of examinations and post-exam tutoring for students. In this way, students can receive timely and tailored feedback on their learning.

We plan to further develop our online course offerings to extend our market reach and maximize the potential of our services. In particular, we intend to expand our course offerings to include more subjects and grade levels. We have also made a few acquisitions and investments to expand our online business and enhance our online presence.

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Student Services

We strive to provide a supportive learning environment to our students through our teachers, class coordinators, call centers and online platform.

Our teachers keep track of the students’ performance and progress and regularly communicate with the students and parents. Moreover, we assign most of our students in the personalized premium services a class coordinator who is in close contact with the students and parents regarding scheduling and other logistical issues, receives feedback on teaching quality and arranges teacher replacements where necessary.

Through our call centers, websites, mobile applications and WeChat platform, we provide support services for students and parents, including receiving enquiries, accepting registrations, addressing course-related issues and facilitating communication with existing and prospective students for our center-based offerings and the parents of such students.

In addition, the online platform, among other things, provides an efficient channel for students and parents to submit study questions to our subject experts.

Our Curricula and Course Materials

Curricula

The curricula for our K-12 tutoring services covers the core K-12 subjects. We started our business by offering tutoring classes in mathematics and then gradually rolled out courses in other subjects over years. In terms of grade levels, we initially focused on serving primary school students and over time expanded our course offerings into higher grade levels.

Our K-12 course offerings encompass all major subjects catered to students of grades ranging from kindergarten to the twelfth grade. Our offerings start off with the fundamentals such as mathematics, English and Chinese for kindergarten and primary school students. Physics, biology, and chemistry are added to our curricula as students progress through middle school, reflecting their expanded core subjects. For high school students, we offer a full spectrum of subjects in response to their expanded and elevated study needs, completing the offering with history, political science, and geography.

The history, political science and geography courses are offered mainly through personalized premium tutoring services under our “Izhikang” brand and small-class services under our “Xueersi” brand. In addition, we also offer science, programming and GO courses.

Curriculum and Course Material Development

Substantially all of our education content for our non-English subject areas is developed in-house.

For the science subjects offered through Xueersi small classes, our team works closely with experts in different subject fields to keep up with changing academic and examination requirements in the PRC education system and solicits feedback from our teachers based on their classroom experience. When developing our curricula and course materials, we typically review and reference recent teaching materials and teachers’ training materials from leading public schools, consider any new examination requirements and requirements on cultivation of student ability and quality, and analyze the latest market trends and needs. Our development team is able to identify subjects and concepts that are difficult for students and focuses on the most important and difficult concepts and skills in the curricula. We evaluate, update and improve course materials based upon usage rate, feedback from teachers, students and parents as well as student performance. Most of our curricula and course materials are developed at our corporate level in Beijing and adopted by other locations with modifications to meet local requirements and demands. We have modularized a portion of our course materials based on specific topics so that centrally developed content can be more easily adopted locally and make our services more scalable, and we are in the process of modularizing other portions of our course materials.

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In March 2014, we, through our “Xueersi” brand, collaborated closely with Cambridge University Press, and together, launched a series of English learning materials called “Hello Learner’s English.” The Hello Learner’s English series of learning materials is tailored specifically for Chinese students, from grades one through six, and introduces new learning patterns for students to advance their English speaking, listening, reading and writing abilities, preparing students to pass the government authorized English examinations or well-recognized English assessment tests, and for their future secondary school or college English entrance examinations.

Moreover, Since May 2016, we have cooperated with LAZEL Inc. by entering into content license agreements with LAZEL Inc., pursuant to which we are granted license to use leveled English reading materials “Reading A-Z” and certain other distribution rights with respect to such reading materials. The leveled reading method of “Reading A-Z” scientifically provides children of different age groups with English reading content that is suitable for their development.

Since November 2017, we entered into certain content license agreements with Educational Testing Service, or ETS, pursuant to which, we and ETS intend to collaborate on launching our TOEFL and GRE preparation materials, providing online practice and automated scoring and feedback systems to our students.

Our Teachers

We have a team of dedicated and highly qualified teachers with a strong passion for education, whom we believe are essential to our success. We are committed to maintaining consistent and high teaching quality across our business. This commitment is reflected in our highly selective teacher-hiring process, and in our emphasis on continued teacher training and rigorous evaluation, competitive performance-based compensation and opportunities for career advancement. We had 21,387, 27,500 and 44,849 full-time teachers and 4,616, 8,245 and 11,142 contract teachers as of February 28/29, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively.

For our Xueersi business, personalized premium services and online education business, we recruit teachers from university graduates, including many from top-tier universities in China, as well as experienced teachers with a solid track record and strong reputation from other schools. Each of our newly hired full-time teachers is required to undergo certain standard and customized trainings that focus on education content, teaching skills and techniques as well as our corporate culture and values. In addition, our teachers are regularly evaluated for their classroom performance and teaching results. Our teachers’ retention, compensation and promotion are to a large extent based on the results of such evaluations. We offer our teachers competitive and performance-based compensation packages and provide them with prospects of career advancement within the company. Our best teachers may be promoted to become directors of our operations in new geographic markets outside Beijing, invited to participate in our educational content development effort and even considered for senior management positions.

Our Network

As of February 28, 2021, our extensive network consisted of 1,098 learning centers and 990 service centers in the cities set forth in the table below. Our learning centers are physical locations where classes are conducted. Our service centers offer consultation, course selection, registration and other services, most of which are also provided by our call centers and online platform.

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The following table sets forth the number of learning centers and service centers in each of the 110 cities in our physical network as of February 28, 2021.

    

Number of Learning

    

Number of Service

City

Centers

Centers

Beijing

 

155

 

138

Shanghai

 

100

 

95

Guangzhou

 

81

 

80

Shenzhen

 

79

 

73

Nanjing

 

79

 

59

Hangzhou

 

65

 

55

Tianjin

 

45

 

40

Wuhan

 

35

 

28

Xi’an

 

37

 

30

Chengdu

 

26

 

24

Zhengzhou

 

26

 

24

Suzhou

34

30

Chongqing

46

46

Shenyang

26

24

Taiyuan

12

9

Jinan

17

16

Qingdao

12

12

Changsha

16

10

Shijiazhuang

12

12

Wuxi

6

6

Fuzhou

11

10

Nanchang

8

7

Hefei

14

14

Ningbo

5

2

Luoyang

3

3

Lanzhou

4

3

Changchun

3

3

Guiyang

4

4

Xiamen

2

2

Dalian

3

2

Dongguan

4

4

Foshan

8

8

Nantong