Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
Community Financial
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$28.91 6 $161
10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-09-30 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-06-30 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-09-30 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-06-30 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-03-31 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-09-30 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-06-30 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-03-31 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2015-12-31 Annual: 2015-12-31
10-Q 2015-09-30 Quarter: 2015-09-30
10-Q 2015-06-30 Quarter: 2015-06-30
10-Q 2015-03-31 Quarter: 2015-03-31
10-K 2014-12-31 Annual: 2014-12-31
10-Q 2014-09-30 Quarter: 2014-09-30
10-Q 2014-06-30 Quarter: 2014-06-30
10-Q 2014-03-31 Quarter: 2014-03-31
10-K 2013-12-31 Annual: 2013-12-31
8-K 2019-04-01 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-04 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-12-20 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-07 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-29 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-01 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-26 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-16 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2018-05-02 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-30 Officers
8-K 2018-03-28 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-29 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-01 M&A, Other Events, Exhibits
VRSN VeriSign 22,540
MAS Masco 11,910
TRS Trimas 1,480
TSLX TPG Specialty Lending 1,320
HLG Hailiang Education Group 1,140
MLAB Mesa Laboratories 881
APTX Aptinyx 129
ISR Isoray 27
XSPA Xpresspa Group 4
EXDI Exactus 0
TCFC 2018-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Note 1 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2 - Business Combination and Intangble Assets
Note 3 - Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income
Note 4 - Earnings per Share
Note 5 -Restrictions on Cash and Amounts Due From Banks
Note 6 - Securities
Note 7 - Loans
Note 8 - Loan Servicing
Note 9 - Other Real Estate Owned (&Ldquo;Oreo&Rdquo;)
Note 10 - Premises and Equipment
Note 11 - Deposits
Note 12 - Short-Term Borrowings and Long-Term Debt
Note 13 - Income Taxes
Note 14 - Commitments and Contingencies
Note 15 - Stock-Based Compensation
Note 16 - Employee Benefit Plans
Note 17 - Guaranteed Preferred Beneficial Interest in Junior Subordinated Debentures (&Ldquo;Trups&Rdquo;)
Note 18 - Subordinated Notes
Note 19 - Regulatory Capital
Note 20 - Fair Value Measurements
Note 21 - Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Note 22 - Condensed Financial Statements - Parent Company Only
Note 23 - Quarterly Financial Comparison (Unaudited)
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships, Related Transactions and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16. Form 10-K Summary
EX-10.78 tv513078_ex10-78.htm
EX-21 tv513078_ex21.htm
EX-23.1 tv513078_ex23-1.htm
EX-31.1 tv513078_ex31-1.htm
EX-31.2 tv513078_ex31-2.htm
EX-32 tv513078_ex32.htm

Community Financial Earnings 2018-12-31

TCFC 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

10-K 1 tv513078_10k.htm FORM 10-K

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, DC 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018

OR

¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from _________ to ________

 

Commission File No. 001-36094

 

 

 

THE COMMUNITY FINANCIAL CORPORATION

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Maryland   52-1652138
(State of other jurisdiction of   (I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)   Identification No.)

 

3035 Leonardtown Road, Waldorf, Maryland   20601
(Address of principal executive offices)   (Zip Code)

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (301) 645-5601

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class   Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $.01 per share   The NASDAQ Stock Market, LLC

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ¨ No x

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ¨ No x

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes x No ¨

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (Section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes x No ¨

 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (Section 229.405) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ¨

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large Accelerated Filer  ¨ Accelerated Filer x
Non-Accelerated Filer  ¨ Smaller Reporting Company  x
Emerging Growth Company  ¨  

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.)

Yes ¨ No x

 

The aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $166.80 million based on the closing price $35.36 per share at which the common stock was sold on the last business day of the Company’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter.  For purposes of this calculation only, the shares held by directors, executive officers and the Company’s Employee Stock Ownership Plan of the registrant are deemed to be shares held by affiliates.

 

Number of shares of common stock outstanding as of March 1, 2019: 5,581,521

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

Portions of the Proxy Statement for the 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders. (Part III)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents Page
   
PART I  
   
Item 1. Business 1
   
Supervision and Regulation 18
   
Management 24
   
Item 1A. Risk Factors 26
   
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments 40
   
Item 2. Properties 40
   
Item 3. Legal Proceedings 40
   
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures 40
   
PART II  
   
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities 41
   
Item 6. Selected Financial Data 44
   
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations 48
   
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure about Market Risk 88
   
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data 90
   
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures 161
   
Item 9B. Other Information 161
   
PART III  
   
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance 162
   
Item 11. Executive Compensation 162
   
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters 162
   
Item 13. Certain Relationships, Related Transactions and Director Independence 163
   
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services 163
   
PART IV  
   
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules 164
   
Item 16. Form 10-K Summary 168

 

 

 

 

PART I

 

This report contains certain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the federal securities laws. These statements are not historical facts, rather statements based on The Community Financial Corporation’s current expectations regarding its business strategies, intended results and future performance. Forward-looking statements are preceded by terms such as “expects,” “believes,” “anticipates,” “intends” and similar expressions.

 

Management’s ability to predict results or the effect of future plans or strategies is inherently uncertain. Factors that could affect actual results include interest rate trends, the general economic climate in the market area in which The Community Financial Corporation operates, as well as nationwide, The Community Financial Corporation’s ability to control costs and expenses, competitive products and pricing, changes in accounting principles, loan demand, loan delinquency rates, charge-offs, changes in federal and state legislation and regulation and effectively manage the risks the Company faces, including credit, operational and cyber security risks. These factors should be considered in evaluating the forward-looking statements and undue reliance should not be placed on such statements. The Community Financial Corporation assumes no obligation to update any forward-looking statement after the date of the statements or to reflect the occurrence of anticipated or unanticipated events.

 

Item 1. Business

 

Business

 

The Community Financial Corporation (the “Company’) is a bank holding company organized in 1989 under the laws of the State of Maryland. It owns all the outstanding shares of capital stock of Community Bank of the Chesapeake (the “Bank”), a Maryland-chartered commercial bank. The Bank was organized in 1950 as Tri-County Building and Loan Association of Waldorf, a mutual savings and loan association, and in 1986 converted to a federal stock savings bank and adopted the name Tri-County Federal Savings Bank. In 1997, the Bank converted to a Maryland-chartered commercial bank and adopted the name Community Bank of Tri-County. Effective October 18, 2013, Community Bank changed its name to become Community Bank of the Chesapeake.

 

The Company engages in no significant activity other than holding the stock of the Bank and operating the business of the Bank. Accordingly, the information set forth in this 10-K, including financial statements and related data, relates primarily to the Bank and its subsidiaries.

 

The Bank maintains its main office and operations center in Waldorf, Maryland, in addition to its branch offices in Lexington Park, Leonardtown, La Plata (two branches), Dunkirk, Bryans Road, Waldorf, Charlotte Hall, Prince Frederick and Lusby, Maryland; and downtown Fredericksburg, Virginia. In addition, the Bank maintains five loan production offices (“LPOs”) in La Plata, Prince Frederick, Leonardtown and Annapolis, Maryland and in Fredericksburg, Virginia. The Leonardtown LPO is co-located with the branch. We also serve our customers through our website: www.cbtc.com. In addition to providing our customers with 24-hour access to their accounts, and information regarding our products and services, hours of service, and locations, the website provides extensive information about the Company for the investment community. In addition, our filings with the SEC (including our annual report on Form 10-K; our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q; and our current reports on Form 8-K), and all amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, are available without charge, and are posted to the Investor Relations portion of our website. The website also provides information regarding our Board of Directors and management team, as well as certain Board Committee charters and our corporate governance policies. The content of our website shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into this Annual Report.

 

On January 1, 2018, the Company completed its acquisition of County First Bank (“County First”) with and into the Bank, with the Bank as the surviving bank (the “Merger”) pursuant to the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of July 31, 2017, by and among the Company, the Bank and County First. As of January 1, 2018, the Company acquired fair valued total assets of $227.71 million, total loans of $140.8 million and total deposits of $199.2 million. The acquisition represented 16.2% of the Company’s December 31, 2017 total assets of $1.4 billion. County First had five branch offices in La Plata, Waldorf, New Market, Prince Frederick and California, Maryland. The Bank kept the La Plata branch open. In May 2018, the remaining four branches were closed and consolidated with legacy Community Bank of the Chesapeake branch offices. The three bank locations that were held for sale were sold in the first six months of 2018. The remaining closed branch lease expired in December 2018.

 

As of December 31, 2018, the Bank operated 15 automated teller machines which includes three stand-alone locations. The Bank offers telephone and internet banking services. The Bank is engaged in the commercial and retail banking business as authorized by the banking statutes of the States of Maryland and Virginia and applicable federal regulations, including the acceptance of deposits, and the origination of loans to individuals, associations, partnerships and corporations. The Bank’s real estate loan portfolio consists of commercial mortgage loans, residential first and second mortgage loans and home equity lines of credit. Commercial lending consists of both secured and unsecured loans. The Bank’s deposits are insured up to applicable limits by the Deposit Insurance Fund administered by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”), the Bank’s primary federal regulator.

 

 

1 Total acquired assets do not include goodwill of $10.8 million.

 

 1 

 

 

Market Area

 

The Bank considers its principal lending and deposit market area to consist of the tri-county area in Southern Maryland and the greater Fredericksburg area in Virginia. As a result of the Bank’s expansion into the greater Fredericksburg market in 2013, Stafford County has become part of the Bank’s principal lending and deposit market area. The Annapolis LPO opening in October 2014 provided additional market expansion opportunities in 2015. Our market area is one of the fastest growing regions in the country and is home to a mix of federal facilities, industrial and high-tech businesses. The Bank’s primary market areas boast a strong median household income, low unemployment and projected population growth better than national averages.

 

The presence of several major federal facilities located within the Bank’s footprint and in adjoining counties contribute to economic growth. Major federal facilities include the Patuxent River Naval Air Station in St. Mary’s County, the Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center in Charles County and the Naval Surface Warfare –Naval Support Facility in King George County. In addition, there are several major federal facilities located in adjoining markets including Andrews Air Force Base and Defense Intelligence Agency & Defense Intelligence Analysis Center in Prince Georges County, Maryland and the U.S. Marine Base Quantico, Drug Enforcement Administration Quantico facility and Federal Bureau of Investigation Quantico facility in Prince William County, Virginia. These facilities directly employ thousands of local employees and serve as an important contributor to the region’s overall economic health.

 

The economic health of the region, while stabilized by the influence of the federal government, is not solely dependent on this sector. Calvert County is home to the Dominion Power Cove Point Liquid Natural Gas Terminal, which is one of the nation’s largest liquefied natural gas terminals and Dominion Power is currently constructing liquefaction facilities for exporting liquefied natural gas. Based on information from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, unemployment rates in the Company’s footprint have historically remained well below the national average.

 

The Bank expanded into the greater Fredericksburg, Virginia market in August 2013. According to the Fredericksburg Regional Alliance, the Fredericksburg Region, including the City of Fredericksburg and the counties of Caroline, King George, Spotsylvania, and Stafford, Virginia, has been the fastest growing region in the Commonwealth of Virginia for the last five years.

 

Competition

 

The Bank faces strong competition in the attraction of deposits and in the origination of loans. Its most direct competition for deposits and loans comes from other banks and federal and state credit unions located in its primary market area. There are more than 25 FDIC-insured depository institutions as well as several large credit unions operating in the Bank’s footprint including several large regional and national bank holding companies. The Bank also faces additional significant competition for customers’ funds from mutual funds, brokerage firms, online Banks, and other financial service companies. The Bank competes for loans by providing competitive rates and flexibility of terms and service, including customer access to senior decision makers. It competes for deposits by offering depositors a wide variety of account types, convenient office locations and competitive rates. Other services offered include tax deferred retirement programs, brokerage services through an affiliation with Community Wealth Advisors, cash management services and safe deposit boxes. The Bank has used targeted direct mail, print and online advertising and community outreach to increase its market share of deposits, loans and other services in its market area. It provides ongoing training for its staff to provide high-quality service.

 

Lending Activities

 

General

 

The Bank offers a wide variety of real estate and commercial loans. The Bank’s lending activities include commercial real estate loans, loans secured by residential rental property, construction loans, land acquisition and development loans, equipment financing, commercial and consumer loans. The Company exited the origination of owner-occupied residential mortgages in April 2015 and has established third party sources to supply its residential whole loan portfolio. Most of the Bank’s customers are residents of or businesses located in the Bank’s market area. The Bank’s primary targets for commercial loans consist of small and medium-sized businesses with revenues of $5.0 million to $35.0 million as well as not-for-profits in Southern Maryland, the Annapolis area of Maryland and the greater Fredericksburg area of Virginia.

 

 2 

 

 

Commercial Real Estate (CRE) and Other Non-Residential Real Estate Loans

 

The permanent financing of commercial and other improved real estate projects, including office buildings, retail locations, churches, and other special purpose buildings, is the largest component of the Bank’s loan portfolio. Commercial real estate loans amounted to $878.0 million or 65.2% of the loan portfolio and $727.3 million or 63.3% of the loan portfolio, respectively at December 31, 2018 and 2017. This portfolio has increased in both absolute size and as a percentage of the loan portfolio in each of the last seven years. The CRE portfolio includes commercial construction balances. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, commercial construction balances were $51.5 million or 5.9% and $44.8 million or 6.2%, respectively, of the CRE portfolio.

 

The primary securities on a commercial real estate loan are the real property and the leases or businesses that produce income for the real property. The Bank generally limits its exposure to a single borrower to 15% of the Bank’s capital and participates with other lenders on larger projects. Loans secured by commercial real estate are generally limited to 80% of the lower of the appraised value or sales price and have an initial contractual loan amortization period ranging from three to 20 years. Interest rates and payments on these loans typically adjust after an initial fixed-rate period, which is generally between three and ten years. Interest rates and payments on adjustable-rate loans are adjusted to a rate based on the United States Treasury Bill Index. Almost all the Bank’s commercial real estate loans are secured by real estate located in the Bank’s primary market area. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the largest outstanding commercial real estate loans were $21.5 million and $21.8 million, respectively, which were secured by commercial real estate and performing according to their terms.

 

Loans secured by commercial real estate are larger and involve greater risks than one- to four-family residential mortgage loans. Because payments on loans secured by such properties are often dependent on the successful operation of the business or management of the properties, repayment of such loans may be subject to a greater extent to adverse conditions in the real estate market or the economy. As a result of the greater emphasis that the Bank places on increasing its portfolio of commercial real estate loans, the Bank is increasingly exposed to the risks posed by this type of lending. To monitor cash flows on income properties, the Bank requires borrowers and loan guarantors, if any, to provide annual financial statements on multi-family or commercial real estate loans. In reaching a decision on whether to make a commercial real estate loan, the Bank considers the net operating income of the property, the borrower’s expertise, credit history and profitability, and the value of the underlying property, as well as the borrower’s global cash flows.

 

If a determination is made that there is a potential environmental hazard, the Bank will complete an Environmental Assessment Checklist. If this checklist or the appraisal indicates potential issues, a Phase 1 environmental survey will generally be required.

 

Residential First Mortgage Loans

 

Residential first mortgage loans are generally long-term loans, amortized on a monthly or bi-weekly basis, with principal and interest due each payment. These loans are secured by owner-occupied single-family homes. The initial contractual loan payment period for residential loans typically ranges from ten to 30 years. The Bank’s experience indicates that residential real estate loans remain outstanding for significantly shorter time periods than their contractual terms. Borrowers may refinance or prepay loans at their option, without penalty.

 

The Company stopped originating owner-occupied residential first mortgages in April 2015 and established third-party sources to fund its residential whole loan portfolio. It has been the Bank’s practice to buy residential first mortgages from only other financial institutions. The third-party sources allow the Company to maintain a well-diversified residential portfolio while addressing the credit needs of the communities in its footprint. The Bank’s practice has been to purchase individual residential first mortgage loans as well as the right to service the loans acquired.

 

Total fixed-rate loans in our residential first mortgage portfolio amounted to $102.5 million and $113.4 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2018 and 2017. Fixed-rate loans may be packaged and sold to investors or retained in the Bank’s loan portfolio. The Bank generally retains the right to service loans sold for a payment based upon a percentage (generally 0.25% of the outstanding loan balance). As of December 31, 2018, and 2017, the Bank serviced $38.1 million and $43.7 million, respectively, in residential mortgage loans for others.

 

Adjustable mortgages are generally adjustable on one-, three- and five-year terms with limitations on upward adjustments per re-pricing period and an upward cap over the life of the loan. As of December 31, 2018, and 2017, the Bank had $54.2 million and $56.9 million, respectively, in adjustable-rate residential mortgage loans.

 

 3 

 

 

At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the largest outstanding residential first mortgage loans were $2.1 million and $2.1 million, respectively, which were secured by residences located in the Bank’s market area. The loans were performing according to terms.

 

Residential first mortgage loans with loan-to-value ratios in excess of 80% generally carry private mortgage insurance to lower the Bank’s exposure to approximately 80% of the value of the property. The Bank had fewer than 10 loans with private mortgage insurance at December 31, 2018 and 2017.

 

All improved real estate that serves as security for a loan made by the Bank must be insured, in the amount and by such companies as may be approved by the Bank, against fire, vandalism, malicious mischief and other hazards. Such insurance must be maintained through the entire term of the loan and in an amount not less than that amount necessary to pay the Bank’s indebtedness in full.

 

Longer-term fixed-rate and adjustable-rate residential mortgage loans are subject to greater interest-rate risk due to term and annual and lifetime limitations on interest rate adjustments. There are also credit risks resulting from potential increased costs to the borrower as a result of repricing of adjustable-rate mortgage loans. During periods of rising interest rates, the risk of default on adjustable-rate mortgage loans may increase due to the upward adjustment of interest cost to the borrower.  

 

Residential Rentals

 

Residential rental mortgage loans are amortizing, with principal and interest due each month. These loans are non-owner occupied and secured by income-producing 1-4 family units and apartments. The Bank originates both fixed-rate and adjustable-rate residential rental first mortgages. Loans secured by residential rental properties are generally limited to 80% of the lower of the appraised value or sales price at origination and have initial contractual loan payments period ranging from three to 20 years. The primary securities on a residential rental loan are the property and the leases that produce income.

 

Total fixed-rate loans in our residential rental mortgage portfolio amounted to $26.9 million and $16.8 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2018 and 2017. As of December 31, 2018, and 2017, the Bank had $97.4 million and $93.4 million, respectively, in adjustable-rate residential rental mortgage loans. As of December 31, 2018, and 2017, $96.6 million and $85.0 million, respectively, were 1-4 family units and $27.7 million and $25.2 million, respectively, were apartment buildings.

 

At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the largest outstanding residential rental mortgage loan was $10.0 million and $10.2 million, respectively, which was secured by over 120 single family homes located in the Bank’s market area. The loan was performing according to its terms at December 31, 2018 and 2017.

 

Loans secured by residential rental properties involve greater risks than 1-4 family residential mortgage loans. Although, there are similar risk characteristics shared with commercial real estate loans, the balances for the loans secured by residential rental properties are generally smaller. Because payments on loans secured by residential rental properties are often dependent on the successful operation or management of the properties, repayment of these loans may be subject to a greater extent to adverse conditions in the rental real estate market or the economy than similar owner-occupied properties.

 

Construction and Land Development Loans

 

The Bank offers loans to home builders for the construction of one- to four-family dwellings. Construction loans totaled $11.8 million and $8.8 million, respectively, at December 31, 2018 and 2017. Generally, these loans are secured by the real estate under construction as well as by guarantees of the principals involved. Draws are made upon satisfactory completion of predefined stages of construction. The Bank will typically lend up to 80% of the lower of appraised value or the contract purchase price of the homes to be constructed. In addition, the Bank offers loans to acquire and develop land, as well as loans on undeveloped, subdivided lots for home building by individuals. Land acquisition and development loans totaled $17.9 million and $19.1 million, respectively, at December 31, 2018 and 2017. Bank policy requires that zoning and permits must be in place prior to making development loans. The Bank typically lends up to the lower of 75% of the appraised value or cost. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the largest outstanding construction and land development loans were $2.5 million and $3.5 million, respectively, which were secured by land in the Bank’s market area.

 

 4 

 

 

The Bank’s ability to originate residential construction and development loans is heavily dependent on the continued demand for single-family housing in the Bank’s market area. The Bank’s investment in these loans has declined in recent years. Construction and land development loans as a percentage of the Bank’s portfolio have been decreasing since the 2008 financial crisis. As of December 31, 2018, and 2017 residential construction and development loans as a percentage of the total loans were 2.2% and 2.4%, respectively. If the demand for new houses being built from smaller builders in the Bank’s market areas continues to decline, this portion of the loan portfolio may continue to decline. In addition, a decline in demand for new housing might adversely affect the ability of borrowers to repay these loans.

 

Construction and land development loans are inherently riskier than providing financing on owner-occupied real estate. The Bank’s risk of loss is affected by the accuracy of the initial estimate of the market value of the completed project as well as estimates to complete the project. In addition, the volatility of the real estate market makes it increasingly difficult to ensure that the valuation of land associated with these loans is accurate. During the construction phase, a number of factors could result in delays and cost overruns. If the estimate of construction costs proves to be inaccurate, the Bank may be required to advance funds beyond the amount originally committed to permit completion of the development. If the estimate of completed value proves to be inaccurate, the Bank may be confronted, at or before the maturity of the loan, with a project having a value that is insufficient to assure full repayment. As a result of these factors, construction lending often involves the disbursement of substantial funds with repayment dependent, in part, on the success of the project rather than the ability of the borrower or guarantor to repay principal and interest. If the Bank forecloses on a project, the Bank may not be able to recover all of the unpaid balance of, and accrued interest on, the loan as well as related foreclosure and holding costs.

 

Home Equity and Second Mortgage Loans

 

The Bank maintains a portfolio of home equity and second mortgage loans. Home equity loans, which totaled $34.6 million and $20.0 million, respectively at December 31, 2018 and 2017, are generally made in the form of lines of credit and have terms of up to 20 years, variable rates priced at the then current Wall Street Journal prime rate plus a margin, and require an 80% or 90% loan-to-value ratio (including any prior liens), depending on the specific loan program. The $14.6 million increase at December 31, 2018 compared to the prior year end was primarily due to the acquisition of County First Bank in January 2018.

 

Second mortgage loans, which totaled $920,000 and $1.4 million, respectively at December 31, 2018 and 2017, are fixed or variable-rate loans that have original terms between five and 15 years. These products contain a higher risk of default than residential first mortgages as in the event of foreclosure, the first mortgage must be paid off prior to collection of the second mortgage. This risk is heightened as the market value of residential property has not fully returned to pre-financial crisis levels and interest rates began to increase in 2017.

 

Commercial Loans

 

The Bank offers commercial loans to its business customers. The Bank offers a variety of commercial loan products including term loans and lines of credit. The portfolio consists primarily of demand loans and lines of credit. Such loans can be made for terms of up to five years. However, most of the loans are originated for a term of two years or less. The Bank offers both fixed-rate and adjustable-rate loans (typically tied to the then current Wall Street Journal prime rate plus a margin with a floor) under these product lines. Commercial loans remain an important class of the Bank’s loan portfolio. At $71.7 million and 5.3% of total loans and $56.4 million and 4.9% of total loans at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, the commercial loan portfolio increased $15.3 million compared to the prior year end balance.

 

When making commercial business loans, the Bank considers the borrower’s financial condition, global cash flows, ability to service the debt, payment history of both corporate and personal debt, the projected cash flows of the business, the viability of the industry in which the borrower operates and the value of the collateral. These loans are primarily secured by equipment, real property, accounts receivable or other security as determined by the Bank. The higher interest rates and shorter loan terms available on commercial lending make these products attractive to the Bank.

 

Commercial business loans entail greater risk than residential mortgage loans. Unlike residential mortgage loans, which generally are made on the basis of the borrower’s ability to make repayment from his or her employment or other income and which are secured by real property whose value tends to be more easily ascertainable, commercial loans are made on the basis of the borrower’s ability to make repayment from the cash flows of the borrower’s business. As a result, the availability of funds for the repayment of commercial loans may depend substantially on the success of the business itself. In the case of business failure, collateral would need to be liquidated to provide repayment for the loan. In many cases, the highly specialized nature of collateral would make full recovery from the sale of collateral unlikely. The Bank controls these risks by establishing guidelines that provide for loans with low loan-to-value ratios. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the largest outstanding commercial loans were $4.2 million and $4.4 million, respectively, which were secured by commercial real estate (all of which were located in the Bank’s market area), cash and investments. These loans were performing according to terms at December 31, 2018 and 2017.

 

 5 

 

 

Consumer Loans

 

The Bank has consumer loans secured by automobiles, boats, recreational vehicles and trucks. The Bank also makes home improvement loans and offers both secured and unsecured personal lines of credit. Consumer loans totaled $751,000 and $573,000, respectively, at December 31, 2018 and 2017. Consumer loans entail greater risk from other loan types due to being secured by rapidly depreciating assets or the reliance on the borrower’s continuing financial stability.

 

Commercial Equipment Loans

 

The Bank also maintains an amortizing commercial portfolio consisting primarily of commercial equipment loans. Commercial equipment loans totaled $50.2 million and $35.9 million, or 3.7% and 3.1% of the total loan portfolio, respectively, at December 31, 2018 and 2017. These loans consist primarily of fixed-rate, short-term loans collateralized by customers’ equipment including trucks, cars, construction and other more specialized equipment. When making commercial equipment loans, the Bank considers the same factors it considers when underwriting a commercial business loan. The higher interest rates and shorter repayment terms available on commercial equipment lending make these products attractive to the Bank. These loans entail greater risk than loans such as residential mortgage loans, which generally are made on the basis of the borrower’s ability to make repayment from his or her employment or other income and which are secured by real property whose value tends to be more easily ascertainable. Commercial loans are of higher risk and typically are made on the basis of the borrower’s ability to make repayment from the cash flows of the borrower’s business. As a result, the availability of funds for the repayment of commercial loans may depend substantially on the success of the business itself. In the case of business failure, collateral must be liquidated to provide repayment for the loan. In many cases, the highly specialized nature of collateral equipment would make full recovery from the sale of collateral problematic. The Bank assesses the amount of collateral required for a loan based upon the borrowers’ credit worthiness.

 

Loan Portfolio Analysis

 

Set forth below is selected data relating to the composition of the Bank’s loan portfolio by type of loan on the dates indicated.

 

   At December 31, 
   2018   2017   2016   2015   2014 
(dollars in thousands)  Amount   %   Amount   %   Amount   %   Amount   %   Amount   % 
                                         
Commercial real estate  $878,016    65.18%  $727,314    63.25%  $667,105    61.25%  $538,888    58.64%  $485,601    55.68%
Residential first mtgs.   156,709    11.63%   170,374    14.81%   171,004    15.70%   131,401    14.30%   146,539    16.80%
Residential rentals (1)   124,298    9.23%   110,228    9.58%   101,897    9.36%   93,157    10.14%   81,777    9.38%
Construction and land dev.   29,705    2.21%   27,871    2.42%   36,934    3.39%   36,189    3.94%   36,370    4.17%
Home equity and second mtgs.   35,561    2.64%   21,351    1.86%   21,399    1.97%   21,716    2.36%   21,452    2.46%
Commercial loans   71,680    5.32%   56,417    4.91%   50,484    4.64%   67,246    7.32%   73,625    8.44%
Consumer loans   751    0.06%   573    0.05%   422    0.04%   366    0.04%   613    0.07%
Commercial equipment   50,202    3.73%   35,916    3.12%   39,737    3.65%   29,931    3.26%   26,152    3.00%
Total Loans   1,346,922    100.00%   1,150,044    100.00%   1,088,982    100.00%   918,894    100.00%   872,129    100.00%
Deferred loan fees and premiums   (1,183)        (1,086)        (397)        1,154         1,239      
Allowance for loan losses   10,976         10,515         9,860         8,540         8,481      
Loans receivable, net  $1,337,129        $1,140,615        $1,079,519        $909,200        $862,409      

 

(1) Loans secured by residential rental property were included in the residential first mortgage and commercial real estate loan portfolios prior to a reclassification in 2016. Comparative financial information was reclassified to conform to the classification presented in the Consolidated Financial Statements at and for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014.

 

 6 

 

 

The following table sets forth for the periods indicated the average balances outstanding and average interest yields for each major category of loans.

 

   For the Years Ended December 31, 
   2018   2017   2016   2015   2014 
                                         
   Average   Average   Average   Average   Average   Average   Average   Average   Average   Average 
dollars in thousands  Balance   Yield   Balance   Yield   Balance   Yield   Balance   Yield   Balance   Yield 
Commercial real estate  $833,355    4.61%  $699,349    4.42%  $602,648    4.50%  $518,329    4.64%  $460,014    4.84%
Residential first mtgs.   162,505    3.69%   176,186    3.77%   151,366    3.99%   134,728    4.35%   148,367    4.43%
Residential rentals (1)   126,491    4.91%   106,000    4.62%   96,611    4.69%   88,251    4.63%   75,104    4.65%
Construction and land dev.   28,489    5.56%   33,798    4.96%   36,938    4.58%   37,665    4.99%   29,921    4.68%
Home equity and second mtgs.   37,862    5.26%   21,515    4.38%   21,781    4.08%   21,332    4.09%   21,426    4.21%
Commercial (2)   103,537    5.30%   86,871    5.21%   87,705    5.27%   81,957    5.61%   92,199    5.21%
Consumer loans   798    6.77%   477    7.76%   397    8.56%   465    8.82%   701    7.99%
Allowance for loan losses   (10,745)   n/a    (10,374)   n/a    (9,157)   n/a    (8,541)   n/a    (8,351)   n/a 
Net Average Loans  $1,282,292    4.66%  $1,113,822    4.45%  $988,289    4.55%  $874,186    4.73%  $819,381    4.82%

 

(1) Loans secured by residential rental property were included in the residential first mortgage and commercial real estate loan portfolios prior to a reclassification in 2016. Comparative financial information was reclassified to conform to the classification presented in the Consolidated Financial Statements at and for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014.

 

(2) Includes both commercial loans and commercial equipment loans.

 

Loan Originations, Purchases and Sales

 

The Bank solicits loan applications through marketing by commercial loan officers, its branch network, and referrals from customers. Loans are processed and approved according to guidelines established by the Bank. Loan requirements such as income verification, collateral appraisal, and credit reports vary by loan type. Additionally, residential mortgages are purchased from third-party providers after reviewing loan documents, underwriting support, and completing other procedures, as necessary. During the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Bank purchased residential first mortgages of $11.0 million and $25.5 million, respectively.

 

Loan processing functions are generally centralized except for small consumer loans. Depending on market conditions, residential mortgage loans may be classified with the intent to sell to third parties such as FHLMC. The Company sold no residential mortgage loans for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016. During the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company sold the guaranteed portion of a U.S. Small Business Administration (“SBA”) loan for proceeds of $2.8 million and recognized a gain of $294,000.

 

To comply with internal and regulatory limits on loans to one borrower, the Bank may sell portions of commercial, commercial real estate and commercial construction loans to other lenders. The Bank’s sold participated loans with other lenders at December 31, 2018 and 2017 were $24.6 million and $9.6 million, respectively. The Bank may also buy loans, portions of loans, or participation certificates from other lenders to limit overall exposure and to ensure that all participants remain below internal and regulatory limits. The Bank only purchases loans or portions of loans after reviewing loan documents, underwriting support, and completing other procedures, as necessary.

 

The Bank participates in commercial, commercial real estate and commercial construction loans. The Bank’s purchased participation loans from other lenders at December 31, 2018 and 2017 were $11.9 million and $6.3 million, respectively. Purchased participation loans are subject to the same regulatory and internal policy requirements as other loans in the Bank’s portfolio as described below.

 

 7 

 

 

Loan Approvals, Procedures and Authority

 

Loan approval authority is established by Board policy. The Officer’s Loan Committee (OLC) consists of the following members of the Bank’s executive management; the Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”), President and Chief Risk Officer (“CRO”), Chief Operating Officer (“COO”) and the Chief Lending Officer (“CLO”). In addition, the OLC includes the Senior Credit Officer (“SCO”) and Senior Loan Officers (“SLO’s”). The OLC must have three (3) members of Executive Management approve all loans presented above individual loan authorities granted to the SCO and the SLOs. The SCO and SLOs have individual loan authority up to $1.0 million and $750,000, respectively. Loan approval authorities vary by individual. The individual lending authority of the other lenders is set by management and is based on their individual abilities.

 

All loans and loan relationships that exceed the Bank’s in-house lending limit are required to be approved by at least three (3) members of the Bank’s Credit Risk Committee (“CRC”). In addition, the Board of Directors or the CRC approve all loans required to be approved by regulation, such as Regulation O loans or commercial loans to employees. The in-house lending guideline is approved by the Board on an annual basis or as needed if more frequently and is less than the Bank’s legal lending limit.

 

Depending on the loan and collateral type, conditions for protecting the Bank’s collateral are specified in the loan documents. Typically, these conditions might include requirements to maintain hazard and title insurance and to pay property taxes.

 

The Credit Risk Committee of the Board, consisting of three or more directors, assists the Board in its oversight responsibilities. The Committee reviews the Bank’s credit risk management, including the significant policies, procedures and practices employed to manage credit risk, and provides recommendations to the Board and strategic guidance to management on the assumption, management and mitigation of credit risk.

 

Loans to One Borrower

 

Under Maryland law, the maximum amount that the Bank is permitted to lend to any one borrower and his or her related interests may generally not exceed 10% of the Bank’s unimpaired capital and surplus, which is defined to include the Bank’s capital, surplus, retained earnings and 50% of its reserve for possible loan losses. Under this authority, the Bank would have been permitted to lend up to $19.1 million and $14.4 million, respectively, to any one borrower at December 31, 2018 and 2017. By interpretive ruling of the Maryland Commissioner, Maryland banks have the option of lending up to the amount that would be permissible for a national bank, which is generally 15% of unimpaired capital and surplus (defined to include a bank’s total capital for regulatory capital purposes plus any loan loss allowances not included in regulatory capital). Under this formula, the Bank would have been permitted to lend up to $29.4 million and $22.4 million, respectively, to any one borrower at December 31, 2018 and 2017. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the largest amount outstanding to any one borrower and borrower’s related interests was $25.7 million and $21.8 million, respectively.

 

Loan Commitments

 

The Bank does not normally negotiate standby commitments for the construction and purchase of real estate. The Bank’s outstanding commitments to originate loans at December 31, 2018 and 2017 were approximately $56.8 million and $63.5 million, respectively, excluding undisbursed portions of loans in process. It has been the Bank’s experience that few commitments expire unfunded. 

 

Maturity of Loan Portfolio

 

See Note 7 of the Consolidated Financial Statements for information regarding the dollar amount of loans maturing in the Bank’s portfolio based on their contractual terms to maturity as of December 31, 2018. Demand loans, loans having no stated schedule of repayments and no stated maturity, and overdrafts are reported as due in one year or less.

 

Asset Classification

 

Federal regulations and our policies require that we utilize an internal asset classification system as a means of reporting on asset quality. We use an internal asset classification system, substantially consistent with Federal banking regulations, as a part of our credit monitoring system. Federal banking regulations set forth a classification scheme for problem and potential problem assets as “substandard,” “doubtful” or “loss” assets. An asset is considered “substandard” if it is inadequately protected by the current net worth and paying capacity of the obligor or of the collateral pledged, if any. “Substandard” assets include those characterized by the “distinct possibility” that the insured institution will sustain “some loss” if the deficiencies are not corrected. Assets classified as “doubtful” have all of the weaknesses inherent in those classified “substandard” with the added characteristic that the weaknesses present make “collection or liquidation in full,” on the basis of currently existing facts, conditions, and values, “highly questionable and improbable.” Assets classified as “loss” are those considered “uncollectible” and of such little value that their continuance as assets without the establishment of a specific loss reserve is not warranted. Assets that do not currently expose the insured institution to sufficient risk to warrant classification in one of these categories but possess weaknesses are required to be designated “special mention.”

 

 8 

 

 

When an insured institution classifies assets as “substandard” or “doubtful,” it is required that a specific valuation allowance for loan losses be established in an amount deemed prudent by management. When an insured institution classifies assets as “loss,” it is required either to establish a specific allowance for losses equal to 100% of the amount of the asset so classified or to charge off such amount.

 

The table below sets forth information on our classified assets and assets designated special mention at the dates indicated. Classified and special mention assets include loans, securities and other real estate owned.

 

(dollars in thousands)  December 31
2018
   December 31,
2017
   December 31,
2016
   December 31,
2015
   December 31,
2014
 
Classified assets                         
Substandard  $40,819   $50,298   $39,109   $42,485   $54,022 
Doubtful   -    -    137    861    - 
Loss   -    -    -    -    - 
Total classified assets   40,819    50,298    39,246    43,346    54,022 
Special mention assets   -    96    -    1,642    5,460 
   $40,819   $50,394   $39,246   $44,988   $59,482 

 

Delinquencies

 

The Bank’s collection procedures provide that when a loan is 15 days delinquent, the borrower is contacted, and payment is requested. If the delinquency continues, efforts will be made to contact the delinquent borrower and obtain payment. If these efforts prove unsuccessful, the Bank will pursue appropriate legal action including repossession of the collateral. In certain instances, the Bank will attempt to modify the loan or grant a limited moratorium on loan payments to enable the borrower to reorganize borrower’s financial affairs. For an analysis of past due loans as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, refer to Note 7 in the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Impaired Loans

 

A loan is considered impaired when, based on current information and events, it is probable that the Bank will be unable to collect the scheduled payments of principal or interest when due according to the contractual terms of the loan agreement. The Bank evaluates substandard classified loans on an individualized basis to determine whether a loan is impaired. Classified doubtful and loss loans, loans delinquent 90 days or greater, non-accrual loans and troubled debt restructures (“TDRs”) are generally considered impaired (See Notes 1 and 7 of the Consolidated Financial Statements).

 

Factors considered by management in determining impaired status include payment status, collateral value and the probability of collecting scheduled principal and interest payments when due. Loans that experience insignificant payment delays and payment shortfalls generally are not classified as impaired. Management determines the significance of payment delays and shortfalls on a case-by-case basis, taking into consideration the circumstances surrounding the loan. These circumstances include the length of the delay, the reasons for the delay, the borrower’s payment record and the amount of the shortfall in relation to the principal and interest owed. Loans not impaired are included in the pool of loans evaluated in the general component of the allowance.

 

If a specific loan is deemed to be impaired, it is evaluated for impairment. Impairment is measured on a loan-by-loan basis for commercial and construction loans using one of three acceptable methods: the present value of expected future cash flows discounted at the loan’s effective interest rate, the loan’s observable market price or the fair value of the collateral, if the loan is collateral dependent. For loans that have an impairment, a specific allowance is established when the discounted cash flows (or collateral value or observable market price) of the impaired loan is lower than carrying value of that loan.

 

TDRs are loans that have been modified to provide for a reduction or a delay in the payment of either interest or principal because of deterioration in the financial condition of the borrower. A loan extended or renewed at a stated interest rate equal to the current interest rate for new debt with similar risk is not considered a TDR. Once an obligation has been classified as a TDR it continues to be considered a TDR until paid in full or until the debt is refinanced and considered unimpaired. All TDRs are considered impaired and are evaluated for impairment on a loan-by-loan basis. The Company does not participate in any specific government or Company-sponsored loan modification programs. All restructured loan agreements are individual contracts negotiated with a borrower.

 

 9 

 

 

Specific loan loss reserves of $1.2 million and $1.0 million, respectively, related to impaired loans at December 31, 2018 and 2017. The following table sets forth information with respect to the Bank’s impaired loans at the dates indicated. The table includes a breakdown between impaired loans with and without an allowance:

 

   December 31, 
(dollars in thousands)  2018   2017   2016   2015   2014 
Recorded investment with no allowance  $32,813   $39,028   $26,436   $35,171   $45,587 
Recorded investment with allowance   4,067    4,226    8,924    4,066    4,122 
                          
Total impaired loans  $36,880   $43,254   $35,360   $39,237   $49,709 
                          
Specific allocations of allowance  $1,180   $1,024   $1,289   $1,608   $451 
                          
Interest income recognized  $1,693   $1,829   $1,309   $1,366   $1,841 

 

For additional information regarding impaired loans by class at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, refer to Note 7 in the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Management closely monitors the payment activity of all its loans. Management periodically reviews the adequacy of the allowance for loan losses based on an analysis of the size and composition of the loan portfolio; the Bank’s historical loss experience; trends in delinquency, non-performing, classified loans and charge-offs; as well as economic conditions and the regulatory environment. Loan losses are charged off against the allowance when individual loans are deemed uncollectible. Subsequent recoveries, if any, are credited to the allowance. Management believes it has established its existing allowance for loan losses in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America and is in compliance with appropriate regulatory guidelines. However, the establishment of the level of the allowance for loan losses is highly subjective and dependent on incomplete information as to the ultimate disposition of loans. Accordingly, actual losses may vary from the amounts estimated. Additionally, our regulators as an integral part of their examination process, periodically review our allowance for loan losses and may require us to increase or decrease the allowance for loan losses, thereby affecting the Bank’s financial condition and earnings. For a more complete discussion of the allowance for loan losses, see the section captioned “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Critical Accounting Policies” and Notes 1 and 7 of the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

The following table allocates the allowance for loan losses by loan category at the dates indicated. The allocation of the allowance to each category is not necessarily indicative of future losses and does not restrict the use of the allowance to absorb losses in any category.

 

   At December 31, 
   2018   2017   2016   2015   2014 
(dollars in thousands)  Amount   % (1)   Amount   % (1)   Amount   % (1)   Amount   % (1)   Amount   % (1) 
                                         
Commercial real estate  $6,882    65.18%  $6,451    63.25%  $5,212    61.25%  $3,465    58.64%  $3,528    55.68%
Residential first mtgs.   755    11.63%   1,144    14.81%   1,406    15.70%   584    14.30%   1,047    16.80%
Residential rentals (2)   498    9.23%   512    9.58%   362    9.36%   538    10.14%   593    9.38%
Construction and land dev.   310    2.21%   462    2.42%   941    3.39%   1,103    3.94%   1,071    4.17%
Home equity and second mtgs.   133    2.64%   162    1.86%   138    1.97%   142    2.36%   173    2.46%
Commercial loans   1,482    5.32%   1,013    4.91%   794    4.64%   1,477    7.32%   1,677    8.44%
Consumer loans   6    0.06%   7    0.05%   3    0.04%   2    0.04%   3    0.07%
Commercial equipment   910    3.73%   764    3.12%   1,004    3.65%   1,229    3.26%   389    3.00%
Total allowance for loan losses  $10,976    100.00%  $10,515    100.00%  $9,860    100.00%  $8,540    100.00%  $8,481    100.00%

 

(1) Percent of loans in each category to total loans

 

(2) Loans secured by residential rental property were included in the residential first mortgage and commercial real estate loan portfolios prior to a reclassification in 2016. Comparative financial information was reclassified to conform to the classification presented in the Consolidated Financial Statements at and for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014.

 

 10 

 

 

The following table sets forth an analysis of activity in the Bank’s allowance for loan losses for the periods indicated.

 

   At December 31, 
(dollars in thousands)  2018   2017   2016   2015   2014 
                     
Balance at beginning of period  $10,515   $9,860   $8,540   $8,481   $8,138 
Charge-offs:                         
Commercial real estate   268    217    -    78    195 
Residential first mtgs.   115    -    -    30    94 
Residential rentals (1)   84    42    14    -    155 
Construction and land dev.   -    26    526    -    992 
Home equity and second mtgs.   7    14    -    100    59 
Commercial loans   94    13    594    432    1,134 
Consumer loans   2    2    1    -    3 
Commercial equipment   647    168    34    818    10 
Total Charge-offs   1,217    482    1,169    1,458    2,642 
Recoveries:                         
Commercial real estate   10    63    58    17    11 
Residential first mtgs.   -    -    -    1    186 
Residential rentals (1)   -    -    -    -      
Construction and land dev.   -    -    1    32    84 
Home equity and second mtgs.   18    1    5    -    10 
Commercial loans   189    1    18    11    5 
Consumer loans   -    -    -    -    11 
Commercial equipment   56    62    48    23    25 
Total Recoveries   273    127    130    84    332 
Net Charge-offs   944    355    1,039    1,374    2,310 
Provision for Loan Losses   1,405    1,010    2,359    1,433    2,653 
Balance at end of period  $10,976   $10,515   $9,860   $8,540   $8,481 
                          
Allowance for loan losses to total loans   0.81%   0.91%   0.91%   0.93%   0.97%
Net charge-offs to average loans   0.07%   0.03%   0.11%   0.16%   0.28%

 

(1) Loans secured by residential rental property were included in the residential first mortgage and commercial real estate loan portfolios prior to a reclassification in 2016. Comparative financial information was reclassified to conform to the classification presented in the Consolidated Financial Statements at and for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014.

 

Non-performing Assets

 

The Bank’s non-performing assets include other real estate owned, non-accrual loans and TDRs. Both non-accrual and TDR loans include loans that are paid current and are performing in accordance with the term of their original or modified contract terms. For a detailed discussion on asset quality see the section captioned “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Asset Quality.”

 

Other Real Estate Owned (“OREO”)

 

Real estate acquired by the Bank as a result of foreclosure or by deed in lieu of foreclosure is classified as foreclosed real estate until such time as it is sold. When such property is acquired, it is recorded at its estimated fair value. Subsequently, OREO is carried at the lower of carrying value or fair value. Additional write-downs as well as carrying expenses of the foreclosed properties are charged to expenses in the current period. The Bank had foreclosed real estate with a carrying value of approximately $8.1 million and $9.3 million, respectively at December 31, 2018 and 2017. For a discussion of the accounting for foreclosed real estate, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Critical Accounting Policies - Other Real Estate Owned” and Notes 1 and 9 in the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

 11 

 

 

Non-accrual Loans

 

Loans are reviewed on a regular basis and are placed on non-accrual status when the collection of additional interest is doubtful. The accrual of interest on mortgage and commercial loans is discontinued at the time the loan is 90 days delinquent unless the credit is well secured and in the process of collection. Consumer loans are typically charged-off no later than 90 days past due. In all cases, loans are placed on non-accrual or charged-off at an earlier date if collection of principal or interest is considered doubtful. Non-accrual loans are evaluated for impairment on a loan by loan basis in accordance with the Company’s impairment methodology.

 

All interest accrued but not collected from loans that are placed on non-accrual or charged-off is reversed against interest income. The interest on these loans is accounted for on the cash-basis or cost-recovery method, until qualifying for return to accrual status. Loans are returned to accrual status when all principal and interest amounts contractually due are brought current and future payments are reasonably assured. Non-accrual loans include certain loans that are current with all loan payments and are placed on non-accrual status due to customer operating results or cash flows. Interest is recognized on non-accrual loans on a cash-basis if there is no impairment. For a discussion of the accounting for non-accrual loans, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Asset Quality” and Notes 1 and 7 in the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

 12 

 

 

The following table sets forth information with respect to the Bank’s non-performing assets. There were no loans 90 days or more past due that were still accruing interest at the dates indicated.

 

   December 31, 
(dollars in thousands)  2018   2017   2016   2015   2014 
Non-accrual loans:                         
Commercial real estate  $14,632   $1,987   $2,371   $2,875   $3,824 
Residential first mtgs.   1,374    985    623    1,948    533 
Residential rentals (3)   963    825    577    605    - 
Construction and land dev.   -    -    3,048    3,555    3,634 
Home equity and second mtgs.   147    257    61    48    399 
Commercial loans   866    172    1,044    2,054    1,587 
Consumer loans   -    -    -    -    - 
Commercial equipment   1,300    467    650    348    286 
Total non-accrual loans (1)   19,282    4,693    8,374    11,433    10,263 
                          
OREO   8,111    9,341    7,763    9,449    5,883 
                          
TDRs: (2)                         
Commercial real estate   5,612    9,273    9,587    9,839    10,438 
Residential first mtgs.   66    527    545    881    906 
Residential rentals (3)   216    221    227    2,058      
Construction and land dev.   729    729    3,777    4,283    4,376 
Home equity and second mtgs.   -    -    872    -    - 
Commercial loans   53    4    -    1,384    2,262 
Commercial equipment   29    36    113    123    154 
Total TDRs   6,705    10,790    15,121    18,568    18,136 
Total Accrual TDRs   6,676    10,021    10,448    13,133    13,249 
                          
Total non-accrual loans, OREO and Accrual TDRs  $34,069   $24,055   $26,585   $34,015   $29,395 
                          
Interest income due at stated rates, but not recognized on non-accruals  $537   $185   $1,103   $987   $845 
                          
Non-accrual loans to total loans   1.43%   0.41%   0.77%   1.24%   1.18%
Non-accrual loans and Accrual TDRs to total loans (2)   1.93%   1.28%   1.73%   2.67%   2.70%
Non-accrual loans, OREO and Accrual TDRs to total assets (2)   2.02%   1.71%   1.99%   2.98%   2.71%

 

(1) Non-accrual loans include all loans that are 90 days or more delinquent and loans that are non-accrual due to the operating results or cash flows of a customer.

 

(2) TDR loans include both non-accrual and accruing performing loans. All TDR loans are included in the calculation of asset quality financial ratios. Non-accrual TDR loans are included in the non-accrual balance and accruing TDR loans are included in the accruing TDR balance.

 

(3) Loans secured by residential rental property were included in the residential first mortgage and commercial real estate loan portfolios prior to a reclassification in 2016. Comparative financial information was reclassified to conform to the classification presented in the Consolidated Financial Statements at December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014.

 

 13 

 

 

Investment Activities

 

The Bank maintains a portfolio of investment securities to provide liquidity as well as a source of earnings. The Bank’s investment securities portfolio consists primarily of asset-backed mortgage-backed (“MBS”) and collateralized mortgage obligations (“CMOs”) and other securities issued by U.S. government-sponsored enterprises (“GSEs”), including FNMA and FHLMC. The Bank also has smaller holdings of privately issued mortgage-backed securities, U.S. Treasury obligations, and other equity and debt securities. The Bank is required to maintain investments in the Federal Home Loan Bank based upon levels of borrowings.

 

The following table sets forth the carrying value of the Company’s investment securities portfolio and FHLB of Atlanta and Federal Reserve Bank stock at the dates indicated. HTM securities and FHLB of Atlanta and Federal Reserve Bank stock are carried at amortized cost and AFS securities are carried at fair value. At December 31, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015 and 2014, their estimated fair value was $222.2 million, $173.6 million, $168.3 million, $151.4 million, and $133.3 million, respectively. On April 18, 2016, the Bank terminated its membership in the Federal Reserve System and cancelled its stock in the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond effective as of that date.

 

   At December 31, 
(dollars in thousands)  2018   2017   2016   2015   2014 
Asset-backed securities:                         
Freddie Mac, Fannie Mae and Ginnie Mae  $186,424   $135,142   $136,206   $138,267   $119,762 
U.S. Agencies   22,383    21,177    16,889    -    - 
Other   482    651    884    1,093    1,472 
Total asset-backed securities   209,289    156,970    153,979    139,360    121,234 
Corporate equity securities   209    121    121    121    121 
Bond mutual funds   4,428    4,423    4,329    4,305    4,240 
Callable GSE Agency Bonds   5,009    5,017    3,001    -    - 
Certificates of Deposit Fixed   950    -    -    -    - 
Treasury bills   999    1,000    850    750    850 
Total investment securities   220,884    167,531    162,280    144,536    126,445 
FHLB and FRB stock   3,821    7,276    7,235    6,931    6,434 
Total investment securities and FHLB and FRB stock  $224,705   $174,807   $169,515   $151,467   $132,879 

 

 14 

 

 

The maturities and weighted average yields for investment securities available for sale (“AFS”) and held to maturity (“HTM”) at December 31, 2018 and 2017 are shown below.

 

   One year or Less   After One
Through Five Years
   After Five
Through Ten Years
   After Ten Years 
December 31, 2018  Amortized   Average   Amortized   Average   Amortized   Average   Amortized   Average 
(dollars in thousands)  Cost   Yield   Cost   Yield   Cost   Yield   Cost   Yield 
AFS Investment securities:                                        
Asset-backed securities  $19,719    2.73%  $59,732    2.77%  $33,788    2.84%  $9,285    2.96%
Total AFS investment securities  $19,719    2.73%  $59,732    2.77%  $33,788    2.84%  $9,285    2.96%
                                         
HTM Investment securities:                                        
Asset-backed securities  $18,912    2.67%  $41,013    2.68%  $22,422    2.70%  $11,975    2.66%
Certificates of Deposit Fixed   950    1.69%   -    0.00%   -    0.00%   -    0.00%
U.S. government obligations   999    2.11%   -    0.00%   -    0.00%   -    0.00%
Total HTM investment securities  $20,861    2.60%  $41,013    2.68%  $22,422    2.70%  $11,975    2.66%

 

   One year or Less   After One
Through Five Years
   After Five
Through Ten Years
   After Ten Years 
December 31, 2017  Amortized   Average   Amortized   Average   Amortized   Average   Amortized   Average 
(dollars in thousands)  Cost   Yield   Cost   Yield   Cost   Yield   Cost   Yield 
AFS Investment securities:                                        
Asset-backed securities  $9,852    2.47%  $28,832    2.46%  $20,358    2.50%  $6,369    2.59%
Mutual funds   4,397    1.97%   -    0.00%   -    0.00%   -    0.00%
Total AFS investment securities  $14,249    2.32%  $28,832    2.46%  $20,358    2.50%  $6,369    2.59%
                                         
HTM Investment securities:                                        
Asset-backed securities  $18,722    2.57%  $41,433    2.59%  $25,309    2.63%  $12,782    2.64%
U.S. government obligations   1,000    1.10%   -    0.00%   -    0.00%   -    0.00%
Total HTM investment securities  $19,722    2.50%  $41,433    2.59%  $25,309    2.63%  $12,782    2.64%

 

The Bank’s investment policy provides that securities that will be held for indefinite periods of time, including securities that will be used as part of the Bank’s asset/liability management strategy and that may be sold in response to changes in interest rates, prepayments and similar factors are classified as available for sale and accounted for at fair value. Held to maturity (HTM”) securities are reported at amortized cost. HTM securities are classified as such based on management’s intent and ability to hold these securities until maturity. Certain of the Company’s asset-backed securities are issued by private issuers (defined as an issuer that is not a government or a government-sponsored entity). The Company had no investments in any private issuer’s securities that aggregate to more than 10% of the Company’s equity. For a discussion of investments see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Asset Quality” and Notes 1 and 6 in the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Deposits and Other Sources of Funds

 

General

 

The funds needed by the Bank to make loans are primarily generated by deposit accounts solicited from its market area. Total deposits were $1,429.6 million and $1,106.2 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2018 and 2017.

 

The Company uses brokered deposits and borrowings to supplement funding when loan growth exceeds core deposit growth and for asset-liability management purposes. Brokered deposits at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 were $53.1 million and $118.9 million, respectively. Federal Home Loan Bank (“FHLB”) long-term debt and short-term borrowings (“advances”) at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 were $55.4 million and $143.0 million, respectively. Wholesale funding, which includes brokered deposits and FHLB advances, decreased $153.4 million from $261.9 million (18.7% of assets) at December 31, 2017 to $108.5 million (6.4% of assets) at December 31, 2018.

 

 15 

 

 

Reciprocal deposits are used to maximize FDIC insurance available to our customers. Reciprocal deposits at December 31, 2018 and 2017 were $234.9 million and $92.9 million, respectively. During 2018, revisions to the Federal Deposit Insurance Act determined that reciprocal deposits are core deposits and are not considered brokered deposits unless they exceed 20% of a bank’s liabilities or $5.0 billion.

 

Deposits

 

The Bank’s deposit products include savings, money market, demand deposit, IRA, SEP, and time deposit accounts. Variations in service charges, terms and interest rates are used to target specific markets. Products and services for deposit customers include safe deposit boxes, night depositories, cash vaults, automated clearinghouse transactions, wire transfers, ATMs, online and telephone banking, retail and business mobile banking, remote deposit capture, FDIC insured reciprocal deposits, merchant card services, credit monitoring, investment services, positive pay, payroll services, account reconciliation, bill pay, credit cards and lockbox. The Bank is a member of ACCEL, Master Card, Cirrus, Allpoint and Star ATM networks.

 

The following table sets forth for the periods indicated the average balances outstanding and average interest rates for each major category of deposits.

 

   For the Years Ended December 31, 
   2018   2017   2016   2015   2014 
   Average   Average   Average   Average   Average   Average   Average   Average   Average   Average 
(dollars in thousands)  Balance   Rate   Balance   Rate   Balance   Rate   Balance   Rate   Balance   Rate 
Savings  $73,268    0.08%  $53,560    0.05%  $48,878    0.08%  $44,963    0.10%  $40,104    0.10%
Interest-bearing demand and money                                                  
market accounts   584,341    0.69%   419,817    0.35%   380,592    0.30%   322,717    0.28%   281,960    0.27%
Certificates of deposit   452,494    1.46%   443,181    1.00%   409,621    0.86%   378,179    0.85%   389,641    0.97%
Total interest-bearing deposits   1,110,103    0.96%   916,558    0.65%   839,091    0.56%   745,859    0.56%   711,705    0.64%
Noninterest-bearing demand deposits   217,897         154,225         142,116         120,527         100,783      
   $1,328,000    0.80%  $1,070,783    0.56%  $981,207    0.48%  $866,386    0.48%  $812,488    0.56%

 

The following table indicates the amount of the Bank’s certificates of deposit and other time deposits of $100,000 or more and $250,000 or more by time remaining until maturity as of December 31, 2018 and 2017.

  

   At December 31, 2018   At December 31, 2018 
Time Deposit Maturity Period  $100,000
or More
   $250,000
or More
 
(dollars in thousands)        
Three months or less  $42,517   $17,739 
Three through six months   39,258    20,948 
Six through twelve months   116,076    37,619 
Over twelve months   95,067    40,882 
Total  $292,918   $117,188 

  

   At December 31, 2017   At December 31, 2017 
Time Deposit Maturity Period  $100,000
or More
   $250,000
or More
 
(dollars in thousands)          
Three months or less  $88,714   $60,383 
Three through six months   54,590    37,497 
Six through twelve months   99,263    37,605 
Over twelve months   78,392    31,989 
Total  $320,959   $167,474 

 

Note 11 includes the scheduled contractual maturities of total certificates of deposits of $447.0 million and $451.6 million, respectively at December 31, 2018 and 2017.

 

 16 

 

 

The FDIC’s examination policies require that the Company monitor all customer deposit concentrations at or above 2% of total deposits. At December 31, 2018, the Bank had one customer deposit relationship that exceeded 2% of total deposits, totaling $158.8 million which represented 11.1% of total deposits of $1,429.6 million. At December 31, 2017, the Bank had one customer deposit relationship that exceeded 2% of total deposits, totaling $22.6 million which represented 2.0% of total deposits of $1,106.2 million. For a discussion of deposits, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Liabilities” and Notes 1 and 11 in the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Borrowings

 

Deposits are the primary source of funds for the Bank’s lending and investment activities and for its general business purposes. The Bank uses advances from the FHLB of Atlanta to supplement the supply of funds it may lend and to meet deposit withdrawal requirements. Advances from the FHLB are secured by the Bank’s stock in the FHLB, a portion of the Bank’s loan portfolio and certain investments. Generally, the Bank’s ability to borrow from the FHLB of Atlanta is limited by its available collateral and also by an overall limitation of 30% of assets. Further, short-term credit facilities are available at the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond and commercial banks. Long-term debt consists of adjustable-rate advances with rates based upon LIBOR, fixed-rate advances, and convertible advances. For a discussion of borrowing, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations-Liabilities” and Notes 1, 12, 17 and 18 in the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Subsidiary Activities

 

The Company has two direct subsidiaries other than the Bank. In July 2004, Tri-County Capital Trust I was established as a statutory trust under Delaware law as a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company to issue trust preferred securities. Tri-County Capital Trust I issued $7.0 million of trust preferred securities on July 22, 2004. In June 2005, Tri-County Capital Trust II was also established as a statutory trust under Delaware law as a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company to issue trust preferred securities. Tri-County Capital Trust II issued $5.0 million of trust preferred securities on June 15, 2005. For more information regarding these entities, see Note 17 in the Consolidated Financial Statements. In April 1997, the Bank formed a wholly owned subsidiary, Community Mortgage Corporation of Tri-County, to offer mortgage banking, brokerage, and other services to the public. This corporation is currently inactive.

 

 17 

 

 

Supervision and Regulation

 

Regulation of the Company

 

General

 

As a bank holding company, the Company is subject to comprehensive regulation, examination and supervision by the Federal Reserve Board under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the “BHCA”), and the regulations of the Federal Reserve Board. The Federal Reserve Board also has extensive enforcement authority over bank holding companies, including, among other things, the ability to assess civil money penalties, to issue cease and desist or removal orders, and to require that a holding company divest subsidiaries (including its bank subsidiaries). In general, enforcement actions may be initiated for violations of law and regulations and unsafe or unsound practices.

 

The following discussion summarizes certain of the regulations applicable to the Company but does not purport to be a complete description of such regulations and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the actual laws and regulations involved.

 

Acquisition of Control

 

A bank holding company, with certain exceptions, must obtain Federal Reserve Board approval before (1) acquiring ownership or control of another bank or bank holding company if it would own or control more than 5% of such shares or (2) acquiring all or substantially all of the assets of another bank or bank holding company; or (3) merging with another bank holding company. In evaluating such application, the Federal Reserve Board considers factors such as the financial condition and managerial resources of the companies involved, the convenience and needs of the communities to be served and competitive factors. Federal law provides that no person may acquire “control” of a bank holding company or insured bank without the approval of the appropriate federal regulator. Control is defined to mean direct or indirect ownership, control of 25% or more of any class of voting stock, control of the election of a majority of the bank’s directors or a determination by the Federal Reserve Board that the acquirer has or would have the power to exercise a controlling influence over the management or policies of the institution.

 

The Maryland Financial Institutions Code additionally prohibits any person from acquiring more than 10% of the outstanding shares of any class of securities of a bank or bank holding company or electing a majority of the directors or directing the management or policies of any such entity, without 60 days prior notice to the Commissioner. The Commissioner may deny approval of the acquisition if the Commissioner determines it to be anti-competitive or to threaten the safety or soundness of a banking institution.

 

Permissible Activities

 

A bank holding company is limited in its activities to banking, managing or controlling banks, or providing services for its subsidiaries. Other permitted non-bank activities have been identified as closely related to banking. Bank holding companies that are “well capitalized” and “well managed” and whose financial institution subsidiaries have satisfactory Community Reinvestment Act records can elect to become “financial holding companies,” which are permitted to engage in a broader range of financial activities than are permitted to bank holding companies. The Company has not opted to become a financial holding company.

 

The Federal Reserve Board has the power to order a holding company or its subsidiaries to terminate any activity, or to terminate its ownership or control of any subsidiary, when it has reasonable cause to believe that the continuation of such activity or such ownership or control constitutes a serious risk to the financial safety, soundness or stability of any bank subsidiary of that holding company.

 

Dividend

 

The Federal Reserve Board has the power to prohibit dividends by bank holding companies if their actions constitute unsafe or unsound practices. The Federal Reserve Board has issued a policy statement on the payment of cash dividends by bank holding companies, which expresses the Federal Reserve Board’s view that a bank holding company should pay cash dividends only to the extent that the company’s net income for the past year is sufficient to cover both the cash dividends and a rate of earnings retention that is consistent with the company’s capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition. The Federal Reserve Board also indicated that it would be inappropriate for a bank holding company experiencing serious financial problems to borrow funds to pay dividends. Under the prompt corrective action regulations adopted by the Federal Reserve Board, the Federal Reserve Board may prohibit a bank holding company from paying any dividends if the holding company’s bank subsidiary is classified as “undercapitalized.” See “Regulation of the Bank – Capital Adequacy.”

 

 18 

 

 

Sources of Strength

 

The Dodd-Frank Act codified the source of strength doctrine requiring bank holding companies to serve as a source of strength for their depository subsidiaries, by providing capital, liquidity and other support in times of financial stress. The regulatory agencies are required, under the Act, to issue implementing regulations.

 

Stock Repurchases

 

The Company is required to give the Federal Reserve Board prior written notice of any purchase or redemption of its outstanding equity securities if the gross consideration for the purchase or redemption, when combined with the net consideration paid for all such purchases or redemptions during the preceding 12 months, is equal to 10% or more of the Company’s consolidated net worth. The Federal Reserve Board may disapprove such a purchase or redemption. This requirement does not apply to bank holding companies that are “well capitalized,” “well-managed” and are not the subject of any unresolved supervisory issues.

 

Capital Requirement

 

Bank holding companies are required to maintain on a consolidated basis, specified minimum ratios of capital to total assets and capital to risk-weighted assets. These requirements, which generally apply to bank holding companies with consolidated assets of $1 billion or more, such as the Company, are substantially similar to those applicable to the Bank. See “– Regulation of the Bank – Capital Adequacy.” The Dodd-Frank Act required the Federal Reserve Board to adopt consolidated capital requirements for holding companies that are equally as stringent as those applicable to the depository institution subsidiaries. That means that certain instruments that had previously been includable in Tier 1 capital for bank holding companies, such as trust preferred securities, will no longer be eligible for inclusion. The revised capital requirements are subject to certain grandfathering and transition rules. The Company is currently considered a grandfathered institution under these rules.

 

Regulation of the Bank

 

General

 

The Bank is a Maryland commercial bank and its deposit accounts are insured by the Deposit Insurance Fund of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”). On April 18, 2016, the Bank terminated its membership in the Federal Reserve System and cancelled its stock in the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond. Accordingly, as of that date, the Bank’s primary regulator became the FDIC. The Bank currently is subject to supervision, examination and regulation by the Commissioner of Financial Regulation of the State of Maryland (the “Commissioner”) and the FDIC.

 

The Dodd-Frank Act established the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) as an independent bureau of the Federal Reserve System. The CFPB assumed responsibility for implementing federal consumer financial protection and fair lending laws and regulations, a function formerly handled by federal bank regulatory agencies. However, institutions of less than $10 billion, such as the Bank, will continue to be examined for compliance with consumer protection or fair lending laws and regulations by, and be subject to enforcement authority of their primary federal regulators.

 

The following discussion summarizes regulations applicable to the Bank but does not purport to be a complete description of such regulations and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the actual laws and regulations involved.

 

Capital Adequacy

 

On July 9, 2013, the federal bank regulatory agencies issued a final rule that revised their risk-based capital requirements and the method for calculating risk-weighted assets to make them consistent with agreements that were reached by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act (the “Basel III Capital Rules”).

 

On January 1, 2015, the Company and Bank became subject to the Basel III Capital Rules with full compliance with all of the final rules’ requirements phased in over a multi-year schedule, to be fully phased-in by January 1, 2019. The Basel III Capital Rules substantially revise the risk-based capital requirements applicable to bank holding companies and depository institutions compared to the previous U.S. risk-based capital rules. The Basel III Capital Rules define the components of capital and address other issues affecting the numerator in banking institutions’ regulatory capital ratios. The Basel III Capital Rules also address risk weights and other issues affecting the denominator in banking institutions’ regulatory capital ratios and replace the existing risk-weighting approach with a more risk-sensitive approach. The Basel III Capital Rules also implement the requirements of Section 939A of the Dodd-Frank Act to remove references to credit ratings from the federal banking agencies’ rules.

 

 19 

 

 

The Basel III Capital Rules include a new common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets minimum ratio of 4.5%, raise the minimum ratio of Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets from 4.0% to 6.0%, require a minimum ratio (“Min. Ratio”) of Total Capital to risk-weighted assets of 8.0%, and require a minimum Tier 1 leverage ratio of 4.0%. A new capital conservation buffer (“CCB”) is also established above the regulatory minimum capital requirements. This capital conservation buffer began being phased-in January 1, 2016 at 0.625% of risk-weighted assets and increases each subsequent year by an additional 0.625% until reaching its final level of 2.5% on January 1, 2019. Eligibility criteria for regulatory capital instruments were also implemented under the final rules. The final rules also revise the definition and calculation of Tier 1 capital, total capital, and risk-weighted assets.

 

In September 2017, the Federal Reserve Board, the FDIC, and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) proposed a rule intended to reduce regulatory burden by simplifying several requirements in the agencies’ regulatory capital rule. Most aspects of the proposed rule would apply only to banking organizations that are not subject to the “advanced approaches” in the capital rule, which are generally firms with less than $250 billion in total consolidated assets and less than $10 billion in total foreign exposure. The proposal would simplify and clarify a number of the more complex aspects of the existing capital rule. Specifically, the proposed rule simplifies the capital treatment for certain acquisition, development, and construction loans, mortgage servicing assets, certain deferred tax assets, investments in the capital instruments of unconsolidated financial institutions, and minority interest. A final rule has not yet been issued.

 

In November 2018, the Federal Reserve Board, the FDIC, and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) issued a joint proposal that would simplify regulatory capital requirements for qualifying community banking organizations, as required by the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act. The proposal would provide regulatory burden relief to qualifying community banking organizations by giving them an option to calculate a simple leverage ratio, rather than multiple measures of capital adequacy. Under the proposal, a community banking organization would be eligible to elect the community bank leverage ratio framework if it has less than $10 billion in total consolidated assets, limited amounts of certain assets and off-balance sheet exposures, and a community bank leverage ratio greater than 9 percent. A qualifying community banking organization that has chosen the proposed framework would not be required to calculate the existing risk-based and leverage capital requirements. A firm would also be considered to have met the capital ratio requirements to be well capitalized for the agencies' prompt corrective action rules provided it has a community bank leverage ratio greater than 9 percent.

 

Prompt Corrective Regulatory Action

 

Federal law requires, among other things, that federal bank regulatory authorities take “prompt corrective action” with respect to institutions that do not meet minimum capital requirements. For such purposes, the law establishes five capital tiers: well capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized, and critically undercapitalized.

 

As a result of the Basel III Capital Rules (discussed further above), effective January 1, 2015, an institution is deemed to be “well capitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of 10% or greater, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 8% or greater, a common equity Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6.5% or greater, and a leverage capital ratio of 5% or greater, and is not subject to a regulatory order, agreement, or directive to meet and maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure. An institution is deemed to be “adequately capitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of 8% or greater, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6% or greater, a common equity Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 4.5% or greater and generally a leverage capital ratio of 4% or greater. An institution is deemed to be “undercapitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of less than 8%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 6%, a common equity Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 4.5% or generally a leverage capital ratio of less than 4%. An institution is deemed to be “significantly undercapitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of less than 6%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 4%, a common equity Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of less than 3% or a leverage capital ratio of less than 3%. An institution is deemed to be “critically undercapitalized” if it has a ratio of tangible equity (as defined in the regulations) to total assets that is equal to or less than 2%.

 

“Undercapitalized” institutions are subject to growth, capital distribution (including dividend), and other limitations, and are required to submit a capital restoration plan. An institution’s compliance with such a plan is required to be guaranteed by any company that controls the undercapitalized institution in an amount equal to the lesser of 5% of the bank’s total assets when deemed undercapitalized or the amount necessary to achieve the status of adequately capitalized. If an undercapitalized institution fails to submit an acceptable plan, it is treated as if it is “significantly undercapitalized.” Significantly undercapitalized institutions are subject to one or more additional restrictions including, but not limited to, a regulatory order requiring them to sell sufficient voting stock to become adequately capitalized; requirements to reduce total assets, cease receipt of deposits from correspondent banks, or dismiss directors or officers; and restrictions on interest rates paid on deposits, compensation of executive officers, and capital distributions by the parent holding company.

 

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Beginning 60 days after becoming “critically undercapitalized,” critically undercapitalized institutions also may not make any payment of principal or interest on certain subordinated debt, extend credit for a highly leveraged transaction, or enter into any material transaction outside the ordinary course of business. In addition, subject to a narrow exception, the appointment of a receiver is required for a critically undercapitalized institution within 270 days after it obtains such status.

 

Branching

 

Maryland law provides that, with the approval of the Commissioner, Maryland banks may establish branches within Maryland and may establish branches in other states by any means permitted by the laws of such state or by federal law. The FDIC may approve interstate branching by merger in any state that did not opt out and de novo in states that specifically allow for such branching.

 

Dividend Limitations

 

Maryland banks may only pay cash dividends from undivided profits or, with the prior approval of the Commissioner, their surplus in excess of 100% of required capital stock. Maryland banks may not declare a stock dividend unless their surplus, after the increase in capital stock, is equal to at least 20% of the outstanding capital stock as increased. If the surplus of the bank, after the increase in capital stock, is less than 100% of its capital stock as increased, the commercial bank must annually transfer to surplus at least 10% of its net earnings until the surplus is 100% of its capital stock as increased.

 

Insurance of Deposit Accounts

 

The Bank’s deposits are insured up to applicable limits by the Deposit Insurance Fund of the FDIC. The deposit insurance per account owner is currently $250,000.

 

Under the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation’s risk-based assessment system, insured institutions are assigned to one of four risk categories based on supervisory evaluations, regulatory capital levels and certain other factors, with less risky institutions paying lower assessments. An institution’s assessment rate depends upon the category to which it is assigned. The initial base assessment rate ranges from three to 30 basis points. The rate schedules will automatically adjust in the future when the Deposit Insurance Fund reaches certain milestones. No institution may pay a dividend if in default of the federal deposit insurance assessment.

 

Insurance of deposits may be terminated by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation upon a finding that the institution has engaged in unsafe or unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order or condition imposed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or its prudential banking regulator. The management of the Bank does not know of any practice, condition or violation that might lead to termination of deposit insurance.

 

Pursuant to the FDIC’s examination policies, the Bank is required to actively monitor large deposit relationships and concentration risks. This includes monitoring deposit concentrations and maintaining fund management policies and strategies that take into account potentially volatile concentrations and significant deposits that mature simultaneously. The FDIC defines a large depositor as a customer or entity that owns or controls 2% or more of the Bank’s total deposits. Examiners are charged with considering the overall relationship between customers and the institution when assessing the volatility of large deposits, and key considerations include potential cash flow fluctuations, pledging requirements, affiliated relationships, and the narrow interest spreads that may be associated with large deposits. At December 31, 2018, the Bank had one customer deposit relationship that exceeded 2% of total deposits, totaling $158.8 million which represented 11.1% of total deposits of $1,429.6 million. At December 31, 2017, the Bank had one customer deposit relationship that exceeded 2% of total deposits, totaling $22.6 million which represented 2.0% of total deposits of $1,106.2 million.

 

Reserve Requirements

 

Under federal regulations, the Bank is required to maintain non-interest earning reserves against their transaction accounts (primarily Negotiable Order of Withdrawal (NOW) and regular checking accounts). The regulations required that that reserves be maintained against aggregate transaction accounts as follows for 2018: a 3% reserve ratio was assessed on net transaction accounts up to and including $122.3 million; a 10% reserve ratio is applied above $123.3 million. The first $16.0 million of otherwise reservable balances (subject to adjustments by the Federal Reserve Board) are exempted from the reserve requirements. The amounts are adjusted annually and, for 2019, will require a 3% ratio for up to $124.2 million and an exemption of $16.3 million. At December 31, 2018, the Bank met applicable reserve requirements.

 

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Transactions with Affiliates

 

A state nonmember bank, such as the Bank, is limited in the amount of “covered transactions” with any affiliate. Covered transactions must also be on terms substantially the same, or at least as favorable, to the Bank or subsidiary as those provided to a non-affiliate. The term “covered transaction” includes the making of loans, purchase of assets, issuance of a guarantee and similar types of transactions. Certain covered transactions, such as loans to affiliates, must meet collateral requirements. At December 31, 2018, we had no transactions with affiliates.

 

Loans to directors, executive officers and principal stockholders of a state nonmember bank must be made on substantially the same terms as those prevailing for comparable transactions with persons who are not executive officers, directors, principal stockholders or employees of the bank. Loans to any executive officer, director and principal stockholder together with all other outstanding loans to such person and affiliated interests generally may not exceed 15% of the Bank’s unimpaired capital and surplus and all loans to such persons may not exceed the institution’s unimpaired capital and unimpaired surplus. Loans to directors, executive officers and principal stockholders, and their respective affiliates, in excess of the greater of $25,000 or 5% of capital and surplus, or any loans cumulatively aggregating $500,000 or more, must be approved in advance by a majority of the board of directors of the Bank with any “interested” director not participating in the voting. State nonmember banks are prohibited from paying the overdrafts of any of their executive officers or directors unless payment is made pursuant to a written, pre-authorized interest-bearing extension of credit plan that specifies a method of repayment or transfer of funds from another account at the Bank. In addition, loans to executive officers may not be made on terms more favorable than those afforded other borrowers and are restricted as to type, amount and terms of credit.

 

Enforcement

 

The Commissioner has extensive enforcement authority over Maryland banks. This includes the ability to issue cease and desist orders and civil money penalties and to remove directors or officers. The Commissioner may also take possession of a Maryland bank whose capital is impaired and seek to have a receiver appointed by a court.

 

The FDIC has primary federal enforcement responsibility over state banks under its jurisdiction, including the authority to bring enforcement action against all “institution-related parties,” including stockholders, and any attorneys, appraisers and accountants who knowingly or recklessly participate in wrongful action likely to have an adverse effect on an institution. Formal enforcement action may range from the issuance of capital directive or a cease and desist order for the removal of officers and/or directors, receivership, conservatorship or termination of deposit insurance. Civil money penalties cover a wide range of violations and actions and range up to $25,000 per day or even up to $1 million per day (in the most egregious cases). Criminal penalties for most financial institution crimes include fines of up to $1 million and imprisonment for up to 30 years.

 

Other Regulations

 

The Bank’s operations are also subject to federal laws applicable to credit transactions, including the:

 

¨Truth-In-Lending Act, governing disclosures of credit terms to consumer borrowers;

 

¨Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, requiring that borrowers for mortgage loans for one- to four-family residential real estate receive various disclosures, including good faith estimates of settlement costs, lender servicing and escrow account practices, and prohibiting certain practices that increase the cost of settlement services;

 

¨Bank Secrecy Act of 1970, requiring financial institutions to assist U.S. government agencies to detect and prevent money laundering;

 

¨Home Mortgage Disclosure Act of 1975, requiring financial institutions to provide information to enable the public and public officials to determine whether a financial institution is fulfilling its obligation to help meet the housing needs of the community it serves;

                

¨Equal Credit Opportunity Act, prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, creed or other prohibited factors in extending credit;

 

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  ¨ Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1978, governing the use and provision of information to credit reporting agencies; and

 

  ¨ Fair Debt Collection Act, governing the manner in which consumer debts may be collected by collection agencies; and rules and regulations of the various federal agencies charged with the responsibility of implementing such federal laws.

 

The operations of the Bank also are subject to laws such as the:

 

  ¨ Right to Financial Privacy Act, which imposes a duty to maintain confidentiality of consumer financial records and prescribes procedures for complying with administrative subpoenas of financial records;

 

  ¨ Electronic Funds Transfer Act and Regulation E promulgated thereunder, which govern automatic deposits to and withdrawals from deposit accounts and customers’ rights and liabilities arising from the use of automated teller machines and other electronic banking services; and

 

  ¨

Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act (also known as “Check 21”), which gives “substitute checks,” such as digital check images and copies made from that image, the same legal standing as the original paper check. 

 

¨Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act privacy statute which requires each depository institution to disclose its privacy policy, identify parties with whom certain nonpublic customer information is shared and provide customers with certain rights to “opt out” of disclosure to certain third parties;

 

¨Title III of The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (referred to as the “USA PATRIOT Act”), which significantly expands the responsibilities of financial institutions in preventing the use of the United States financial system to fund terrorist activities. Among other things, the USA PATRIOT Act and the related regulations requires banks operating in the United States to develop anti-money laundering compliance programs, due diligence policies and controls to facilitate the detection and reporting of money laundering;

 

¨The Fair and Accurate Reporting Act of 2003, as an amendment to the Fair Credit Reporting Act, as noted previously, which includes provisions to help reduce identity theft by providing procedures for the identification, detection, and response to patterns, practices, or specific activities—known as “red flags”; and

 

¨Truth in Savings Act, which establishes the requirement for clear and uniform disclosure of terms and conditions regarding deposit interest and fees to help promote economic stability, competition between depository institutions, and allow the consumer to make informed decisions.

 

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Management

 

Chief Officers

 

Our executive officers are elected by the Board of Directors and serve at the Board’s discretion. Executive officers of the Bank also serve as executive officers of the Company.  The executive officers of the Company are as follows:

 

William J. Pasenelli, 60, is President and Chief Executive Officer of the Company. He also serves as the Bank’s Chief Executive Officer.  Mr. Pasenelli joined the Bank as Chief Financial Officer in 2000 and was named President of the Bank in 2010 and President of the Company in May 2012.  He relinquished the position of Chief Financial Officer of the Bank in March 2013 and President in July 2016. Before joining the Bank, Mr. Pasenelli had been Chief Financial Officer of Acacia Federal Savings Bank, Annandale, Virginia, since 1987.  Mr. Pasenelli has over 30 years of banking experience.  He serves on the Board of Directors of the Maryland Bankers Association and the Maryland Chamber of Commerce. Mr. Pasenelli is a member of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, the Greater Washington Society of Certified Public Accountants and other civic groups.  Mr. Pasenelli is a graduate of the National School of Banking and holds a Bachelor of Arts from Duke University.  He also attended the Harvard Business School Program on Negotiation.

 

Gregory C. Cockerham, 64, joined the Bank in 1988.  He serves as Executive Vice President and Chief Lending Officer of the Company and the Bank.  Before joining the Bank, he was Vice President of Maryland National Bank.  Mr. Cockerham has over 40 years of banking experience.  Mr. Cockerham serves as Emeritus and Past Chair of the Board of Directors for the College of Southern Maryland Foundation, Past Chair and Current Board member of Maryland Title Center.  He presently serves as the Potomac Baptist Association Finance Chair, is a Paul Harris Fellow, Foundation Chair and Past President of the Rotary Club of Charles County, President of the Rotary Foundation Board, Past Chair of the Charles County Board of Education CRD Program and serves on various civic boards.  Mr. Cockerham is a Maryland Bankers School graduate and holds a Bachelor of Science from West Virginia University.  He also attended the Harvard Business School Program on Negotiation.

 

James M. Burke, 50, joined the Bank in 2005.  He serves as the Bank’s President and Chief Risk Officer of the Company and the Bank. Before his appointment as President of the Bank in 2016, he served as Executive Vice President and Chief Risk Officer. Before joining the Bank, Mr. Burke served as Executive Vice President and Senior Loan Officer of Mercantile Southern Maryland Bank.  Mr. Burke has over 20 years of banking experience.  Mr. Burke is the former Chairman of the Board of Directors of University of Maryland Charles Regional Medical Center, serves on the Board of Directors for the ARC of Southern Maryland, Trustee for St. Mary’s Ryken High School, Trustee for Historic Sotterley Plantation and is active in other civic groups. Mr. Burke is a Maryland Bankers School graduate and holds a Bachelor of Arts from High Point University.  He is also a graduate of the East Carolina Advanced School of Commercial Lending and attended the Harvard Business School Program on Negotiation.

 

James F. Di Misa, 59, joined the Bank in 2005.  He serves as Executive Vice President, Chief Operating Officer of the Company and the Bank.  Before joining the Bank, Mr. Di Misa served as Executive Vice President of Mercantile Southern Maryland Bank.  Mr. Di Misa has over 30 years of banking experience.  Mr. Di Misa serves on the Board of Trustees of the College of Southern Maryland. He is former Chairman of the Board of Trustees for the Maryland Bankers School, a Paul Harris Fellow, Foundation Secretary, Past President of the Rotary Club of Charles County Chairman of Charles County Rotary Scholarships Program, Adjunct Instructor for the College of Southern Maryland, Governor Appointment to the Tri-County Work Force Investment Board (2008-2014), President and Founder of the La Plata Business Association (2002-2010) and of the Board of Trustees for the Maryland Bankers School (2002-2016). He is also a member of several other civic and professional groups. Mr. Di Misa is a Stonier Graduate School of Banking graduate and holds a Master of Business Administration from Mount St. Mary’s College and a Bachelor of Science from George Mason University.  He also attended the Harvard Business School Program on Negotiation.

 

Todd L. Capitani, 52, joined the Bank in 2009.  He serves as Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer of the Company and the Bank.  Before joining the Bank, Mr. Capitani served as a Senior Finance Manager at Deloitte Consulting and as Chief Financial Officer at Ruesch International, Inc.  Mr. Capitani has over 25 years of experience in corporate finance, controllership and external audit. Mr. Capitani is involved with several local charities, religious and community organizations.  Mr. Capitani is a member of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and other civic groups. He serves on the Board of Directors for Annmarie Sculpture Garden & Arts Center. Mr. Capitani is a Certified Public Accountant and holds a Bachelor of Arts from the University of California at Santa Barbara.  He also attended the Harvard Business School Program on Negotiation and the Yale School of Management Strategic Leadership Conference.

 

 

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Christy M Lombardi, 42, joined the Bank in 1998.  She serves as Executive Vice President, Chief Administrative Officer of the Company and the Bank.  Ms. Lombardi is responsible for administrative and corporate governance matters for the Company, and oversees human resources, information technology and shareholder relations.  Ms. Lombardi has over 20 years of banking experience.  She serves on the Board of Directors of the College of Southern Maryland Foundation, on the Advisory Board of the Maryland Banker’s Association Council of Professional Women in Banking and Finance and on the Southern Maryland Workforce Development Board.  Ms. Lombardi served on the Board of Directors of the Calvert County Chamber of Commerce from 2012-2018. She is a Maryland Bankers School graduate and holds a Masters in Management from University of Maryland University College as well as a Master’s in Business Administration.  Ms. Lombardi also attended the Harvard Business School Program.

 

James F. Di Misa will retire from the Company and the Bank effective March 31, 2019. The Board of Directors promoted Christy Lombardi to Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of the Company and the Bank effective upon Mr. Di Misa’s retirement. In addition, the Company announced that Gregory C. Cockerham, Chief Lending Officer, will retire on December 31, 2019. In November 2018 the Company announced a leadership transition plan to address the executive retirements through the promotion of existing members of the Bank’s management team. Under this plan, Mr. Cockerham’s responsibilities will be transitioned to several members of management over time and fully assumed by January 1, 2020.

 

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

 

Risks

 

An investment in shares of our common stock involves various risks. Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed by any of the following risks or by other risks that have not been identified or that we may believe are immaterial or unlikely. The value or market price of our common stock could decline due to any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. The risks discussed below also include forward-looking statements, and our actual results may differ substantially from those discussed in these forward-looking statements.

 

Credit Risks

 

Our increased emphasis on commercial lending may expose us to increased lending risks.

 

At December 31, 2018 and 2017, our loan portfolio included $878.0 million, or 65.2%, and $727.3 million, or 63.3%, respectively, of commercial real estate loans, $124.3 million, or 9.2%, and $110.3 million, or 9.6%, respectively, of residential rental loans, $71.7 million, or 5.3% and $56.4 million, or 4.9%, respectively of commercial business loans and $50.2 million, or 3.7% and $35.9 million, or 3.1%, respectively, of commercial equipment loans. We intend to maintain our emphasis on these types of loans. These types of loans generally expose a lender to greater risk of non-payment and loss and require a commensurately higher loan loss allowance than owner-occupied one- to four-family residential mortgage loans because repayment of the loans often depends on the successful operation of the property and the income stream of the borrowers. Such loans typically involve larger loan balances compared to one- to four-family residential mortgage loans. Commercial business and equipment loans expose us to additional risks since they typically are made on the basis of the borrower’s ability to make repayments from the cash flows of the borrower’s business and are secured by non-real estate collateral that may depreciate over time. Also, many of our commercial borrowers have more than one loan outstanding with us. Consequently, an adverse development with respect to one loan or one credit relationship can expose us to a significantly greater risk of loss compared to an adverse development with respect to a one- to four-family residential mortgage loan. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, $17.8 million, or 92.1% and $3.5 million, or 73.5%, respectively, of our non-accrual loans of $19.3 million and $4.7 million, respectively, consisted of commercial loans.

 

We may be required to make further increases in our provision for loan losses and to charge-off additional loans in the future. Further, our allowance for loan losses may prove to be insufficient to absorb losses in our loan portfolio.

 

For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, we recorded a provision for loan losses of $1.4 million and $1.0 million, respectively. We also recorded net loan charge-offs of $944,000 and $355,000 for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Our non-accrual loans, OREO and accruing TDRs aggregated $34.1 million, or 2.02% of total assets and $24.1 million, or 1.71% of total assets, respectively, at December 31, 2018 and 2017. Additionally, loans that were classified as special mention and substandard were $32.2 million and $40.4 million, respectively, at December 31, 2018 and 2017. We had no loans classified as doubtful or loss at December 31, 2018 and 2017. If the economy and/or the real estate market weakens, more of our classified loans may become non-performing and we may be required to take additional provisions to increase our allowance for loan losses for these assets as the value of the collateral may be insufficient to pay any remaining net loan balance, which would have a negative effect on our results of operations. We maintain an allowance for loan losses to provide for loans in our portfolio that may not be repaid in their entirety. We believe that our allowance for loan losses is maintained at a level adequate to absorb probable losses inherent in our loan portfolio as of the corresponding balance sheet date. However, our allowance for loan losses may not be sufficient to cover actual loan losses, and future provisions for loan losses could materially adversely affect our operating results.

 

In evaluating the adequacy of our allowance for loan losses, we consider numerous factors, including our historical charge-off experience, growth of our loan portfolio, changes in the composition of our loan portfolio and the volume of delinquent, non-accrual and classified loans, TDRs and foreclosed real estate. In addition, we use information about specific borrower situations, including their financial position and estimated collateral values, to estimate the risk and amount of loss for those borrowers. Finally, we also consider other qualitative factors, including general and economic business conditions, anticipated duration of the current business cycle, current general market collateral valuations, and trends apparent in any of the factors we take into account. Our estimates of the risk of loss and amount of loss on any loan are complicated by the significant uncertainties surrounding our borrowers’ abilities to successfully execute their business models through changing economic environments, competitive challenges and other factors. Because of the degree of uncertainty and susceptibility of these factors to change, our actual losses may vary from our current estimates.

 

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In addition, the adoption of ASU 2016-13, as amended, on January 1, 2020 could result in an increase in the allowance for loan losses as a result of changing from an “incurred loss” model, which encompasses allowances for current known and inherent losses within the portfolio, to an “expected loss” model, which encompasses allowances for losses expected to be incurred over the life of the portfolio. Furthermore, ASU 2016-13 will necessitate that the Company establishes an allowance for expected credit losses for certain debt securities and other financial assets. Although we are currently unable to reasonably estimate the impact of adopting ASU 2016-13, we expect that the impact of adoption will be significantly influenced by the composition, characteristics, and quality of our loan and securities portfolios as well as the prevailing economic conditions and forecasts as of the adoption date. In December 2018, the federal banking regulators issued a final rule that would provide an optional three-year phase-in period for the day-one regulatory capital effects of the adoption of ASU 2016-13. The impact of this rule on the Company will depend on whether the Company elects to phase in the impact of the standard.

 

Our regulators, as an integral part of their examination process, periodically review our allowance for loan losses and may require us to increase our allowance for loan losses by recognizing additional provisions for loan losses charged to expense, or to decrease our allowance for loan losses by recognizing loan charge-offs. Any such additional provisions for loan losses or charge-offs, as required by our regulators, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

If we do not effectively manage our credit risk, we may experience increased levels of non-performing loans, charge-offs and delinquencies, which would require additional increases in our provision for loan losses.

 

There are risks inherent in making any loan, including risks inherent in dealing with individual borrowers, risks of non-payment, risks resulting from uncertainties as to the future value of collateral and cash flows available to service debt and risks resulting from changes in economic and market conditions. Our credit risk approval and monitoring procedures may not reduce these credit risks, and they cannot be expected to completely eliminate our credit risks. If the overall economic climate in the United States, generally, or our market areas, specifically, fails to improve, or even if it does improve, our borrowers may experience difficulties in repaying their loans, and the level of non-performing loans, charge-offs and delinquencies could rise and require further increases in the provision for loan losses, which would cause our net income and return on equity to decrease.

 

Non-performing and classified assets could take significant time to resolve and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition and could result in further losses in the future.

 

At December 31, 2018 and 2017, our non-accrual loans totaled $19.3 million, or 1.43% of our loan portfolio and $4.7 million, or 0.41% of our loan portfolio, respectively. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, our non-accrual loans, OREO and accruing TDRs totaled $34.1 million, or 2.02% of total assets and $24.1 million, or 1.71% of total assets, respectively. Our non-performing assets adversely affect our net income in various ways. We do not accrue interest income on non-accrual loans or foreclosed properties, thereby adversely affecting our net income and returns on assets and equity, increasing our loan administration costs and adversely affecting our efficiency ratio. When we take collateral in foreclosure and similar proceedings, we are required to mark the collateral to its fair market value less estimated selling costs, which may result in a loss. These non-performing loans and foreclosed properties also increase our risk profile and the amount of capital our regulators believe is appropriate to maintain in light of such risks. The resolution of non-performing assets requires significant time commitments from management and can be detrimental to the performance of their other responsibilities. If we experience increases in non-performing loans and non-performing assets, our net interest income will be negatively impacted, and our loan administration costs could increase, each of which could have an adverse effect on our net income and related ratios, such as return on assets and equity.

 

At December 31, 2018 and 2017 our total classified assets were $40.8 million and $50.3 million, respectively. While we continue to accrue interest income on classified loans that are performing, classified loans and other classified assets may negatively impact profitability by requiring additional management attention and regular monitoring. Increased monitoring of these assets by management may impact our management’s ability to focus on opportunistic growth, potentially adversely impacting future profitability.

 

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Our residential mortgage loans and home equity loans expose us to a risk of loss due to declining real estate values.

 

At December 31, 2018 and 2017, $156.7 million, or 11.6%, of our total loan portfolio, and $170.4 million, or 14.8%, of our total loan portfolio, respectively, consisted of owner-occupied one- to four-family residential mortgage loans. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, $35.6 million, or 2.6%, of our total loan portfolio and $21.4 million, or 1.9%, of our total loan portfolio, respectively, consisted of home equity loans and lines of credit. Declines in the housing market could result in declines in real estate values in our market area. A decline in real estate values could cause some of our mortgage and home equity loans to be inadequately collateralized, which would expose us to a greater risk of loss if we seek to recover on defaulted loans by selling the real estate collateral.

 

Our asset valuation may include methodologies, estimations and assumptions that are subject to differing interpretations and could result in changes to asset valuations that may materially adversely affect our results of operations or financial condition.

 

We must use estimates, assumptions, and judgments when financial assets and liabilities are measured and reported at fair value. Assets and liabilities carried at fair value inherently result in a higher degree of financial statement volatility. Fair values and the information used to record valuation adjustments for certain assets and liabilities are based on quoted market prices and/or other observable inputs provided by independent third-party sources, when available. When such third-party information is not available, we estimate fair value primarily by using cash flows and other financial modeling techniques utilizing assumptions such as credit quality, liquidity, interest rates and other relevant inputs. Changes in underlying factors, assumptions, or estimates in any of these areas could materially impact our future financial condition and results of operations.

 

During periods of market disruption, including periods of significantly rising or high interest rates, rapidly widening credit spreads or illiquidity, it may be difficult to value some of our assets if trading becomes less frequent and market data becomes less observable. There may be asset classes that were in active markets with significant observable data that become illiquid due to the financial environment. In such cases, asset valuation may require more subjectivity and management judgment. As such, valuations may include inputs and assumptions that are less observable or require greater estimation.

 

If the value of real estate in our market area were to decline, a significant portion of our loan portfolio could become under-collateralized, which could have a material adverse effect on us.

 

Declines in local economic conditions could adversely affect the value of the real estate collateral securing our loans. A decline in property values would diminish our ability to recover on defaulted loans by selling the real estate collateral, making it more likely that we would suffer losses on defaulted loans. Additionally, a decrease in asset quality could require additions to our allowance for loan losses through increased provisions for loan losses, which would hurt our profits. Real estate values are affected by various factors in addition to local economic conditions, including, among other things, changes in general or regional economic conditions, governmental rules or policies and natural disasters.

 

We may be adversely affected by economic conditions in our market area, which is significantly dependent on federal government and military employment and programs.

 

Our marketplace is primarily in the counties of Charles, Calvert, St. Mary’s and Anne Arundel, Maryland and neighboring communities, and the Fredericksburg area of Virginia. Many, if not most, of our customers live and/or work in those counties or in the greater Washington, DC metropolitan area. Because our services are concentrated in this market, we are affected by the general economic conditions in the greater Washington, DC area. Changes in the economy may influence the growth rate of our loans and deposits, the quality of the loan portfolio and loan and deposit pricing. A significant decline in economic conditions caused by inflation, recession, unemployment or other factors beyond our control could decrease the demand for banking products and services generally and/or impair the ability of existing borrowers to repay their loans, which could negatively affect our financial condition and performance.

 

A significant portion of the population in our market area is affiliated with or employed by the federal government or at military facilities located in the area which contribute to the local economy. As a result, a reduction in federal government or military employment or programs could have a negative impact on local economic conditions and real estate collateral values and could also negatively affect the Company’s profitability.

 

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Liquidity Risk

 

Our deposit concentrations may subject us to additional liquidity and pricing risk.

 

Our inability to manage deposit concentration risk could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We manage portfolio diversification through our asset/liability committee process. We occasionally accept larger deposit customers, and our typical deposit customers might occasionally carry larger balances. The aggregate amount of our top 25 deposit relationships have grown from $190.2 million, or 13.5%, of our total assets at December 31, 2017 to $347.4 million, or 20.6%, of our total assets at December 31, 2018. These amounts include $242.7 million and $85.6 million of municipal deposits at December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The FDIC’s examination policies require that the Company monitor all customer deposit concentrations at or above 2% of total deposits. At December 31, 2018, the Bank had one customer deposit relationship that exceeded 2% of total deposits, totaling $158.8 million which represented 11.1% of total deposits of $1,429.6 million. At December 31, 2017, there were no customer deposit concentrations that exceeded 2% of total deposits. At December 31, 2017, the Bank had one customer deposit relationship that exceeded 2% of total deposits, totaling $22.6 million which represented 2.0% of total deposits of $1,106.2 million.

 

Unanticipated, significant changes in these large balances could affect our liquidity risk and pricing risk. While we reduced our reliance on wholesale funding during the year ended December 31, 2018, the withdrawal of more deposits than we anticipate could have an adverse impact on our profitability as this source of funding, if not replaced by similar deposit funding, would need to be replaced with wholesale funding, the sale of interest-earning assets, or a combination of the two. The replacement of deposit funding with wholesale funding could cause our overall cost of funds to increase, which would reduce our net interest income and results of operations. A decline in interest-earning assets would also lower our net interest income and results of operations. In addition, large-scale withdrawals of brokered or institutional deposits could require us to pay significantly higher interest rates on our retail deposits or on other wholesale funding sources, which would have an adverse impact on our net interest income and net income.

 

If we were to defer payments on our trust preferred capital debt securities or were in default under the related indentures, we would be prohibited from paying dividends or distributions on our common stock.

 

The terms of our outstanding trust preferred capital debt securities prohibit us from (1) declaring or paying any dividends or distributions on our capital stock, including our common stock; or (2) purchasing, acquiring, or making a liquidation payment on such stock, under the following circumstances: (a) if an event of default has occurred and is continuing under the applicable indenture; (b) if we are in default with respect to a payment under the guarantee of the related trust preferred securities; or (c) if we have given notice of our election to defer interest payments but the related deferral period has not yet commenced, or a deferral period is continuing. In addition, without notice to, or consent from, the holders of our common stock, we may issue additional series of trust preferred capital debt securities with similar terms, or enter into other financing agreements, that limit our ability to pay dividends on our common stock. For additional information regarding the trust preferred securities, see “Note 17 – Guaranteed Preferred Beneficial Interest in Junior Subordinated Debentures” in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”

 

The Company is a bank holding company and its sources of funds necessary to meet its obligations are limited.

 

The Company is a bank holding company, and its operations are primarily conducted by the Bank, which is subject to significant federal and state regulation. Cash available to pay dividends to our common and preferred stockholders, pay our obligations and meet our debt service requirements is derived primarily from our existing cash flow sources, dividends received from the Bank, or a combination thereof. Future dividend payments by the Bank to us will require generation of future earnings by the Bank and are subject to certain regulatory guidelines. If the Bank is unable to pay dividends to us, we may not have the resources or cash flow to pay or meet all of our obligations.

 

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Operational Risk

 

We may be adversely affected by recent changes in U.S. tax laws and regulations.

 

Changes in tax laws contained in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which was enacted in December 2017, include a number of provisions that will have an impact on the banking industry, borrowers and the market for residential real estate. Included in this legislation was a reduction of the corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21%. In addition, other changes included: (i) a lower limit on the deductibility of mortgage interest on single-family residential mortgage loans, (ii) the elimination of interest deductions for home equity loans, (iii) a limitation on the deductibility of business interest expense and (iv) a limitation on the deductibility of property taxes and state and local income taxes.

 

The recent changes in the tax laws may have an adverse effect on the market for, and valuation of, residential properties, and on the demand for such loans in the future and could make it harder for borrowers to make their loan payments. In addition, these recent changes may also have a disproportionate effect on taxpayers in states with high residential home prices and high state and local taxes, such as Maryland. If home ownership becomes less attractive, demand for mortgage loans could decrease. The value of the properties securing loans in our loan portfolio may be adversely impacted as a result of the changing economics of home ownership, which could require an increase in our provision for loan losses, which would reduce our profitability and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 could have a material adverse effect on our business and stock price.

 

As a public company, we are required to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“Sarbanes-Oxley”). Internal control over financial reporting is complex and may be revised over time to adapt to changes in our business, or changes in applicable accounting rules. Sarbanes-Oxley requires our management to evaluate the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures and its internal control over financial reporting and requires our auditors to issue a report on our internal control over financial reporting. We are required to disclose, in our annual report on Form 10-K, the existence of any “material weaknesses” in our internal controls. We cannot assure that we will not identify one or more material weaknesses as of the end of any given quarter or year, nor can we predict the effect on our stock price of disclosure of a material weakness. If we are not able to maintain or document effective internal control over financial reporting, our independent registered public accounting firm will not be able to certify as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Matters impacting our internal control over financial reporting may cause us to be unable to report our financial information on a timely basis or may cause us to restate previously issued financial information, and thereby subject us to adverse regulatory consequences, including sanctions or investigations by the SEC, or violations of applicable stock exchange listing rules. There could also be a negative reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of investor confidence in us and the reliability of our financial statements. Confidence in the reliability of our financial statements is also likely to suffer if we or our independent registered public accounting firm reports a material weakness in the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. This could materially adversely affect us by, for example, leading to a decline in our stock price and impairing our ability to raise capital. Sarbanes-Oxley also limits the types of non-audit services our outside auditors may provide to us in order to preserve their independence from us. If our auditors were found not to be “independent” of us under SEC rules, we could be required to engage new auditors and re-file financial statements and audit reports with the SEC. In that case, we could be out of compliance with SEC rules until new financial statements and audit reports were filed, limiting our ability to raise capital and resulting in other adverse consequences.

 

Our internal control systems are inherently limited.

 

Our systems of internal controls, disclosure controls and corporate governance policies and procedures are inherently limited. The inherent limitations of our system of internal controls include the use of judgment in decision-making that can be faulty; breakdowns can occur because of human error or mistakes; and controls can be circumvented by individual acts or by collusion of two or more people. The design of any system of controls is based in part upon certain assumptions about the likelihood of future events, and any design may not succeed in achieving its stated goals under all potential future conditions. Because of the inherent limitation of a cost-effective control system, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and may not be detected, which may have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition. Additionally, any plans of remediation for any identified limitations may be ineffective in improving our internal controls.

 

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We rely on other companies to provide key components of our business infrastructure.

 

Third party vendors provide key components of our business infrastructure such as core data processing systems, internet connections, network access and fund distribution. While we have selected these third-party vendors carefully, we cannot control their actions. Any problems caused by these third parties, including those which result from their failure to provide services for any reason or their poor performance of services, could adversely affect our ability to deliver products and services to its customers and otherwise to conduct its business. Replacing these third-party vendors could also entail significant delay and expense.

 

We are dependent on our information technology and telecommunications systems and third-party servicers, and systems failures, interruptions or breaches of security could have a material adverse effect on us.

 

Our business is dependent on the successful and uninterrupted functioning of our information technology and telecommunications systems and third-party servicers. The failure of these systems, or the termination of a third-party software license or service agreement on which any of these systems is based, could interrupt our operations. Because our information technology and telecommunications systems interface with and depend on third-party systems, we could experience service denials if demand for such services exceeds capacity or such third-party systems fail or experience interruptions. If significant, sustained or repeated, a system failure or service denial could compromise our ability to operate effectively, damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business, and/or subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on us.

 

In addition, we provide our customers with the ability to bank remotely, including over the Internet and the telephone. The secure transmission of confidential information over the Internet and other remote channels is a critical element of remote banking. Despite instituted safeguards and monitoring, our network could be vulnerable to unauthorized access, computer viruses, phishing schemes and other security breaches. We may be required to spend significant capital and other resources to protect against the threat of security breaches and computer viruses, or to alleviate problems caused by security breaches or viruses. To the extent that our activities or the activities of our customers involve the storage and transmission of confidential information, physical and cyber security breaches and viruses could expose us to claims, regulatory scrutiny, litigation and other possible liabilities. Any inability to prevent security breaches or computer viruses could also cause existing customers to lose confidence in our systems and could materially and adversely affect us.

 

We are subject to a variety of operational risks, environmental, legal and compliance risks, and the risk of fraud or theft by employees or outsiders, which may adversely affect our business and results of operations.

 

We are exposed to many types of operational risks, including reputational risk, legal and compliance risk, the risk of fraud or theft by employees or outsiders, and unauthorized transactions by employees or operational errors, including clerical or record-keeping errors or those resulting from faulty or disabled computer, telecommunications systems, cyber security breaches and other disruptive problems caused by the Internet or other users. Negative public opinion can result from our actual or alleged conduct in any number of activities, including lending practices, corporate governance and acquisitions of other entities, and from actions taken by government regulators and community organizations in response to those activities. Negative public opinion can adversely affect our ability to attract and keep customers and can expose us to litigation and regulatory action. Actual or alleged conduct by the Bank can also result in negative public opinion about our other businesses.

 

If personal, non-public, confidential or proprietary information of customers in our possession were to be misappropriated, mishandled or misused, we could suffer significant regulatory consequences, reputational damage and financial loss. Such mishandling or misuse could include, for example, erroneously providing such information to parties who are not permitted to have the information, either by fault of our systems, employees, or counterparties, or the interception or inappropriate acquisition of such information by third parties.

 

Because the nature of the financial services business involves a high volume of transactions, certain errors may be repeated or compounded before they are discovered and successfully rectified. Our necessary dependence upon automated systems to record and process transactions and our large transaction volume may further increase the risk that technical flaws or employee tampering or manipulation of those systems will result in losses that are difficult to detect. We also may be subject to disruptions of our operating systems arising from events that are wholly or partially beyond our control (for example, computer viruses or electrical or telecommunications outages, or natural disasters, disease pandemics or other damage to property or physical assets) which may give rise to disruption of service to customers and to financial loss or liability. We are further exposed to the risk that our external vendors may be unable to fulfill their contractual obligations (or will be subject to the same risk of fraud or operational errors by their respective employees as we are) and to the risk that our (or our vendors’) business continuity and data security systems prove to be inadequate. The occurrence of any of these risks could result in our diminished ability to operate our business (for example, by requiring us to expend significant resources to correct the defect), as well as potential liability to clients, reputational damage and regulatory intervention, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations, perhaps materially. 

 

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Security breaches and other disruptions could compromise our information and expose us to liability, which would cause our business and reputation to suffer.

 

In the ordinary course of our business, we collect and store sensitive data, including our proprietary business information and that of our customers, suppliers and business partners; and personally identifiable information of our customers and employees. The secure processing, maintenance and transmission of this information is critical to our operations and business strategy. We, our customers, and other financial institutions with which we interact, are subject to ongoing, continuous attempts to penetrate key systems by individual hackers, organized criminals, and in some cases, state-sponsored organizations. Information security risks for financial institutions have generally increased in recent years in part because of the proliferation of new technologies, the use of the Internet and telecommunications technologies to conduct financial transactions, and the increased sophistication and activities of organized crime, hackers, terrorists, activists, and other external parties. Despite our security measures and monitoring, our information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breached due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions. Any such breach could compromise our networks and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Any such unauthorized access, disclosure or other loss of information could result in significant costs to us, which may include fines and penalties, potential liabilities from governmental or third party investigations, proceedings or litigation, legal, forensic and consulting fees and expenses, costs and diversion of management attention required for investigation and remediation actions, and the negative impact on our reputation and loss of confidence of our customers and others, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our business, revenues, financial condition and competitive position. As cyber threats continue to evolve, we may be required to spend significant capital and other resources to protect against the threat of security breaches and computer viruses, or to alleviate problems caused by security breaches or viruses.

 

If our information technology is unable to keep pace with industry developments, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.

 

Financial products and services have become increasingly technology-driven. Our ability to meet the needs of our customers competitively, and in a cost-efficient manner, is dependent on the ability to keep pace with technological advances and to invest in new technology as it becomes available. Many of our competitors have greater resources to invest in technology than we do and may be better equipped to market new technology-driven products and services. The ability to keep pace with technological change is important, and the failure to do so could have a material adverse impact on our business and therefore on our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Exiting or entering new lines of business or new products and services may subject us to additional risk.

 

From time to time, we may exit an existing line of business or implement new lines of business or offer new products and services within existing lines of business. There are substantial risks and uncertainties associated with these efforts. When exiting a line of business or product we may have difficulty replacing the revenue stream and may have to take certain actions to make up for the line of business or product. For example, we recently discontinued the origination of residential mortgage loans and instead now purchase residential mortgage loans for our loan portfolio from other sources. If those sources are not available or the cost for such purchases increases our results of operations may be adversely affected. We also may face increased credit risk with respect to purchased loans relative to the credit risks we faced in connection with the origination of loans. In developing and marketing new lines of business and/or new products and services, we may invest significant time and resources. Initial timetables for the introduction and development of new lines of business and/or new products or services may not be achieved, and price and profitability targets may not prove feasible. External factors, such as compliance with regulations, competitive alternatives, and shifting market preferences, may also impact the successful implementation of a new line of business and/or a new product or service. Furthermore, any new line of business and/or new product or service could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of our system of internal controls. Failure to successfully manage these risks in the development and implementation of new lines of business and/or new products or services could have a material adverse effect on our business and, in turn, our financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Interest Rate Risk

 

Changes in interest rates could reduce our net interest income and earnings.

 

Our largest component of earnings is net interest income, which could be negatively affected by changes in interest rates. Changing interest rates impact customer actions and may limit the options available to the Company to maximize earnings or increase the costs to minimize risk. We do not have control over market interest rates and the Company’s focus to mitigate potential earnings risk centers on controlling the composition of our assets and liabilities.

 

Our net interest income is the interest we earn on loans and investments less the interest we pay on our deposits and borrowings. Our net interest margin is net interest income divided by average interest-earning assets. Changes in interest rates could adversely affect our net interest margin and, as a result, our net interest income. Although the yield we earn on our assets and our funding costs tend to move in the same direction in response to changes in interest rates, one can rise or fall faster than the other, causing our net interest margin to increase or decrease. Our liabilities tend to be shorter in duration than our assets, so they may adjust faster in response to changes in interest rates. As a result, when interest rates rise, our funding costs may rise faster than the yield we earn on our assets, causing our net interest margin to contract until the yield catches up. Changes in the slope of the “yield curve”— or the spread between short-term and long-term interest rates—could also reduce our net interest margin. Normally, the yield curve is upward sloping, meaning short-term rates are lower than long-term rates. Because our liabilities tend to be shorter in duration than our assets, when the yield curve flattens or inverts, we could experience pressure on our net interest margin as our cost of funds increases relative to the yield we can earn on our assets. Our procedures for managing exposure to falling net interest income involve modeling possible scenarios of interest rate increases and decreases to interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities.

 

Changes in interest rates also can affect: (1) our ability to originate loans; (2) the value of our interest-earning assets; (3) our ability to obtain and retain deposits in competition with other available investment alternatives; and (4) the ability of our borrowers to repay their loans, particularly adjustable or variable rate loans.

 

Changes to LIBOR may adversely impact the interest rate paid on our outstanding trust preferred securities and our subordinated notes and may also impact some of our loans.

 

On July 27, 2017, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates London Interbank Offered Rates (“LIBOR”), announced that it will no longer persuade or compel banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR to the LIBOR administrator after 2021. The announcement also indicates that the continuation of LIBOR on the current basis cannot and will not be guaranteed after 2021. Consequently, at this time, it is not possible to predict whether and to what extent banks will continue to provide LIBOR submissions to the LIBOR administrator or whether any additional reforms to LIBOR may be enacted in the United Kingdom or elsewhere. Similarly, it is not possible to predict whether LIBOR will continue to be viewed as an acceptable benchmark for certain securities, loans, and liabilities, including our trust preferred securities and our subordinated notes, what rate or rates may become accepted alternatives to LIBOR or the effect of any such changes in views or alternatives on the value of securities whose interest rates are tied to LIBOR.

 

Uncertainty as to the nature of such potential changes, alternative reference rates, the elimination or replacement of LIBOR, or other reforms may adversely affect the value of, and the return on, our securities, loans, and liabilities, including, our subordinated notes, as well as the interest we pay on those securities.

 

The amount of interest payable on our 6.25% Fixed to Floating Rate Subordinated Notes due 2025 will vary after February 15, 2020.

 

The interest rate on our 6.25% Fixed to Floating Rate Subordinated Notes due 2025 (“subordinated notes”) will vary after February 15, 2020. From and including the issue date of such notes but excluding February 15, 2020, the notes will bear interest at a fixed rate of 6.25% per year. From and including February 15, 2020, to but excluding the maturity date, the notes will bear interest at an annual floating rate equal to the three-month LIBOR plus 479 basis points for any interest period. If interest rates rise, the cost of our subordinated notes may increase, negatively affecting our net income. For additional information regarding the subordinated notes, see “Note 18 – Subordinated Notes” in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”

 

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Strategic Risk

 

Our financial condition and results of operations could be negatively affected if we fail to timely and effectively execute our strategic plan or manage the growth called for in our strategic plan. We have grown through our January 1, 2018 acquisition of County First Bank and may continue to grow through other acquisitions. To be successful as a larger institution, we must successfully integrate the operations and retain the customers of acquired institutions, attract and retain the management required to successfully manage larger operations, and control costs.

 

Among other things, our strategic plan currently calls for reducing the amount of our non-performing assets, growing assets through commercial lending and generating transaction deposit accounts to reduce our funding costs and improve our net interest margin. Our ability to increase profitability in accordance with this plan will depend on a variety of factors including the identification of desirable business opportunities, competitive responses from financial institutions in our market area and our ability to manage liquidity and funding sources. While we believe we have the management resources and internal systems in place to successfully manage our strategic plan, opportunities may not be available and that the strategic plan may not be successful or effectively managed.

 

In implementing our strategic plan, we may expand into additional communities or attempt to strengthen our position in our current markets through opportunistic acquisitions of whole banks or branch locations. On January 1, 2018, we acquired County First Bank. Future results of operations will be impacted by our ability to successfully integrate the operations of County First Bank and any other acquired institutions and retain the customers of those institutions. If we are unable to successfully manage the integration of the separate cultures, customer bases and operating systems of the acquired institutions, and any other institutions that may be acquired in the future, our results of operations could be negatively impacted. As a result of the County First Bank acquisition and to the extent that we undertake additional acquisitions, we are likely to experience the effects of higher operating expenses relative to operating income from the new operations during the integration period, which may have an adverse effect on our levels of reported net income, return on average equity and return on average assets. In addition, if we undertake substantial growth, we may need to increase non-interest expenses through additional personnel, occupancy expense and data processing costs, among others. In order to successfully manage growth, we may need to adopt and effectively implement policies, procedures and controls to maintain credit quality, control costs and oversee operations. No assurance can be given that we will be successful in this strategy. Other effects of engaging in such growth strategies may include potential diversion of our management’s time and attention and general disruption to our business. We may not be able to adequately, timely and profitably achieve the intended benefits or our growth strategies or manage anticipated growth.

 

Finally, substantial growth may stress regulatory capital levels, and may require us to raise additional capital. No assurance can be given that we will be able to raise any required capital, or that it will be able to raise capital on terms that are beneficial to stockholders.

 

Strong competition within our market area could hurt our profits and slow growth.

 

We face intense competition both in making loans and attracting deposits. Our competition for loans and deposits includes banks, savings institutions, mortgage banking companies, credit unions and non-banking financial institutions. We compete with regional and national financial institutions that have a substantial presence in our market area, many of which have greater liquidity, higher lending limits, greater access to capital, more established market recognition and more resources and collective experience than us. Furthermore, tax-exempt credit unions operate in our market area and aggressively price their products and services to a large portion of the market. This competition may make it more difficult for us to originate new loans and may force us to offer higher deposit rates than we currently offer. Price competition for loans and deposits might result in lower interest rates earned on our loans and higher interest rates paid on our deposits, which would reduce net interest income. Our profitability depends upon our continued ability to compete successfully in our market area.

 

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Legal and Compliance Risk

 

Our enterprise risk management framework may not be effective in mitigating the risks to which we are subject, based upon the size, scope, and complexity of the Company.

 

As a financial institution, we are subject to a number of risks, including interest rate, credit, liquidity, legal/compliance, market, strategic, operational, and reputational. Our enterprise risk management (“ERM”) framework is designed to minimize the risks to which we are subject, as well as any losses stemming from such risks. Although we seek to identify, measure, monitor, report, and control our exposure to such risks, and employ a broad and diverse set of risk monitoring and mitigation techniques in the process, those techniques are inherently limited because they cannot anticipate the existence or development of risks that are currently unknown and unanticipated.

 

For example, economic and market conditions, heightened legislative and regulatory scrutiny of the financial services industry, and increases in the overall complexity of our operations, among other developments, have resulted in the creation of a variety of risks that were previously unknown and unanticipated, highlighting the intrinsic limitations of our risk monitoring and mitigation techniques. As a result, the further development of previously unknown or unanticipated risks may result in our incurring losses in the future that could adversely impact our financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, an ineffective ERM framework, as well as other risk factors, could result in a material increase in our FDIC insurance premiums.

 

The implementation of a new accounting standard could require the Company to increase its allowance for loan losses and may have a material adverse effect on its financial condition and results of operations.

 

FASB has adopted a new accounting standard that will be effective for the Company’s first fiscal year after December 15, 2019. This standard, referred to as Current Expected Credit Loss, or CECL, will require financial institutions to determine periodic estimates of lifetime expected credit losses on loans, and provide for the expected credit losses as allowances for loan losses. This will change the current method of providing allowances for loan losses that are probable, which the Company expects could require it to increase its allowance for loan losses and will likely greatly increase the data the Company would need to collect and review to determine the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses. Any increase in the allowance for loan losses, or expenses incurred to determine the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses, may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

 

We operate in a highly regulated environment and we may be adversely affected by changes in laws and regulations.

 

The Company and the Bank are subject to extensive regulation, supervision and examination as noted in the “Supervision and Regulation” section of this report. The regulation and supervision by the Maryland Commissioner, the Federal Reserve and the FDIC are not intended to protect the interests of investors in The Community Financial Corporation common stock. Regulatory authorities have extensive discretion in their supervisory and enforcement activities, including the imposition of restrictions on our operations, the classification of our assets and determination of the level of our allowance for loan losses. Laws and regulations now affecting us may be changed at any time, and the interpretation of such laws and regulations by bank regulatory authorities is also subject to change. Any change in such regulation and oversight, whether in the form of regulatory policy, regulations, legislation or supervisory action, may have a material impact on our operations.

 

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Regulation of the financial services industry is undergoing major changes and future legislation could increase our cost of doing business or harm our competitive position.

 

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) has created a significant shift in the way financial institutions operate. The key effects of the Dodd-Frank Act on our business are:

 

Changes to regulatory capital requirements;

 

Creation of new government regulatory agencies (such as the Financial Stability Oversight Council, which oversees systemic risk, and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, which develops and enforces rules for bank and non-bank providers of consumer financial products);

 

Potential limitations on federal preemption;

 

Changes to deposit insurance assessments;

 

Regulation of debit interchange fees we earn;

 

Changes in retail banking regulations, including potential limitations on certain fees we may charge; and

 

Changes in regulation of consumer mortgage loan origination and risk retention.

 

In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act restricts the ability of banks to engage in certain proprietary trading or to sponsor or invest in private equity or hedge funds. The Dodd-Frank Act also contains provisions designed to limit the ability of insured depository institutions, their holding companies and their affiliates to conduct certain swaps and derivatives activities and to take certain principal positions in financial instruments.

 

Certain changes resulting from the Dodd-Frank Act may impact the profitability of our business activities, require changes to certain of our business practices, impose upon us more stringent capital, liquidity and leverage requirements or otherwise adversely affect our business. These changes may also require us to invest significant management attention and resources to evaluate and make any changes necessary to comply with new statutory and regulatory requirements. Failure to comply with the requirements may negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.

 

Basel III capital rules generally require insured depository institutions and their holding companies to hold more capital. The impact of the new rules on our financial condition and operations is uncertain but could be materially adverse.

 

New capital rules adopted by the Federal Reserve substantially amended the regulatory risk-based capital rules applicable to us. The rule includes new risk-based capital and leverage ratios, which became effective January 1, 2015, and revise the definition of what constitutes “capital” for purposes of calculating those ratios. The rules apply to the Company as well as to the Bank. Beginning in the first quarter of 2015, our minimum capital requirements were (i) a common Tier 1 equity ratio of 4.5%, (ii) a Tier 1 capital (common Tier 1 capital plus Additional Tier 1 capital) of 6% (up from 4%) and (iii) a total capital ratio of 8%. Our leverage ratio requirement will remain at the 4% level. Finally, the new capital rules limit capital distributions and certain discretionary bonus payments if the banking organization does not hold a “capital conservation buffer” consisting of 2.5% of common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets in addition to the amount necessary to meet its minimum risk-based capital requirements. The capital conservation buffer requirement was phased in beginning January 1, 2016, at 0.625% of risk-weighted assets, increasing each year until fully implemented at 2.5% on January 1, 2019.

 

We are periodically subject to examination and scrutiny by a number of banking agencies and, depending upon the findings and determinations of these agencies, we may be required to make adjustments to our business that could adversely affect us.

 

Federal and state banking agencies periodically conduct examinations of our business, including compliance with applicable laws and regulations. If, as a result of an examination, a federal banking agency was to determine that the financial condition, capital resources, asset quality, asset concentration, earnings prospects, management, liquidity, sensitivity to market risk or other aspects of any of our operations has become unsatisfactory, or that we or our management is in violation of any law or regulation, it could take a number of different remedial actions as it deems appropriate. These actions include the power to enjoin “unsafe or unsound” practices, to require affirmative actions to correct any conditions resulting from any violation or practice, to issue an administrative order that can be judicially enforced, to direct an increase in our capital, to restrict our growth, to change the asset composition of our portfolio or balance sheet, to assess civil monetary penalties against our officers or directors, to remove officers and directors and, if it is concluded that such conditions cannot be corrected or there is an imminent risk of loss to depositors, to terminate our deposit insurance. If we become subject to such regulatory actions, our business, results of operations and reputation may be negatively impacted.

 

 

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Negative developments in the financial industry, the domestic and international credit markets, and the economy in general pose significant challenges for our industry and us and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

Negative developments that began in the latter half of 2007 and that have continued since then in the global credit and securitization markets have resulted in unprecedented volatility and disruption in the financial markets, a general economic downturn and a tepid economic recovery, both nationally and in our primary markets. As a result, commercial as well as consumer loan portfolio performances deteriorated at many institutions and have not fully recovered, and the competition for deposits and quality loans has increased significantly. In addition, the values of real estate collateral supporting many commercial loans and home mortgages have declined and may continue to decline. As a result, we may face the following risks:

 

Economic conditions that negatively affect housing prices and the job market may cause the credit quality of our loan portfolios to deteriorate;

 

Market developments that affect consumer confidence may cause adverse changes in payment patterns by our customers, causing increases in delinquencies and default rates on loans and other credit facilities;

 

The processes that we use to estimate our allowance for loan losses and reserves may no longer be reliable because they rely on judgments, such as forecasts of economic conditions, that may no longer be capable of accurate estimation;

 

The value of our securities portfolio may decline; and

 

We face increased regulation of our industry, and the costs of compliance with such regulation may increase.

 

These conditions or similar ones may continue to persist or worsen, causing us to experience continuing or increased adverse effects on our business, financial condition, results of operations and the price of our common stock.

 

Monetary policies and regulations of the Federal Reserve could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

In addition to being affected by general economic conditions, our earnings and growth are affected by the policies of the Federal Reserve. In recent years, various significant economic and monetary stimulus measures were implemented by the U.S. Congress and the Federal Reserve pursued a highly accommodative monetary policy aimed at keeping interest rates at historically low levels although the Federal Reserve has begun to modify certain aspects of this policy by gradually increasing short-term interest rates and reducing its balance sheet. U.S. economic activity has significantly improved, but there can be no assurance that this progress will continue or will not reverse.

 

An important function of the Federal Reserve is to regulate the money supply and credit conditions. Among the instruments used by the Federal Reserve to implement these objectives are open market operations in U.S. government securities, adjustments of the discount rate and changes in reserve requirements against bank deposits. These instruments are used in varying combinations to influence overall economic growth and the distribution of credit, bank loans, investments and deposits. Their use also affects interest rates charged on loans or paid on deposits. The monetary policies and regulations of the Federal Reserve have had a significant effect on the operating results of commercial banks in the past and are expected to continue to do so in the future. The effects of such policies upon our business, financial condition and results of operations cannot be predicted.

 

 37 

 

 

Provisions of our articles of incorporation, bylaws and Maryland law, as well as state and federal banking regulations, could delay or prevent a takeover of us by a third party.

 

Provisions in our articles of incorporation and bylaws and Maryland corporate law could delay, defer or prevent a third party from acquiring us, despite the possible benefit to our shareholders, or otherwise adversely affect the price of our common stock. These provisions include: supermajority voting requirements for certain business combinations; the election of directors to staggered terms of three years; and advance notice requirements for nominations for election to our board of directors and for proposing matters that shareholders may act on at shareholder meetings. In addition, we are subject to Maryland laws, including one that prohibits us from engaging in a business combination with any interested shareholder for a period of five years from the date the person became an interested shareholder unless certain conditions are met. These provisions may discourage potential takeover attempts, discourage bids for our common stock at a premium over market price or adversely affect the market price of, and the voting and other rights of the holders of, our common stock. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for shareholders to elect directors other than the candidates nominated by our Board.

 

We face a risk of noncompliance and enforcement action with the Bank Secrecy Act and other anti-money laundering statutes and regulations.

 

The federal Bank Secrecy Act, the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (the “PATRIOT Act”) and other laws and regulations require financial institutions, among other duties, to institute and maintain effective anti-money laundering programs and file suspicious activity and currency transaction reports as appropriate. The federal Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, established by the U.S. Treasury Department to administer the Bank Secrecy Act, is authorized to impose significant civil money penalties for violations of those requirements and has recently engaged in coordinated enforcement efforts with the individual federal banking regulators, as well as the U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration and Internal Revenue Service. Federal and state bank regulators also have begun to focus on compliance with Bank Secrecy Act and anti-money laundering regulations. If our policies, procedures and systems are deemed deficient or the policies, procedures and systems of the financial institutions that we may acquire in the future are deficient, we would be subject to liability, including fines and regulatory actions such as restrictions on our ability to pay dividends and the necessity to obtain regulatory approvals to proceed with certain aspects of our business plan, including our acquisition plans, which would negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. Failure to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing could also have serious reputational consequences for us. 

 

 38 

 

 

Market Risk

 

The market price and liquidity of our common stock could be adversely affected if the economy were to weaken or the capital markets were to experience volatility.

 

The market price of our common stock could be subject to significant fluctuations due to changes in sentiment in the market regarding our operations or business prospects. Among other factors, these risks may be affected by:

 

    Operating results that vary from the expectations of our management or of securities analysts and investors;
       
    Developments in our business or in the financial services sector generally;
       
    Regulatory or legislative changes affecting our industry generally or our business and operations;
       
    Operating and securities price performance of companies that investors consider to be comparable to us;
       
    Changes in estimates or recommendations by securities analysts or rating agencies;
       
    Announcements of strategic developments, acquisitions, dispositions, financings, and other material events by us or our competitors;
       
    Changes or volatility in global financial markets and economies, general market conditions, interest or foreign exchange rates, stock, commodity, credit, or asset valuations; and
       
    Significant fluctuations in the capital markets.

 

Economic or market turmoil could occur in the near or long term, which could negatively affect our business, our financial condition, and our results of operations, as well as volatility in the price and trading volume of our common stock.

 

We may refinance our subordinated notes.

 

We may seek to refinance our subordinated notes by issuing additional shares of our common stock in one or more securities offerings. These securities offerings may dilute our existing shareholders, reduce the value of our common stock, or both. Because our decision to issue securities will depend on, among other things, market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of any future securities offerings. Thus, holders of our common stock bear the risk of our future offerings diluting and potentially reducing the value of our common stock.

 

We may issue additional common stock or other equity securities in the future which could dilute the ownership interest of existing shareholders.

 

In order to maintain our capital at desired or regulatory-required levels, or to fund future growth, our board of directors may decide from time to time to issue additional shares of common stock, or securities convertible into, exchangeable for or representing rights to acquire shares of our common stock. The sale of these shares may significantly dilute your ownership interest as a shareholder. New investors in the future may also have rights, preferences and privileges senior to our current shareholders which may adversely impact our current shareholders.

 

Reputational Risk

 

We are a community bank and our ability to maintain our reputation is critical to the success of our business and the failure to do so may materially adversely affect our performance.

 

We are a community bank, and our reputation is one of the most valuable components of our business. As such, we strive to conduct our business in a manner that enhances our reputation. This is done, in part, by recruiting, hiring and retaining employees who share our core values of being an integral part of the communities we serve, delivering superior service to our customers and caring about our customers and associates. If our reputation is negatively affected, by the actions of our employees or otherwise, our business and, therefore, our operating results may be adversely affected.

 

 39 

 

 

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

 

Not applicable.

 

Item 2. Properties

 

The Bank maintains its main office and operation center in Waldorf, Maryland and an operation center in Fredericksburg, Virginia, in addition to its branch offices in Lexington Park, Leonardtown, La Plata (two), Dunkirk, Bryans Road, Waldorf, Charlotte Hall, Prince Frederick and Lusby, Maryland and one branch in Fredericksburg, Virginia. In addition, the Bank maintains five loan production offices (“LPOs”) in La Plata, Prince Frederick, Leonardtown and Annapolis, Maryland; and Fredericksburg, Virginia. The Leonardtown LPO is co-located with the branch and the Fredericksburg, Virginia LPO is co-located with the operation center.

 

The Bank leases the Dunkirk, Maryland branch, the Annapolis and Prince Frederick LPOs and the Fredericksburg operation center. The Bank owns all of its branch buildings except for the Dunkirk, Maryland branch, and leases the land on which the Waldorf, Charlotte Hall, Prince Frederick and Lusby, Maryland branches are located. Lease expiration dates range from 2019 to 2045 with renewal options of 5 to 15 years. The net book value of premises, which included land, building and improvements, totaled $20.8 million and $ 19.1 million, respectively, at December 31, 2018 and 2017.

 

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

 

Neither the Company, the Bank, nor any subsidiary is engaged in any legal proceedings of a material nature at the present time. From time to time, the Bank is a party to legal proceedings in the ordinary course of business.

 

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

 

Not applicable.

 

 40 

 

 

PART II

 

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

Market Price and Dividends on Registrant’s and Related Stockholder Matters.

 

Market Information

 

The following table sets forth high and low bid quotations reported for the Company’s common stock for each quarter during 2018 and 2017 and the dividends declared per share for common stock. These quotes reflect inter-dealer prices without retail mark-up, mark-down or commission and may not necessarily reflect actual transactions.

 

Quarter Ended  High   Low   Dividends
Per Share
 
             
December 31, 2018  $34.08   $26.47   $0.10 
September 30, 2018   37.09    32.83    0.10 
June 30, 2018   37.75    35.12    0.10 
March 31, 2018   39.07    35.77    0.10 
December 31, 2017   40.44    35.14    0.10 
September 30, 2017   40.69    32.06    0.10 
June 30, 2017   40.00    32.24    0.10 
March 31, 2017   36.00    27.16    0.10 

 

Holders

 

The common stock of the Company is traded on the NASDAQ Stock Exchange (Symbol: TCFC). The number of stockholders of record of the Company at March 1, 2019 was 716.

 

Dividends

 

During 2018 and 2017, the Company declared and paid four quarters of dividends at $0.10 per share. The Board of Directors considers on a quarterly basis the feasibility of paying a cash dividend to its stockholders. Under the Company’s general practice, dividends, if declared during the quarter, are paid prior to the end of the subsequent quarter. In December 2018, the Company’s Board of Directors increased the dividend to $0.125 per share, payable during the first quarter of 2019 to shareholders of record as of January 7, 2019.

 

The Company’s ability to pay dividends is governed by the policies and regulations of the Federal Reserve Board (the “FRB”), which prohibits the payment of dividends under certain circumstances dependent on the Company’s financial condition and capital adequacy. The Company’s ability to pay dividends is also dependent on the receipt of dividends from the Bank.

 

Federal regulations impose limitations on the payment of dividends and other capital distributions by the Bank. The Bank’s ability to pay dividends is governed by the Maryland Financial Institutions Code and the regulations of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”). Under the Maryland Financial Institutions Code, a Maryland bank (1) may only pay dividends from undivided profits or, with prior regulatory approval, its surplus in excess of 100% of required capital stock and, (2) may not declare dividends on its common stock until its surplus funds equals the amount of required capital stock, or if the surplus fund does not equal the amount of capital stock, in an amount in excess of 90% of net earnings.

 

Without the approval of the FDIC, a nonmember bank may not declare or pay a dividend if the total of all dividends declared during the year exceeds its net income during the current calendar year and retained net income for the prior two years. The Bank is further prohibited from making a capital distribution if it would not be adequately capitalized thereafter. In addition, the Bank may not make a capital distribution that would reduce its net worth below the amount required to maintain the liquidation account established for the benefit of its depositors at the time of its conversion to stock form.

 

 41 

 

 

Stock Performance Graph

 

The following graph and table show the cumulative total return on the common stock of the Company over the last five years, compared with the cumulative total return of a broad stock market index (the NASDAQ Capital Market Composite), and a narrower index of the NASDAQ Bank Index. Cumulative total return on the stock or the index equals the total increase in value since December 31, 2013, assuming reinvestment of all dividends paid into the stock or the index.

 

The graph and table were prepared assuming that $100 was invested on December 31, 2013, in the common stock and the securities included in the indexes.

 

 

 

Source: Bloomberg  Year Ended 
Index  12/31/2013   12/31/2014   12/31/2015   12/31/2016   12/31/2017   12/31/2018 
The Community Financial Corporation   100.00    98.76    104.59    147.34    196.91    152.01 
NASDAQ Bank Index   100.00    104.92    114.20    157.56    166.16    139.28 
NASDAQ Capital Market Composite   100.00    94.40    78.39    89.85    104.99    88.89 

 

 42 

 

 

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

 

Not applicable.

 

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer

 

On May 4, 2015, the Board of Directors approved a repurchase plan (“2015 repurchase plan). The 2015 repurchase plan authorizes the repurchase of up to 250,000 shares of outstanding common stock. The 2015 repurchase plan will continue until it is completed or terminated by the Company’s Board of Directors. During the quarter ended December 31, 2015, the 2015 repurchase plan began with the termination of the 2008 repurchase program. As of December 31, 2018, 186,650 shares were available to be repurchased under the 2015 repurchase program. The following schedule shows the repurchases during the three months ended December 31, 2018.

 

           (c)     
           Total Number     
           of Shares   (d) 
           Purchased   Maximum 
   (a)       as Part of   Number of Shares 
   Total   (b)   Publicly   that May Yet Be 
   Number of   Average   Announced Plans   Purchased Under 
   Shares   Price Paid   or   the Plans or 
Period  Purchased   per Share   Programs   Programs 
October 1-31, 2018   -   $-    -    186,757 
November 1-30, 2018   107    29.91    107    186,650 
December 1-31, 2018   -    -    -    186,650 
Total   107   $29.91    107    186,650 

 

 43 

 

 

Item 6. Selected Financial Data

 

SUMMARY OF SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

 

The following table shows selected historical consolidated financial data for the Company as of and for each of the five years ended December 31, 2018, which has been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements. You should read this table together with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included in this Annual 10-K report.

 

   At or for the Years Ended December 31, 
(dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)  2018   2017   2016   2015   2014 
FINANCIAL CONDITION DATA                         
Total assets  $1,689,227   $1,405,961   $1,334,257   $1,143,332   $1,082,878 
Loans receivable, net   1,337,129    1,140,615    1,079,519    909,200    862,409 
Investment securities   220,884    167,531    162,280    144,536    126,445 
Goodwill   10,835    -    -    -    - 
Core deposit intangible   2,806    -    -    -    - 
Deposits   1,429,629    1,106,237    1,038,825    906,899    869,384 
Borrowings   55,436    142,998    144,559    91,617    76,672 
Junior subordinated debentures   12,000    12,000    12,000    12,000    12,000 
Subordinated notes - 6.25%   23,000    23,000    23,000    23,000    - 
Stockholders’ equity—preferred   -    -    -    -    20,000 
Stockholders’ equity—common   154,482    109,957    104,426    99,783    96,559 
OPERATING DATA                         
Interest and dividend income  $65,173   $53,570   $48,047   $43,873   $41,759 
Interest expenses   14,286    10,182    8,142    7,345    6,698 
Net interest income (NII)   50,887    43,388    39,905    36,528    35,061 
Provision for loan losses   1,405    1,010    2,359    1,433    2,653 
NII after provision for loan losses   49,482    42,378    37,546    35,095    32,408 
Noninterest income   4,069    4,041    3,796    3,299    4,093 
Noninterest expenses   38,149    30,054    29,595    28,418    26,235 
Income before income taxes   15,402    16,365    11,747    9,976    10,266 
Income taxes   4,173    9,157    4,416    3,633    3,776 
Net income   11,229    7,208    7,331    6,343    6,490 
Preferred stock dividends declared   -    -    -    23    200 
Income available to common shares  $11,229   $7,208   $7,331   $6,320   $6,290 
COMMON SHARE DATA                         
Basic earnings per common share  $2.02   $1.56   $1.59   $1.36   $1.35 
Diluted earnings per common share   2.02    1.56    1.59    1.35    1.35 
Dividends declared per common share   0.40    0.40    0.40    0.40    0.40 
Book value per common share   27.70    23.65    22.54    21.48    20.53 
Tangible book value per common share (1)   25.25    n/a    n/a    n/a    n/a 
Common shares outstanding at end of period   5,577,559    4,649,658    4,633,868    4,645,429    4,702,715 
Basic weighted average common shares   5,550,510    4,627,776    4,599,502    4,676,748    4,646,424 
Diluted weighted average common shares   5,550,510    4,629,228    4,599,502    4,676,748    4,655,127 
OTHER DATA                         
Full-time equivalent employees   189    165    162    171    172 
Full-service offices   12    11    12    12    12 
Loan Production Offices   5    5    5    5    5 
CAPITAL RATIOS (consolidated)                         
Tier 1 capital to average assets (Leverage)   9.50    8.79%   9.02%   10.01%   12.24%
Tier 1 common capital to risk-weighted assets   10.36    9.51    9.54    10.16    n/a 
Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets   11.23    10.53    10.62    11.38    14.26 
Total risk-based capital to risk-weighted assets   13.68    13.40    13.60    14.58    15.21 
Common equity to assets   9.15    7.82    7.83    8.73    8.92 
Tangible common equity to tangible assets (1)   8.41    n/a    n/a    n/a    n/a 

 

 44 

 

 

   At or for the Years Ended December 31, 
(dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)  2018   2017   2016   2015   2014 
                     
KEY OPERATING RATIOS                         
Return on average assets   0.70%   0.52%   0.60%   0.58%   0.63%
Return on average total equity   7.53    6.55    7.09    6.21    5.69 
Return on average common equity   7.53    6.55    7.09    6.33    6.69 
Interest rate spread   3.22    3.24    3.35    3.48    3.55 
Net interest margin   3.43    3.37    3.48    3.60    3.68 
Efficiency ratio (2)   69.42    63.37    67.72    71.35    67.00 
Common dividend payout ratio   19.80    25.64    25.16    29.41    29.63 
Non-interest expense to average assets   2.38    2.18    2.41    2.60    2.56 
Net operating expense to average assets(3)   2.13    1.89    2.10    2.30    2.16 
Avg. int-earning assets to avg. int-bearing liabilities   121.31    116.95    117.56    117.71    118.83 
SELECTED ASSET QUALITY DATA                         
Gross loans  $1,346,922   $1,150,044   $1,088,982   $918,894   $872,129 
Classified assets   40,819    50,298    39,246    43,346    54,022 
Allowance for loan losses   10,976    10,515    9,860    8,540    8,481 
Nonperforming loans (>=90 Days) (4)   11,110    2,483    7,705    10,740    10,263 
Non-accrual loans (5)   19,282    4,693    8,374    11,433    10,263 
Accruing troubled debt restructures (TDRs) (6)   6,676    10,021    10,448    13,133    13,249 
Other Real Estate Owned (OREO)   8,111    9,341    7,763    9,449    5,883 
Non-accrual loans, OREO and TDRs  $34,069   $24,055   $26,585   $34,015   $29,395 
SELECTED ASSET QUALITY RATIOS                         
Average total equity to average total assets   9.30%   7.99%   8.41%   9.35%   11.11%
Classified assets to total assets   2.42    3.58    2.94    3.79    4.99 
Classified assets to risk-based capital   21.54    32.10    26.13    30.19    39.30 
Allowance for loan losses to total loans   0.81    0.91    0.91    0.93    0.97 
Allowance for loan losses to non-accrual loans   56.92    224.06    117.75    74.70    82.64 
Net charge-offs to avg. outstanding loans   0.07    0.03    0.11    0.16    0.28 
Nonperforming loans to total loans   0.82    0.22    0.71    1.17    1.18 
Non-accrual loans to total loans   1.43    0.41    0.77    1.24    1.18 
Non-accrual loans and TDRs to total loans   1.93    1.28    1.73    2.67    2.70 
Non-accrual loans and OREO to total assets   1.62    1.00    1.21    1.83    1.49 
Non-accrual loans, OREO and TDRs to total assets   2.02    1.71    1.99    2.98    2.71 

 

 

(1) The Company had no intangible assets between 2014-2017. The acquisition of County FirstBank in January 2018 added intangible assets for goodwill and core deposits.
 
(2) Efficiency ratio is noninterest expense divided by the sum of net interest income and noninterest income.
 
(3) Net operating expense is the sum of non-interest expense offset by non-interest income.  
 
(4) Nonperforming loans include all loans that are 90 days or more delinquent.
 
(5) Non-accrual loans include all loans that are 90 days or more delinquent and loans that are non-accrual due to the operating results or cash flows of a customer.
 
(6) TDR loans include both non-accrual and accruing performing loans. All TDR loans are included in the calculation of  asset quality financial ratios. Non-accrual TDR loans are included in the non-accrual balance and accruing TDR loans are included in the accruing TDR balance.

 

 45 

 

 

Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures

 

Statements included in management’s discussion and analysis include non-GAAP financial measures and should be read along with the accompanying tables, which provide a reconciliation of non-GAAP financial measures to GAAP financial measures. The Company’s management uses these non-GAAP financial measures and believes that non-GAAP financial measures provide additional useful information that allows readers to evaluate the ongoing performance of the Company. Non-GAAP financial measures should not be considered as an alternative to any measure of performance or financial condition as promulgated under GAAP, and investors should consider the Company’s performance and financial condition as reported under GAAP and all other relevant information when assessing the performance or financial condition of the Company. Non-GAAP financial measures have limitations as analytical tools, and investors should not consider them in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of the results or financial condition as reported under GAAP. See Non-GAAP reconciliation schedule that immediately follows: Item 7 - Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations. See Non-GAAP reconciliation schedules that immediately follow:

 

THE COMMUNITY FINANCIAL CORPORATION

RECONCILIATION OF NON-GAAP MEASURES

 

Reconciliation of US GAAP total assets, common equity, common equity to assets and book value to Non-GAAP tangible assets, tangible common equity, tangible common equity to tangible assets and tangible book value.

 

The Company's management discussion and analysis contains financial information determined by methods other than in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP. This financial information includes certain performance measures, which exclude intangible assets. These non-GAAP measures are included because the Company believes they may provide useful supplemental information for evaluating the underlying performance trends of the Company.

 

(dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)  December 31, 2018   December 31, 2017 
         
Total assets  $1,689,227   $1,405,961 
Less: intangible assets          
Goodwill   10,835    - 
Core deposit intangible   2,806    - 
Total intangible assets   13,641    - 
Tangible assets  $1,675,586   $1,405,961 
           
Total common equity  $154,482   $109,957 
Less: intangible assets   13,641    - 
Tangible common equity  $140,841   $109,957 
           
Common shares outstanding at end of period   5,577,559    4,649,658 
           
GAAP common equity to assets   9.15%   7.82%
Non-GAAP tangible common equity to tangible assets   8.41%   7.82%
           
GAAP common book value per share  $27.70   $23.65 
Non-GAAP tangible common book value per share  $25.25   $23.65 

 

 46 

 

 

THE COMMUNITY FINANCIAL CORPORATION

RECONCILIATION OF GAAP AND NON-GAAP MEASURES

 

Reconciliation of US GAAP Net Income, Earnings Per Share (EPS), Return on Average Assets (ROAA) and Return on Average Common Equity (ROACE) to Non-GAAP Operating Net Income, EPS, ROAA and ROACE

 

The Company's management discussion and analysis contains financial information determined by methods other than in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, or GAAP. This financial information includes certain operating performance measures, which exclude merger and acquisition costs and the additional income tax expense from the revaluation of deferred tax assets as a result of the reduction in the corporate income tax rate under the enacted Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, that are not considered part of recurring operations . These expenses are excluded to derive “operating net income,” “operating earnings per share,” “operating return on average assets,” and “operating return on average common equity.” These non-GAAP measures are included because the Company believes they may provide useful supplemental information for evaluating the underlying performance trends of the Company.

 

   Years Ended December 31, 
(dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)  2018   2017   2016 
Net income (as reported)  $11,229   $7,208   $7,331 
Impact of Tax Cuts and Jobs Act   -    2,740    - 
Merger and acquisition costs (net of tax)   2,693    724    - 
Non-GAAP operating net income  $13,922   $10,672   $7,331 
                
Income before income taxes (as reported)  $15,402   $16,365   $11,747 
Merger and acquisition costs ("M&A")   3,625    829    - 
Adjusted pretax income   19,027    17,194    11,747 
Adjusted income tax expense   5,105    6,522    4,416 
Non-GAAP operating net income  $13,922   $10,672   $7,331 
                
GAAP diluted earnings per share ("EPS")  $2.02   $1.56   $1.59 
Non-GAAP operating diluted EPS before M&A  $2.51   $2.31   $1.59 
                
GAAP return on average assets ("ROAA')   0.70%   0.52%   0.60%
Non-GAAP operating ROAA before M&A   0.87%   0.78%   0.60%
                
GAAP return on average common equity ("ROACE")   7.53%   6.55%   7.09%
Non-GAAP operating ROACE before M&A   9.34%   9.70%   7.09%
                
Net income (as reported)  $11,229   $7,208   $7,331 
Weighted average common shares outstanding   5,550,510    4,629,228    4,599,502 
Average assets  $1,603,393   $1,376,983   $1,229,471 
Average equity   149,128    109,979    103,397 

 

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Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

Certain statements contained in this Report may not be based on historical facts and are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Forward-looking statements can generally be identified by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. They often include words like “is optimistic”, “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate” and “intend” or future or conditional verbs such as “will,” “would,” “should,” “could” or “may.” Statements in this report that are not strictly historical are forward-looking and are based upon current expectations that may differ materially from actual results. These forward-looking statements include, without limitation, those relating to the Company’s and Community Bank of the Chesapeake’s future growth and management’s outlook or expectations for revenue, assets, asset quality, profitability, business prospects, net interest margin, non-interest revenue, allowance for loan losses, the level of credit losses from lending, liquidity levels, capital levels, or other future financial or business performance strategies or expectations, and any statements of the plans and objectives of management for future operations products or services, including the expected benefits from, and/or the execution of integration plans relating to the County First acquisition or any other acquisition that we undertake in the future; plans and cost savings regarding branch closings or consolidation; any statement of expectation or belief; projections related to certain financial metrics; and any statement of assumptions underlying the foregoing. These forward-looking statements express management’s current expectations or forecasts of future events, results and conditions, and by their nature are subject to and involve risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated by the statements made herein.

 

Factors that might cause actual results to differ materially from those made in such statements include, but are not limited to: the synergies and other expected financial benefits from County First acquisition, or any other acquisition we might undertake in the future, may not be realized within the expected time frames; changes in The Community Financial Corporation or Community Bank of the Chesapeake’s strategy; costs or difficulties related to integration matters might be greater than expected; availability of and costs associated with obtaining adequate and timely sources of liquidity; the ability to maintain credit quality; general economic trends; changes in interest rates; loss of deposits and loan demand to other financial institutions; substantial changes in financial markets; changes in real estate value and the real estate market; regulatory changes; the impact of impact of government shutdowns or sequestration; the possibility of unforeseen events affecting the industry generally; the uncertainties associated with newly developed or acquired operations; the outcome of litigation that may arise; market disruptions and other effects of terrorist activities; and the matters described in “Item 1A Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2018, and in the Company’s other Reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”).

 

The Company’s forward-looking statements may also be subject to other risks and uncertainties, including those that it may discuss elsewhere in this Report or in its filings with the SEC, accessible on the SEC’s Web site at www.sec.gov. The Company undertakes no obligation to update these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date hereof or to reflect the occurrence of unforeseen events, except as required under the rules and regulations of the SEC.

 

You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements contained in this document in that actual results could differ materially from those indicated in such forward-looking statements, due to a variety of factors. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date of this Report, and we undertake no obligation to update these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances that occur after the date of this Report.

 

Critical Accounting Policies

 

Critical accounting policies are defined as those that involve significant judgments and uncertainties and could potentially result in materially different results under different assumptions and conditions. The Company considers its determination of the allowance for loan losses, the valuation of foreclosed real estate (OREO) and the valuation of deferred tax assets to be critical accounting policies.

 

The Company’s Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America and the general practices of the United States banking industry. Application of these principles requires management to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. These estimates, assumptions and judgments are based on information available as of the date of the financial statements. Accordingly, as this information changes, the financial statements could reflect different estimates, assumptions and judgments. Certain policies inherently have a greater reliance on the use of estimates, assumptions and judgments and, as such, have a greater possibility of producing results that could be materially different than originally reported.

 

Estimates, assumptions and judgments are necessary when assets and liabilities are required to be recorded at fair value, when a decline in the value of an asset not carried on the financial statements at fair value warrants an impairment write-down or valuation reserve to be established or when an asset or liability needs to be recorded contingent upon a future event. Carrying assets and liabilities at fair value inherently results in more financial statement volatility. The fair values and the information used to record valuation adjustments for certain assets and liabilities are based either on quoted market prices or are provided by other third-party sources, when available. When these sources are not available, management makes estimates based upon what it considers to be the best available information.

 

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Allowance for Loan Losses

 

The allowance for loan losses is an estimate of the losses that exist in the loan portfolio. The allowance is based on two principles of accounting: (1) Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 450 “Contingencies,” which requires that losses be accrued when they are probable of occurring and are estimable and (2) FASB ASC 310 “Receivables,” which requires that losses be accrued when it is probable that the Company will not collect all principal and interest payments according to the contractual terms of the loan. The loss, if any, is determined by the difference between the loan balance and the value of collateral, the present value of expected future cash flows and values observable in the secondary markets.

 

The allowance for loan losses balance is an estimate based upon management’s evaluation of the loan portfolio. The allowance includes a specific and a general component. The specific component consists of management’s evaluation of certain classified and non-accrual loans and their underlying collateral. Management assesses the ability of the borrower to repay the loan based upon all information available. Loans are examined to determine a specific allowance based upon the borrower’s payment history, economic conditions specific to the loan or borrower and other factors that would impact the borrower’s ability to repay the loan on its contractual basis. Depending on the assessment of the borrower’s ability to pay and the type, condition and value of collateral, management will establish an allowance amount specific to the loan.

 

Management uses a risk scale to assign grades to commercial relationships, which include commercial real estate, residential rentals, construction and land development, commercial loans and commercial equipment loans. Commercial loan relationships with an aggregate exposure to the Bank of $1,000,000 or greater are risk rated. Residential first mortgages, home equity and second mortgages and consumer loans are monitored on an ongoing basis based on borrower payment history. Consumer loans and residential real estate loans are classified as unrated unless they are part of a larger commercial relationship that requires grading or are troubled debt restructures or nonperforming loans with an Other Assets Especially Mentioned or higher risk rating due to a delinquent payment history.

 

The Company’s commercial loan portfolio is periodically reviewed by regulators and independent consultants engaged by management.

 

In establishing the general component of the allowance, management analyzes non-impaired loans in the portfolio including changes in the amount and type of loans. This analysis reviews trends by portfolio segment in charge-offs, delinquency, classified loans, loan concentrations and the rate of portfolio segment growth. Qualitative factors also include an assessment of the current regulatory environment, the quality of credit administration and loan portfolio management and national and local economic trends. Based upon this analysis a loss factor is applied to each loan category and the Bank adjusts the loan loss allowance by increasing or decreasing the provision for loan losses.

 

Management has significant discretion in making the judgments inherent in the determination of the allowance for loan losses, including the valuation of collateral, assessing a borrower’s prospects of repayment and in establishing loss factors on the general component of the allowance. Changes in loss factors have a direct impact on the amount of the provision and on net income. Errors in management’s assessment of the global factors and their impact on the portfolio could result in the allowance not being adequate to cover losses in the portfolio, and may result in additional provisions. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the allowance for loan losses was $11.0 million and $10.5 million, respectively, or 0.81% and 0.91%, respectively, of total loans. Allowance for loan loss as a percentage of loans decreased in 2018, primarily due to the addition of County First loans, after consummation of the legal merger on January 1, 2018, for which no allowance was provided for in accordance with purchase accounting standards. An increase or decrease in the allowance could result in a charge or credit to income before income taxes that materially impacts earnings.

 

For additional information regarding the allowance for loan losses, refer to Notes 1 and 7 of the Consolidated Financial Statements and the discussion the discussion in this MD&A.

 

Other Real Estate Owned (“OREO”)

 

The Company maintains a valuation allowance on its other real estate owned. As with the allowance for loan losses, the valuation allowance on OREO is based on FASB ASC 450 “Contingencies,” as well as the accounting guidance on impairment of long-lived assets. These statements require the Company to establish a valuation allowance when it has determined that the carrying amount of a foreclosed asset exceeds its fair value. Fair value of a foreclosed asset is measured by the cash flows expected to be realized from its subsequent disposition. These cash flows include the costs of selling or otherwise disposing of the asset.

 

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In estimating the fair value of OREO, management must make significant assumptions regarding the timing and amount of cash flows. For example, in cases where the real estate acquired is undeveloped land, management must gather the best available evidence regarding the market value of the property, including appraisals, cost estimates of development and broker opinions. Due to the highly subjective nature of this evidence, as well as the limited market, long time periods involved and substantial risks, cash flow estimates are highly subjective and subject to change. Errors regarding any aspect of the costs or proceeds of developing, selling or otherwise disposing of foreclosed real estate could result in the allowance being inadequate to reduce carrying costs to fair value and may require an additional provision for valuation allowances.

 

For additional information regarding OREO, refer to Notes 1 and 9 of the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Deferred Tax Assets

 

The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with FASB ASC 740, “Income Taxes,” which requires that deferred tax assets and liabilities be recognized using enacted tax rates for the effect of temporary differences between the book and tax bases of recorded assets and liabilities. FASB ASC 740 requires that deferred tax assets be reduced by a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that some portion or the entire deferred tax asset will not be realized.

 

Management periodically evaluates the ability of the Company to realize the value of its deferred tax assets. If management were to determine that it would not be more likely than not that the Company would realize the full amount of the deferred tax assets, it would establish a valuation allowance to reduce the carrying value of the deferred tax asset to the amount it believes would be realized. The factors used to assess the likelihood of realization are the Company’s forecast of future taxable income and available tax-planning strategies that could be implemented to realize the net deferred tax assets.

 

Failure to achieve forecasted taxable income might affect the ultimate realization of the net deferred tax assets. Factors that may affect the Company’s ability to achieve sufficient forecasted taxable income include, but are not limited to, the following: increased competition, a decline in net interest margin, a loss of market share, decreased demand for financial services and national and regional economic conditions.

 

The Company’s provision for income taxes and the determination of the resulting deferred tax assets and liabilities involve a significant amount of management judgment and are based on the best information available at the time. The Company operates within federal and state taxing jurisdictions and is subject to audit in these jurisdictions.

 

For additional information regarding income taxes and deferred tax assets, refer to Notes 1 and 13 of the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

OVERVIEW

 

Community Bank of the Chesapeake (the “Bank”) is headquartered in Southern Maryland with 12 branches located in Maryland and Virginia. The Bank is a wholly owned subsidiary of The Community Financial Corporation (the “Company”). The Bank’s branches are located in Waldorf (two branches), Bryans Road, Dunkirk, Leonardtown, La Plata (two branches), Charlotte Hall, Prince Frederick, Lusby, California, Maryland; and Fredericksburg, Virginia. The Bank has two operation centers located at the main office in Waldorf, Maryland and in Fredericksburg, Virginia. The Company maintains five loan production offices (“LPOs”) in Annapolis, La Plata, Prince Frederick and Leonardtown, Maryland; and Fredericksburg, Virginia. The Leonardtown LPO is co-located with the branch and the Fredericksburg LPO is co-located with the operation center.

 

The Bank has increased assets primarily with organic loan growth until its first acquisition of County First Bank in January 2018. The Bank believes that its ability to offer fast, flexible, local decision-making will continue to attract significant new business relationships. The Bank focuses its business generation efforts on targeting small and medium sized commercial businesses with revenues between $5.0 million and $35.0 million as well as local municipal agencies and not-for-profits. Our business model is customer-focused, utilizing relationship teams to provide customers with specific banker contacts and a support team to address product and service demands. Our structure provides a consistent and superior level of professional service. Being a community bank gives us the competitive advantage. Excelling at customer service is a critical part of our culture. The Bank’s marketing is also directed towards increasing its balances of transactional deposit accounts, which are all deposit accounts other than certificates of deposit. The Bank believes that increases in these account types will lessen the Bank’s dependence on higher-cost funding, such as certificates of deposit and borrowings. Although management believes that this strategy will increase financial performance over time, increasing the balances of certain products, such as commercial lending and transaction accounts, may also increase the Bank’s noninterest expense. Management recognizes that certain lending and deposit products increase the possibility of losses from credit and other risks.

 

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The Company’s income is primarily earned from interest received on our loans and investments. Our primary source of funds for making these loans and investments is our deposits, on which we pay interest. Consequently, one of the key measures of our success is our net interest income, or the difference between the income on our interest-earning assets, such as loans and investments, and the expense on our interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowings. Another key measure is the spread between the yield we earn on these interest-earning assets and the rate we pay on our interest-bearing liabilities, which is called our net interest spread. In addition to earning interest on our loans and investments, we earn income through fees and other charges to our clients.

 

On January 1, 2018, the Company completed its merger of County First with and into the Bank, with the Bank as the surviving bank (the “Merger”) pursuant to the Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of July 31, 2017, by and among the Company, the Bank and County First. Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, at the effective time of the Merger (the “Effective Time”), each share of common stock, par value $1.00 per share, of County First issued and outstanding immediately prior to the Effective Time was converted into the right to receive 0.9543 shares of Company common stock and $2.20 in cash (the “Merger Consideration”). The $2.20 in cash represents the sum of (i) $1.00 in cash consideration (the “Cash Consideration”) plus (ii) $1.20 in Contingent Cash Consideration that was determined before the completion of the Merger in accordance with the terms of the Merger Agreement. The aggregate merger consideration consisted of 918,526 shares of the Company’s common stock and $2.1 million in cash. Based upon the $38.78 per share closing price of the Company’s common stock, the transaction value was $37.7 million.

 

The County First acquisition is being accounted for under the acquisition method of accounting with the Company treated as the acquirer. Under the acquisition method of accounting, the assets and liabilities of County First, as of January 1, 2018, were recorded by the Company at their respective fair values, and the excess of the merger consideration over the fair value of County First net assets was allocated to goodwill. At December 31, 2017, County First had total assets of $226.7 million, total net loans of $142.4 million and total deposits of $199.2. Approximately $160 million of the acquired deposits were stable low-cost transaction accounts that will fund planned loan growth in 2018.

 

County First had five branch offices in La Plata, Waldorf, New Market, Prince Frederick and California, Maryland. The Bank kept the La Plata branch open and consolidated the remaining four branches’ customers with legacy Community Bank of the Chesapeake branch offices in May of 2018. As of July 2018, the Company had sold all three County First owned branch building. There were no remaining leases for office space related to the County First transaction as of December 31, 2018. The closing of four of the five acquired branches in the spring of 2018 positively impacted the Company’s operating expense run rate in the second half of 2018.

 

For additional information regarding the Company’s business combination and goodwill policies as well as purchase accounting of the acquisition, refer to Notes 1 and 2 of the Consolidated Financial Statements.

 

Economy

 

The presence of federal government agencies, as well as significant government facilities, and the related private sector support for these entities, has led to faster economic growth in our market and lower unemployment compared to the nation as a whole. In addition, the Bank’s entry into the greater Annapolis and Fredericksburg markets has provided the Bank with additional loan and deposit opportunities. These opportunities have positively impacted the Bank’s organic growth.

 

Economic conditions, competition, and the monetary and fiscal policies of the Federal government significantly affect most financial institutions, including the Bank. Lending and deposit activities and fee income generation are influenced by levels of business spending and investment, consumer income, consumer spending and savings, capital market activities, and competition among financial institutions, as well as customer preferences, interest rate conditions and prevailing market rates on competing products in our market areas.

 

The economy continued to grow in 2018 with annual GDP growth during 2018 in excess of 2.9%. A lower stock market experienced towards the end of 2018 could impact consumer spending in 2019. However, income growth should remain strong because of low unemployment and increasing workforce participation. The Mid-Atlantic region in which the Company operates continued to experience continued improved regional economic performance. In the Bank’s footprint residential housing demand was stable during 2018 with home prices up between 3.5% to 5.0% compared to the prior year. If the Federal Reserve follows through on its recent indications that it will likely pause or end rate hikes for a period of time in 2019, this could help the Company’s repricing of interest-earning assets exceed the repricing of interest-bearing liabilities.

 

Throughout 2017, the national economy continued to improve. The economy (GDP) grew 2.30% in 2017, an increase from 1.50% GDP growth in 2016. Consumer confidence has increased due to positive economic trends such as lower unemployment, increased housing metrics and solid performance in the financial markets.

 

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The presence of several major federal facilities located within the Bank’s footprint and in adjoining counties contribute to economic growth. Major federal facilities include the Patuxent River Naval Air Station in St. Mary’s County, the Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center in Charles County and the Naval Surface Warfare –Naval Support Facility in King George County. In addition, there are several major federal facilities located in adjoining markets including Andrews Air Force Base and Defense Intelligence Agency & Defense Intelligence Analysis Center in Prince Georges County, Maryland and the U.S. Marine Base Quantico, Drug Enforcement Administration Quantico facility and Federal Bureau of Investigation Quantico facility in Prince William County, Virginia. These facilities directly employ thousands of local employees and serve as an important player in the region’s overall economic health.

 

The impact of government shutdowns or sequestration is more acutely felt in the Bank’s footprint. In addition to the temporary economic impact to government employees, the Bank’s business customers, which include government contractors that directly support the federal government and small businesses that indirectly support the government and its employees, can be impacted with permanent losses of revenue. A prolonged shutdown or a lack of confidence in the federal government’s ability to fund its operations could have an impact to spending and investments in the Company’s footprint.

 

The economic health of the region, while stabilized by the influence of the federal government, is not solely dependent on this sector. Calvert County is home to the Dominion Power Cove Point Liquid Natural Gas Terminal, which is one of the nation’s largest liquefied natural gas terminals and Dominion Power is currently constructing liquefaction facilities for exporting liquefied natural gas. Unemployment rates and household income in the Company’s footprint have historically performed better than the national averages.

 

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2018 Operations Summary

 

The Company completed the acquisition of County First Bank (“County First”) on January 1, 2018, increasing the Company’s asset size by $200 million to just under $1.6 billion. As planned, the Company closed four of the five acquired County First branches during May of 2018. The La Plata downtown branch remains open. County First closed its Fairfax, Virginia loan production office prior to the legal merger. The first six months of 2018 included operating expenses to support the merged operations with County First Bank. The closure of four branches and reductions in headcount during the second quarter positively impacted the Company’s non-interest expense run rate in the second half of 2018 with noninterest expense decreasing to $16.7 million for the six months ended December 31, 2018 compared to $21.4 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018.

 

Net income for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $11.2 million or $2.02 per diluted share compared to net income of $7.2 million or $1.56 per diluted share for the year ended December 31, 2017. The annual results included merger and acquisition costs net of tax of $2.7 million and $724,000 for the comparative periods. Additionally, the year ended December 31, 2017 results included $2.7 million in additional income tax expense from the revaluation of deferred tax assets because of the reduction in the corporate income tax rates under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. The impact of merger and acquisition costs and the adjustments to deferred tax assets in 2017 resulted in a reduction to earnings per share of $0.49 for the year ended December 31, 2018 and $0.75 for the year ended December 31, 2017. The Company’s ROAA and ROACE were 0.70% and 7.53% in the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to 0.52% and 6.55% in the year ended December 31, 2017.

 

Pretax net income decreased $964,000 or 5.9% to $15.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to $16.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The Company’s pretax returns on average assets and common stockholders’ equity for 2017 were 0.96% and 10.33%, respectively, compared to 1.19% and 14.88%, respectively, for 2017. The decrease in pretax income was due to increases in noninterest expense of $8.1 million and the provision for loan losses of $395,000 partially offset increases in net interest income of $7.5 million.

 

Net interest margin increased for the year ended December 31, 2018 six basis points from 3.37% for the year ended December 31, 2017 to 3.43% for the year ended December 31, 2018. This year over year stability in margins was primarily due to the acquisition of lower cost County First transaction deposits as well as the acquisition of additional transaction deposits which changed the overall funding mix of the Bank’s interest-bearing liabilities. If the impacts of $742,000 of accretion interest were excluded, net interest margin for 2018 would have reduced five basis points to 3.38%. The Company was successful at controlling its overall deposit and funding costs. Cumulative deposit and funding betas between December 31, 2016-2018 were less than 30%.

 

The Company reported operating net income2 of $13.9 million, or $2.51 per share in the year ended December 31, 2018. This compares to operating net income of $10.7 million, or $2.31 per share in the year ended December 31, 2017. The $3.2 million or 30.4% increase in operating net income was due to increased net interest income and non-interest income of $7.5 million and $27,000 as well as a lower income tax expense of $1.4 million. This was partially offset by increased loan loss provisions of $395,000 and non-interest expense of $5.3 million.

 

The Company’s operating ROAA and operating ROACE were 0.87% and 9.34% for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to 0.78% and 9.70% for the year ended December 31, 2017.

 

The Company’s operating net income increased as expected in the second half of 2018. Operating net income increased to $7.7 million for the six months ended December 31, 2018 compared to $6.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2018. The increase in earnings in the third and fourth quarters was primarily the result of decreased merger costs, the reduction in the Company’s expense run rate with the successful integration of the County First transaction and increased net interest income.

 

The efficiency ratio and net operating expense ratios for the year ended December 31, 2018 were 69.42% and 2.13%, respectively compared to 63.37% and 1.89%, respectively for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase in the efficiency and net operating expense ratios in 2018 reflect the costs associated with the merger, the higher employee headcount for the first six months of 2018 and the duplication of systems and resources to integrate County First during 2018.

 

 

2 The Company defines operating net income as net income before merger and acquisition costs and the deferred tax adjustment for Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. Operating earnings per share, operating return on average assets and operating return on average common equity is calculated using adjusted operating net income. See Non-GAAP reconciliation schedules that immediately follow: Item 6 – Selected Financial Data.

 

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The following were balance sheet highlights for 2018:

 

·Gross loans increased 17.1% or $196.9 million from $1,150.0 million at December 31, 2017 to $1,346.9 million at December 31, 2018, due to the County First acquisition and $90.0 million or 7.8% growth in the Company’s legacy portfolios.

 

·Transaction accounts increased $328.0 million, or 50.1% to $982.6 million at December 31, 2018 from $654.6 million at December 31, 2018. Transaction deposit accounts increased to 68.7% of deposits at December 31, 2018 from 59.2% of deposits at December 31, 2017. The County First transaction accounted for approximately $168 million of the $328 million increase in transaction deposits.

 

·Total deposits have increased $323.4 million to $1,429.6 million in 2018, which included an increase in transaction accounts of $328.0 million and a decrease in time deposits of $4.6 million.

 

·Wholesale funding decreased in 2018, primarily due to the Bank’s increased liquidity from deposit acquisition. Wholesale funding as a percentage of assets decreased to 6.43% at December 31, 2018 from 18.63% at December 31, 2017. Wholesale funding includes brokered deposits and Federal Home Loan Bank (“FHLB”) advances. Wholesale funding decreased $153.4 million or 59% to $108.5 million at December 31, 2018 from $261.9 million at December 31, 2017.

 

·Liquidity has improved with the increase in transaction deposits and decrease in wholesale funding. The Company’s net loan to deposit ratio has decreased from 103.1% at December 31, 2017 to 93.5% at December 31, 2018. The Company used available on-balance sheet liquidity during 2018 to fund loans, increase investments and pay down wholesale funding.

 

·Classified assets as a percentage of assets improved in 2018, decreased 116 basis points from 3.58% at December 31, 2017 to 2.42% at December 31, 2018.

 

·Non-accrual loans, OREO and TDRs to total assets increased 31 basis points to 2.02% at December 31, 2018 from 1.71% at December 31, 2017.

 

2017 Operations Summary

 

Net income for year ended December 31, 2017 was $7.2 million or $1.56 per diluted share after the inclusion of the additional tax expense under the recently enacted Tax Cuts and Jobs Act and the expenses associated with the acquisition of County First. The additional income tax and merger and acquisition costs of $724,000, net of tax, resulted in a reduction of earnings per share of approximately $0.75 per share for 2017. Net income for the year ended December 31, 2016 was $7.3 million or $1.59 per diluted share.

 

Pretax income increased $4.6 million or 39.3% to $16.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $11.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The Company’s pretax returns on average assets and common stockholders’ equity for 2017 were 1.19% and 14.88%, respectively, compared to 0.96% and 11.36%, respectively, for 2016. The Company’s after-tax returns on average assets and common stockholders’ equity for 2017 were 0.52% and 6.55%, respectively, compared to 0.60% and 7.09%, respectively, for 2016.

 

Although the increased tax expense related to the deferred tax revaluation and merger and acquisition costs decreased net income, earnings per share and returns on average assets and common equity for the year, management believed the reduced federal income tax rate and the efficiencies from the County First acquisition would be accretive in 2018. The Company completed a strong 2017 with operating net income growing at a record pace for the Company. Operating earnings per share increased to $2.31 per share, an increase of $0.72 or 45% from $1.59 per share in 2016. Operating return on average assets and operating return on average common equity increased to 0.78% and 9.70%, respectively, compared to 0.60% and 7.09% in 2016.

 

We accomplished the increased profitability primarily by controlling expense growth and improving asset quality. The Company’s efficiency ratio averaged in the low 60s for the year ended December 31, 2017. The Company’s cost control efforts and continued asset growth continued to create operating leverage in 2017.

 

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Average loans increased $125.5 million or 12.7% from $988.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 to $1,113.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. Overall, end of period loan growth for 2017 of $61.1 million or 5.6% was lower than the Company’s planned 8% to 9% growth. The Company’s two largest portfolios, commercial real estate and residential rentals grew $60.2 million or 9.0% to $727.3 million and $8.3 million or 8.2% to $110.2 million, respectively, for the year ended December 31, 2017. Other portfolios decreased a net of $7.5 million or 2.3% to $312.5 million. The decrease in other portfolios included a $630,000 decrease in the residential first mortgage portfolio to $170.4 million and a $9.1 million decrease in the construction and land development to $27.9 million. During 2017, management directed its focus to higher yielding commercial real estate and construction loans and deemphasized residential first mortgage lending.

 

Deposits increased by 6.5%, or $67.4 million, to $1,106.2 million at December 31, 2017 compared to $1,038.8 million at December 31, 2016. During 2017, balance sheet growth was balanced, with deposit growth of $67.4 million slightly exceeding loan growth of $61.1 million. Retail deposits, which include all deposits except traditional brokered deposits, increased a total of $79.4 million, comprised of increases in transaction accounts of $48.6 million and time deposits of $30.8 million. These retail increases to deposits were partially offset by a decrease to brokered deposits of $12.0 million.

 

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COMPARISON OF RESULTS OF OPERATIONS FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2018 AND 2017

 

Earnings Summary

 

Net income for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $11.2 million or $2.02 per diluted share compared to net income of $7.2 million or $1.56 per diluted share for the year ended December 31, 2017. The annual results included merger and acquisition costs net of tax of $2.7 million and $724,000 for the comparative periods. Additionally, the year ended December 31, 2017 results included $2.7 million in additional income tax expense from the revaluation of deferred tax assets because of the reduction in the corporate income tax rates under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. The impact of merger and acquisition costs for the comparative years and the adjustments to deferred tax assets in 2017 resulted in a reduction to earnings per share of $0.49 for the year ended December 31, 2018 and $0.75 for the year ended December 31, 2017. The Company’s ROAA and ROACE were 0.70% and 7.53% in the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to 0.52% and 6.55% in the year ended December 31, 2017.

 

Net income for 2018 compared to 2017 increased due to additional net interest income from a larger balance sheet, a lower 2018 effective tax rate as well as the impact in 2017 of the $2.7 million in additional income tax expense from the revaluation of deferred tax assets partially offset by higher noninterest expenses and loan loss provisions. Earnings improved beginning in the second half of 2018 as a result of a change in the funding composition of the Bank’s interest-bearing liabilities with the acquisition of County First as well as organic deposit growth; the control of operating costs; and, moderate organic loan growth. A normalized expense run rate and the anticipated cost savings from the acquisition began to be realized during the second half of 2018.

 

Income before taxes (pretax net income) decreased $964,000 or 5.9% to $15.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to $16.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The Company’s pretax returns on average assets and common stockholders’ equity for 2017 were 0.96% and 10.33%, respectively, compared to 1.19% and 14.88%, respectively, for 2017. The decrease in pretax income was due to increases in noninterest expense of $8.1 million and the provision for loan losses of $395,000 partially offset increases in net interest income of $7.5 million.

 

In 2018, pretax net income was lower than 2017 due to merger and acquisition costs as well as duplicative expenses related to integrating County First operation. The Company’s profitability increased in the second half of 2018 with efficiencies realized from the successful execution of the County First acquisition. Earnings per share increased $0.75 from $0.64 for the six months ended June 30, 2018 to $1.39 for the six months ended December 31, 2018. ROAA and ROACE increased from 0.45% and 4.84% for the six months ended June 30, 2018 to 0.94% and 10.15% for the six months ended December 31, 2018.

 

The Company’s efficiency ratio increased from 63.37% for the year ended December 31, 2017 to 69.42%, primarily as a result of merger expenses and duplicative costs related to the County First Bank acquisition in the first six months of 2018. The efficiency ratio improved in the second half of 2018 from 78.64% for the six months ended June 30, 2018 to 60.36% for the six months ended December 31, 2018. The Company has pursued a strategy of increasing operating leverage over the last several years. This occurs when the Company increases its assets, and by extension its net interest income, while limiting increases in noninterest expense. In order for this to be effective, the Company must simultaneously pursue the following; increase the asset size while maintaining asset quality, increase funding at an economically viable cost, and control noninterest expense growth.

 

The first half of 2018 included $3.6 million in merger-related costs, which included termination costs of County First’s core processing contract as well as investment banking fees, legal fees and the costs of employee agreements and severance for terminations. The total merger-related costs were not significant in the third and fourth quarters of 2018. In addition, the Company continued to carry a small amount of additional noninterest expense in the second half of 2018 related to duplicate vendors and processes that were discontinued. The increase in noninterest expense was partially offset by an increase in net interest income realized from the integrated operations of County First and from a lower effective tax rate.

 

A more detailed analysis comparing the results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 follows.

 

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Net Interest Income

 

The primary component of the Company’s net income is its net interest income, which is the difference between income earned on assets and interest paid on the deposits and borrowings used to fund them. Net interest income is affected by the difference between the yields earned on the Company’s interest-earning assets and the rates paid on interest-bearing liabilities, as well as the relative amounts of such assets and liabilities. Net interest income, divided by average interest-earning assets, represents the Company’s net interest margin.

 

Net interest income totaled $50.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, which represents a $7.5 million, or 17.3%, increase from $43.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. Net interest income increased during 2018 compared to the prior year as the positive impacts of average interest-earning asset growth and increased loans and investment yields outpaced the negative impacts of increasing funding costs and growth in the average balances of interest-bearing liabilities. The Company has controlled the rising cost of funding over the last 24 months with cumulative deposit and funding betas3 between December 31, 2016-2018 of less than 30%.

 

Average total earning assets increased $194.9 million, or 15.1%, for the year ended December 31, 2018 to $1,483.7 million compared to $1,288.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase in average total earning assets for the year ended December 31, 2018 from the comparable period in 2017, resulted primarily from a $168.5 million, or 15.1%, increase in average loans as a result of organic growth and the acquisition of County First and a $26.3 million, or 15.1%, increase in average investments. Interest income increased $11.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the same period of 2017. The increase in interest income resulted from larger average balances of interest-earning assets contributing $8.6 million and higher interest yields accounting for $3.0 million.

 

Average total interest-bearing liabilities increased $121.0 million, or 11.0%, for the year ended December 31, 2018 to $1,223.1 million compared to $1,102.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. During the same timeframe, average noninterest-bearing demand deposits increased $63.7 million, or 41.3%, to $217.9 million compared to $154.2 million. Interest expense increased $4.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the same period of 2017. The increase in interest expense resulted from higher interest rates accounting for $4.3 million. Funding costs from a change in the composition of funding liabilities resulted in a small decrease of $163,000 to interest expense. For the comparative periods, average short-term borrowings and long-term debt decreased $72.5 million and was replaced with increases to average transaction accounts, which include savings, demand and money market, and noninterest-bearing accounts. During the year ended December 31, 2018, average transaction accounts increased $247.9 million or 39.5% to $875.5 million from $627.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. During the same timeframe average time deposits increased slightly, $9.3 million or 2.1%, to $452.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2018.

 

The increase in transaction accounts with the acquisition of County First, as well as organic transaction deposit growth during 2018 helped control the increase in deposit costs, minimized deposit betas and positively impacted net interest margin. The pay down of wholesale funding also positively impacted margins. Brokered deposits and FHLB advances were paid down $153.4 million in 2018 and replaced with retail deposits. Retail deposits, which include all deposits except brokered deposits, increased $389.3 million or 39.4% from $987.2 million at December 31, 2017 to $1,376.5 million at December 31, 2018.

 

Reciprocal deposits are included in retail transaction deposits and are used to maximize FDIC insurance available to our customers. Reciprocal deposits increased $142.0 million or 152.9% to $234.9 million at December 31, 2018 compared to $92.9 million at December 31, 2017. During 2018, the increase in reciprocal deposits were at lower funding costs than wholesale funding and in-market time deposits. In rising interest rate environments, reciprocal deposits are more exposed to interest rate sensitivity than other retail funding sources. The Company will manage the amount of total reciprocal deposit balances to mitigate interest rate risk exposures.

 

Liquidity has improved with the increase in transaction deposits and decrease in wholesale funding. The Company’s net loan to deposit ratio decreased to 93.5% at December 31, 2018 from 103.1% at December 31, 2017. For the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, the average loan to deposit ratios were 96.6% and 104.0%, respectively. Management is optimistic that increased liquidity, improved funding composition and the ability to migrate available liquidity into higher yielding interest-earning assets will positively impact net interest income and margins during 2019.

 

 

3 The Company’s actual betas were calculated measuring the changes in deposit rates and overall funding rates compared to the Federal Funds Rate.

 

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Net interest margin of 3.43% for the year ended December 31, 2018, was six basis points higher than the 3.37% for the year ended December 31, 2017. The stability of the Bank’s margin was primarily due to the acquisition of lower cost County First transaction deposits as well as the acquisition of additional transaction deposits which changed the overall funding mix of the Bank’s interest-bearing liabilities. Interest earning asset yields increased 23 basis points from 4.16% for the year ended December 31, 2017 to 4.39% for the year ended December 31, 2018. Interest income in 2018 was impacted from $742,000 of interest income accretion due to the recognition of the acquired performing fair value mark related to County First as well as the addition of higher yielding loans from the County First acquisition. If the impacts of accretion interest were excluded, net interest margin for 2018 would have reduced five basis points to 3.38%.

 

The Company’s cost of funds increased 18 basis points from 0.81% for the year ended December 31, 2017 to 0.99% for the year ended December 31, 2018. Funding costs were positively impacted as the percentage of funding coming from noninterest-bearing deposits increased from 12.1% for the year ended December 31, 2017 to 15.2% for the year ended December 31, 2018.

 

Wholesale and time-based funding rates are typically more sensitive to rising interest rates than transactional deposits. Compared to the year ended December 31, 2017, average interest rates on certificates of deposits in 2018 increased by 46 basis points in the year ended December 31, 2018 to 1.46%. During the same comparable periods, interest-bearing transactional deposits increased by 30 basis points from 0.32% for the year ended December 31, 2017 to 0.62% for the year ended December 31, 2018. The increase in average interest rates on CDs and on interest bearing transactional accounts was primarily due to increases in the federal funds target rate. The Company’s increases in transaction deposits during the last twelve months have decreased downward pressure on net interest margin. The ability to increase transaction deposits faster than wholesale funding mitigated net interest margin compression in the rising rate environment of 2018.

 

The following table shows the components of net interest income and the dollar and percentage changes for the periods presented.

 

   Years Ended December 31,         
(dollars in thousands)  2018   2017   $ Change   % Change 
Interest and Dividend Income                    
Loans, including fees  $59,755   $49,611   $10,144    20.4%
Taxable interest and dividends on investment securities   5,153    3,906    1,247    31.9%
Interest on deposits with banks   265    53    212    400.0%
Total Interest and Dividend Income   65,173    53,570    11,603    21.7%
                     
Interest Expenses                    
Deposits   10,682    5,946    4,736    79.7%
Short-term borrowings   767    1,057    (290)   (27.4)%
Long-term debt   2,837    3,179    (342)   (10.8)%
Total Interest Expenses   14,286    10,182    4,104    40.3%
                     
Net Interest Income (NII)  $50,887   $43,388   $7,499    17.3%

 

Changes in the components of net interest income due to changes in average balances of assets and liabilities and to changes caused by changes in interest rates are presented in the rate volume analysis included below.

 

The following table shows the change in interest-earning asset (“IEA”) composition and average yields for the comparable periods.

 

   For the Years Ended December 31, 
   2018   2017 
   Average   Average   Percentage   Average   Average   Percentage 
(dollars in thousands)  Balance   Yield   of IEAs   Balance   Yield   of IEAs 
Loan portfolio (1)  $1,282,292    4.66%   86.43%  $1,113,822    4.45%   86.42%
Investment securities, federal funds sold and interest-bearing deposits   201,360    2.69%   13.57%   175,027    2.26%   13.58%
Interest-Earning Assets  $1,483,652    4.39%   100.00%  $1,288,849    4.16%   100.00%

 

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The table below presents information on average balances and rates for deposits.

 

   For the Years Ended December 31,     
   2018   2017 
   Average   Average   Average   Average 
(dollars in thousands)  Balance   Rate   Balance   Rate 
Savings  $73,268    0.08%  $53,560    0.05%
Interest-bearing demand and money market accounts   584,341    0.69%   419,817    0.35%
Certificates of deposit   452,494    1.46%   443,181    1.00%
Total interest-bearing deposits   1,110,103    0.96%   916,558    0.65%
Noninterest-bearing demand deposits   217,897         154,225      
   $1,328,000    0.80%  $1,070,783    0.56%

 

The following table shows the change in funding sources and the cost of funds for the comparable periods.

 

   For the Years Ended December 31, 
   2018   2017 
   Average   Average   Percentage   Average   Average   Percentage 
(dollars in thousands)  Balance   Rate   Funding   Balance   Rate   Funding 
Interest-bearing deposits  $1,110,103    0.96%   77.04%  $916,558    0.65%   72.96%
Debt   112,970    3.19%   7.84%   185,501    2.28%   14.77%
Total interest-bearing liabilities   1,223,073    1.17%   84.88%   1,102,059    0.92%   87.72%
Noninterest-bearing demand deposits   217,897         15.12%   154,225         12.28%
Total funds  $1,440,970    0.99%   100.00%  $1,256,284    0.81%   100.00%

 

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The table below illustrates changes in interest income and interest expense of the Bank for the periods indicated. For each category of interest-earning asset and interest-bearing liability, information is provided on changes attributable to (1) changes in volume (changes in volume multiplied by old rate); and (2) changes in rate (changes in rate multiplied by old volume). Changes in rate-volume (changes in rate multiplied by the change in volume) have been allocated to changes due to volume.

 

For the Year Ended December 31, 2018

compared to the Year Ended

December 31, 2017

 

       Due to     
dollars in thousands  Volume   Rate   Total 
             
Interest income:               
Loan portfolio (1)  $7,851   $2,293   $10,144 
Investment securities, federal funds sold and interest-bearing deposits   709    750    1,459 
Total interest-earning assets  $8,560   $3,043   $11,603 
                
Interest-bearing liabilities:               
Savings   17    18    35 
Interest-bearing demand and money market accounts   1,132    1,407    2,539 
Certificates of deposit   136    2,026    2,162 
Long-term debt   (550)   90    (460)
Short-term borrowings   (898)   608    (290)
Subordinated notes   -    -    - 
Guaranteed preferred beneficial interest in junior subordinated debentures   -    118    118 
Total interest-bearing liabilities  $(163)  $4,267   $4,104 
Net change in net interest income  $8,723   $(1,224)  $7,499 

 

(1) Average balance includes non-accrual loans. There are no tax equivalency adjustments. There was $742,000 of accretion interest during the year ended December 31, 2018.

 

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   For the Years Ended December 31, 
   2018   2017 
   Average       Avg. Yield   Average       Avg. Yield 
dollars in thousands  Balance   Interest   /Cost   Balance   Interest   /Cost 
Assets                              
Commercial real estate  $833,355   $38,417    4.61%  $699,349   $30,897    4.42%
Residential first mortgages   162,505    6,004    3.69%   176,186    6,636    3.77%
Residential rentals   126,491    6,215    4.91%   106,000    4,897    4.62%
Construction and land development   28,489    1,583    5.56%   33,798    1,677    4.96%
Home equity and second mortgages   37,862    1,992    5.26%   21,515    943    4.38%
Commercial and equipment loans   103,537    5,490    5.30%   86,871    4,524    5.21%
Consumer loans   798    54    6.77%   477    37    7.76%
Allowance for loan losses   (10,745)   -    0.00%   (10,374)   -    0.00%
Loan portfolio (1)   1,282,292    59,755    4.66%   1,113,822    49,611    4.45%
Investment securities, federal funds sold and interest-bearing deposits   201,360    5,418    2.69%   175,027    3,959    2.26%
Interest-Earning Assets ("IEAs")   1,483,652    65,173    4.39%   1,288,849    53,570    4.16%
Cash and cash equivalents   23,579              15,012           
Goodwill   10,439              -           
Core deposit intangible   3,209              -           
Other assets   82,514              73,122           
Total Assets  $1,603,393             $1,376,983           
Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity                              
Savings  $73,268   $62    0.08%  $53,560   $27    0.05%
Interest-bearing demand and money market accounts   584,341    4,020    0.69%   419,817    1,481    0.35%
Certificates of deposit   452,494    6,600    1.46%   443,181    4,438    1.00%
Long-term debt   35,684    853    2.39%   58,704    1,313    2.24%
Short-term borrowings   42,286    767    1.81%   91,797    1,057    1.15%
Subordinated Notes   23,000    1,438    6.25%   23,000    1,438    6.25%
Guaranteed preferred beneficial  interest in junior subordinated debentures   12,000    546    4.55%   12,000    428    3.57%
                               
Interest-Bearing Liabilities ("IBLs")   1,223,073    14,286    1.17%   1,102,059    10,182    0.92%
Noninterest-bearing demand deposits   217,897              154,225           
Other liabilities   13,295              10,720           
Stockholders' equity   149,128              109,979           
Total Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity  $1,603,393             $1,376,983           
Net interest income       $50,887             $43,388      
Interest rate spread             3.22%             3.24%
Net yield on interest-earning assets             3.43%             3.37%
Avg. loans to avg. deposits             96.56%             104.02%
Avg. transaction deposits to total avg. deposits **             65.93%             58.61%
Ratio of average IEAs to average IBLs             121.31%             116.95%
Cost of funds             0.99%             0.81%
Cost of deposits             0.80%             0.56%
Cost of debt             3.19%             2.28%

 

(1) Average balance includes non-accrual loans. There are no tax equivalency adjustments. There was $742,000 of accretion interest during the year ended December 31, 2018.

** Transaction deposits exclude time deposits.

 

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Provision for Loan Losses

 

The following table shows the dollar and percentage changes for the provision for loan losses for the periods presented.

 

   Years Ended December 31,         
(dollars in thousands )  2018   2017   $ Change   % Change 
Provision for loan losses  $1,405   $1,010   $395    39.1%

 

The provision for loan losses increased $395,000 to $1.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to $1.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. Net charge-offs increased $589,000 from $355,000 or 0.03% of average loans for the year ended December 31, 2017 to $944,000 or 0.07% of average loans for the year ended December 31, 2018. Moderate organic loan growth of 7.8%, charge-offs of 0.07% of average loans and continued improvement in charge-off factors and certain qualitative factors kept the provisioning in line with the prior year.

 

See further discussion of the provision under the caption “Asset Quality” in the Comparison of Financial Condition section of Management’s Discussion and Analysis.

 

Noninterest Income

 

The following table shows the components of noninterest income and the dollar and percentage changes for the periods presented.

 

   Years Ended December 31,         
(dollars in thousands )  2018   2017   $ Change   % Change 
Noninterest Income                    
Loan appraisal, credit, and miscellaneous charges  $183   $157   $26    16.6%
Gain on sale of assets   1    47    (46)   (97.9)%
Net gains on sale of investment securities   -    175    (175)   (100.0)%
Unrealized losses on equity securities   (81)   -    (81)   n/a 
Income from bank owned life insurance   902    773    129    16.7%
Service charges   3,063    2,595    468    18.0%
Gain on sale of loans held for sale   -    294    (294)   (100.0)%
Total Noninterest Income  $4,068   $4,041   $27    0.7%

 

Noninterest income was essentially flat at $4.1 million for the comparable periods. The small increase of $27,000 for the comparable periods included increased service charge and miscellaneous income of $494,000 due to a larger customer base with the acquisition of County First and the growth in organic deposits. In addition, Bank Owned Life Insurance acquired in the County First transaction of approximately $6.3 million increased non-interest income by $129,000 compared to the prior year comparable period. These increases to noninterest income were partially offset by decreases of $515,000 for gains on assets sold, loan sales and investment sales recognized in 2017. There were no investment or loan sales in 2018. In addition, unrealized losses on equity securities of $81,000 were recognized in 2018 to comply with a new accounting standard effective in the first quarter of 2018 that requires recognition of changes in the fair value flow through the Company’s statement of income.

 

During the year ended December 31, 2017 the Company recognized net gains on the sale of securities of $175,000. The Company sold three AFS securities with aggregate carrying values of $3.7 million and nine HTM securities with aggregate carrying values of $4.8 million, recognizing gains of $9,000 and $166,000, respectively. The sale of HTM securities was permitted under ASC 320 “Investments - Debt and Equity Securities.” ASC 320 permits the sale of HTM securities for certain changes in circumstances.

 

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Noninterest Expense

 

The following tables show the components of noninterest expense and the dollar and percentage changes for the periods presented.

 

   Years Ended December 31,         
(dollars in thousands )  2018   2017   $ Change   % Change 
Noninterest Expense                    
Salary and employee benefits  $19,548   $16,758   $2,790    16.6%
Occupancy expense   3,116    2,632    484    18.4%
Advertising   671    543    128    23.6%
Data processing expense   3,020    2,354    666    28.3%
Professional fees   1,513    1,662    (149)   (9.0)%
Merger and acquisition costs   3,625    829    2,796    337.3%
Depreciation of premises and equipment   810    786    24    3.1%
Telephone communications   277    191    86    45.0%
Office supplies   149    119    30    25.2%
FDIC Insurance   654    638    16    2.5%
OREO valuation allowance and expenses   657    703    (46)   (6.5)%
Core deposit intangible amortization   784    -    784    n/a 
Other   3,325    2,839    486    17.1%
Total Noninterest Expense  $38,149   $30,054   $8,095    26.9%

 

   Years Ended December 31,         
(dollars in thousands)  2018   2017   $ Change   % Change 
Salary and employee benefits  $19,548   $16,758   $2,790    16.6%
OREO valuation allowance and expenses   657    703    (46)   (6.5)%
Merger and acquisition costs   3,625    829    2,796    337.3%
Operating expenses   14,319    11,764    2,555    21.7%
Total Noninterest Expense  $38,149   $30,054   $8,095    26.9%

 

In 2018, noninterest expenses increased $8.1 million, or 26.9% to $38.2 million compared to the prior year, which amount included $3.6 million in merger related expenses. 2017 noninterest expense totaled $30.1 million which amount included $829,000 in merger-related expenses. Year-over-year increases in noninterest expenses, other than merger and acquisition costs, were due primarily to increases in salary and employee benefits attributable to the addition of County First employees. The Company decreased employee headcount from a high of 200 full time equivalent (“FTEs”) employees during the first quarter of 2018 to 189 FTEs in the fourth quarter of 2018. Other increases from the comparable periods were to occupancy expense, data processing expense, core deposit intangible amortization and advertising expense, all of which were due to the acquisition of County First and a larger balance sheet. The Company closed four of the five acquired branches in May 2018. The three held for sale County First branches were sold by July 2018. Branch closings positively impacted the Company’s expense run rate in the third and fourth quarters of 2018.

 

The following is a breakdown to OREO expense for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017:

 

   Years Ended December 31,     
(dollars in thousands)  2018   2017   $ Change 
Valuation allowance  $532   $600   $(68)
Losses (gains) on dispositions   8    (43)   51 
OREO operating expenses   117    146    (29)
   $657   $703   $(46)

 

The Company disposed of commercial real estate for proceeds of $807,000 and a gain of $4,000 along with residential lots for proceeds of $190,000 and a loss of $12,000 for the year ended December 31, 2018. The Company disposed of five residential properties and multiple residential lots for proceeds of $1.5 million and a gain of $43,000 for the year ended December 31, 2017.

 

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The Company’s efficiency ratio was 69.42% in 2018 compared to 63.37% in 2017. The Company’s net operating expense ratio was 2.13% in 2018 compared to 1.89% in 2017. The increase in the efficiency and net operating expense ratios in 2018 reflect the costs associated with the merger, higher employee headcount for the first six months of 2018 and the duplication of systems and resources to integrate County First during 2018.

 

Income Tax Expense

 

For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company recorded income tax expense of $4.2 million and $9.2 million, respectively. The Company’s consolidated effective tax rate was 27.10% for the year ended December 31, 2018, due to lower tax rates enacted with the passage of the Tax Cut and Jobs Act of 2017 partially offset by certain non-deductible merger-related expenses and holding company expenses that are not deductible for state tax purposes.

 

The Company’s consolidated effective tax rate was 55.95% for the year ended December 31, 2017. The Company’s 2017 income tax expense increased $2.7 million due to the revaluation of deferred tax assets because of the reduction in the corporate income tax rate under the enacted Tax Cuts and Jobs Act which was enacted on December 22, 2017. In addition, income tax expense was impacted by non-deductible facilitative merger and acquisition costs of $724,000. The increase in the effective tax rate was primarily the result of the revaluation of deferred tax assets. In addition, the Company’s federal tax rate increased from 34% in 2016 to 35% in 2017. See Note 13 for additional information.

 

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COMPARISON OF RESULTS OF OPERATIONS FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2017 AND 2016

 

Earnings Summary

 

Net income for year ended December 31, 2017 was $7.2 million or $1.56 per diluted share after the inclusion of the additional tax expense of $2.7million under the recently enacted Tax Cuts and Jobs Act and merger and acquisition costs of $724,000, net of tax, associated with the acquisition of County First Bank. The combined impact of the deferred tax adjustment and merger and acquisition costs, resulted in a reduction of earnings per share of approximately $0.75 per share for 2017. Net income for the year ended December 31, 2016 was $7.3 million or $1.59 per diluted share. The Company’s after-tax returns on average assets and common stockholders’ equity for 2017 were 0.52% and 6.55%, respectively, compared to 0.60% and 7.09%, respectively, for 2016.

 

Although the increased tax expense related to the deferred tax revaluation and merger and acquisition costs decreased net income, earnings per share and returns on average assets and common equity for the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company believes the reduced federal income tax rate and the efficiencies from the County First acquisition will be accretive in 2018.

 

The Company has pursued a strategy of increasing operating leverage over the last several years. This occurs when the Company increases its assets, and by extension its net interest income, while limiting increases in noninterest expense. In order for this to be effective, the Company must simultaneously pursue the following; increase the asset size while maintaining asset quality, increase funding at an economically viable cost, and control noninterest expense growth.

 

The Company completed a very strong 2017 with pretax net income growing at a record pace. Income before taxes (pretax net income) increased $4.6 million or 39.3% to $16.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $11.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The Company’s pretax returns on average assets and common stockholders’ equity for 2017 were 1.19% and 14.88%, respectively, compared to 0.96% and 11.36%, respectively, for 2016.

 

The increase in operating income and operating leverage in 2017 was primarily due to the following:

 

·Net interest income was $43.4 million in 2017, an increase of $3.5 million, or 8.7%, compared to 2016.

 

oInterest income increased $5.5 million. The increase was driven by increased average interest-earning assets including increased average loan balances. The Bank increased average net loan balances $125.5 million to $1,113.8 million in 2017 from $988.3 million in 2016. The effect of loan volume on interest income was partially offset by yield declines.

 

oInterest expense increased $2.0 million which partially offset increased interest income. The primary reason for the increase in interest expense was larger average interest-bearing liability balances and an increase in the cost of wholesale and time-based funding.

 

§The average balances of interest-bearing liabilities increased $127.7 million to $1,102.1 million in 2017 from $974.4 million for 2016.

 

§The Company’s cost of funds, which includes noninterest-bearing funding, increased by eight basis points from the 2016 comparable period to 0.81% for the year ended December 31, 2017.

 

Wholesale and time-based funding rates are typically more sensitive to rising interest rates than transactional deposits. Compared to the year ended December 31, 2016, interest rates in 2017 increased by 14 basis points to 1.00% on certificates of deposit, while interest-bearing transactional deposits increased by five basis points to 0.32%. Federal Home Loan Bank (“FHLB”) short-term borrowings increased by 66 basis points to 1.15% for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 0.49% for the year ended December 31, 2016. The Company’s increases in transaction deposits during the last twelve months have decreased downward pressure on net interest margin. The ability to increase transaction deposits faster than wholesale funding could mitigate possible downward pressure on net interest margin in a rising rate environment.

 

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·The Company controlled expense growth. Noninterest expense increased $459,000, or 1.6%, to $30.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $29.6 million the prior year. Merger and acquisition costs (M&A costs) of $829,000 were incurred in 2017. These costs were not incurred in 2016 and excluding M&A costs in 2017, noninterest expense was $29.2 million, a decrease of $370,000, or 1.3%, compared to 2016.

 

During 2017 net operating expense as a percentage of average assets and the efficiency ratio declined (improved) compared to the prior year to 1.89% and 63.37%, respectively for the year ended December 31, 2017 from 2.10% and 67.72%, respectively for the year ended December 31, 2016.

 

·The Company’s continued improvement in asset quality as well as slower 2017 loan growth, have positively impacted pretax earnings. The Company’s improving credit metrics have partially offset the provisioning required to provide for loan growth. The provision for loan losses decreased $1.3 million, or 57.2%, to $1.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $2.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2017.

 

Overall credit metrics improved during 2017; this improvement with more modest loan growth of 5.6% (compared to 18.5% in 2016) kept the loan loss provision below the prior year. Net charge-offs of 0.03% of average loans were the lowest since before the financial crisis (2007 was 0.04)%. Nonaccrual loans and OREO decreased $2.2 million to $14.0 million from $16.2 million at December 31, 2016; this is a reduction from 1.21% of assets at December 31, 2016 to 1.00% of assets at December 31, 2017. Although the overall credit trend was positive, the third and fourth quarter of 2017 saw increases to substandard and special mention loans and delinquency. Improvements to baseline charge-off factors for the periods used to evaluate the adequacy of the allowance as well as improvements in some qualitative factors, such as slower portfolio growth, were offset by increases in other qualitative factors, such as concentration to capital factors and increased classified assets. Management believes that the allowance is adequate.

 

A more detailed analysis comparing the results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016 follows.

 

Net Interest Income

 

The primary component of the Company’s net income is its net interest income, which is the difference between income earned on assets and interest paid on the deposits and borrowings used to fund them. Net interest income is affected by the difference between the yields earned on the Company’s interest-earning assets and the rates paid on interest-bearing liabilities, as well as the relative amounts of such assets and liabilities. Net interest income, divided by average interest-earning assets, represents the Company’s net interest margin.

 

Net interest income increased 8.7% or $3.5 million to $43.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to $39.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. Net interest margin at 3.37% for the year ended December 31, 2017 decreased 11 basis points from 3.48% for the year ended December 31, 2016. Average interest-earning assets were $1,288.8 million for the full year of 2017, an increase of $143.3 million, or 12.5%, compared to $1,145.5 million for the full year of 2016.

 

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The following table shows the components of net interest income and the dollar and percentage changes for the periods presented.

 

   Years Ended December 31,         
(dollars in thousands )  2017   2016   $ Change   % Change 
Interest and Dividend Income                    
Loans, including fees  $49,611   $44,919   $4,692    10.4%
Taxable interest and dividends on investment securities   3,906    3,108