Company Quick10K Filing
Taubman Centers
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$49.99 61 $3,060
10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-09-30 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-06-30 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-09-30 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-06-30 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-03-31 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-09-30 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-06-30 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-03-31 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2015-12-31 Annual: 2015-12-31
10-Q 2015-09-30 Quarter: 2015-09-30
10-Q 2015-06-30 Quarter: 2015-06-30
10-Q 2015-03-31 Quarter: 2015-03-31
10-K 2014-12-31 Annual: 2014-12-31
10-Q 2014-09-30 Quarter: 2014-09-30
10-Q 2014-06-30 Quarter: 2014-06-30
10-Q 2014-03-31 Quarter: 2014-03-31
10-K 2013-12-31 Annual: 2013-12-31
8-K 2019-05-30 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2019-04-30 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-04-22 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-03-22 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2019-03-12 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-14 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-13 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-12-06 Officers, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-19 Officers
8-K 2018-10-29 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-30 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-31 Officers, Shareholder Vote, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-26 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-08 Earnings, Exhibits
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TCO 2018-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Business.
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
Item 2. Properties.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Item 6. Selected Financial Data.
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure.
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures.
Item 9B. Other Information.
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers, and Corporate Governance.
Item 11. Executive Compensation.
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services.
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.
Note 1 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2 - Acquisition, Partial Disposition of Ownership Interests, Redevelopments, Developments, and Service Agreement
Note 3 - Income Taxes
Note 4 - Properties
Note 5 - Investments in Unconsolidated Joint Ventures
Note 6 - Accounts and Notes Receivable
Note 7 - Deferred Charges and Other Assets
Note 8 - Notes Payable, Net
Note 9 - Noncontrolling Interests
Note 10 - Derivative and Hedging Activities
Note 11 - Leases
Note 12 - The Manager
Note 13 - Share-Based Compensation and Other Employee Plans
Note 14 - Preferred Stock and Equity of Trg
Note 15 - Commitments and Contingencies
Note 16 - Earnings per Common Share
Note 17 - Fair Value Disclosures
Note 18 - Cash Flow Disclosures and Non-Cash Investing and Financing Activities
Note 19 - Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income
Note 20 - Quarterly Financial Data (Unaudited)
Note 21 - New Accounting Pronouncements
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EX-10.2 a2018q4exhibit102.htm
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EX-10.2.2 a2018q4exhibit1022.htm
EX-10.3 a2018q4exhibit103.htm
EX-10.3.1 a2018q4exhibit1031.htm
EX-10.8.2 a2018q4exhibit1082.htm
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EX-31.2 a2018q4exhibit312.htm
EX-32.1 a2018q4exhibit321.htm
EX-32.2 a2018q4exhibit322.htm
EX-99 a2018q4exhibit99.htm

Taubman Centers Earnings 2018-12-31

TCO 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

10-K 1 tco-20181231x10k.htm 10-K Document
Form 10-K

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018

For the transition period from _______________ to _______________
Commission File No. 1-11530

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
200 East Long Lake Road, Suite 300,
Bloomfield Hills, Michigan
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip code)
Registrant's telephone number, including area code:
(248) 258-6800            
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Name of each exchange
Title of each class
on which registered
Common Stock,
New York Stock Exchange
$0.01 Par Value
6.5% Series J Cumulative
New York Stock Exchange
Redeemable Preferred Stock,
No Par Value
6.25% Series K Cumulative
New York Stock Exchange
Redeemable Preferred Stock,
No Par Value

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  x Yes    o No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  o Yes    x No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   x Yes    o No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  x Yes  o No

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.  See the definitions of "large accelerated filer", "accelerated filer", "smaller reporting company", and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer    x       Accelerated Filer   o          Non-Accelerated Filer   o        Smaller reporting company  o Emerging Growth Company o

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).   o Yes    x No

The aggregate market value of the 58,042,052 shares of Common Stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2018 was $3.4 billion, based upon the closing price of $58.76 per share on the New York Stock Exchange composite tape on June 29, 2018. (For this computation, the registrant has excluded the market value of all shares of its Common Stock held by directors of the registrant and certain other shareholders; such exclusion shall not be deemed to constitute an admission that any such person is an "affiliate" of the registrant.)  As of February 27, 2019, there were outstanding 61,122,292 shares of Common Stock.


Portions of the proxy statement for the annual shareholders meeting to be held in 2019 are incorporated by reference into Part III.






The following discussion of our business contains various "forward-looking" statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. These forward-looking statements represent our expectations or beliefs concerning future events and performance. We caution that although forward-looking statements reflect our good faith beliefs and reasonable judgment based upon current information, these statements are qualified by important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements, including those risks, uncertainties, and factors detailed from time to time in reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), and in particular those set forth under Risk Factors in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The forward-looking statements included in this report are made as of the date hereof or the date specified herein. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update these forward-looking statements, even if new information becomes available in the future.

The Company

Taubman Centers, Inc. (TCO) is a Michigan corporation (incorporated in 1973) that operates as a self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust (REIT). TCO's sole asset is an approximate 71% general partnership interest in The Taubman Realty Group Limited Partnership (TRG), which owns direct or indirect interests in all of our real estate properties. In this report, the terms "we", "us", and "our" refer to TCO, TRG, and/or TRG's subsidiaries as the context may require. See "Our UPREIT Structure" for additional information about our structure.

We own, lease, acquire, dispose of, develop, expand, and manage shopping centers and interests therein. Our owned portfolio of operating centers as of December 31, 2018 consisted of 23 urban and suburban shopping centers operating in 11 U.S. states, Puerto Rico, South Korea, and China. The Taubman Company LLC (the Manager) provides certain management and administrative services for us and for our U.S. properties. See "Personnel" below for more information about the Manager.

The Consolidated Businesses consist of shopping centers and entities that are controlled, by ownership or contractual agreements, by TRG, the Manager, or Taubman Properties Asia LLC and its subsidiaries (Taubman Asia). Shopping centers owned through joint ventures that are not controlled by us but over which we have significant influence (Unconsolidated Joint Ventures) are accounted for under the equity method. See "Item 2. Properties" for information regarding the shopping centers.

In 2017, the U.S. Congress passed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, which made significant changes to both corporate and individual tax rates and the resulting calculation of taxes, as well as international tax rules for U.S. domestic corporations. As a REIT, this legislation minimally changed the taxes we pay. However, it could impact the way in which our dividends are taxed on the holders of our stock.

Our UPREIT Structure
We are structured as an umbrella partnership real estate investment trust, referred to as an UPREIT. In our UPREIT structure, TCO, which is a publicly-traded REIT, is the sole managing general partner of TRG. TCO's sole asset is its ownership of partnership interests in TRG (TRG units), which constitute an approximate 71% economic interest in TRG as of December 31, 2018. The remaining approximate 29% of the TRG units are owned by TRG's partners other than TCO (Other Partners), including Robert S. Taubman, William S. Taubman, Gayle Taubman Kalisman, and the A. Alfred Taubman Restated Revocable Trust (Taubman Family). TRG owns direct or indirect interests in our real estate properties and in the companies that provide management services to us and our real estate properties, including in our Unconsolidated Joint Ventures and the Manager.


The following chart illustrates TCO's and TRG's structure:

Since TCO manages TRG as the sole managing general partner, the Other Partners have limited control rights in TRG in which they hold an economic interest. To provide the Other Partners with voting rights in TCO corresponding with their economic interests in TRG, in 1998, TCO issued, and made available for the Other Partners to purchase, Series B Non-Participating Convertible Preferred Stock (Series B Preferred Shares). The holders of the Series B Preferred Shares vote together with the holders of our common stock on all matters on which the common shareholders vote. Holders of our common stock and the Series B Preferred Shares are each entitled to one vote per share.
Shares of TCO's common stock are held by TCO's public shareholders and represent, as of December 31, 2018, an approximate 71% voting interest in TCO, which corresponds with TCO's economic ownership of TRG. The Series B Preferred Shares represent, as of December 31, 2018, an approximate 29% voting interest in TCO, which corresponds with the Series B Preferred shareholders’ economic ownership in TRG. As of December 31, 2018, based on information contained in filings made with the SEC by members of the Taubman Family, members of the Taubman Family collectively held 97% of the outstanding Series B Preferred Shares, and collectively held an approximate 30% voting interest in TCO based on their ownership of TCO common stock and Series B Preferred Shares. For further information regarding the control rights of members of the Taubman Family, see “Risk Factors - Members of the Taubman Family have the power to vote a significant number of the shares of Capital Stock entitled to vote and have contractual rights.”
We operate as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the Code). In order to satisfy the provisions of the Code applicable to REITs, we must distribute to our shareholders at least 90% of our REIT taxable income prior to net capital gains and meet certain other requirements. TRG's partnership agreement provides that TRG will distribute, at a minimum, sufficient amounts to its partners such that our pro rata share will enable us to pay shareholder dividends (including capital gains dividends that may be required upon TRG's sale of an asset) that will satisfy the REIT provisions of the Code.


Recent Developments

For a discussion of business developments that occurred in 2018, see "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A)."

Business of TCO

We are engaged in the ownership, leasing, acquisition, disposition, development, expansion, and management of shopping centers and interests therein. We owned interests in 23 operating centers as of December 31, 2018. In the following discussion, the term "GLA" refers to gross retail space, including anchors and mall tenant areas, and the term "Mall GLA" refers to gross retail space, excluding anchors. The term "anchor" refers to a department store or other large retail store. The term "mall tenants" refers to stores (other than anchors) that lease space in shopping centers, including temporary tenants and specialty retailers.

As of December 31, 2018, the shopping centers:

are strategically located in major metropolitan areas, many in communities that are among the most affluent in the U.S. or Asia, including Denver, Detroit, Honolulu, Kansas City, Los Angeles, Miami, Nashville, New York City, Orlando, Salt Lake City, San Francisco, San Juan, Sarasota, Tampa, Washington, D.C., Hanam (South Korea), Xi'an (China), and Zhengzhou (China);

range in size between 236,000 and 1.7 million square feet of GLA and between 186,000 and 1.0 million square feet of Mall GLA, with an average of 1.0 million and 0.5 million square feet, respectively. The smallest center has approximately 60 stores, and the largest has over 300 stores with an average of approximately 150 stores per shopping center.

have approximately 3,200 stores operated by their mall tenants under approximately 1,700 trade names;

have 56 anchors, operating under 17 trade names;

lease approximately 90% of Mall GLA to national chains (U.S. centers only), including subsidiaries or divisions of Forever 21 (Forever 21 and XXI Forever), The Gap (Gap, Gap Kids, Baby Gap, Banana Republic, Old Navy, Athleta, and others), H&M, and Limited Brands (Bath & Body Works/White Barn Candle, Pink, Victoria's Secret, and others); and

are among the highest quality centers in the U.S. public regional mall industry as measured by our high portfolio average of mall tenants' sales per square foot. In 2018, our mall tenants at comparable centers reported average sales per square foot of $824.

The most important factor affecting the revenues generated by the centers is leasing to mall tenants (including temporary tenants and specialty retailers), which represents approximately 90% of revenues. Anchors account for less than 10% of revenues because many own their stores and, in general, those that lease their stores do so at rates substantially lower than those in effect for mall tenants.

Our portfolio is concentrated in highly productive shopping centers. Of our 23 owned centers, 21 have annualized rent rolls at December 31, 2018 of over $10 million. We believe that this level of productivity is indicative of the centers' strong competitive positions and is, in significant part, attributable to our business strategy and philosophy. We believe that our high-quality shopping centers are the least susceptible to direct competition because, among other reasons, anchors and specialty retail stores do not find it economically attractive to open additional stores in the immediate vicinity of an existing location for fear of competing with themselves. We also believe that our centers' success can be attributed in part to their other characteristics, such as being well-designed with effective layouts, natural light, good physical condition, strong and evolving retail programming, state-of-the-art technology infrastructure, and other amenities. Many of our shopping centers are also strategically located in high-quality markets, with convenient access to a high density of customers, including significant tourist traffic.


Business Strategy and Philosophy

We believe that the shopping center business is not simply a real estate development business, but rather an operating business in which a retailing approach to the ongoing management and leasing of the centers is essential. Thus we:

offer retailers a location where they can maximize their profitability. We believe leading retailers and emerging concepts choose to showcase their brand in the best markets and highest quality assets;

offer a large, diverse selection of retail stores and dining in each center to give customers a broad selection of consumer goods, food, and entertainment and a variety of price ranges;

endeavor to increase overall mall tenants' sales by leasing space to a regularly changing mix of tenants, thereby increasing rents over time;

seek to anticipate trends in our industry and emphasize ongoing introductions of new concepts into our centers. Due in part to this strategy, a number of successful retail trade names have opened their first mall stores in our centers. In addition, we have brought to the centers "new to the market" retailers and other retailers that previously served customers through online presences. We believe that the execution of this leasing strategy is an important element in building and maintaining customer loyalty and increasing mall productivity; and

provide innovative initiatives, including those that utilize technology and the internet, to increase revenues, enhance the shopping experience, personalize our relationship with shoppers, build customer loyalty, and increase mall tenant sales, with the following as examples:

we are continuing to invest in other synergistic digital capabilities and are a developer of the "Smart Mall" concept. Of the 23 shopping centers in our portfolio, 18 are considered to be "Smart Malls." This technology includes a new fiber optic network throughout the centers, free shopper Wi-Fi, navigation and directory technology, advanced energy management, high-speed networking options for our tenants, new digital, mobile shopper engagement, and advanced shopper analytics;

our Taubman website program connects shoppers to each of our individual center brands through the internet. In 2018, we launched new mobile responsive websites for all of our centers, emphasizing the imagery of our premier properties and associated offerings;

we have a robust email program reaching our most loyal customers weekly and our social media sites offer retailers and customers an immediate geo-targeted communication vehicle;

we actively manage a comprehensive social media program at 18 centers, delivering authentic local content which gained over 800 million impressions in 2018;

we deploy highly targeted digital media programs that leverage geographic and behavioral targeting to drive incremental visits from local and tourist customers;

we have pioneered an indoor navigation technology at many of our centers that has the potential to significantly change a shopper's experience and connect them to retailers in new ways;

we have begun installing "smart parking" systems at some of our shopping centers, providing customers real-time information about parking availability, most convenient spots, and directions to their parked cars; and

we have implemented rewards, loyalty, VIP, and incentive programs that provide exclusive benefits to designated shoppers leveraging a variety of technologies ranging from dedicated applications for VIPs to customer relationship management database marketing efforts.


For example, as part of Beverly Center’s redevelopment, we implemented the following:

free shopper Wi-Fi with analytics capabilities;

extensive fiber for future technology needs of the shopper, tenant, and shopping center;

a 35-foot-tall, 3-story portrait LED screen with highly immersive artistic and sponsored content;

exterior LED lighting system wrapping the entire building that allows the center to celebrate Los Angeles and key events;

the latest in digital directory technology, that provides real time map updates, restaurant menus, and interactive routing (in English and Chinese); and

a parking system with integration into our website and mobile application that allows consumers to find their car based on license plate recognition.

Our leasing strategy involves assembling a diverse and unique mix of mall tenants in each of the centers in order to attract customers, thereby generating higher sales by mall tenants. High sales by mall tenants make the centers attractive to prospective renewal and new tenants, thereby increasing the rental rates that current and prospective tenants are willing to pay. We have implemented an active leasing strategy to increase the centers' productivity and to set minimum rents at higher levels. Elements of this strategy include renegotiating existing leases and leasing space to prospective tenants that would enhance a center's retail mix.

The shopping centers compete for retail consumer spending through diverse, in-depth presentations of predominantly fashion merchandise in an environment intended to facilitate customer shopping. Many of our centers include stores that target high-end customers, and such stores may also attract other retailers to come to the center. Each center is always individually merchandised in light of the demographics of its potential customers within convenient driving distance. When necessary, we consider rebranding existing shopping centers in order to maximize customer loyalty, maintain and increase mall tenant sales, and achieve greater profitability.

As our tenant mix continues to evolve to include tenants such as digitally native concepts, luxury, entertainment, restaurants, and fast fashion, increased tenant allowances are being provided to attract the best tenants to our centers. We believe bringing in great retailers will drive traffic and productivity to our centers, enhancing the long-term strategic position of each center.

Recent Trends in Retail

The U.S. shopping center industry has been challenged in recent years and is currently facing choppiness as it continues to evolve rapidly alongside retail. Across the industry, department store sales have weakened and their ability to drive traffic has substantially decreased, resulting in increased store closures, with mature mall tenants and anchors rationalizing square footage and being highly selective in opening new stores. There has been some stabilization of portions of the retail landscape recently, including comparatively strong sales performance during 2018. However, the retail headwinds still have the potential to be prolonged and ultimately may still result in many centers incurring lost or reduced rent, paying higher tenant allowances, and/or experiencing unscheduled terminations.

The impact of e-commerce on shopping center retail has been steadily increasing. There have been secular changes in shopper behavior affecting how, where, and what consumers shop for. Technology has intervened in the direct relationship between shoppers and the mall by enabling them to research, compare, and purchase products online easily, challenging our unique position as the main shopping portal within a trade area.

While challenging traditional retail in the shorter-term, e-commerce is also making high-quality brick-and-mortar assets more valuable, as retailers focus their real estate investments on the strongest assets. Successful retailers understand that a combination of both physical and digital channels is likely to best meet their customer needs. Physical locations are an important distribution channel that reduce order fulfillment and customer acquisition costs, while improving website traffic and brand recognition. Physical locations also allow for tenants to most successfully express their full brand statement, creating emotional connections to customers. We strive to position our assets to be desirable platforms for omni-channel retailers, believing technology improves the customer experience and will continue to do so, from the front of the house, logistics, efficiency, pricing, customer acquisition, customer knowledge and service.


Over time we believe high-quality mall portfolios such as ours will continue to gain market share of mall tenant sales and rents. We expect to achieve this because brick-and-mortar remains the heart of omni-channel retailing. Our high-quality portfolio of shopping centers complements retailers' strategies by positioning their brands among high-end, productive retailers in the best markets. We believe the current environment of significant consolidation of shopping centers will cause high-quality portfolios such as ours to become more valuable, solidifying our position in our current markets, and ultimately leading to greater market share. As an upscale, niche player in our industry, most of our assets have a unique value proposition in their respective markets for tenants and consumers - it's estimated that nearly 80% of our malls are ranked number one or two in their markets based on sales per square foot. They remain critical brick-and-mortar locations for retail brands and important destinations for shoppers. This is a strength of our assets that represents a key advantage against our larger competitors in our industry.

Apparel retailers, traditionally a dominant category for malls, had been facing particularly challenging times in recent years, however there has been recent momentum in the category, and sales have increased in 2018. While it is prudent to continuously adjust the use of space in order to broaden the mall experience, we believe that the rebound of apparel is further evidence that the dramatic reallocation of in-line space to other tenants across the board for the sake of reducing exposure to apparel is neither economically sustainable nor strategically necessary. We continue to expect that additional dining, entertainment, digitally native concepts, grocery, fitness, events, coworking and other new uses over time will gain a larger allocation of space alongside a significant presence of apparel, encouraging more shopping destination trips and strengthening high-quality malls as social hubs in their communities.

Throughout the industry, traditional department stores have been experiencing declining sales and market shares. As a result, some department stores have been pursuing strategies of consolidation and/or closure of under-performing locations. Given the overall quality of our real estate, however, many of our department stores have been performing comparatively well. As a result, we do not expect that we will have as many opportunities as others in our industry to reacquire and re-purpose anchor locations, with department stores often being reluctant to exit our malls. However, in the event of anchor closures, we generally expect re-purposing of anchors to add value strategically and be accretive financially.

Potential For Growth

Our principal objective is to enhance shareholder value. We seek to maximize the financial results of our core assets, while also pursuing a growth strategy that includes redevelopment of existing centers as well as a new center development program. As our current development pipeline is now largely complete in the U.S., our emphasis will now be on strengthening and growing our core assets, in addition to stabilizing our newest projects and executing our redevelopments. We continue to invest for the future and are creating value in our centers that is intended to lead to sustained growth for our shareholders. Our internally generated funds and distributions from operating centers and other investing activities (including strategic dispositions of centers or a portion of our interests therein), augmented by use of our existing revolving lines of credit and unsecured term loans, provide resources to maintain our current operations and assets, pay dividends, and fund a portion of our major capital investments. We pursue an overall strategy of creating value and recycling capital using long-term fixed rate financing on the centers upon stabilization. Excess proceeds from refinancings typically are used to reinvest in our business. Generally, our need to access the capital markets is limited to refinancing debt obligations at or near maturity and, funding major capital investments. From time to time, we also may access the equity markets or sell interests in shopping centers to raise additional funds or refinance existing obligations on a strategic basis, including using excess proceeds therefrom.

Internal Growth

As noted in "Business Strategy and Philosophy" above in detail, our core business strategy is to maintain a portfolio of properties that deliver above-market profitable growth by providing targeted retailers with the best opportunity to do business in each market and targeted shoppers with the best local shopping experience for their needs.

We continue to expect that over time a significant portion of our future growth will come from our existing core portfolio and business. We have always had and will continue to have a culture of intensively managing our assets and maximizing the rents from mall tenants over the long-term as this is a key growth driver going forward.

An element of our internal growth over time is the strategic expansion and redevelopment of existing properties to update and enhance their market positions by adding, replacing, re-tenanting, or otherwise re-merchandising the use of anchor space, increasing mall tenant space, or rebranding centers. Most of the centers have been designed to accommodate expansions. Expansion projects can be as significant as new shopping center construction in terms of scope and cost, requiring governmental and existing anchor store approvals, design and engineering activities, including rerouting utilities, providing additional parking areas or decking, acquiring additional land, and relocating anchors and mall tenants (all of which must take place with minimum disruption to existing tenants and customers).


We substantially completed our redevelopment project at Beverly Center in November 2018, which included a complete renovation and significant re-merchandising, including transformation of food offerings. Additionally, we have an ongoing redevelopment project at The Mall at Green Hills that will add approximately 170,000 square feet of incremental GLA that we expect to be completed in 2019.

We also look to monetize our common areas through robust specialty leasing and sponsorship programs. About 8% of our 2018 comparable center Net Operating Income (NOI) was generated from such programs. In the past five years, comparable center NOI from leasing and sponsorship programs has ranged from 8% to 9%. Examples found in our centers include destination holiday experiences, customer service programs, sponsored children's play areas, and turnkey attractions. In addition, we monetize our common areas through static and digital media that comes in a variety of formats.

External Growth

We pursue various areas of external growth, including traditional center development in the U.S., new opportunities in Asia, and acquisitions in both the U.S. and Asia. We have invested in a development project, Starfield Anseong, in South Korea for which we have formed an additional joint venture with Shinsegae Group (Shinsegae). Additionally, we opened one new center in 2017 and three new centers in 2016: one in Hawaii, one in South Korea, and two in China. We continue to evaluate various development and acquisition possibilities for additional new centers.

Development of New U.S. Centers

We have developed 14 U.S. properties since 1998, or an average of about one every 18 months. Our most recent U.S. development, International Market Place, opened in Waikiki, Honolulu, Hawaii in August 2016. We have a 93.5% interest in the 0.3 million square foot center, which is subject to a participating ground lease.

Given the over saturation of suburban retail in the U.S., almost no new supply of suburban malls is expected in the foreseeable future. Current trends suggest that any future new supply of malls will likely be limited and in the format of mixed-use or destination projects. We do expect expansions of high-quality malls will continue as lower quality centers atrophy. In the next five years, in addition to The Mall at Green Hills expansion, we will pro-actively pursue the re-purposing of anchors where appropriate. We do not anticipate significant new ground-up developments.

While we will continue to evaluate potential future U.S. development projects using criteria, including financial criteria for rates of return, similar to those employed in the past, no assurances can be given that the adherence to these criteria will produce comparable or projected results in the future. In addition, the costs of shopping center development opportunities that are explored but ultimately abandoned will, to some extent, diminish the overall return on development projects taken as a whole. See "MD&A – Liquidity and Capital Resources – Capital Spending" for further discussion of our development activities.

In 2015, we made a decision not to move forward with an enclosed mall that was intended to be part of the Miami Worldcenter mixed-use, urban development in Miami, Florida. Miami Worldcenter's master developer, Miami Worldcenter Associates, is pursuing a high street retail plan as a part of their master development of the site. We have agreed with Miami Worldcenter Associates on terms for a co-leasing services agreement with The Forbes Company for the retail portion of the street level project, with an option to purchase the retail component at a favorable price once it opens.


We are pursuing a development strategy in Asia to:

provide additional growth through exposure to countries that have more rapidly growing gross domestic products (GDPs);

utilize our expertise, including leasing/retailer relationships, design/development expertise, and operational/marketing skills; and

take advantage of a generational opportunity, as the demand for high-quality retail is early to mid-cycle, there is significant deal flow, and it diversifies longer-term growth investment opportunities.

Taubman Asia is responsible for our operations and development in the Asia-Pacific region, focusing on China and South Korea. We have pursued a strategy of seeking strategic partners to jointly develop high-quality malls in our areas of focus. Taubman Asia is engaged in projects that leverage our strong retail planning, design, and operational capabilities with our strategic partners being responsible for acquiring and entitling the land and leading construction.


We envision that the Asia business will be a smaller but complementary and important part of the overall business. We have built three high-quality shopping centers and a fully integrated development and management platform with strategic, local partners. Our goal is to create a platform that finances itself by bringing in new capital partners, and potentially adding additional operating partners where appropriate, to create a less capital-intensive business that can grow the asset base with improved returns on equity, which is evidenced by our institutional partner in Starfield Hanam and the agreement with The Blackstone Group L.P. (Blackstone) to sell 50% of our interests in Starfield Hanam, CityOn.Xi'an, and CityOn.Zhengzhou described below.

As part of our Asia strategy, we look to mitigate our operating costs through property management fees and third-party service contracts when possible. We currently provide management and advisory services to third parties in Asia. We also attempt to manage risks and financial returns for our Asia developments through actively managing and limiting pre-construction costs, ensuring there is adequate anchor and tenant interest in the project prior to construction, and pursuing initial projects that are already fully entitled with partners having appropriate expertise in land acquisition and local regulatory issues. Developments in China and South Korea are subject to income taxes and taxes upon repatriation of earnings that also must be planned for and managed.

We have a joint venture with Shinsegae, one of South Korea's largest retailers, to build, lease, and manage Starfield Anseong, an approximately 1.1 million square foot shopping center, in Anseong, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. We expect to beneficially own a 24.5% interest in the project; however we currently own and are funding 49% of the project until an additional capital partner is admitted. The center is scheduled to open in late 2020.

We also have an additional joint venture with Shinsegae that owns and manages an approximately 1.7 million square foot shopping center, Starfield Hanam, in Hanam, South Korea. The center opened in September 2016. We are currently partnered with a major institution in Asia for a 49% ownership interest in Starfield Hanam. As of December 31, 2018, the institutional partner owned 14.7% of the center, bringing our effective ownership to 34.3%.

We also have two joint ventures with Wangfujing Group Co., Ltd (Wangfujing), one of China's largest department store chains. The first joint venture owns an interest in and manages an approximately 1.0 million square foot shopping center, CityOn.Xi'an, which opened in April 2016 and is located at Xi'an Saigao City Plaza, a large-scale mixed-use development in Xi'an, China. As of December 31, 2018, we had an effective 50% ownership interest in the center. The second joint venture with Wangfujing owns an interest in and manages an approximately 0.9 million square foot shopping center, CityOn.Zhengzhou, which opened in March 2017 and is located in Zhengzhou, China. As of December 31, 2018, we had a 49% ownership interest in the center.

In February 2019, we announced agreements to sell 50% of our interests in Starfield Hanam, CityOn.Xi’an, and CityOn.Zhengzhou to funds managed by Blackstone. Following the transactions, which are subject to customary closing conditions and are expected to close throughout 2019, we will retain a 17.15% ownership interest in Starfield Hanam, a 25% ownership interest in CityOn.Xi'an, and a 24.5% ownership interest in CityOn.Zhengzhou. We will remain the partner responsible for the joint management of the three shopping centers, with Blackstone paying a property service fee. The interests to be sold are valued at $480 million, with net cash proceeds expected to be about $315 million, after transaction costs and the allocation to Blackstone of its share of third-party debt. Also, we may receive up to an additional $50 million of consideration based on the 2019 performance of the three assets.

See "MD&A - Results of Operations - Taubman Asia" for further details regarding our activities in Asia.

Strategic Acquisitions

We expect attractive opportunities to acquire existing centers, or interests in existing centers, from other companies may be scarce and expensive. However, we continue to look for assets in both the U.S. and Asia where we can add significant value or that would be strategic to the rest of our portfolio. Our objective is to acquire existing centers only when they are compatible with the quality of our portfolio, or can be redeveloped to that level. We also may acquire additional interests in centers currently in our portfolio.

In March 2016, a joint venture we formed with The Macerich Company acquired Country Club Plaza, a mixed-use retail and office property in Kansas City, Missouri, from Highwood Properties for $660 million ($330 million at TRG’s beneficial share) in cash, excluding transaction costs. This purchase is consistent with our strategy to own high-quality, dominant assets in great markets. See "MD&A - Results of Operations - Acquisition - Country Club Plaza" for additional information regarding the acquisition.


Redevelopment Agreement for Taubman Prestige Outlets Chesterfield

In May 2018, we closed on a redevelopment agreement for Taubman Prestige Outlets Chesterfield. As of May 1, 2018, all operations at the center, as well as the building and improvements, were transferred to The Staenberg Group (TSG). TSG leases the land from us through a long-term, participating ground lease and we receive ground lease payments and a share of the property’s revenues above a specified level. TSG is planning a significant redevelopment of the property, which will transform it into a unique entertainment, shopping and dining destination. See "MD&A - Results of Operations - Redevelopment Agreement for Taubman Prestige Outlets Chesterfield" for further details regarding the redevelopment agreement.

Rental Rates

As leases have expired in the centers, we have generally been able to rent the available space, either to the existing tenant or a new tenant, at rental rates that are higher than those of the expired leases. Generally, center revenues have increased as older leases rolled over or were terminated early and replaced with new leases negotiated at current rental rates that were usually higher than the average rates for existing leases. In periods of increasing sales, rents on new leases will generally tend to rise. In periods of slower growth or declining sales, rents on new leases will generally grow more slowly or will decline for the opposite reason, as tenants' expectations of future growth become less optimistic. Where appropriate, we are occasionally making decisions as we re-tenant space to use some shorter leases in order to maintain occupancy, merchandising, and preserve cash flow when possible; this activity can have a material impact on our releasing spread for an applicable period. See "Risk Factors" for further information.

The following table contains certain information regarding average mall tenant minimum rent per square foot of our Consolidated Businesses and Unconsolidated Joint Ventures at the comparable centers (centers that had been owned and open for the current and preceding year, excluding centers impacted by significant redevelopment activity, as well as The Mall of San Juan due to the impact of Hurricane Maria). Comparable center statistics for 2018 and 2017 exclude Beverly Center, CityOn.Zhengzhou, The Mall of San Juan, and Taubman Prestige Outlets Chesterfield. Average rent per square foot statistics reflect the contractual rental terms of the leases currently in effect and include the impact of rental concessions.

Average rent per square foot:
Consolidated Businesses





Unconsolidated Joint Ventures










See "MD&A – Rental Rates and Occupancy" for information regarding opening and closing rents per square foot for our centers.


Lease Expirations

The following table shows scheduled lease expirations for mall tenants based on information available as of December 31, 2018 for the next ten years for all owned centers in operation at that date.

Tenants 10,000 square feet or less (1)
Total (1)(2)
Number of
Leased Area in
Square Footage
Annualized Base
Rent Under
Expiring Leases
Per Square Foot (3)
Percent of Total Leased Square Footage Represented by Expiring Leases
Number of
Leased Area in
Square Footage
Annualized Base
Rent Under
Expiring Leases
Per Square Foot (3)
Percent of Total Leased Square Footage Represented by Expiring Leases
   2019 (4)
















































Excludes rents from temporary in-line tenants and centers not open and operating at December 31, 2018.
In addition to tenants with spaces 10,000 square feet or less, includes tenants with spaces over 10,000 square feet and value and outlet center anchors. Excludes rents from mall anchors and temporary in-line tenants.
Weighted average of the annualized contractual rent per square foot as of the end of the reporting period.
Excludes leases that expire in 2019 for which renewal leases or leases with replacement tenants have been executed as of December 31, 2018.

We believe that the information in the table is not necessarily indicative of what will occur in the future, principally because of early lease terminations at the centers. The average remaining term of the leases that were terminated during the 2013 to 2018 period was approximately one year. The average term of leases signed was approximately seven years during both 2018 and 2017, excluding temporary in-line tenants (TILs).

In addition, mall tenants at the centers may seek the protection of the bankruptcy laws, which could result in the termination of such tenants' leases and thus cause a reduction in cash flow. In 2018, tenants representing 1.6% of leases filed for bankruptcy during the year compared to 3.1% in 2017. This statistic has ranged from 0.8% to 3.1% of leases per year over the last five years. The annual provision for losses on accounts receivable represents 0.6% of total revenues in 2018 and has ranged from 0.4% to 1.8% over the last five years. However, many bankruptcies do not ultimately impact our occupancy because historically less than half of bankrupt tenants actually close.



Occupancy and leased space statistics include TILs and value and outlet center anchors (Dolphin Mall, Great Lakes Crossing Outlets, and Taubman Prestige Outlets Chesterfield). The following table shows ending occupancy and leased space for the past five years:
All Centers:
Ending occupancy
Leased space





Comparable Centers:
Ending occupancy
Leased space



Major Tenants

No single retail company represents 5% or more of our Mall GLA or revenues. The combined operations of Forever 21 accounted for about 4% of Mall GLA as of December 31, 2018 and less than 3% of 2018 minimum rent. No other single retail company accounted for more than 4% of Mall GLA as of December 31, 2018 or 4% of 2018 minimum rent.

The following table shows the ten mall tenants who occupy the most Mall GLA at our centers and their square footage as of December 31, 2018:
# of
% of
Mall GLA
Forever 21 (Forever 21, XXI Forever)
The Gap (Gap, Gap Kids, Baby Gap, Banana Republic, Old Navy, Athleta, and others)
Limited Brands (Bath & Body Works/White Barn Candle, Pink, Victoria's Secret, and others)
Inditex (Zara, Zara Home, Massimo Dutti, Bershka, and others)
Urban Outfitters (Anthropologie, Free People, Urban Outfitters)
Williams-Sonoma (Williams-Sonoma, Pottery Barn, Pottery Barn Kids, and others)
Ascena Retail Group (Ann Taylor, Ann Taylor Loft, Justice, and others)
Restoration Hardware
Abercrombie & Fitch (Abercrombie & Fitch, Hollister, and others)


There are numerous shopping facilities that compete with our properties in attracting retailers to lease space. We compete with other major real estate investors with significant capital for attractive investment opportunities. We also compete with online retailers as they draw sales away from our tenants or reduce sales attributed to their stores in our centers, which impacts rental rates. See "Risk Factors" for further details of our competitive business.


The shopping center industry in the U.S. is seasonal in nature, with mall tenant sales highest in the fourth quarter due to the Christmas season, and with lesser, though still significant, sales fluctuations associated with the Easter holiday and back-to-school period. See "MD&A – Seasonality" for further discussion.

Environmental Matters

See "Risk Factors" regarding discussion of environmental matters.



The Manager provides real estate management, acquisition, development, leasing, and administrative services required by us and our properties in the United States, and employs all of our U.S. employees, including our executive officers. Taubman Asia Management Limited (TAM) and certain other affiliates provide similar services for third parties in China and South Korea as well as Taubman Asia. The Manager is 99.8% beneficially owned by TRG and 0.2% owned by Taub-Co Holdings LLC (Taub-Co), which is 100% owned by members of the Taubman Family. The Manager receives fees from the shopping centers, TCO, TRG, and their respective affiliates and third parties in exchange for the performance of its services. Since TRG has an approximate 99.8% beneficial interest in the Manager, substantially all of these fees accrue to TRG, with a de minimis portion of the fees accruing to the benefit of Taub-Co through its 0.2% beneficial interest in the Manager. For more information about the Manager, see "Risk Factors - Members of the Taubman Family have the power to vote a significant number of the shares of Capital Stock entitled to vote and have contractual rights."
As of December 31, 2018, the Manager, TAM, and certain other affiliates had 450 full time employees.

Available Information

TCO makes available free of charge through its website at all reports it electronically files with, or furnishes to, the SEC, including its Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as any amendments to those reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after those documents are filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. These filings are also accessible on the SEC’s website at



The following factors and other factors discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K could cause our actual results to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K or presented elsewhere in future Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) reports or statements made by our management from time to time. These factors may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows, and should be carefully considered. We may update these factors in our future periodic reports.

The economic performance and value of our shopping centers are dependent on many factors.

The economic performance and value of our shopping centers are dependent on various factors. Additionally, these same factors will influence our decision on whether to go forward on the development of new shopping centers, acquisitions and dispositions, and may also affect the ultimate economic performance and value of projects under construction and acquired shopping centers. Adverse changes in the economic performance and value of our shopping centers would also adversely affect our income and cash available to pay dividends.

Such factors include:

changes in the global, national, regional, and/or local economic and geopolitical climates. Changes such as a global economic and financial market downturn may cause, among other things, a significant tightening in the credit markets, lower levels of liquidity, increases in the rates of default and bankruptcy, lower consumer and business spending, and lower consumer confidence and net worth;
changes in specific local economies, decreases in tourism, and/or other real estate conditions. These changes may have a more significant impact on our financial performance due to the geographic concentration of some of our shopping centers;
changes in mall tenant sales performance of our shopping centers, which over the long term are the single most important determinant of revenues of the shopping centers because mall tenants (including temporary tenants and specialty retailers), provide approximately 90% of these revenues and because mall tenant sales determine the amount of rent, overage rent, and recoverable expenses that mall tenants can afford to pay. In times of stagnant or depressed sales, mall tenants may become less willing to pay traditional levels of rent;
changes in business strategies of anchors and key tenants. Anchors and key tenants may adopt new or modify existing strategies in order to adapt to new challenges and shifts in the economic environment. Such strategies could include improving the overall in-store customer experience and creating a desired destination, which could impact the type of space anchors and key tenants desire in our shopping centers. Beyond changing the existing experience, other strategies could include consolidation, contraction, renegotiation of business arrangements, or closing;
changes in consumer shopping behavior. Certain merchandise categories are experiencing lower growth in traditional shopping centers and technology has significantly impacted consumer spending habits;
availability and cost of financing. Many forecasts suggest additional federal funds rate increases may occur during 2019, similar to those recently experienced;
the public perception of the safety, convenience, and attractiveness of our shopping centers;
legal liabilities;
changes in government regulations; and
changes in real estate zoning and tax laws.

These factors may ultimately impact the valuation of certain long-lived or intangible assets that are subject to impairment testing, potentially resulting in impairment charges, which may be material to our financial condition or results of operations. See "MD&A - Application of Critical Accounting Policies and New Accounting Pronouncements - Valuation of Shopping Centers" for additional information regarding impairment testing.

In addition, the value and performance of our shopping centers may be adversely affected by certain other factors discussed below including the state of the capital markets, expansion in Asia, unscheduled closings or bankruptcies of our anchors and tenants, competition, uninsured losses, the impact of technology on consumer spending, and environmental liabilities.


We are in a competitive business.

There are numerous shopping facilities that compete with our properties in attracting retailers to lease space. Our ability to attract tenants to our shopping centers and lease space is important to our success, and difficulties in doing so can materially impact our shopping centers' performance. The existence of competing shopping centers could have a material adverse impact on our ability to develop or operate shopping centers, lease space to desirable anchors and tenants, and on the level of rents that can be achieved. In addition, retailers at our properties face continued competition from shopping through various means and channels, including via the internet, lifestyle centers, value and outlet malls, wholesale and discount shopping clubs, and television shopping networks. Competition of this type could adversely affect our revenues and cash available for distribution to shareholders.

As new technologies emerge, the relationship among customers, retailers, and shopping centers are evolving on a rapid basis and we may not be able to adapt to such new technologies and relationships on a timely basis. Our relative size may limit the capital and resources we are willing to allocate to invest in strategic technology to enhance the mall experience, which may make our shopping centers relatively less desirable to anchors, mall tenants, and consumers. Additionally, a small but increasing number of tenants utilize our shopping centers as showrooms or as part of an omni-channel strategy (allowing customers to shop seamlessly through various sales channels). As a result, customers may make purchases through other sales channels during or immediately after visiting our shopping centers, with such sales not being captured currently in our tenant sales figures or monetized in our minimum or overage rents.

We compete with other major real estate investors with significant capital for attractive investment opportunities. These competitors include other REITs, investment banking firms, and private and institutional investors, some of whom have greater financial resources or have different investment criteria than we do. In particular, there is competition to acquire, develop, or redevelop highly productive retail properties. This could become even more severe as competitors gain size and economies of scale as a result of merger and consolidation activity. This competition may impair our ability to acquire, develop, or redevelop suitable properties, and to attract key retailers, on favorable terms in the future.

Our real estate investments are relatively illiquid.

We may be limited in our ability to vary our portfolio in response to changes in economic, market, or other conditions by restrictions on transfer imposed by our partners or lenders. If we were unable to refinance our debt at a shopping center, we may be required to contribute capital to repay debt, fund capital spending, or other cash requirements. In addition, under TRG’s partnership agreement, upon the sale of a center or TRG’s interest in a center, TRG may be required to distribute to its partners all or a portion of the cash proceeds received by TRG from such sale (a special distribution). If TRG made such a distribution, the sale proceeds would not be available to finance TRG’s activities, and the sale of a center may result in a decrease in funds generated by continuing operations and in distributions to TRG’s partners, including us. Further, pursuant to TRG’s partnership agreement, TRG may not dispose or encumber certain of its shopping centers or its interest in such shopping centers, specifically Beverly Center, Cherry Creek Shopping Center, Twelve Oaks Mall, The Mall at Short Hills, or Stamford Town Center, without the consent of a majority-in-interest of its partners other than TCO, which is currently held by members of the Taubman Family.


We may acquire or develop new properties and/or redevelop and expand our existing properties, and these activities are subject to various risks.

We pursue development, redevelopment, expansion, and acquisition activities as opportunities arise, and these activities are subject to the following risks:

the pre-construction phase for a new project often extends over several years, and the time to obtain landowner, anchor, and tenant commitments, zoning and regulatory approvals, and financing can vary significantly from project to project;
we may not be able to obtain the necessary zoning, governmental and other approvals, or anchor or tenant commitments for a project, or we may determine that the expected return on a project is not sufficient; if we abandon our development activities with respect to a particular project, we may incur a loss on our investment;
construction and other project costs may exceed our original estimates because of increases in material and labor costs, delays, nonperformance of services by our contractors, increases in tenant allowances, costs to obtain anchor and tenant commitments, and other reasons;
we may not be able to obtain financing or to refinance construction loans at desired loan-to-value ratios or at all, which are generally recourse to TRG;
we may be obligated to contribute funding for development, redevelopment, or expansion projects in excess of our ownership requirements if our partners are unable or are not required to fund their ownership share;
equity issuances as a source of funds, directly as consideration for acquisitions or indirectly through capital market transactions, may become less financially favorable as affected by our stock price as well as general market conditions;
occupancy rates and rents, as well as occupancy costs and expenses, at a completed project or an acquired property may not meet our projections at opening or stabilization, and the costs of development activities that we explore but ultimately abandon will, to some extent, diminish the overall return on our completed development projects; and
competitive pressures in our targeted markets may negatively impact our ability to meet our leasing objectives.
Certain of our projects represent the retail portion of larger mixed-use projects. As a result, there may be certain additional risks associated with such projects, including:

increased time to obtain necessary permits and approvals;
increased uncertainty regarding shared infrastructure and common area costs; and
impact on sales and performance of the retail center from delays in opening of other uses and or/the performance of such uses, or the inability to open or finance such other uses.

In addition, economic, market, and other conditions may reduce viable development and acquisition opportunities in the U.S. that meet our unlevered return requirements in the short to intermediate horizon. As a result, we anticipate focusing on strategic repurposing of shopping centers (including potential repurposing of certain anchor stores).

Clauses in leases with certain tenants of our development or redevelopment properties include inducements, such as reduced rent and tenant allowance payments, that can reduce our rents, Funds from Operations (FFO), and/or returns achieved. The leases for a number of the tenants that have opened stores at properties we have developed or redeveloped have reduced rent from co-tenancy clauses that allow those tenants to pay reduced rent until occupancy at the respective property reaches certain thresholds and/or certain named co-tenants open stores at the respective property. Additionally, some tenants may have rent abatement clauses that delay rent commencement for a prolonged period of time after initial occupancy. The effect of these clauses reduces our rents and FFO while they are applicable. We expect to continue to offer co-tenancy and rent abatement clauses in the future to attract tenants to our development and redevelopment properties. As a result, our current and future development and redevelopment properties are more likely to achieve lower returns during their stabilization periods than other projects of this nature historically have, which may adversely impact our investment in such developments, as well as our financial condition and results of operations.


Dispositions may not achieve anticipated results.

We actively maintain a strategy of recycling capital to achieve growth over time. At times this strategy may include strategically disposing of assets, or partial interests in assets, to improve the overall performance of our core mall portfolio, measured by: achieving improved portfolio metrics, demographics, and operating statistics, such as higher sales productivity and occupancy rates; accelerating future growth targets in our operating results and FFO; strengthening of our balance sheet; and creating increased net asset value for our shareholders over time. However, we may not achieve some or all of the targeted results we originally anticipated at the time of disposition. If we are not successful at achieving the anticipated results from any disposition, there is potential for a significant adverse impact on our returns and our overall profitability. We may not be able to achieve certain desired cap rates related to dispositions of assets, or partial interests in assets, due to general economic reasons or, in cases of lower productivity malls, the perception of over-capacity of such malls in the U.S.

We hold investments in joint ventures in which we do not control all decisions, and we may have conflicts of interest with our joint venture partners.

Some of our shopping centers and shopping center projects are partially owned by non-affiliated partners through joint venture arrangements. As a result, we do not control all decisions regarding those shopping centers and may be required to take actions that are in the interest of the joint venture partners but not our best interests. Accordingly, we may not be able to favorably resolve any issues that arise with respect to such decisions, or we may have to provide financial or other inducements to our joint venture partners to obtain such resolution.

For our unconsolidated joint ventures, we do not necessarily control decisions as to the design or operation of internal controls over accounting and financial reporting, including those relating to maintenance of accounting records, authorization of receipts and disbursements, selection and application of accounting policies, reviews of period-end financial reporting, and safeguarding of assets. Therefore, we are exposed to increased risk that such controls may not be designed or operating effectively, which could ultimately affect the accuracy of financial information related to these joint ventures as prepared by our joint venture partners.

Various restrictive provisions and rights govern sales or transfers of interests in our joint ventures. These may work to our disadvantage because, among other things, we may be required to make decisions as to the purchase or sale of interests in our joint ventures at a time that is disadvantageous to us.

In our joint ventures, we may partner with entities with whom we do not have a historical business relationship and therefore there is additional risk in working through operational, financial, and other issues.

Investors are cautioned that deriving our beneficial interest in a joint venture as our ownership interest in individual financial statement items of that joint venture may not accurately depict the legal and economic implications of holding a noncontrolling interest in it.


Our business activities and pursuit of new opportunities in Asia may pose unique risks.

We have offices in Hong Kong, Seoul, Beijing, and Shanghai and we are pursuing and evaluating investment opportunities in various locations across Asia. We have invested in four joint ventures to develop and operate shopping centers in Asia and may invest in other shopping centers in the future. In addition, we provide management and advisory services for third parties. In addition to the general risks described in this report, our international activities are subject to unique risks, including:
adverse effects of changes in exchange rates for foreign currencies and the risks of hedging related thereto;
changes in and/or difficulties in operating in foreign political environments;
difficulties in attracting new capital partners at existing projects due to risks specific to foreign investment;
difficulties in operating with foreign vendors and joint venture and business partners;
difficulties of complying with a wide variety of foreign laws including laws affecting funding and use of cash, corporate governance, property ownership restrictions, development activities, operations, anti-corruption, taxes, and litigation;
changes in and/or requirements of complying with applicable laws and regulations in the U.S. that affect foreign operations, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA);
difficulties in managing international operations, including difficulties that arise from ambiguities in contracts written in foreign languages and difficulties that arise in enforcing such contracts;
differing lending practices, including lower loan-to-value ratios and increased difficulty in obtaining construction loans or timing thereof;
differing employment and labor issues;
economic downturn in foreign countries or geographic regions where we have significant operations, such as in China and South Korea;
economic tensions between governments and changes in international trade and investment policies, especially between the U.S. and China;
obstacles to the repatriation of earnings and cash;
obstacles to various government approval processes and other hurdles in funding our Chinese projects;
lower initial investment returns than those generally experienced in the U.S.;
obstacles to hiring and maintaining appropriately trained staff;
differences in consumer retail behavior, including increased interest in retail brands in which we have no or limited prior relationships with in the U.S. and changes in seasonal consumer spending due to timing of certain national holidays;
differences in cultures including adapting practices and strategies that have been successful in the U.S. mall business to retail needs and expectations in new markets; and
labor discord, war, terrorism (including incidents targeting us), political instability and natural disasters.
In addition, any significant or prolonged deterioration in U.S.-China relations could adversely affect our China business. Certain risks and uncertainties of doing business in China are solely within the control of the Chinese government, and Chinese law regulates the scope of our foreign investments and business conducted within China.

In regards to foreign currency, our projects in China and South Korea require investments and have, and may in the future require debt financing denominated in foreign currencies, with the possibility that such investments will be greater than anticipated depending on changes in exchange rates. These projects could also generate returns on or of capital in foreign currencies that could ultimately be less than anticipated as a result of exchange rates. As part of investing in these projects, we are implementing appropriate risk management policies and practices, including the consideration of hedging of foreign currency risks. However, developing an effective foreign currency risk strategy is complex and may be costly, and no strategy can completely insulate us from risk associated with foreign currency fluctuations. Further, we cannot provide assurance that such policies and practices will be successful and/or that the applicable accounting for foreign currency hedges will be favorable to any particular period's results of operations.


As we expand our international activities and levels of investment, these risks could increase in significance and adversely affect our financial returns on international projects and services and overall financial condition. We have put in place policies, practices, and systems for mitigating some of these international risks, although we cannot provide assurance that we will be entirely successful in doing so.

We could be subject to liability, penalties and other sanctions and other adverse consequences arising out of non-compliance with the FCPA or foreign anti-corruption laws.

We are subject to the FCPA, which generally prohibits U.S. companies from engaging in bribery or other prohibited payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business, and which requires proper record keeping and characterization of payments we make in our reports filed with the SEC. Although we have policies and procedures designed to promote compliance with the FCPA and other anti-corruption laws, we cannot provide assurance that we will continue to be found to be operating in compliance with, or be able to detect violations of, any such laws or regulations. We cannot provide assurance that these policies and procedures will protect us from intentional, reckless or negligent acts committed by our employees, agents, partners, or others acting on our behalf. If our employees, agents, partners, or others acting on our behalf are found to have engaged in such practices, severe penalties and other consequences could be imposed. Those penalties and consequences that may be imposed against us or individuals in appropriate circumstances include, but are not limited to, injunctive relief, disgorgement, significant fines and penalties, and modifications to business practices and compliance programs. In addition, we cannot predict the nature, scope, or effect of future regulatory requirements or investigations to which our international operations might be subject, the manner in which existing laws might be administered or interpreted, or the potential that we may face regulatory sanctions. Any of these violations or remedial measures, if applicable to us, could have a material adverse impact on our business, reputation, results of operations, cash flow, financial condition, liquidity, ability to make distributions to our shareholders, or the value of our investments.

Foreign companies, including some that may compete with us, may not be subject to the FCPA or other anti-corruption laws. Accordingly, such companies may be more likely to engage in activities prohibited by the FCPA or other anti-corruption laws, which could have a significant adverse impact on our returns or our ability to compete for business in such countries.
The bankruptcy, early termination, sales performance, or closing of our tenants and anchors could adversely affect us.

We could be adversely affected by the bankruptcy, early termination, sales performance, or closing of tenants and anchors. Certain of our lease agreements include co-tenancy and/or sales-based kick-out provisions which allow a tenant to pay a reduced rent amount and, in certain instances, terminate the lease, if we fail to maintain certain occupancy levels or retain specified named anchors, or if the tenant does not achieve certain specified sales targets. If occupancy or tenant sales do not meet or fall below certain thresholds, rents we are entitled to receive from our retail tenants could be reduced. The bankruptcy of a mall tenant could result in the termination of its lease, which would lower the amount of cash generated by that shopping mall. Replacing mall tenants with better performing, emerging retailers may take longer than our historical experience of re-tenanting due to their lack of infrastructure and limited experience in opening stores as well as the significant competition for such emerging brands, which may require us to pay significant tenant allowances or offer reduced rents as an inducement. In addition, if a department store operating as an anchor at one of our shopping centers were to cease operating, we may experience difficulty and delay and incur significant expense in replacing the anchor, re-tenanting, or otherwise re-merchandising the use of the anchor space. In addition, the anchor’s closing may lead to reduced customer traffic and lower mall tenant sales. As a result, we may also experience difficulty or delay in leasing spaces in areas adjacent to the vacant anchor space. The early termination or closing of mall tenants or anchors for reasons other than bankruptcy could have a similar impact on the operations of our shopping centers, although in the case of early terminations we may benefit in the short-term from lease cancellation income (See "MD&A – Rental Rates and Occupancy").

Most recently, certain traditional department stores have experienced challenges including, limited opportunities for new investment/openings, declining sales, and store closures. Department stores' market share is declining, and their ability to drive traffic has substantially decreased. Despite our shopping centers traditionally being driven by department store anchors, in the event of a need for replacement, it may be necessary to consider non-department store anchors. Certain of these non-department store anchors may demand higher allowances than a standard mall tenant due to the nature of the services/products they provide (for example, restaurants, entertainment, or luxury).


Capital markets may limit our sources of funds for financing activities.

Our ability to access the capital markets may be restricted at a time when we would like, or need, to access those markets. This could have an impact on our flexibility to react to changing economic and business conditions. A lack of available credit, lack of confidence in the financial sector, increased volatility in the financial markets and reduced business activity could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and our ability to obtain and manage our liquidity. In addition, the cost of debt financing and the proceeds may be materially adversely impacted by such market conditions. Also, our ability to access equity markets as a source of funds may be affected by our stock price as well as general market conditions.

We are obligated to comply with financial and other covenants that could affect our operating activities.

Certain loan agreements contain various restrictive covenants, including the following corporate covenants on our primary unsecured revolving line of credit, as well as the $300 million and $250 million unsecured term loans and the loan on International Market Place: a minimum net worth requirement, a maximum total leverage ratio, a maximum secured leverage ratio, a minimum fixed charge coverage ratio, a maximum recourse secured debt ratio, and a maximum payout ratio. In addition, our primary unsecured revolving line of credit and unsecured term loans have unencumbered pool covenants, which currently apply to Beverly Center, Dolphin Mall, and The Gardens on El Paseo on a combined basis. These covenants include a minimum number and minimum value of eligible unencumbered assets, a maximum unencumbered leverage ratio, a minimum unencumbered interest coverage ratio, and a minimum unencumbered asset occupancy ratio. As of December 31, 2018, the corporate total leverage ratio was the most restrictive covenant. These covenants may restrict our ability to pursue certain business initiatives or certain transactions that might otherwise be advantageous. In addition, these covenants may limit our ability to borrow up to the $1.1 billion facility on our primary unsecured revolving line of credit. Failure to meet certain of these financial covenants could cause an event of default under and/or accelerate some or all of such indebtedness which could have a material effect on us.

TRG guarantees debt or otherwise provides support for a number of joint venture properties.

Joint venture debt is the liability of the joint venture and the joint venture property is typically encumbered by a mortgage or construction financing. A default by a joint venture under its debt obligations may expose us to liability under a guaranty (see "Note 8 - Notes Payable, Net - Debt Covenants and Guarantees" to our consolidated financial statements for more details on loan guarantees). We may elect to fund cash needs of a joint venture through equity contributions (generally on a basis proportionate to our ownership interests), advances, or partner loans, although these means of funding are not typically required contractually or otherwise.

Our hedging interest rate protection arrangements may not effectively limit our interest rate risk exposure.

We manage our exposure to interest rate risk through a combination of interest rate protection agreements to effectively fix or cap a portion of our variable rate debt. Our use of interest rate hedging arrangements to manage risk associated with interest rate volatility may expose us to additional risks, including that a counterparty to a hedging arrangement may fail to honor its obligations. We enter into swaps that are exempt from the requirements of central clearing and/or trading on a designated contract market or swap execution facility pursuant to the applicable regulations and rules, and thus there may be more counterparty risk relative to others who do not utilize such exemption. Developing an effective interest rate risk strategy is complex and no strategy can completely insulate us from risks associated with interest rate fluctuations. There can be no assurance that our hedging activities will have the desired beneficial impact on our results of operations or financial condition. We might be subject to additional costs, such as transaction fees or breakage costs, if we terminate these arrangements.

We may be adversely affected by changes in LIBOR reporting practices or the method in which LIBOR is determined.

In July 2017, the Financial Conduct Authority, the authority that regulates LIBOR, announced it intends to stop compelling banks to submit rates for the calculation of LIBOR after 2021. The Alternative Reference Rates Committee (ARRC) has proposed that the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) is the rate that represents best practice as the alternative to USD-LIBOR for use in derivatives and other financial contracts that are currently indexed to USD-LIBOR. ARRC has proposed a paced market transition plan to SOFR from USD-LIBOR and organizations are currently working on industry wide and company specific transition plans as it relates to derivatives and cash markets exposed to USD-LIBOR. There is no guarantee that a transition from LIBOR to an alternative will not result in financial market disruptions, significant increases in benchmark rates, or financing costs to borrowers. We have material contracts that are indexed to USD-LIBOR and is monitoring this activity and evaluating the related risks.


Our investments are subject to credit and market risk.

We occasionally extend credit to third parties in connection with the sale of land or other transactions. We also have occasionally made investments in marketable and other equity securities. We are exposed to risk in the event the values of our investments and/or our loans decrease due to overall market conditions, business failure, and/or other nonperformance by the investees or counterparties.

Inflation may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Inflationary price increases could have an adverse effect on consumer spending, which could impact our tenants' sales and, in turn, our tenants' business operations. This could affect the amount of rent these tenants pay, in particular if their leases provide for overage rent or percentage of sales rent, and their ability to pay rent. Also, inflation could cause increases in operating expenses, which could increase occupancy costs for tenants and, to the extent that we are unable to recover operating expenses from tenants, could increase operating expenses for us. In addition, if the rate of inflation exceeds the scheduled rent increases included in our leases, then our profitability and our Net Operating Income would decrease. As of December 31, 2018, approximately 58% of our gross leasable and occupied area included clauses in leases for rent increases based on changes in the Consumer Price Index, although we are attempting to reduce our exposure to such variable rentals as leases are negotiated or renewed.

The occurrence of cyber incidents, a deficiency in our cyber security, or a data breach could negatively impact our business by causing a disruption to our operations, a compromise or corruption of our confidential information, and/or damage to our business relationships, all of which could negatively impact our financial results.

A cyber incident is considered to be any adverse event that threatens the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of our information resources. More specifically, a cyber incident is an intentional attack or an unintentional event that can include gaining unauthorized access to systems to disrupt operations, corrupting data, or stealing confidential information. We rely upon information technology networks and systems, some of which are managed by third-parties, to process, transmit, and store electronic information, and to manage or support a variety of business processes and activities. As our reliance on technology has increased, so have the risks posed to our systems, both internal and those we have outsourced. Primary risks that could directly result from the occurrence of a cyber incident include, but are not limited to, operational interruption, damage to our tenant relationships, private data exposure (including personally identifiable information, or proprietary and confidential information, of ours and our employees, as well as third parties), and potentially significant response costs. Any such incidents could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability or regulatory penalties under laws protecting the privacy of personal information, and reduce the benefits of our advanced technologies. We carry cyber liability insurance; however a loss could exceed the limits of the policy. We have implemented processes, procedures and controls to help mitigate these risks, but these measures, our increased awareness of a risk of a cyber incident, and our insurance coverage, do not guarantee that our financial results will not be negatively impacted by such an incident.

Some of our potential losses may not be covered by insurance.

We carry liability, fire, flood, earthquake, extended coverage, and rental loss insurance on each of our properties. We believe the policy specifications and insured limits of these policies are adequate and appropriate. There are, however, some types of losses, including information technology system failures, punitive damages (in certain states), and lease and other contract claims, which generally are not insured. If an uninsured liability claim or a liability claim in excess of insured limits is made, we may have to make a payment to satisfy such claim. In addition, if an uninsured property loss or a property loss in excess of insured limits occurs, we could lose all or a portion of the capital we have invested in a property, as well as the anticipated future revenue from the property. If this happens, we might nevertheless remain obligated for any mortgage debt or other financial obligations related to the property.

In November 2002, Congress passed the "Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002" (TRIA), which required insurance companies to offer terrorism coverage to all existing insured companies for an additional cost. As a result, our property insurance policies are currently provided without a sub-limit for terrorism, eliminating the need for separate terrorism insurance policies.

In January 2015, Congress passed the "Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Authorization Act of 2015", which extended the termination date of the Terrorism Insurance Program established under the TRIA through December 31, 2020. There are specific provisions in our loans that address terrorism insurance. Simply stated, in most loans, we are obligated to maintain terrorism insurance, but there are limits on the amounts we are required to spend to obtain such coverage. If a terrorist event occurs, the cost of terrorism insurance coverage would be likely to increase, which could result in having less coverage than we have currently. Our inability to obtain such coverage, or to do so only at greatly increased costs, may also negatively impact the availability and cost of future financings.


Some of our properties are at a higher risk for potential natural or other disasters.

A number of our properties are located in areas with a higher risk of natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, or tsunamis. The occurrence of natural disasters can adversely impact operations, redevelopment, or development at our shopping centers and projects, increase investment costs to repair or replace damaged properties, increase future property insurance costs, and negatively impact the tenant demand for lease space. In addition, many of our properties are located in coastal regions, and would therefore be affected by any future increases in sea levels. If insurance is unavailable to us or is unavailable on acceptable terms, or our insurance is not adequate to cover losses from these events, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

During September 2017, Puerto Rico was struck by Hurricane Maria, which significantly impacted local infrastructure, residents, and the prospects for tourism. The Mall of San Juan experienced damage and interruption of operations. We are subject to all of the aforementioned risks of natural disasters in relation to The Mall of San Juan and the impact of Hurricane Maria.

While we anticipate that a portion of the adverse impact to the future operations of the shopping center may be mitigated through business interruption insurance, it may not offset the full extent of revenue losses and insurance recoveries may not be received on a timely basis. In addition, certain losses may not be fully covered by insurance. The timing for the recovery of business in Puerto Rico will depend on successful rebuilding and recovery efforts and in turn the availability of workers and materials, which may be scarce for periods of time. The local economy is highly dependent on tourism and declines could continue to adversely impact the center for an extended period of time. Although overall foot traffic and tenant sales at the shopping center have improved recently, the profitability of tenant operations continue to be affected. Future occupancy and profitability of the shopping center may be impacted by (1) tenants or anchors who, despite contractual requirements, are unable or refuse to reopen, (2) the ability of tenants or anchors to pay current rent obligations in light of the decrease in sales and mall foot traffic, and (3) tenant or anchor rent, operating, and other lease obligations that are dependent on maintaining specified occupancy levels at the mall. If a major tenant or anchor does not reopen, it may adversely impact our ability to re-lease space in the future to desirable tenants or at profitable rates and maintain the overall mall merchandising plan.

We may be subject to liabilities for environmental matters.

We are subject to a variety of local, state, and federal laws concerning the protection of public health and the environment. Such environmental laws may vary according to the location and environmental condition of the site and the present and former uses of the site. Before acquiring a site, we generally engage independent environmental consultants to evaluate land for the potential presence of adverse environmental conditions, and all of the shopping centers that we presently own (not including option interests in certain pre-development projects) have been subject to such environmental assessments. We are not aware of any environmental liability relating to these shopping centers or to any other property that we have owned or operated that would have a reasonable likelihood of resulting in a material adverse effect on our business, assets, or results of operations. No assurances can be given, however, that (1) all environmental liabilities have been identified, (2) no prior owner or operator of our properties, or any occupant of our properties has not created an environmental condition not known to us, (3) future laws, ordinances, or regulations will not impose any material environmental liability, or (4) the current environmental condition of our shopping centers will not be affected by tenants or other occupants of the shopping centers, by the environmental condition of properties in the vicinity of the shopping centers (such as the presence of underground storage tanks), or by third parties unrelated to us. Environmental liability may be imposed without regard to fault, and under certain circumstances, can be joint and several, resulting in one party being held responsible for the entire obligation. In addition, the presence of, or failure to remediate, adverse environmental conditions may adversely affect our ability to sell, rent, or collateralize any property.

The bankruptcy or financial difficulties of our joint venture partners could adversely affect us.

The profitability of shopping centers held in a joint venture could be adversely affected by the bankruptcy of one of the joint venture partners if, because of certain provisions of the bankruptcy laws, we were unable to make important decisions in a timely fashion or became subject to additional liabilities. In addition, if our joint venture partners are not able to fund required contributions, it may be necessary for us to contribute equity in excess of our ownership share to fund initial development, capital, and/or operating costs.


We may not be able to maintain our status as a REIT.

We may not be able to maintain our status as a REIT for federal income tax purposes with the result that the income distributed to shareholders would not be deductible in computing taxable income and instead would be subject to tax at regular corporate rates. Any such corporate tax liability would be significant and would reduce the amount of cash available for distribution to our shareholders which, in turn, could have a material adverse impact on the value of, or trading price for, our shares. Although we believe we are organized and operate in a manner to maintain our REIT qualification, many of the REIT requirements of the Internal Revenue Code are complex and have limited judicial or administrative interpretations. Changes in tax laws or regulations or new administrative interpretations and court decisions may also affect our ability to maintain REIT status in the future. If we do not maintain our REIT status in any year, we may be unable to elect to be treated as a REIT for the next four taxable years.

Although we currently intend to maintain our status as a REIT, future economic, market, legal, tax, or other considerations may cause us to determine that it would be in our and our shareholders’ best interests to revoke our REIT election. If we revoke our REIT election, we will not be able to elect REIT status for the next four taxable years.

We may be subject to taxes even if we qualify as a REIT.

Even if we qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, we will be required to pay certain federal, state, local, and foreign taxes on our income and property. For example, we will be subject to federal income tax to the extent we distribute less than 100% of our REIT taxable income, including capital gains. Moreover, if we have net income from "prohibited transactions," that income will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, prohibited transactions are sales or other dispositions of property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. The determination as to whether a particular sale is a prohibited transaction depends on the facts and circumstances related to that sale. We cannot guarantee that sales of our properties would not be prohibited transactions unless we comply with certain statutory safe-harbor provisions. The need to avoid prohibited transactions could cause us to forego or defer sales of assets that non-REITs otherwise would have sold or that might otherwise be in our best interest to sell.

In addition, any net taxable income earned directly by our taxable REIT subsidiaries will be subject to federal, state, and local corporate income tax, and to the extent there are foreign operations certain foreign taxes. Several provisions of the laws applicable to REITs and their subsidiaries ensure that a taxable REIT subsidiary will be subject to an appropriate level of federal income taxation. To that end, we will be subject to a 100% penalty tax on the amount of any rents, deductions, service income or excess interest if the economic arrangements among us, our tenants, and our taxable REIT subsidiaries are not comparable to similar arrangements among unrelated parties.

Also, some state, local, and foreign jurisdictions may tax some of our income even though as a REIT we are not subject to federal income tax on that income, because not all states, localities, and foreign jurisdictions follow the federal income tax treatment of REITs. Finally, there may be changes in the federal tax law and laws of states, localities, and foreign jurisdictions that may increase the taxes we pay. To the extent that we and our affiliates are required to pay federal, state, local, and/or foreign taxes, we will have less cash available for distributions to our shareholders.

The lower tax rate on certain dividends from non-REIT 'C' corporations may cause investors to prefer to hold stock in non-REIT 'C' corporations.

The maximum tax rate (including the net investment income tax of 3.8%) on certain corporate dividends received by individuals is 23.8%, which is less than the maximum income tax rate enacted by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the 2017 Act) of 37% applicable to ordinary income. This rate differential continues to substantially reduce the so-called "double taxation" (that is, taxation at both the corporate and shareholder levels) that applies to non-REIT 'C' corporations but does not generally apply to REITs. Dividends from a REIT do not qualify for the favorable tax rate applicable to dividends from non-REIT 'C' corporations unless the dividends are attributable to income that has already been subjected to the corporate income tax, such as income from a prior year that the REIT did not distribute and dividend income received by the REIT from a taxable REIT subsidiary or other fully taxable 'C' corporation. Under the 2017 Act, however, provided that the shareholder meets certain holding period requirements, ordinary dividends from a REIT are eligible for the 20% deduction as “qualified business income” and thus taxed at a maximum rate of 29.6% plus the 3.8% tax on net investment income. The 20% deduction and the maximum individual rate of 37%, unless extended, are scheduled to expire after 2025. Although REITs, unlike non-REIT 'C' corporations, have the ability to designate certain dividends as capital gain dividends subject to the favorable rates applicable to capital gain, the application of reduced dividend rates to non-REIT 'C' corporation dividends may still cause individual investors to view stock in non-REIT 'C' corporations as more attractive than shares in REITs, which may negatively affect the value of our shares. Future changes to tax laws could potentially adversely affect the taxation of the REIT, its subsidiaries, or its shareholders, possibly having a negative effect on the value of our shares.


Net interest limitation in the 2017 Act may adversely impact us.

The 2017 Act imposed a limit on net interest expense deductions that exceed 30% of adjusted taxable income, which is generally taxable income excluding net interest expense and for taxable years beginning before January 1, 2022, deductions for depreciation and amortization. If our net interest expense is so limited, as a REIT, we may elect out of the new limitation provided we adopt longer recovery periods for depreciation of our property. If the interest expense limitation applies and we do not elect longer depreciation periods, then the limitation on our interest expense deduction will increase our taxable income and require us to make greater distributions to our shareholders to avoid our paying federal income tax and to ensure we meet the distribution requirements for qualification as a REIT. Alternatively, if we do elect out of the limitation in a taxable year, the reduced deprecation would likewise increase our taxable income and require us to make greater distributions to our shareholders to avoid our paying federal income tax and to ensure compliance with the distribution requirements.

Members of the Taubman Family have the power to vote a significant number of the shares of Capital Stock entitled to vote and have contractual rights.
Based on information contained in filings made with the SEC, as of December 31, 2018, members of the Taubman Family have the power to vote approximately 30% of the outstanding voting shares of TCO (consisting of our common stock and our Series B Preferred Shares). The Taubman Family members’ ownership of Series B Preferred Shares (representing an approximate 28% voting interest in TCO) corresponds with the Taubman Family members’ economic ownership in TRG. Our shares of common stock and our Series B Preferred Shares vote together as a single class on all matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders.
Based on their current ownership of the Series B Preferred Shares, the holders of the Series B Preferred Shares (97% of which are held by members of the Taubman Family) have the right to nominate up to four individuals for election to our Board of Directors and certain other class voting rights. Like all director nominees, the Series B nominees are voted on by shareholders at TCO’s annual meeting. For so long as the holders of our Series B Preferred Shares are entitled to nominate individuals for election to the Board of Directors, the Board of Directors is required to consist of nine directors (other than as a result of any vacancy caused by death, resignation or removal of a director), and a majority of our directors must be independent. Of our current nine directors, only one, Mr. Robert S. Taubman, was initially nominated by the holders of the Series B Preferred Shares. He was subsequently nominated, and recommended for election, by our Board of Directors. None of our eight other directors was nominated by the holders of the Series B Preferred Shares.

As a result of their ownership of our voting stock (common shares and Series B Preferred Shares), members of the Taubman Family may exercise significant influence with respect to the election of our Board of Directors and the outcome of matters submitted to our shareholders for approval. Our governing documents provide that any matter submitted to our shareholders for approval, including any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets, requires the affirmative vote of holders owning not less than two-thirds of the outstanding shares of Capital Stock (which term refers to the common stock, preferred stock, and Excess Stock, as defined below) entitled to vote on such matter (except the election of directors, which is subject to a plurality vote coupled with a majority vote resignation policy, and the adjournment of meetings).
TRG’s partnership agreement provides that, for so long as members of the Taubman Family own 5% or more of TRG units, without the prior written consent of a majority-in-interest of the Other Partners (currently held by members of the Taubman Family), TRG may not, among other things, enter into certain business combination transactions, issue additional TRG units (other than to TCO in certain circumstances) to a person or entity that, together with such person’s or entity’s affiliates, would own more than 5% of TRG units, dispose or encumber all or substantially all of TRG's assets, or dispose or encumber specified shopping centers (specifically Beverly Center, Cherry Creek, Twelve Oaks, Short Hills or Stamford Town Center, which were contributed to TRG in 1985). The partnership agreement had specified two additional shopping centers for which the Other Partners’ consent was required for a disposition. TCO elected to sell these two shopping centers in 2014, and the Other Partners provided their consent to such disposition.


The Manager is 99.8% beneficially owned by TRG and 0.2% beneficially owned by Taub-Co, which is 100% owned by members of the Taubman Family. The Manager provides certain administrative, management, accounting, shareholder relations and other services relative to the operations and administration of TCO pursuant to a corporate services agreement between TCO and the Manager (Corporate Services Agreement) and certain management, leasing, development, acquisition and administrative services pursuant to a management services agreement between TRG and the Manager (Master Services Agreement). At the time of TCO's initial public offering in 1992, TCO and TRG entered into the Corporate Services Agreement and the Master Services Agreement, respectively, and an entity controlled by members of the Taubman Family served as sole general partner of the Manager. In 2001, the Manager converted to a Delaware limited liability company and Taub-Co became sole managing member of the Manager, preserving the management rights of the Taubman Family members in the Manager. In 2006, although Taub-Co was sole managing member of the Manager, Taub-Co granted TRG the right to unilaterally act on behalf of Taub-Co as the managing member of the Manager, with Taub-Co having the right to revoke this authority at any time. In 2010, to formalize TRG's management rights in the Manager, TRG became a co-managing member of the Manager with the authority to act unilaterally on behalf of the Manager and was designated as the sole tax matters member, which co-management organizational structure of the Manager remains in place today. Under the Manager’s operating agreement, although TRG has been acting on behalf of the Manager as the managing member and Taub-Co has not exercised its rights as co-managing member, Taub-Co may revoke the authority of TRG to act unilaterally on behalf of the Manager, in which event the Manager’s actions would require approval by both co-managing members.

TCO has the unilateral right to terminate the Corporate Services Agreement and, in addition, TCO, as the sole managing general partner of TRG, has the unilateral right to terminate the Master Services Agreement. If the Master Services Agreement is terminated, TRG may terminate the property service agreements between the Manager and our subsidiaries pursuant to which the Manager provides services to our shopping centers, provided that the termination of certain property service agreements may require the consent of our joint venture partners or other third parties. In addition, if the Management Services Agreement is terminated, Taub-Co has the right to purchase all of the membership interests in the Manager that it does not already own for a purchase price based on the net book value of the Manager. TCO may terminate either the Corporate Services Agreement or the Master Services Agreement without terminating the other.

As a result of these voting and contractual rights, it would be difficult, as a practical matter, for there to be a change in control of TCO without the affirmative vote of members of the Taubman Family.
Partnership tax audit rules could have a material adverse effect on us.

The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 changed the rules applicable to U.S. federal income tax audits of partnerships. Under the rules, effective for taxable years beginning in 2018, among other changes and subject to certain exceptions, any audit adjustment to items of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit of a partnership (and a partner’s allocable share thereof) is determined, and taxes, interest, and penalties attributable thereto are assessed and collected, at the partnership level. Unless the partnership makes an election permitted under the new law or takes certain steps to require the partners to pay their tax on their allocable shares of the adjustment, it is possible that partnerships in which we directly or indirectly invest would be required to pay additional taxes, interest, and penalties as a result of an audit adjustment. We, as a direct or indirect partner of these partnerships, could be required to bear the economic burden of those taxes, interest, and penalties even though TCO, as a REIT, may not otherwise have been required to pay additional corporate‑level taxes had we owned the assets of the partnership directly. The partnership tax audit rules apply to TRG and its subsidiaries that are classified as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The changes created by these rules are significant for collecting tax in partnership audits and, accordingly, there can be no assurance that these rules will not have a material adverse effect on us.

Our Ownership Limit and other provisions of our Articles and Amended and Restated Bylaws generally prohibit the acquisition of more than 8.23% of the value of our Capital Stock and may hinder any attempt to acquire us.

Various provisions of our Articles and Amended and Restated Bylaws could have the effect of discouraging a third party from accumulating a large block of our stock and making offers to acquire us and of inhibiting a change in control, all of which could adversely affect our shareholders’ ability to receive a premium for their shares in connection with such a transaction. In addition to customary anti-takeover provisions, as detailed below, our Articles contain REIT-specific restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our capital stock, which also serve similar anti-takeover purposes.


Under our Articles, in general, no shareholder may own more than 8.23% (the Ownership Limit) in value of our Capital Stock. Our Board of Directors has the authority to allow a "look through entity" to own up to 9.9% in value of the Capital Stock (Look Through Entity Limit), provided that, after application of certain constructive ownership rules under the Code and rules regarding beneficial ownership under the Michigan Business Corporation Act, no individual would constructively or beneficially own more than the Ownership Limit. A look through entity is any entity other than a qualified trust under Section 401(a) of the Code, certain other tax-exempt entities described in the Articles, or an entity that actually or constructively owns 10% or more of the equity of any tenant from which we or TRG directly or indirectly receives or accrues rent from real property.
The Articles provide that if the transfer of any shares of Capital Stock or a change in our capital structure would cause any person (Purported Transferee) to own Capital Stock in excess of the Ownership Limit or the Look Through Entity Limit, then the transfer is invalid from the outset, and the shares in excess of the applicable ownership limit automatically acquire the status of Excess Stock. A Purported Transferee of Excess Stock acquires no rights to shares of Excess Stock. Rather, all rights associated with the ownership of those shares (with the exception of the right to be reimbursed for the original purchase price of those shares) immediately vest in one or more charitable organizations designated from time to time by our Board of Directors (each, a Designated Charity). An agent designated from time to time by the Board of Directors (each, a Designated Agent) will act as attorney-in-fact for the Designated Charity to vote the shares of Excess Stock. The Designated Agent will sell the Excess Stock, and any increase in value of the Excess Stock between the date it became Excess Stock and the date of sale will inure to the benefit of the Designated Charity.
These ownership limitations will not be automatically removed even if the REIT requirements are changed so as to no longer contain any ownership limitation or if an ownership limitation is increased because, in addition to preserving our status as a REIT, the effect of the ownership limitations is to prevent any person from acquiring control of us. Changes in the ownership limitations cannot be made solely by our Board of Directors and would require an amendment to our Articles. Amendments to our Articles require the approval of our Board of Directors and the affirmative vote of shareholders owning not less than two-thirds of the outstanding shares of Capital Stock entitled to vote.
Members of the Taubman Family, collectively, own approximately 30% of our Capital Stock as of December 31, 2018. The combined Taubman Family members' ownership of our Capital Stock includes 24,128,305 shares of the 24,862,994 shares of Series B Preferred Shares outstanding or 97% of the total outstanding and 1,748,477 shares of the 61,069,108 shares of common stock outstanding or 2.86% of the total outstanding as of December 31, 2018. The Series B Preferred Shares are convertible into shares of common stock at a ratio of 14,000 Series B Preferred Shares to one share of common stock, and therefore one Series B Preferred Share has a value of 1/14,000ths of the value of one share of common stock. Accordingly, the foregoing ownership of Capital Stock by members of the Taubman Family does not violate the Ownership Limit set forth in our Articles.
Our success depends, in part, on our ability to attract and retain talented employees, and the loss of any one of our key personnel could adversely impact our business.

The success of our business depends, in part, on the leadership and performance of our executive management team and key employees, and our ability to attract, retain, and motivate talented employees could significantly impact our future performance. Competition for these individuals is intense, and we cannot assure you that we will retain our executive management team and key employees or that we will be able to attract and retain other highly qualified individuals for these positions in the future. Losing any one or more of these persons could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.

Our cost savings and restructuring initiatives may be disruptive to our workforce and operations and adversely affect our financial results.

In response to the completion of another major development cycle and the current near-term challenges facing the U.S. mall industry, we have been undergoing a restructuring to reduce our workforce and reorganize various areas of the organization. To the extent such initiatives involve workforce changes, such changes may temporarily reduce workforce productivity, impact employee morale, and affect our ability to attract and retain talented employees, which could be disruptive to our business and adversely affect our results of operations. In addition, we may not achieve or sustain the expected cost savings or other benefits of our restructuring plans, or do so within the expected time frame.


The market price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly.

The market price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly in response to many factors, including:

general market and economic conditions;
actual or anticipated variations in our operating results, FFO, cash flows, liquidity or distributions (including special distributions);
changes in our earnings estimates or those of analysts;
publication of research reports about us, the real estate industry generally or the mall industry, and recommendations by financial analysts with respect to us or other REITs;
the amount of our outstanding debt at any time, the amount of our maturing debt in the near and medium term and our ability to refinance such debt and the terms thereof or our plans to incur additional debt in the future;
the ability of our tenants to pay rent to us and meet their other obligations to us under current lease terms and our ability to re-lease space as leases expire;
increases in market interest rates that lead purchasers of our common stock to demand a higher dividend yield;
changes in market valuations of similar companies;
mergers and acquisitions activity in the retail real estate sector;
any securities we may issue or additional debt we incur in the future;
additions or departures of key management personnel;
actions by institutional shareholders;
business disruptions, increased costs or other adverse impacts relating to actual or potential actions by activist shareholders;
adverse impacts relating to court or administrative decisions;
perceived strength of our corporate governance;
perceived risks in connection with our international development strategy;
risks we are taking in relation to, and the public announcement of, proposed acquisitions and dispositions, developments and redevelopments and the consummation thereof, including related capital uses;
speculation in the press or investment community;
continuing high levels of volatility in the capital and credit markets; and
the occurrence of any of the other risk factors included in, or incorporated by reference in, this report.

Many of the factors listed above are beyond our control. These factors may cause the market price of our common stock to decline, regardless of our financial performance and condition and prospects. It is impossible to provide any assurance that the market price of our common stock will not fall in the future, and it may be difficult for holders to resell shares of our common stock at prices they find attractive, or at all.


Our shareholders will experience dilution as a result of equity offerings and they may experience further dilution if we issue additional common equity.

We have previously issued common equity, both common shares and TRG Units, which had a dilutive effect on our earnings per diluted share and FFO per diluted share. TRG Units have also been issued from time to time in connection with acquisitions of real estate, which once tendered, have had a similar dilution impact. In addition, we have previously issued additional shares of preferred stock which adversely affected the earnings per share available to our common shareholders. We are not restricted from issuing additional shares of our common equity or preferred stock, including any securities that are convertible into or exchangeable for, or that represent the right to receive, common stock or preferred stock or any substantially similar securities. Any additional future issuances of common equity will reduce the percentage of our common equity owned by investors who do not participate in future issuances. In most circumstances, shareholders will not be entitled to vote on whether or not we issue additional common equity. In addition, depending on the terms and pricing of an additional offering of our common equity and the value of our properties, our shareholders may experience dilution in both the book value and fair value of their interests. The market price of our common stock could decline as a result of sales of a large number of shares of our common stock in the market after an offering or the perception that such sales could occur, and this could materially and adversely affect our ability to raise capital through future offerings of equity or equity-related securities.

Our ability to pay dividends on our stock may be limited.

Because we conduct all of our operations through TRG or its subsidiaries, our ability to pay dividends on our stock will depend almost entirely on payments and distributions received on our interests in TRG. Additionally, the terms of some of the debt to which TRG is a party limits its ability to make some types of payments and other distributions to us. This in turn limits our ability to make some types of payments, including payment of dividends on our stock, unless we meet certain financial tests or such payments or dividends are required to maintain our qualification as a REIT. As a result, if we are unable to meet the applicable financial tests, we may not be able to pay dividends on our stock in one or more periods beyond what is required for REIT purposes.

Our ability to pay dividends is further limited by the requirements of Michigan law.

Our ability to pay dividends on our stock is further limited by the laws of Michigan. Under the Michigan Business Corporation Act, a Michigan corporation may not make a distribution if, after giving effect to the distribution, the corporation would not be able to pay its debts as the debts become due in the usual course of business, or the corporation’s total assets would be less than the sum of its total liabilities plus the amount that would be needed, if the corporation were dissolved at the time of the distribution, to satisfy the preferential rights upon dissolution of shareholders whose preferential rights are superior to those receiving the distribution. Accordingly, we may not make a distribution on our stock if, after giving effect to the distribution, we would not be able to pay our debts as they become due in the usual course of business or our total assets would be less than the sum of our total liabilities plus the amount that would be needed to satisfy the preferential rights upon dissolution of the holders of any shares of our preferred stock then outstanding.

We may incur additional indebtedness, which may adversely affect our earnings and harm our financial position and cash flow and potentially impact our ability to pay dividends on our stock.

Our governing documents do not limit us from incurring additional indebtedness and other liabilities; however, certain loan covenants include certain restrictions regarding future indebtedness. As of December 31, 2018, we had $3.8 billion of consolidated indebtedness outstanding, and our beneficial interest in both our consolidated debt and the debt of our unconsolidated joint ventures was $5.0 billion. We may incur additional indebtedness and become more highly leveraged, requiring us to pay increased levels of interest, which could adversely affect our earnings and harm our financial position and potentially limit our cash available to pay dividends.


We may change the distribution policy for our common stock in the future.

The decision to declare and pay dividends on our common stock in the future, as well as the timing, amount, and composition of any such future dividends, will be at the sole discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on our earnings, FFO, liquidity, financial condition, capital requirements, contractual prohibitions, or other limitations under our indebtedness and preferred shares, the annual dividend requirements under the REIT provisions of the Code, state law and such other factors as our Board of Directors deems relevant. Further, we have regularly issued new shares of common equity as compensation to our employees, and we have periodically issued new shares of capital stock pursuant to public offerings or acquisitions. Any future issuances may substantially increase the cash required to pay dividends at current or higher levels. Our actual dividend payable will be determined by our Board of Directors based upon the circumstances at the time of declaration. Although we have regularly paid dividends on a quarterly basis on our common and preferred stock in the past, and since we went public in 1992 we have never reduced our regular common dividend and have increased it 21 times, we do not guarantee we will continue to do so in the future. Any change in our dividend policy could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.

REIT distribution requirements could adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to execute our business plan.

In order for us to qualify to be taxed as a REIT, and assuming that certain other requirements are also satisfied, we generally must distribute at least 90% of REIT taxable income, determined without regard to the dividends paid deduction and excluding any net capital gains, to our shareholders each year. To this point, we have historically distributed at least 100% of our taxable income and thereby avoided income tax altogether. To the extent we satisfy this distribution requirement and qualify for taxation as a REIT, but distribute less than 100% of our REIT taxable income, we will be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on our undistributed net taxable income and could be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax if the actual amount that is distributed to shareholders in a calendar year is less than “the required minimum distribution amount” specified under U.S. federal income tax laws. We intend to make distributions to our shareholders to comply with the REIT requirements of the Code.

From time to time, we might generate taxable income greater than our cash flow as a result of differences in timing between the recognition of taxable income and the actual receipt of cash, the effect of nondeductible capital expenditures, the creation of reserves, required debt or amortization payments, or income inclusions of foreign earnings as to which cash has not been repatriated to us by distributions from our foreign entities. If we do not have other funds available in these situations, we could be required to access capital on unfavorable terms (the receipt of which cannot be assured), sell assets at disadvantageous prices, distribute amounts that would otherwise be invested in future acquisitions, capital expenditures or repayment of debt, or make taxable distributions of capital stock or debt securities to make distributions sufficient to pay out enough REIT taxable income to satisfy the REIT distribution requirement and avoid corporate income tax and the 4% excise tax in a particular year. These alternatives could increase costs or reduce our equity. Further, amounts distributed will not be available to fund the growth of our business. Thus, compliance with the REIT requirements may adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to execute our business plan.






The following table sets forth certain information about each of our shopping centers. The table includes only shopping centers in operation at December 31, 2018. Shopping centers are owned in fee other than Beverly Center, Cherry Creek Shopping Center, City Creek Center, The Mall at Green Hills, International Market Place, and International Plaza, which are held under ground leases expiring between 2042 and 2105. CityOn.Xi'an and CityOn.Zhengzhou use Chinese state-owned land and are subject to a property-use right, expiring in 2051 for both shopping centers.

Certain of the shopping centers are partially owned through joint ventures. Generally, our joint venture partners have ongoing rights with regard to the disposition of our interest in the joint ventures, as well as the approval of certain major matters.

Shopping Center
Sq. Ft of GLA/
Mall GLA as of 12/31/18
% as of
Consolidated Businesses:
Beverly Center
Bloomingdale’s, Macy’s
Los Angeles, CA
Cherry Creek Shopping Center
Macy’s, Neiman Marcus, Nordstrom
Denver, CO
City Creek Center
Macy's, Nordstrom
Salt Lake City, UT
Dolphin Mall
Bass Pro Shops Outdoor World,
Miami, FL
Bloomingdale's Outlet, Burlington Coat Factory
Cobb Theatres, Dave & Buster's,
Marshalls, Neiman Marcus-Last Call,
Polo Ralph Lauren Factory Store, Saks Off 5th
The Gardens on El Paseo
Saks Fifth Avenue
Palm Desert, CA
Great Lakes Crossing Outlets
AMC Theatres, Bass Pro Shops Outdoor World,
Auburn Hills, MI
Burlington Coat Factory, Legoland,
(Detroit Metropolitan Area)
Lord & Taylor Outlet, Planet Fitness,
Round 1 Bowling and Amusement, Sea Life
The Mall at Green Hills
Dillard's, Macy's, Nordstrom
Nashville, TN
International Market Place
Saks Fifth Avenue
Waikiki, Honolulu, HI
The Mall of San Juan
Nordstrom, Saks Fifth Avenue (2)
San Juan, PR
The Mall at Short Hills
Bloomingdale’s, Macy’s, Neiman Marcus,
Short Hills, NJ
Twelve Oaks Mall
JCPenney, Lord & Taylor, Macy's,
Novi, MI
Nordstrom, Sears
(Detroit Metropolitan Area)
Total GLA
Total Mall GLA
TRG% of Total GLA

TRG% of Total Mall GLA

GLA does not reflect the total incremental GLA to be added in connection with the redevelopment project currently ongoing at the center.
In September 2017, Saks Fifth Avenue closed as a result of significant damage experienced during Hurricane Maria. There is currently no timeline for reopening. See "Item 3 - Legal Proceedings" for more information regarding our ongoing litigation with Saks Fifth Avenue Puerto Rico, Inc. and Saks Incorporated to compel them to immediately remediate, repair, and reopen the Saks Fifth Avenue store.
GLA includes the former Saks Fifth Avenue store, which closed in September 2016. A portion of this space opened as Mall GLA in 2018, while the remainder of the space is currently under redevelopment.
In December 2018, Sears announced that it plans to close its store in March 2019.


Shopping Center
Sq. Ft of GLA/
Mall GLA as of 12/31/18
% as of
Unconsolidated Joint Ventures:
50% (5)
Xi'an, China
G-Super, Wangfujing
49% (5)
Zhengzhou, China
Country Club Plaza
Kansas City, MO
Fair Oaks
JCPenney, Lord & Taylor,
Fairfax, VA
Macy’s (two locations)
(Washington, DC Metropolitan Area)
International Plaza
Dillard’s, Life Time Athletic, Neiman Marcus,
Tampa, FL
The Mall at Millenia
Bloomingdale’s, Macy’s, Neiman Marcus
Orlando, FL
Stamford Town Center
Macy’s, Saks Off 5th
Stamford, CT
Starfield Hanam
PK Market, Shinsegae, Traders
34.3% (5)
Hanam, South Korea
JCPenney, Macy’s (two locations), Sears
Concord, CA
(San Francisco Metropolitan Area)
The Mall at University Town Center
Dillard's, Macy's, Saks Fifth Avenue
Sarasota, FL
Waterside Shops
Nordstrom, Saks Fifth Avenue
Naples, FL
JCPenney, Lord & Taylor,
West Hartford, CT
Macy’s (two locations), Nordstrom
Total GLA
Total Mall GLA
TRG% of Total GLA
TRG% of Total Mall GLA
Grand Total GLA
Grand Total Mall GLA
TRG% of Total GLA
TRG% of Total Mall GLA

On February 14, 2019, we announced agreements to sell 50 percent of our ownership interests in Starfield Hanam, CityOn.Xi’an, and CityOn.Zhengzhou to funds managed by Blackstone. Upon closing, we will retain a 17.15%, 25%, and 24.5% ownership interest in Starfield Hanam, CityOn.Xi'an, and CityOn.Zhengzhou, respectively. The transactions are subject to customary closing conditions and are expected to close throughout 2019.
In 2018, Nordstrom announced plans to relocate a store to the center. The new, approximately 116,000-square-foot store is expected to open in 2021.
GLA includes 220,000 square feet of office property.
GLA includes approximately 210,000 square feet of GLA related to the former Sears space, which is now closed.



The following table summarizes certain information regarding the anchors at the operating centers (excluding value and outlet centers) as of December 31, 2018:
Number of
Anchor Stores
(in thousands
of square feet)
% of GLA
Bloomingdale’s (1)


Macy’s Men’s Store/Furniture Gallery



Hudson's Bay Company
Lord & Taylor (2)

Saks Fifth Avenue (3)

Saks Off Fifth (4)





PK Market



Sears (5)

Neiman Marcus (6)


Life Time Athletic




Excludes one Bloomingdale's Outlet store at a value center.
Excludes one Lord & Taylor Outlet store at an outlet center.
Includes Saks Fifth Avenue at The Mall of San Juan, which in September 2017 closed as a result of significant damage experienced during Hurricane Maria. There is currently no timeline for reopening. See "Item 3 - Legal Proceedings" for more information regarding our ongoing litigation with Saks Fifth Avenue Puerto Rico, Inc. and Saks Incorporated to compel them to immediately remediate, repair, and reopen the Saks Fifth Avenue store.
Excludes one Saks Off 5th store at a value center.
In December 2018, Sears announced that it plans to close its store at Twelve Oaks Mall in March 2019.
Excludes one Neiman Marcus-Last Call store at a value center.
Percentages may not add due to rounding.


Mortgage Debt and Construction Financings

The following table sets forth certain information regarding the mortgages and construction financings encumbering the centers as of December 31, 2018. All mortgage debt and construction financings in the table below are non-recourse to TRG except for the TRG $65 million revolving credit facility and the debt encumbering International Market Place. TRG has provided limited guarantees regarding the mortgage debt encumbering City Creek Center. In addition, the entities that own Beverly Center, Dolphin Mall, and The Gardens on El Paseo are guarantors under our $250 million and $300 million unsecured term loans and $1.1 billion primary unsecured revolving line of credit. See "Note 8 - Notes Payable, Net - Debt Covenants and Guarantees" to our consolidated financial statements for more information on loan guarantees.


Centers Consolidated in TCO's Financial Statements/ TRG's % Ownership if less than 100%
Maximum Loan Amount (thousands)
Stated Interest Rate as of 12/31/18
12/31/18 Balance (thousands)
Available to Draw (thousands)
Annual Debt Service (Principal and Interest) (thousands)
Maturity Date
Number of One-Year Extension Options
Interest Rates
Earliest Prepayment Date
Prepay via Defeasance or Yield Maintenance
Earliest Date Allowed to Prepay without Penalty
Cherry Creek Shopping Center (50%)

 Interest only
Fixed Rate
At any time
 Greater of Yield Maintenance or 1% Principal Prepaid
City Creek Center

 Amortizing, 30 years

Fixed Rate
At any time
 Greater of Yield Maintenance or 0.5% Principal Prepaid
Great Lakes Crossing Outlets

 Amortizing, 30 years

Fixed Rate
At any time
The Mall at Green Hills

 Interest only
LIBOR + 1.60%. LIBOR capped at 4.25% to maturity (1)
At any time
At any time
International Market Place (93.5%)

 Interest only (2)
LIBOR + 2.15%. Rate decreases to LIBOR + 1.85% upon achieving certain performance measures
At any time
At any time
The Mall at Short Hills

 Interest only
Fixed Rate
At any time
 Greater of Yield Maintenance or 1% Principal Prepaid
Twelve Oaks Mall

 Amortizing, 30 years

Fixed Rate
Other Consolidated Secured Debt
TRG $65M Revolving Credit Facility



 Interest only
LIBOR + 1.40%
At any time
U.S. Headquarters

 Interest only
LIBOR + 1.40%, swapped to maturity
At any time
Centers Owned by Unconsolidated Joint Ventures/TRG's % Ownership
CityOn.Zhengzhou (49%) (3)

Full amortizing

130% of the RMB PBOC base lending rate for a loan term > 5 years. Rate resets Jan each year
At any time
Country Club Plaza (50%)

Amortization begins 5/1/2019, 30 years
 Interest only until 5/1/2019
Fixed Rate
 Greater of Yield Maintenance or 1% Principal Prepaid
Fair Oaks (50%)

 Amortizing, 30 years

Fixed Rate
International Plaza (50.1%)

 Amortizing, 30 years

Fixed Rate
At any time
 Greater of Yield Maintenance or 1% Principal Prepaid
International Plaza (50.1%)

 Amortizing, 30 years

LIBOR + 1.75%, swapped to maturity
At any time
 0.5% Principal Prepaid
The Mall at Millenia (50%)

 Interest only
Fixed Rate
At any time
 Greater of Modified Yield Maintenance or 1% Principal Prepaid
The Mall at Millenia (50%)

 Interest only
Fixed Rate
At any time
 Greater of Modified Yield Maintenance or 1% Principal Prepaid
Starfield Hanam (34.3%) (3)


 Interest only
3-month LIBOR + 1.60%, swapped to 9/8/2020
Starfield Hanam (34.3%) (3)

 Interest only
KDB 5 Year Bond Yield + 1.06%
 0.5%-1.0% Principal Prepaid
Sunvalley (50%)

 Amortizing, 30 years

Fixed Rate
At any time
Taubman Land Associates (50%)

 Amortizing, 30 years

Fixed Rate
At any time
The Mall at University Town Center (50%)

Amortization begins 12/1/2022, 30 years
 Interest only until 12/1/2022
Fixed Rate
 Greater of Yield Maintenance or 1% Principal Prepaid
Waterside Shops (50%)

 Interest only (6)
Fixed Rate
At any time
 Greater of Yield Maintenance or 1% Principal Prepaid
Westfarms (79%)

 Amortizing, 30 years

Fixed Rate
At any time
 Greater of Yield Maintenance or 1% Principal Prepaid

(1) During the remaining extension period, if the option is exercised, the spread over LIBOR is lender's then current spread and an interest rate cap is required but may be waived if 12-month LIBOR is elected.
(2) During the extension periods, if the options are exercised, principal payments are required based on a 30-year amortization and a rate of the greater of (a) one-month LIBOR plus spread on the loan at the relevant maturity date, (b) 10-year treasury rate plus 1.75% or (c) 6%.
(3) On February 14, 2019, we announced agreements to sell 50 percent of our ownership interests in Starfield Hanam, CityOn.Xi’an, and CityOn.Zhengzhou to funds managed by Blackstone. Upon closing, we will retain a 17.15%, 25%, and 24.5% ownership interest in Starfield Hanam, CityOn.Xi'an, and CityOn.Zhengzhou, respectively. The transactions are subject to customary closing conditions and are expected to close throughout 2019.
(4) No draws were allowed after December 31, 2017.
(5) No draws were allowed after December 31, 2016. A letter of credit totaling $53.2 million USD is outstanding on this loan as security for the Starfield Hanam USD loan.
(6) The Waterside Shops loan is interest-only for the term of the loan. However, if net operating income available for debt service as defined in the loan agreement is less than a certain amount for calendar year 2020, the lender may require the loan to amortize based on a 30-year amortization period beginning May 2021.

For additional information regarding the shopping centers and their operations, see the responses to Item 1 of this report.



On October 17, 2017, Plaza Internacional Puerto Rico LLC (Plaza Internacional), the owner of The Mall of San Juan (the Mall), filed a civil action in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico Court of First Instance, San Juan Judicial Center, Superior Court, Civil No. SJ2017CV02094 (503), against Saks Fifth Avenue Puerto Rico, Inc. (Saks PR), and Saks Incorporated (Saks Inc.). The lawsuit asks the court to compel Saks PR and Saks Inc. to immediately remediate and repair the Saks Fifth Avenue store (the Store) that was damaged by Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017, to reopen the Store on the completion of the reconstruction, and to operate the Store in accordance with the Operating Covenant contained in the Construction, Operation and Reciprocal Easement Agreement among Plaza Internacional, Saks PR, and Nordstrom Puerto Rico LLC (Nordstrom PR) made as of April 23, 2013 (the REA). In response, Saks PR and Saks Inc. filed a Counterclaim, alleging that they have no obligation to repair, remediate, reconstruct, or reopen the Store, asserting various alleged breaches of the REA and other operating agreements. Plaza Internacional filed a motion for a preliminary injunction directing Saks PR to repair, reopen, and operate the Store, but, on March 28, 2018, the Court of First Instance denied Plaza Internacional’s motion, and, on September 12, 2018, the Court of Appeals of Puerto Rico affirmed that ruling, each without prejudging the merits of the substantive claims.  Should Saks PR prevail in the action, Nordstrom PR and other mall tenants may then have the right to terminate their own operating covenants or leases. Plaza Internacional is vigorously prosecuting its claims and defending the Counterclaim. The outcome of the action cannot be predicted, and, at this time, we are unable to estimate the amount of loss that could result from an unfavorable outcome. An unfavorable outcome may have a material and adverse effect on our business and our financial statements.


Not applicable.




The common stock of Taubman Centers, Inc. is listed and traded on the New York Stock Exchange (Symbol: TCO). As of February 27, 2019, the 61,122,292 outstanding shares of common stock were held by 375 holders of record. A substantially greater number of holders are beneficial owners whose shares are held of record by banks, brokers, and other financial institutions. The closing price per share of the common stock on the New York Stock Exchange on February 27, 2019 was $52.82. The restrictions on our ability to pay dividends on our common stock are set forth in "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources – Dividends."

Shareholder Return Performance Graph
The following line graph sets forth the cumulative total returns on a $100 investment in each of our common stock, the MSCI US REIT Index, the FTSE NAREIT Equity Retail Index, the S&P 500 Index, and the S&P 400 MidCap Index for the period December 31, 2013 through December 31, 2018 (assuming in all cases, the reinvestment of dividends):






Taubman Centers Inc.












FTSE NAREIT Equity Retail Index






S&P 500 Index






S&P 400 MidCap Index






Note: The stock performance shown on the graph above is not necessarily indicative of future price performance.



The following table sets forth selected financial data and should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes thereto and MD&A included in this report.
Year Ended December 31
(in thousands, except per share amounts, per square foot amounts, and shares outstanding)
Rents, recoveries, and other shopping center revenues





Net income (1)





Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
Distributions to participating securities of TRG
Preferred dividends
Net income attributable to Taubman Centers, Inc. common shareholders





Net income per common share – diluted (1)





Dividends declared per common share (2)





Weighted average number of common shares outstanding – basic