10-K 1 tdg-20210930.htm 10-K tdg-20210930
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission File Number 001-32833
TransDigm Group Incorporated
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
41-2101738
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1301 East 9th Street,Suite 3000,Cleveland,Ohio 44114
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

(216) 706-2960
(Registrants’ telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbolName of exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par valueTDGNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  x    No  ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer  Accelerated Filer
Non-Accelerated Filer
  Smaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  x
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of March 31, 2021, based upon the last sale price of such voting and non-voting common stock on that date, was $32,940,645,808.
The number of shares outstanding of TransDigm Group Incorporated’s common stock, par value $.01 per share, was 55,248,901 as of November 3, 2021.
Documents incorporated by reference: Certain sections of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement to be filed in connection with its 2022 Annual Meeting of Shareholders expected to be held in March 2022 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
PART I
PART II
PART III
PART IV


Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains both historical and “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. All statements other than statements of historical fact included that address activities, events or developments that we expect, believe or anticipate will or may occur in the future are forward-looking statements, including, in particular, the statements about our plans, objectives, strategies and prospects regarding, among other things, our financial condition, results of operations and business. We have identified some of these forward-looking statements with words like “believe,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “predict,” “anticipate,” “estimate” or “continue” and other words and terms of similar meaning. These forward-looking statements may be contained throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations about future events affecting us and are subject to uncertainties and factors relating to, among other things, our operations and business environment, all of which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control. Many factors mentioned in our discussion in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the risks outlined under “Risk Factors,” will be important in determining future results. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, we do not know whether our expectations will prove correct. They can be affected by inaccurate assumptions we might make or by known or unknown risks and uncertainties, including those described under “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Since our actual results, performance or achievements could differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, these forward-looking statements, we cannot give any assurance that any of the events anticipated by these forward-looking statements will occur or, if any of them does occur, what impact they will have on our business, results of operations and financial condition. You are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date they are made. We do not undertake any obligation to update these forward-looking statements or the risk factors contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to reflect new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under federal securities laws.
Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report on Form 10-K include but are not limited to: the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic has on our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity; the sensitivity of our business to the number of flight hours that our customers’ planes spend aloft and our customers’ profitability, both of which are affected by general economic conditions; future geopolitical or other worldwide events; cyber-security threats, natural disasters and climate change-related events; our reliance on certain customers; the United States (“U.S.”) defense budget and risks associated with being a government supplier including government audits and investigations; failure to maintain government or industry approvals; failure to complete or successfully integrate acquisitions; our indebtedness; potential environmental liabilities; liabilities arising in connection with litigation; climate-related regulations; increases in raw material costs, taxes and labor costs that cannot be recovered in product pricing; risks and costs associated with our international sales and operations; and other factors.
In this report, the term “TD Group” refers to TransDigm Group Incorporated, which holds all of the outstanding capital stock of TransDigm Inc. The terms “Company,” “TransDigm,” “we,” “us,” “our” and similar terms, unless the context otherwise requires, refer to TD Group, together with TransDigm Inc. and its wholly-owned and majority-owned subsidiaries for which it has a controlling interest. References to “fiscal year” mean the year ending or ended September 30. For example, “fiscal year 2021” or “fiscal 2021” means the period from October 1, 2020 to September 30, 2021.
PART I
ITEM 1.    BUSINESS
The Company
TD Group, through its wholly-owned subsidiary, TransDigm Inc., is a leading global designer, producer and supplier of highly engineered aircraft components for use on nearly all commercial and military aircraft in service today. Our business is well diversified due to the broad range of products we offer to our customers. We estimate that approximately 90% of our net sales for fiscal year 2021 were generated by proprietary products. For fiscal year 2021, we estimate that we generated approximately 80% of our net sales from products in which we are the sole source provider.
Most of our products generate significant aftermarket revenue. Once our parts are designed into and sold on a new aircraft, we generate net sales from aftermarket consumption over the life of that aircraft, which is generally estimated to be approximately 25 to 30 years. A typical platform can be produced for 20 to 30 years, giving us an estimated product life cycle in excess of 50 years. We estimate that approximately 50% of our net sales in fiscal year 2021 were generated from aftermarket net sales, the vast majority of which come from the commercial and military aftermarkets. Historically, these aftermarket revenues have produced a higher gross profit and have been more stable than net sales to original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”).
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Products
We primarily design, produce and supply highly engineered proprietary aerospace components with significant aftermarket content. We seek to develop highly customized products to solve specific needs for aircraft operators and manufacturers. We attempt to differentiate ourselves based on engineering, service and manufacturing capabilities. We typically choose not to compete for non-proprietary “build to print” business because it frequently offers lower margins than proprietary products. We believe that our products have strong brand names within the industry and that we have a reputation for high quality, reliability and strong customer support.
Our business is well diversified due to the broad range of products that we offer to our customers. Our major product offerings, substantially all of which are ultimately provided to end-users in the aerospace industry, include mechanical/electro-mechanical actuators and controls, ignition systems and engine technology, specialized pumps and valves, power conditioning devices, specialized AC/DC electric motors and generators, batteries and chargers, engineered latching and locking devices, engineered rods, engineered connectors and elastomer sealing solutions, databus and power controls, cockpit security components and systems, specialized and advanced cockpit displays, engineered audio, radio and antenna systems, specialized lavatory components, seat belts and safety restraints, engineered and customized interior surfaces and related components, advanced sensor products, switches and relay panels, thermal protection and insulation, lighting and control technology, parachutes, high performance hoists, winches and lifting devices, and cargo loading, handling and delivery systems. Each of these product offerings is composed of many individual products that are typically customized to meet the needs of a particular aircraft platform or customer.
COVID-19 Pandemic
The COVID-19 pandemic has continued to cause a significant adverse impact on our net sales, net income and EBITDA As Defined when compared to pre-pandemic levels. COVID-19 was first reported in December 2019 and, since being declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020, has dramatically impacted the global health and economic environment, including millions of confirmed cases, business slowdowns or shutdowns, government challenges and market volatility. The commercial aerospace industry, in particular, has been significantly disrupted, both domestically and internationally, by the pandemic. The pandemic has resulted in governments around the world implementing stringent measures to help control the spread of the virus, including quarantines, “shelter in place” and “stay at home” orders, travel restrictions, business curtailments and other measures. As a result, demand for travel declined at a rapid pace beginning in the second half of fiscal 2020 and has remained depressed compared to pre-pandemic levels. However, commercial air travel has increasingly shown signs of recovery in recent months with increasing air traffic, primarily in certain domestic markets. The recovery in international commercial air travel has been slower with international travel only slightly recovered from COVID-19 pandemic lows. The exact pace and timing of the commercial air travel recovery remains uncertain and is expected to continue to be uneven depending on factors such as trends in the number of COVID-19 infections (e.g., impact of new variants of COVID-19 resurfacing), the continued efficacy of vaccines (particularly against any newly-emerging variants of COVID-19) and easing of quarantines and travel restrictions, among other factors. We currently expect COVID-19 to continue to cause an adverse impact on our net sales, net income and EBITDA as Defined compared to pre-pandemic levels into fiscal 2022.
Within the United States, our business has been designated as “essential,” which has allowed us to continue to serve our customers throughout the COVID-19 pandemic; nonetheless, the pandemic has disrupted our operations. Our ability to continue to manufacture products is highly dependent on our ability to maintain the safety and health of our factory employees. The ability of our employees to work has been, and may again, be significantly impacted by individuals contracting or being exposed to COVID-19. While we are following the requirements of governmental authorities and taking preventative and protective measures to prioritize the safety of our employees, these measures are not always successful, and we have been required at times to temporarily close facilities or take other partial shutdown measures. Furthermore, in light of enacted and any additional reductions in our workforce as a result of declines in our business caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, we cannot assure that we will be able to rehire our workforce as our business continues to recover. Finally, though this appears to be lower risk at the present time, our acquisition strategy, which is a key element of our overall business strategy, may be impacted by our efforts to maintain the Company’s cash liquidity position in response to the COVID-19 pandemic depending on the duration of the pandemic and its impact on our cash flows.
Although we remain cautiously optimistic that the global vaccination efforts will continue to progress and positively influence the markets we serve, the magnitude of the impact of COVID-19 remains unpredictable and we continue to anticipate potential supply chain disruptions, employee absenteeism and short-term suspensions of manufacturing facilities, and additional health and safety costs related to the COVID-19 pandemic that could unfavorably impact our business. Longer-term, because of these factors, it is difficult to forecast a precise impact on the Company’s future results.
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Segments
The Company’s businesses are organized and managed in three reporting segments: Power & Control, Airframe and Non-aviation.
The Power & Control segment includes operations that primarily develop, produce and market systems and components that predominately provide power to or control power of the aircraft utilizing electronic, fluid, power and mechanical motion control technologies. Major product offerings include mechanical/electro-mechanical actuators and controls, ignition systems and engine technology, specialized pumps and valves, power conditioning devices, specialized AC/DC electric motors and generators, batteries and chargers, databus and power controls, advanced sensor products, switches and relay panels, high performance hoists, winches and lifting devices, and cargo loading, handling and delivery systems. Primary customers of this segment are engine and power system and subsystem suppliers, airlines, third party maintenance suppliers, military buying agencies and repair depots. Products are sold in the original equipment and aftermarket market channels.
The Airframe segment includes operations that primarily develop, produce and market systems and components that are used in non-power airframe applications utilizing airframe and cabin structure technologies. Major product offerings include engineered latching and locking devices, engineered rods, engineered connectors and elastomer sealing solutions, cockpit security components and systems, specialized and advanced cockpit displays, engineered audio, radio and antenna systems, specialized lavatory components, seat belts and safety restraints, engineered and customized interior surfaces and related components, thermal protection and insulation, lighting and control technology and parachutes. Primary customers of this segment are airframe manufacturers and cabin system suppliers and subsystem suppliers, airlines, third party maintenance suppliers, military buying agencies and repair depots. Products are sold in the original equipment and aftermarket market channels.
The Non-aviation segment includes operations that primarily develop, produce and market products for non-aviation markets. Major product offerings include seat belts and safety restraints for ground transportation applications, mechanical/electro-mechanical actuators and controls for space applications, hydraulic/electromechanical actuators and fuel valves for land-based gas turbines, and refueling systems for heavy equipment used in mining, construction and other industries and turbine controls for the energy and oil and gas markets. Primary customers of this segment are off-road vehicle suppliers and subsystem suppliers, child restraint system suppliers, satellite and space system suppliers, manufacturers of heavy equipment used in mining, construction and other industries and turbine original equipment manufacturers, gas pipeline builders and electric utilities.
The primary measurement used by management to review and assess the operating performance of each segment is EBITDA As Defined. The Company defines EBITDA As Defined as earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization plus certain non-operating items recorded as corporate expenses including non-cash compensation charges incurred in connection with the Company’s stock incentive plans, restructuring costs related to the Company's cost reduction measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, foreign currency gains and losses, acquisition-integration costs, acquisition and divestiture transaction-related expenses, and refinancing costs. COVID-19 restructuring costs represent actions taken by the Company to reduce its workforce to align with customer demand, as well as incremental costs related to the pandemic that are not expected to recur once the pandemic has subsided and are clearly separable from normal operations (e.g., additional cleaning and disinfecting of facilities by contractors above and beyond normal requirements, personal protective equipment). Acquisition and divestiture-related costs represent accounting adjustments to inventory associated with acquisitions of businesses and product lines that were charged to cost of sales when the inventory was sold; costs incurred to integrate acquired businesses and product lines into the Company’s operations, facility relocation costs and other acquisition-related costs; transaction-related costs for both acquisitions and divestitures comprising deal fees; legal, financial and tax diligence expenses and valuation costs that are required to be expensed as incurred and other acquisition accounting adjustments.
For financial information about our segments, refer to Note 17, “Segments,” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included herein.
Sales and Marketing
Consistent with our overall strategy, our sales and marketing organization is structured to continually develop technical solutions that meet customer needs. In particular, we attempt to focus on products and programs that will lead to high-margin, repeatable sales in the aftermarket.
We have structured our sales efforts along our major product offerings, assigning a business unit manager to certain products. Each business unit manager is expected to grow the sales and profitability of the products for which he or she is responsible and to achieve the targeted annual level of bookings, net sales, new business and profitability for such products. The business unit managers are assisted by account managers and sales engineers who are responsible for covering major OEM and aftermarket accounts. Account managers and sales engineers are expected to be familiar with the personnel, organization and needs of specific customers to achieve total bookings and new business goals for each account and, together with the business unit managers, to determine when additional resources are required at customer locations. Most of our sales personnel are evaluated, in part, on their bookings and their ability to identify and obtain new business opportunities.
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Though typically performed by employees, the account manager function may be performed by independent representatives depending on the specific customer, product and geographic location. We also use a number of distributors to provide logistical support as well as serve as a primary customer contact with certain smaller accounts. Boeing Distribution Services, Inc., Satair A/S (a subsidiary of Airbus S.A.S.) and Seal Dynamics (a subsidiary of HEICO Corporation), among others, are our major distributors.
Manufacturing and Engineering
We maintain approximately 100 manufacturing facilities. Most of our manufacturing facilities are comprised of manufacturing, distribution and engineering functions, and most facilities have certain administrative functions, including management, sales and finance. We continually strive to improve productivity and reduce costs, including rationalization of operations, developing improved control systems that allow for accurate accounting and reporting, investing in equipment, tooling, information systems and implementing broad-based employee training programs. Management believes that our manufacturing systems and equipment contribute to our ability to compete by permitting us to meet the rigorous tolerances and cost sensitive price structure of aircraft component customers.
We attempt to differentiate ourselves from our competitors by producing uniquely engineered products with high quality and timely delivery. Our engineering costs are recorded in cost of sales and in selling and administrative expenses within our consolidated statements of income. Research and development costs are recorded in selling and administrative expenses within our consolidated statements of income. The aggregate of engineering expense and research and development expense represents approximately 11% of our operating units’ aggregate costs, or approximately 6% of our consolidated net sales for fiscal year 2021. Our proprietary products, and particularly our new product initiatives, are designed by our engineers and are intended to serve the needs of the aircraft component industry. These proprietary designs must withstand the extraordinary conditions and stresses that will be endured by products during use and meet the rigorous demands of our customers’ tolerance and quality requirements.
We use sophisticated equipment and procedures to comply with quality requirements, specifications and Federal Aviation Administration (“FAA”) and OEM requirements. We perform a variety of testing procedures as required by our customers, such as testing under different temperature, humidity and altitude levels, flammability testing, shock and vibration testing and X-ray fluorescent measurement. These procedures, together with other customer approved techniques for document, process and quality control, are used throughout our manufacturing facilities. Refer to Note 3, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included herein with respect to the total costs of research and development.
Customers
We predominantly serve customers in the commercial, regional, business jet and general aviation aftermarket, which accounted for approximately 23% of our net sales for fiscal year 2021; the commercial aerospace OEM market, comprising large commercial transport manufacturers and regional and business jet manufacturers, which accounted for approximately 20% of our net sales for fiscal year 2021; and the defense market, which accounted for approximately 50% of our net sales for fiscal year 2021. Non-aerospace net sales comprised approximately 7% of our net sales for fiscal year 2021.
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and its adverse impact on air travel worldwide, the commercial aerospace industry has been significantly disrupted. The defense aerospace market has been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic to a lesser extent than the commercial aerospace market due to certain supply chain disruptions as well as “stay at home” orders, quarantines, etc. impacting the government procurement workforce which has slowed production and/or orders. The significant adverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the commercial aerospace market channels has led to the defense market comprising a greater percentage of our net sales in fiscal years 2021 and 2020 compared to pre-pandemic historical levels. In fiscal years 2015 through 2019, representing the five fiscal years prior to the pandemic, defense market net sales ranged from 29% to 37% of total net sales. As the commercial aerospace industry recovers from the disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, we would expect defense market net sales to account for a percentage of total net sales that is relatively in line with our historical levels prior to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Our customers include: (1) distributors of aerospace components; (2) worldwide commercial airlines, including national and regional airlines; (3) large commercial transport and regional and business aircraft OEMs; (4) various armed forces of the United States and friendly foreign governments; (5) defense OEMs; (6) system suppliers; and (7) various other industrial customers. Our top ten customers for fiscal year 2021 accounted for approximately 42% of our net sales. Products supplied to many of our customers are used on multiple platforms. None of our customers individually accounted for greater than 10% of our net sales for fiscal year 2021.
The markets in which we sell our products are, to varying degrees, cyclical and have experienced upswings and downturns. The demand for our commercial aftermarket parts and services depends on, among other things, the breadth of our installed OEM base, revenue passenger miles (“RPMs”), the size and age of the worldwide aircraft fleet, the percentage of the worldwide fleet that is in warranty, and airline profitability. The demand for defense products is specifically dependent on government budget trends, military campaigns and political pressures.
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Competition
The niche markets within the aerospace industry that we serve are relatively fragmented and we face several competitors for many of the products and services we provide. Due to the global nature of the commercial aircraft industry, competition in these categories comes from both U.S. and foreign companies. Competitors in our product offerings range in size from divisions of large public corporations to small privately-held entities with only one or two components in their entire product portfolios.
We compete on the basis of engineering, manufacturing and marketing high quality products, which we believe meet or exceed the performance and maintenance requirements of our customers, consistent and timely delivery, and superior customer service and support. The industry’s stringent regulatory, certification and technical requirements and the investments necessary in the development and certification of products may create disincentives for potential new competitors for certain products. If customers receive products that meet or exceed expectations and performance standards, we believe that they will have a reduced incentive to certify another supplier because of the cost and time of the technical design and testing certification process. In addition, we believe that the availability, dependability and safety of our products are reasons for our customers to continue long-term supplier relationships.
Government Contracts
Companies engaged in supplying defense-related equipment and services to United States Government (“U.S. Government”) agencies are subject to business risks specific to the defense industry. These risks include the ability of the U.S. Government to unilaterally: (1) suspend us from receiving new contracts; (2) terminate existing contracts; (3) reduce the value of existing contracts; (4) audit our contract-related costs and fees, including allocated indirect costs; (5) control and potentially prohibit the export of our products; and (6) seek repayment of contract related payments under certain circumstances. Violations of government procurement laws could result in civil or criminal penalties.
Governmental Regulation
The commercial aircraft component industry is highly regulated by the FAA in the United States and by the Joint Aviation Authorities in Europe and other agencies throughout the world, while the military aircraft component industry is governed by military quality specifications. We, and the components we manufacture, are required to be certified by one or more of these entities or agencies, and, in many cases, by individual OEMs, in order to engineer and service parts and components used in specific aircraft models.
We must also satisfy the requirements of our customers, including OEMs and airlines that are subject to FAA regulations, and provide these customers with products and services that comply with the government regulations applicable to commercial flight operations. In addition, the FAA requires that various maintenance routines be performed on aircraft components. We believe that we currently satisfy or exceed these maintenance standards in our repair and overhaul services. We also maintain several FAA-approved repair stations.
In addition, our businesses are subject to many other laws and requirements typically applicable to manufacturers and exporters. Without limiting the foregoing, sales of many of our products that will be used on aircraft owned by foreign entities are subject to compliance with export control laws and the manufacture of our products and the operations of our businesses, including the disposal of hazardous wastes, are subject to compliance with applicable environmental laws.
Market Channels
The commercial aerospace industry, including the aftermarket and OEM markets, is impacted by the health of the global economy and geopolitical events around the world. The commercial aerospace industry, in particular, has been significantly disrupted, both domestically and internationally, by the pandemic. The commercial aerospace industry experienced a steep decline in RPMs beginning in the second half of our fiscal 2020 due to the pandemic’s impact on worldwide air travel demand and RPMs remained depressed in fiscal 2021 when compared to pre-pandemic levels. Also, as a result of the pandemic and decreased demand in commercial air travel, the commercial OEM sector has experienced reductions in commercial OEM production rates, including reductions at the two largest commercial OEMs, The Boeing Company (“Boeing”) and Airbus S.A.S. (“Airbus”). Although the commercial aerospace industry has shown signs of recovery in recent months, with increasing commercial air travel demand and both Boeing and Airbus disclosing potential OEM production rate increases for calendar 2022, the impact of COVID-19 continues to be fluid and the shape and speed of the recovery for the commercial aerospace industry remains uncertain.
The defense aerospace market is dependent on government budget constraints, the timing of orders, political pressures and the extent of global conflicts. It is not necessarily affected by general economic conditions that affect the commercial aerospace industry. The defense aerospace market has been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic to a lesser extent than the commercial aerospace market due to certain supply chain disruptions as well as “stay at home” orders, quarantines, etc. impacting the government procurement workforce which has slowed production and/or orders. Also, government funding reprioritization such as shifting funds to efforts to combat the impact of the pandemic provides for uncertainty.
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Historically, our presence in both the commercial aerospace and military sectors of the aerospace industry has served to mitigate the impact on our business of any specific industry risk. We service a diversified customer base in the commercial and military aerospace industry, and we provide components to a diverse installed base of aircraft, which mitigates our exposure to any individual airframe platform. At times, declines in net sales in one channel have been offset by increased net sales in another channel. However, due to differences between the profitability of our products sold to OEM and aftermarket customers, variation in product mix can cause variation in gross profit.
Outside of the significant market disruption caused by COVID-19, there are many short-term factors (including customer inventory level adjustments, unannounced changes in order patterns, strikes, facility shutdowns caused by fires, hurricanes, health crises or other incidents and mergers and acquisitions) that can cause short-term disruptions in our quarterly shipment patterns as compared to previous quarters and the same periods in prior years. As such, it can be difficult to determine longer-term trends in our business based on quarterly comparisons. To normalize for short-term fluctuations, we tend to look at our performance over several quarters or years of activity rather than discrete short-term periods. There are also fluctuations in OEM and aftermarket ordering and delivery requests from quarter-to-quarter, as well as variations in product mix from quarter-to-quarter, that may cause positive or negative variations in gross profit since commercial aftermarket net sales have historically produced a higher gross profit than net sales to commercial OEMs. Again, in many instances these are timing events between quarters and must be balanced with macro aerospace industry indicators.
Commercial Aftermarket
The key market factors in the commercial aftermarket include worldwide RPMs and the size and activity level of the worldwide fleet of aircraft and the percentage of the fleet that is in warranty. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and the stringent measures implemented to help control the spread of the virus, demand for air travel declined at a rapid pace and has remained depressed compared to pre-pandemic levels. The reduced demand has led to a significant reduction in flights and an increase in parked aircraft. Certain airlines have also retired a portion of their fleets. Certain markets have reopened, some of which have experienced a resurgence of COVID-19 cases, while others, particularly international markets, remain closed or are enforcing extended quarantines. Although worldwide RPMs are still significantly lower than pre-pandemic levels, worldwide RPMs have been steadily recovering. Commercial air travel has increasingly shown signs of recovery in recent months with increasing air traffic, primarily in certain domestic markets, and parked aircraft returning to service. The pace of the international air travel traffic recovery has been slower and international RPMs have only slightly recovered from pandemic lows. There is potential for improved international recovery moving forward as vaccinations increase worldwide and government-imposed travel restrictions are eased. Current industry consensus indicates that worldwide RPMs will continue to recover in 2022. However, the impact of COVID-19 on the commercial aerospace market is fluid and continues to evolve. Overall, the timing and pace of the commercial aftermarket recovery remains uncertain and may not return to pre-pandemic levels until 2023 or beyond.
Commercial OEM Market
The commercial OEM market declined in fiscal 2021 primarily due to the continued impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our commercial transport OEM shipments and revenues generally run ahead of Boeing and Airbus airframe delivery schedules. As a result, and consistent with prior years, our fiscal 2022 shipments will be a function of, among other things, the estimated 2022 and 2023 commercial airframe production rates. We have been experiencing decreased net sales across the commercial OEM sector driven primarily by the decrease in production rates by Boeing and Airbus related to reduced demand in the commercial air travel from the COVID-19 pandemic. We expect demand for our commercial OEM products to continue to be reduced in the short-term. However, the commercial OEM market is showing initial signs of recovery with airlines returning to the commercial OEMs to take planes or place orders, along with Boeing and Airbus disclosing potential OEM production rate increases for calendar 2022. Current industry consensus indicates production rates will continue to be lower than pre-pandemic historic levels but are expected to gradually increase over the next several years. However, the duration of the pandemic is unclear and the pace of the recovery of the commercial OEM market remains uncertain and continues to evolve.
Our businesses continually seek to provide solutions for our customers and others in the commercial aerospace industry. For example, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, many of our businesses have taken the opportunity to explore new business opportunities by working on developing highly engineered solutions for emerging needs arising from the pandemic and providing product offerings that could help the industry recover. Product solutions currently developed or being explored include anti-viral or antimicrobial technology, air purification, and touchless technologies, among others.
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Defense
Our military business fluctuates from year-to-year, and is dependent, to a degree, on government budget constraints, the timing of orders, macro and micro dynamics with respect to the U.S. Department of Defense (“DOD”) procurement policy and the extent of global conflicts. Also, government funding reprioritization such as shifting funds to efforts to combat the impact of the pandemic provides for further unpredictability in the military spending outlook. The defense aerospace market has been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic to a lesser extent than the commercial aerospace market. Any unfavorable impact on our defense aerospace business related to the COVID-19 pandemic was primarily during fiscal 2020 due to certain supply chain disruptions as well as “stay at home” orders, quarantines, etc. impacting the government procurement workforce which slowed production and/or orders. Uncertainty remains in the COVID-19 pandemic recovery, but we do not currently expect any significant unfavorable impact on our defense aerospace business related to the COVID-19 pandemic. For a variety of reasons, the military spending outlook is very uncertain. For planning purposes, we assume that military-related net sales of our types of products to be flatter in future years over the recent higher levels.
In fiscal years 2021 and 2020, the defense market channel comprises a greater percentage of net sales than historical comparisons due to the significant adverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our commercial aftermarket channel and commercial OEM market channel. In fiscal years 2015 through 2019, representing the five fiscal years prior to the pandemic, defense market net sales ranged from 29% to 37% of total net sales. As the commercial aerospace industry recovers from the disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, we would expect defense market net sales to account for a percentage of total net sales that is relatively in line with our historical levels prior to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Raw Materials
We require the use of various raw materials in our manufacturing processes. We purchase a variety of manufactured component parts from various suppliers. We also purchase replacement parts, which are utilized in our various repair and overhaul operations. At times, we concentrate our orders among a few suppliers in order to strengthen our supplier relationships. Most of our raw materials and component parts are generally available from multiple suppliers at competitive prices.
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the global supply chain to a certain extent and availability of raw materials, particularly electronic parts. Because we strive to limit the volume of raw materials and component parts on hand, our business could be adversely affected if we were unable to obtain these raw materials and components from our suppliers in the quantities we require or on favorable terms. Although we believe in most cases that we could identify alternative suppliers, or alternative raw materials or component parts, the lengthy and expensive FAA and OEM certification processes associated with aerospace products could prevent efficient replacement of a supplier, raw material or component part.
Intellectual Property
We have various trade secrets, proprietary information, trademarks, trade names, patents, copyrights and other intellectual property rights, which we believe, in the aggregate but not individually, are important to our business. The Company's products are manufactured, marketed and sold using a portfolio of patents, trademarks, licenses, and other forms of intellectual property, some of which expire in the future. The Company develops and acquires new intellectual property on an ongoing basis. Based on the broad scope of the Company’s product lines, management believes that the loss or expiration of any single intellectual property right would not have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.
Environmental Matters
Our operations and facilities are subject to a number of federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations that govern, among other things, discharges of pollutants into the air and water, the generation, handling, storage and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes, the remediation of contamination and the health and safety of our employees. Environmental laws and regulations may require that the Company investigate and remediate the effects of the release or disposal of materials at sites associated with past and present operations. Certain facilities and third-party sites utilized by the Company have been identified as potentially responsible parties under the federal superfund laws and comparable state laws. The Company is currently involved in the investigation and remediation of a number of sites under applicable laws.
For information regarding environmental accruals, refer to Note 15, “Commitments and Contingencies,” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included herein. Compliance with federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws during fiscal 2021 had no material impact on our capital expenditures or results of operations. Based upon consideration of currently available information, we believe liabilities for environmental matters will not have a material adverse impact on our consolidated financial statements, but we cannot assure that material environmental liabilities may not arise in the future. For further information on environmental-related risks, including climate change, refer to Item 1A. “Risk Factors.”
Employees
As of September 30, 2021, we had approximately 13,300 full-time, part-time and temporary employees. Approximately 16% of our full-time and part-time employees are represented by labor unions. Collective bargaining agreements between us and these labor unions expire at various dates ranging from December 2021 to December 2024.
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Talent Development
We consider our employees to be our most valuable asset. The development, attraction and retention of employees is a critical success factor for TransDigm and its operating units for succession planning and sustaining our three core value drivers (obtaining profitable new business, continually improving our cost structure and providing highly engineered value-added products to customers). To support the advancement of our employees, we offer training and development programs encouraging advancement from within and continue to fill our team with strong and experienced management talent. We leverage both formal and informal programs to identify, foster, and retain top talent at both the corporate and operating unit level.
We have established TransDigm University, a formal mentoring and education program with a curated curriculum and established leadership serving as mentors. Participants in the program learn and develop more advanced skills leading to higher contribution and satisfaction within their roles, while mentors enhance their leadership capabilities by helping others progress. This program helps identify top performers, improving employee performance and retention, increasing our organizational learning and supporting the promotion of our current employees.
The Company’s Management Development Program (“MDP”) identifies new talent and prepares them for success within our organization. The Company actively recruits for MDP candidates at colleges and universities across the U.S. to ensure we are reaching a large and diverse pool of candidates. The program hires recent Master of Business Administration graduates who work for three eight-month stints at a selection of operating units. Program participants gain experience in developing, manufacturing, and selling aerospace components with the intent of becoming fully immersed in the operations of our business. Once the program is complete, MDP participants are better equipped with the knowledge and experience needed to excel as a manager at the Company. Our goal for successful MDP participants is to hire them on a full-time basis at an operating unit upon completion of the program.
TransDigm’s executive team also mentors rising talent on a more informal basis. This informal mentorship achieves a number of goals, including accelerating the development of top performers, increasing organizational learning, and improving employee performance and retention. The executive team also commits substantial time to evaluating the bench strength of our leadership and working with our leadership to improve their performance.
TransDigm University, MDP, various internship programs and informal mentoring demonstrates the Company’s ongoing commitment and initiatives towards accelerating the development of our future leaders.
Benefits
We are proud to offer attractive benefits packages that attract, retain, motivate and reward our talent, and we are committed to providing our employees and their families with programs that support their health and overall well-being. To assist employees with financial empowerment, we offer 401(k) programs and various legacy defined benefit pension plans. We also offer members the ability to save money on a tax-free basis through flexible spending accounts and health savings accounts. TransDigm offers competitive compensation programs to our employees that includes base pay, bonus programs and equity programs. TransDigm employees also receive paid time off and holidays.
We understand the value in furthering the knowledge and education of our current employee base. In addition to formal and informal employee development programs within TransDigm and our operating units, employees can expand their careers by accessing tuition reimbursement programs. Some operating units also partner with local colleges to provide training courses to TransDigm employees. Access to programs such as these enhance our employees’ value to the Company, our customers and our communities.
TransDigm’s equity compensation plans are designed to assist in attracting, retaining, motivating and rewarding key employees and directors, and promoting the creation of long-term value for our stockholders by closely aligning the interests of these individuals with those of our stockholders. TransDigm’s equity compensation plans provide for the granting of performance-based stock options. Equity compensation, and specifically stock options, is a significant component of TransDigm’s equity-based compensation strategy and value-based culture. Our approach to equity has a track record of success and we believe that the continued use of performance-based stock options will help retain the Company’s key employees and recruit the talented minds of the future.
Diversity
At TransDigm, we value new ideas, different experiences and fresh perspectives, and we firmly believe this is enhanced by a more diverse workforce throughout all levels of our organization. Diversity and inclusion make us stronger as a company – it is critical to innovation, provides a competitive advantage, yields better outcomes, and in turn, enables us to better deliver for all of our stakeholders.
We are committed to diversity at all levels of management and leadership, and our leadership team and Board of Directors are committed to improving diversity throughout the Company and fostering a more inclusive and open environment. We recognize that a company’s commitment to diversity and inclusion must come from the top, and we are focused on continuing to improve diversity within our leadership team, and at the Board of Directors level. Diversity and inclusion make us stronger as a business so we can effectively serve all our stakeholders. Our workforce includes talented people from many backgrounds.
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Discrimination is not tolerated at TransDigm. We are committed to high ethical standards and equal employment opportunities in all personnel actions without regard to race, color, religion, gender, national origin, citizenship status, age, marital status, gender identity or expression, sexual orientation, physical or mental disability, or veteran status.
Health and Safety
Our commitment to manufacturing the safest, highest quality products is matched by our commitment to keeping our employees healthy and safe as they work to produce these products. We are dedicated to building, designing, maintaining, and operating our facilities to effectively manage process safety and other hazards, and to minimize risks. We also seek to empower and support our employees to prevent accidents and promote a safe environment. We expect personnel to report and communicate risks, potential hazards, incidents and near hits so that they can be investigated, and appropriate action can be taken to prevent future issues. To elevate the importance of this, we began to require our operating units to individually report on Environmental Health and Safety matters monthly to the executive team.
Since the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have been following guidance from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Center for Disease Control to protect employees and prevent the spread of the virus within all of our facilities globally. The Company has taken various steps to facilitate access to vaccines for our employees in accordance with federal guidelines and state and local vaccination plans.
Seasonality
We do not believe our net sales are subject to significant seasonal variation; however, our net sales have generally been lower in the first quarter of our fiscal year compared to the subsequent quarters due to fewer working days resulting from the observance of various holidays.
Available Information
TD Group’s Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, including any amendments, will be made available free of charge on the Company’s website, www.transdigm.com, as soon as reasonably practicable, following the filing of the reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). In addition, the Company’s website allows investors and other interested persons to sign up to automatically receive e-mail alerts when news releases and financial information is posted on the website. The SEC also maintains a website, www.sec.gov, that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The information on or obtainable through our website is not incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS
Set forth below are material risks and uncertainties that could negatively affect our business and financial condition and could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed in forward-looking statements contained in this report. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial also may impair our business operations and financial condition.
Risks Related to our Strategy
We face risks related to the current COVID-19 pandemic and other health pandemics, epidemics and outbreaks.
The COVID-19 pandemic is continuing to cause an adverse impact on our employees, operations, supply chain and distribution system and the long-term impact to our business remains unknown. This is due to the numerous uncertainties that have risen from the pandemic, including the severity of the disease, the duration of the outbreak, the likelihood of resurgences of the outbreak, including due to the emergence and spread of variants, actions that may be taken by governmental authorities in response to the disease, the timing, distribution, efficacy and public acceptance of vaccines, and unintended consequences of the foregoing.
The commercial aerospace industry, in particular, has been significantly disrupted, both domestically and internationally, by the pandemic. The pandemic has resulted in governments around the world implementing stringent measures to help control the spread of the virus, including quarantines, “shelter in place” and “stay at home” orders, travel restrictions, business curtailments and other measures. As a result, demand for travel declined at a rapid pace beginning in the second half of fiscal 2020 and has remained depressed compared to pre-pandemic levels. However, commercial air travel has increasingly shown signs of recovery in recent quarters with increasing air traffic, primarily in certain domestic markets. The recovery in international commercial air travel has been slower with international travel only slightly recovered from COVID-19 pandemic lows. The exact pace and timing of the commercial air travel recovery remains uncertain and is expected to continue to be uneven depending on factors such as trends in the number of COVID-19 infections (e.g., impact of new variants of COVID-19 resurfacing), the timing, distribution, efficacy, and public acceptance of vaccines and easing of quarantines and travel restrictions, among other factors. We currently expect COVID-19 to continue to cause an adverse impact on our net sales, net income and EBITDA as Defined compared to pre-pandemic levels into
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fiscal 2022. Longer-term, because the duration of the pandemic is unclear, it is difficult to forecast a precise impact on the Company’s future results.
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the global supply chain to a certain extent and availability of raw materials, particularly electronic parts. Because we strive to limit the volume of raw materials and component parts on hand, our business could be adversely affected if we were unable to obtain these raw materials and components from our suppliers in the quantities we require or on favorable terms. Although we believe in most cases that we could identify alternative suppliers, or alternative raw materials or component parts, the lengthy and expensive FAA and OEM certification processes associated with aerospace products could prevent efficient replacement of a supplier, raw material or component part.
Our ability to continue to manufacture products is highly dependent on our ability to maintain the safety and health of our factory employees. The ability of our employees to work has been, and may again be significantly impacted by individuals contracting or being exposed to COVID-19. While we are following the requirements of governmental authorities and taking preventative and protective measures to prioritize the safety of our employees, these measures are not always successful and we have been required to temporarily close facilities or take other measures. Furthermore, in light of enacted and any additional reductions in our workforce as a result of declines in our business caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, we cannot assure that we will be able to rehire our workforce as our business continues to recover. We believe the COVID-19 pandemic has had, and may in the future again have, a material and adverse impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and any future public health crises that arise could exacerbate the other risks we face.
Our business focuses almost exclusively on the aerospace and defense industry.
During a prolonged period of significant market disruption in the aerospace and defense industry, such as the adverse impact that the COVID-19 pandemic has had and is expected to continue to have on the commercial aerospace market, our business may be disproportionately impacted compared to peer companies that are more diversified in the industries they serve. In which case, a more diversified company may be able to recover more quickly from significant market disruptions such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
We rely heavily on certain customers for much of our sales.
In fiscal year 2021, no customer individually accounted for 10% or more of the Company’s net sales; however, our top ten customers for fiscal year 2021 accounted for approximately 42% of our net sales. In fiscal year 2020, no customer individually accounted for 10% or more of the Company’s net sales. In fiscal year 2019, one customer individually accounted for approximately 11% of the Company’s net sales. A material reduction in purchasing by one of our larger customers for any reason, including but not limited to the COVID-19 pandemic, general economic or aerospace downturn, decreased production, strike or resourcing, could have a material adverse effect on results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
We generally do not have guaranteed future sales of our products. Further, when we enter into fixed price contracts with some of our customers, we take the risk for cost overruns.
As is customary in our business, we do not generally have long-term contracts with most of our aftermarket customers and, therefore, do not have guaranteed future sales. Although we have long-term contracts with many of our OEM customers, many of those customers may terminate the contracts on short notice and, in most cases, our customers have not committed to buy any minimum quantity of our products. In addition, in certain cases, we must anticipate the future volume of orders based upon the historic purchasing patterns of customers and upon our discussions with customers as to their anticipated future requirements, and this anticipated future volume of orders may not materialize.
We also have entered into multi-year, fixed-price contracts with some of our customers, pursuant to which we have agreed to perform the work for a fixed price and, accordingly, realize all the benefit or detriment resulting from any decreases or increases in the costs of making these products. Sometimes we accept a fixed-price contract for a product that we have not yet produced, and this increases the risk of cost overruns or delays in the completion of the design and manufacturing of the product. Most of our contracts do not permit us to recover increases in raw material prices, taxes or labor costs.
We intend to pursue acquisitions. Our business may be adversely affected if we cannot consummate acquisitions on satisfactory terms, or if we cannot effectively integrate acquired operations.
A significant portion of our growth has occurred through acquisitions. Any future growth through acquisitions will be partially dependent upon the continued availability of suitable acquisition candidates at favorable prices and upon advantageous terms and conditions. We intend to pursue acquisitions that we believe will present opportunities consistent with our overall business strategy. However, we may not be able to find suitable acquisition candidates to purchase or may be unable to acquire desired businesses or assets on economically acceptable terms or may be unable to receive necessary regulatory approvals or support. In addition, we may not be able to raise the capital necessary to fund future acquisitions. Because we may actively pursue a number of opportunities simultaneously, we may encounter unforeseen expenses, complications and delays, including regulatory complications or difficulties in employing sufficient staff and maintaining operational and management oversight.
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We regularly engage in discussions with respect to potential acquisition and investment opportunities. If we consummate an acquisition, our capitalization and results of operations may change significantly. Future acquisitions could result in margin dilution and further likely result in the incurrence of additional debt and contingent liabilities and an increase in interest and amortization expenses or periodic impairment charges related to goodwill and other intangible assets as well as significant charges relating to integration costs.
Acquisitions involve risks that the businesses acquired will not perform in accordance with expectations and that business judgments concerning the value, strengths and weaknesses of businesses acquired will prove incorrect. In addition, we may not be able to successfully integrate any business we acquire into our existing business. The successful integration of new businesses, with the most significant recent acquisition being the Cobham Aero Connectivity (“CAC”) acquisition in the second quarter of fiscal 2021, depends on our ability to manage these new businesses and cut excess costs. The successful integration of future acquisitions may also require substantial attention from our senior management and the management of the acquired business, which could decrease the time that they have to service, attract customers and develop new products and services or attend to other acquisition opportunities.
Our indebtedness could adversely affect our financial health and could harm our ability to react to changes to our business and prevent us from fulfilling our obligations under our indebtedness.
We have a significant amount of indebtedness. As of September 30, 2021, our total indebtedness, excluding approximately $31 million of letters of credit outstanding, was approximately $20 billion, which was 117.1% of our total book capitalization.
In addition, we may be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future. As of September 30, 2021, we had approximately $529 million of unused commitments under our revolving credit facility. On October 6, 2021, the Company repaid $200 million of the revolving credit facility drawn, increasing the borrowings available under the revolving commitments to $729 million. Although our senior secured credit facility and the indentures governing the various senior secured and senior subordinated notes outstanding (the “Indentures”) contain restrictions on the incurrence of additional indebtedness, these restrictions are subject to a number of significant qualifications and exceptions, and the indebtedness incurred in compliance with these qualifications and exceptions could be substantial. A breach of any of the covenants or an inability to comply with the required leverage ratio could result in a default under the senior secured credit facility or the Indentures.
An increase in our indebtedness could also have other important consequences to investors. For example, it could:
increase our vulnerability to general economic downturns and adverse competitive and industry conditions;
increase the risk we are subjected to downgrade or put on a negative watch by the ratings agencies;
require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flows from operations to payments on our indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow to fund working capital requirements, capital expenditures, acquisitions, research and development efforts and other general corporate requirements;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate;
place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to competitors that have less debt; and
limit, along with the financial and other restrictive covenants contained in the documents governing our indebtedness, among other things, our ability to borrow additional funds, make investments and incur liens.
All of our debt under the senior secured credit facility, which includes $7.4 billion in term loans and a revolving credit facility of $760 million, bears interest at variable rates primarily based on the London interbank offered rate (“LIBOR”) for deposits of U.S. dollars. Accordingly, if LIBOR or other variable interest rates increase, our debt service expense will also increase. In order to mitigate the interest rate risk of these variable rate borrowings, we entered into interest rate swap and cap agreements that covers a significant portion of the existing variable rate debt. The Company's objective is to maintain an allocation of at least 75% fixed rate and 25% variable rate debt thereby limiting its exposure to changes in near-term interest rates. As of September 30, 2021, approximately 86% of our total debt was fixed rate debt. For information about our interest rate swap and cap agreements, refer to Note 21, “Derivatives and Hedging Instruments,” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included herein.
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In 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority announced that after 2021 it would no longer compel banks to submit the rates required to calculate LIBOR and other interbank offered rates, which have been widely used as reference rates for various securities and financial contracts, including loans, debt and derivatives. However, for U.S dollar LIBOR, the relevant date has been deferred to at least June 30, 2023 for certain tenors, at which time the LIBOR administrator has indicated that it intends to cease publication of U.S. dollar LIBOR. Despite this deferral, the LIBOR administrator has advised that no new contracts using U.S. dollar LIBOR should be entered into after December 31, 2021. These actions indicate that the continuation of U.S. dollar LIBOR on the current basis cannot and will not be guaranteed after June 30, 2023. Moreover, it is possible that U.S. dollar LIBOR will be discontinued or modified prior to June 30, 2023. In February 2020, in connection with Amendment No. 7 to the Credit Agreement, we amended our Credit Agreement to include a provision for the determination of an alternative reference interest rate. The discontinuation of LIBOR will also require our derivative agreements to be amended. Once the alternative interest rate has replaced LIBOR, our future interest expense could be impacted.
Our indebtedness increases the possibility that we may be unable to generate cash sufficient to pay, when due, the principal of, interest on or other amounts due in respect of our indebtedness, including the Indentures. We cannot assure that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future borrowings will be available to us under the senior secured credit facility or otherwise in amounts sufficient to enable us to service our indebtedness. If we cannot service our debt, we will have to take actions such as reducing or delaying capital investments, selling assets, restructuring or refinancing our debt or seeking additional equity capital.
To service our indebtedness, we will require a significant amount of cash. Our ability to generate cash depends on many factors beyond our control and any failure to meet our debt service obligations could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our ability to make payments on and to refinance our indebtedness, including the Indentures, amounts borrowed under the senior secured credit facility, amounts due under our trade receivable securitization facility (“Securitization Facility”), and to fund our operations, will depend on our ability to generate cash in the future, which, to a certain extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control.
We cannot assure that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations, that currently anticipated cost savings and operating improvements will be realized on schedule, or at all, or that future borrowings will be available to us under the senior secured credit facility or otherwise in amounts sufficient to enable us to service our indebtedness, including the amounts borrowed under the senior secured credit facility, amounts borrowed under our Securitization Facility and the Indentures, or to fund our other liquidity needs. If we cannot service our debt, we will have to take actions such as reducing or delaying capital investments, selling assets, restructuring or refinancing our debt or seeking additional equity capital. We cannot assure that any of these remedies could, if necessary, be effected on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Our ability to restructure or refinance our debt will depend on the condition of the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. Any refinancing of our debt could be at higher interest rates and may require us to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict our business operations. The terms of existing or future debt instruments, the Securitization Facility, the Indentures and the senior secured credit facility may restrict us from adopting any of these alternatives. In addition, any failure to make payments of interest and principal on our outstanding indebtedness on a timely basis would likely result in a reduction of our credit rating, which could harm our ability to incur additional indebtedness on acceptable terms and would otherwise adversely affect the Indentures.
The terms of the senior secured credit facility and Indentures may restrict our current and future operations, particularly our ability to respond to changes or to take certain actions.
Our senior secured credit facility and the Indentures contain a number of restrictive covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions on TD Group, TransDigm Inc. and its subsidiaries (in the case of the senior secured credit facility) and TransDigm Inc. and its subsidiaries (in the case of the Indentures) and may limit their ability to engage in acts that may be in our long-term best interests. The senior secured credit facility and Indentures include covenants restricting, among other things, the ability of TD Group, TransDigm Inc. and its subsidiaries (in the case of the senior secured credit facility) and TransDigm Inc. and its subsidiaries (in the case of the Indentures) to:
incur or guarantee additional indebtedness or issue preferred stock;
pay distributions on, redeem or repurchase our capital stock or redeem or repurchase our subordinated debt;
make investments;
sell assets;
enter into agreements that restrict distributions or other payments from our restricted subsidiaries to us;
incur or allow to exist liens;
consolidate, merge or transfer all or substantially all of our assets;
engage in transactions with affiliates;
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create unrestricted subsidiaries; and
engage in certain business activities.
A breach of any of these covenants could result in a default under the senior secured credit facility or the Indentures. If any such default occurs, the lenders under the senior secured credit facility and the holders of the senior secured and senior subordinated notes may elect to declare all outstanding borrowings, together with accrued interest and other amounts payable thereunder, to be immediately due and payable. The lenders under the senior secured credit facility also have the right in these circumstances to terminate any commitments they have to provide further borrowings. In addition, following an event of default under the senior secured credit facility, the lenders under that facility will have the right to proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure the debt, which includes our available cash, and they will also have the right to prevent us from making debt service payments on the senior subordinated notes. If the debt under the senior secured credit facility or the senior secured or subordinated notes were to be accelerated, we cannot assure that our assets would be sufficient to repay in full our debt.
We are dependent on our executive officers, senior management team and highly trained employees and any work stoppage, difficulty hiring similar employees, or ineffective succession planning could adversely affect our business.
Because our products are complicated and highly engineered, we depend on an educated and trained workforce. Historically, there has been substantial competition for skilled personnel in the aerospace and defense industry, and we could be adversely affected by a shortage of skilled employees. We may not be able to fill new positions or vacancies created by expansion or turnover or attract and retain qualified personnel.
Reduction in force actions, such as the actions taken to reduce our workforce to align operations with customer demand as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, could result in difficulty in rehiring capable employees to refill the positions eliminated as needed once business recovers.
Although we believe that our relations with our employees are satisfactory, we cannot assure that we will be able to negotiate a satisfactory renewal of collective bargaining agreements or that our employee relations will remain stable. Because we strive to limit the volume of finished goods inventory, any work stoppage could materially and adversely affect our ability to provide products to our customers.
In addition, our success depends in part on our ability to attract and motivate our senior management and key employees. Achieving this objective may be difficult due to a variety of factors, including fluctuations in economic and industry conditions, competitors’ hiring practices, and the effectiveness of our compensation programs. Competition for qualified personnel can be intense. If we are unable to effectively provide for the succession of key personnel, senior management and our executive officers, including our President, Chief Executive Officer and Director, our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition may be adversely affected. The Company’s Board of Directors continually monitors this risk and we believe that the Company’s succession plan, together with our straightforward strategy, clear value drivers, decentralized nature and the quality of managers running our operating units helps to mitigate this risk.
Risks Related to our Operations
Our sales to manufacturers of aircraft are cyclical, and a downturn in sales to these manufacturers may adversely affect us.
Our sales to manufacturers of large commercial aircraft, such as Boeing, Airbus, and related OEM suppliers, as well as manufacturers of business jets have historically experienced periodic downturns. In the past, these sales have been affected by airline profitability, which is impacted by, among other things, fuel and labor costs, price competition, interest rates, downturns in the global economy and national and international events. In addition, sales of our products to manufacturers of business jets are impacted by, among other things, downturns in the global economy. In recent years, we have been experiencing decreased sales across the commercial OEM sector driven primarily by the decrease in production by Boeing and Airbus related to reduced demand in the commercial aerospace industry from the COVID-19 pandemic, and also in Boeing’s case, the 737 MAX’s grounding and subsequent production slowdown, and airlines deferring or cancelling orders. Downturns adversely affect our results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
Our business is dependent on the availability of certain components and raw materials from suppliers.
Our business is affected by the price and availability of the raw materials and component parts that we use to manufacture our components. Our business, therefore, could be adversely impacted by factors affecting our suppliers (such as the destruction of our suppliers’ facilities or their distribution infrastructure, a work stoppage or strike by our suppliers’ employees or the failure of our suppliers to provide materials of the requisite quality), or by increased costs of such raw materials or components if we were unable to pass along such price increases to our customers.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has continued to disrupt the global supply chain. We currently are experiencing supply shortages and inflationary pressures for certain components and raw materials that are important to our manufacturing process, particularly electronic parts. Expected growth in the global economy may exacerbate these pressures on us and our suppliers, and we expect these supply chain challenges and cost impacts to continue for the foreseeable future. Because we strive to limit the volume of raw materials and component parts on hand, our business could be adversely affected if we were unable to obtain these raw materials and components from our suppliers in the quantities we require or on favorable terms. Although we believe in most cases that we could identify alternative suppliers, or alternative raw materials or component parts, the lengthy and expensive FAA and OEM certification processes associated with aerospace products could prevent efficient replacement of a supplier, raw material or component part.
We face significant competition.
We operate in a highly competitive global industry and compete against a number of companies. Competitors in our product lines are both U.S. and foreign companies and range in size from divisions of large public corporations to small privately-held entities. We believe that our ability to compete depends on high product performance, consistent high quality, short lead-time and timely delivery, competitive pricing, superior customer service and support and continued certification under customer quality requirements and assurance programs. We may have to adjust the prices of some of our products to stay competitive.
Climate-related regulations designed to address climate change may result in additional compliance costs.
Our operations and the products we sell are currently subject to rules limiting emissions and to other climate-related regulations in certain jurisdictions where we operate. The increased prevalence of global climate change concerns may result in new regulations that may negatively impact us, our suppliers and customers. We are continuing to evaluate short-, medium- and long-term risks related to climate change. We cannot predict what environmental legislation or regulations will be enacted in the future, how existing or future laws or regulations will be administered or interpreted, or what environmental conditions may be found to exist. Compliance with any new or more stringent laws or regulations, or stricter interpretations of existing laws, could require additional expenditures by us or our suppliers, in which case, the costs of raw materials and component parts could increase.
As a whole, because our manufacturing facilities primarily engage in assembly and light manufacturing and because we do not maintain any transportation infrastructure, our emissions primarily fall into Scope 2 and Scope 3 emissions. Accordingly, we do not anticipate any material adverse impact from increased carbon regulation. Further, because of our wide portfolio of hundreds of thousands of products, we do not anticipate any material adverse impact from the reliance on a supplier or group of suppliers that may be subject to climate risks. However, given the political significance and uncertainty around these issues, we cannot predict how legislation, regulation, and increased awareness of these issues will affect our operations and financial condition. We continue to evaluate ways to reduce our energy and water consumption and lower our greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency measures, the purchase of green power and other actions.
Our operations depend on our manufacturing facilities, which are subject to physical and other risks that could disrupt production.
Our operations and those of our customers and suppliers have been and may again be subject to natural disasters, climate change-related events, pandemics or other business disruptions, which could seriously harm our results of operation and increase our costs and expenses. Some of our manufacturing facilities are located in regions that may be impacted by severe weather events, such as increased storm frequency or severity in the Atlantic and fires in hotter and drier climates. These could result in potential damage to our physical assets as well as disruptions in manufacturing activities. Some of our manufacturing facilities are located in areas that may be at risk due to rising sea levels. Moreover, some of our manufacturing facilities are located in areas that could experience decreased access to water due to climate issues.
We are also vulnerable to damage from other types of disasters, including power loss, fire, explosions, floods, communications failures, terrorist attacks and similar events. Disruptions could also occur due to health-related outbreaks and crises, cyber-attacks, computer or equipment malfunction (accidental or intentional), operator error or process failures. Should insurance or other risk transfer mechanisms, such as our existing disaster recovery and business continuity plans, be insufficient to recover all costs, we could experience a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial position and cash flows.








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Operations and sales outside of the United States may be subject to additional risks.
Our net sales to foreign customers were approximately $1.7 billion for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively. A number of risks inherent in international operations could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, including global health crises, Brexit, currency fluctuations, difficulties in staffing and managing multinational operations, general economic and political uncertainties and potential for social unrest in countries in which we operate, limitations on our ability to enforce legal rights and remedies, restrictions on the repatriation of funds, change in trade policies, tariff regulation, difficulties in obtaining export and import licenses and the risk of government financed competition. Issues with the global supply chain can also rise due to some of the aforementioned risks as well as global health crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, the Company is subject to laws and regulations, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, UK Bribery Act and similar local anti-bribery laws, which generally prohibit companies and their employees, agents and contractors from making improper payments for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. Failure to comply with these laws could subject the Company to civil and criminal penalties that could materially adversely affect the Company’s results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
We are subject to certain unique business risks as a result of supplying equipment and services to the U.S. Government.
Companies engaged in supplying defense-related equipment and services to U.S. Government agencies, whether through direct contracts with the U.S. Government or as a subcontractor to customers contracting with the U.S. Government, are subject to business risks specific to the defense industry. These risks include the ability of the U.S. Government to unilaterally:
suspend us from receiving new contracts based on alleged violations of procurement laws or regulations;
terminate existing contracts;
revoke required security clearances;
reduce the value of existing contracts; and
audit our contract-related costs and fees, including allocated indirect costs.
Most of our U.S. Government contracts can be terminated by the U.S. Government at its convenience without significant notice. Termination for convenience provisions provide only for our recovery of costs incurred or committed, settlement expenses and profit on the work completed prior to termination.
On contracts for which the price is based on cost, the U.S. Government may review our costs and performance, as well as our accounting and general business practices. Based on the results of such audits, the U.S. Government may adjust our contract-related costs and fees, including allocated indirect costs. In addition, under U.S. Government purchasing regulations, some of our costs, including most financing costs, amortization of intangible assets, portions of research and development costs, and certain marketing expenses may not be subject to reimbursement.
Furthermore, even where the price is not based on cost, the U.S. Government may seek to review our costs to determine whether our pricing is “fair and reasonable.” Our subsidiaries are periodically subject to pricing reviews and government buying agencies that purchase some of our subsidiaries’ products are periodically subject to audits by the DOD Office of Inspector General (“OIG”) with respect to prices paid for such products. In the third quarter of fiscal 2019, we voluntarily refunded $16 million to the U.S. Government following an OIG audit, and another OIG audit is underway. In addition, our defense-related business has been the subject of an ongoing Congressional inquiry by the House Oversight Committee and release of the current OIG audit report may prompt further Congressional inquiries. Pricing reviews and government audits, including the audit underway, and the Congressional inquiries are costly and time consuming for our management and could distract from our ability to effectively manage the business. As a result of these reviews, audits and inquiries, we could be subject to providing further refunds to the U.S. Government, we could be asked to enter into an arrangement whereby our prices would be based on cost, the DOD could seek to pursue alternative sources of supply for our parts, or the U.S. Government could take other adverse actions with respect to our contracts. Any of those occurrences could lead to a reduction in our revenue from, or the profitability of certain of our supply arrangements with, certain agencies and buying organizations of the U.S. Government. Further, negative publicity relating to the results of any audit, inquiry or subsequent hearing or the like could negatively impact our stock price.
If a government inquiry or investigation uncovers improper or illegal activities, we could be subject to civil or criminal penalties or administrative sanctions, including contract termination, fines, forfeiture of fees, suspension of payment and suspension or debarment from doing business with U.S. Government agencies, any of which could materially adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Moreover, U.S. Government purchasing regulations contain a number of additional operational requirements, which do not apply to entities not engaged in government contracting. Failure to comply with such government contracting requirements could result in civil and criminal penalties that could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations.
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Our business may be adversely affected if we would lose our government or industry approvals or if more stringent government regulations are enacted or if industry oversight is increased.
The aerospace industry is highly regulated in the U.S. and in other countries. In order to sell our products, we and the products we manufacture must be certified by the FAA, the DOD and similar agencies in foreign countries and by individual manufacturers. If new and more stringent government regulations are adopted or if industry oversight increases, we might incur significant expenses to comply with any new regulations or heightened industry oversight. In addition, if material authorizations or approvals were revoked or suspended, our business would be adversely affected.
In addition to the aviation approvals, we are at times required to obtain approval from U.S. Government agencies to export our products. U.S. laws and regulations applicable to us include the Arms Export Control Act, the International Traffic in Arms Regulations ("ITAR"), the Export Administration Regulations ("EAR") and the trade sanctions laws and regulations administered by the United States Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control ("OFAC"). EAR restricts the export of dual-use products and technical data to certain countries, while ITAR restricts the export of defense products, technical data and defense services.
Failure to obtain approval to export or determination by the U.S. Government that we failed to receive required approvals or licenses could eliminate or restrict our ability to sell our products outside the United States, and the penalties that could be imposed by the U.S. Government for failure to comply with these laws could be significant.
We could incur substantial costs as a result of data protection concerns.
The interpretation and application of data protection laws in the U.S., Europe, including but not limited to the General Data Protection Regulation (the “GDPR”) and the California Consumer Privacy Act (the “CCPA”), and elsewhere are uncertain and evolving. It is possible that these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our data practices. Complying with these various laws is difficult and could cause us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices in a manner adverse to our business. Further, although we have implemented internal controls and procedures designed to ensure compliance with the GDPR, CCPA and other privacy-related laws, rules and regulations (collectively, the “Data Protection Laws”), there can be no assurance that our controls and procedures will enable us to be fully compliant with all Data Protection Laws.
Despite our efforts to protect sensitive information and confidential and personal data, comply with applicable laws, rules and regulations and implement data security measures, our facilities, and systems may be vulnerable to security breaches and other data loss, including cyber-attacks and, in fact, we have experienced data security incidents that have not had a material impact on our financial results. In addition, it is not possible to predict the impact on our business of the future loss, alteration or misappropriation of information in our possession related to us, our employees, former employees, customers, suppliers or others. This could lead to negative publicity, legal claims, theft, modification or destruction of proprietary information or key information, damage to or inaccessibility of critical systems, manufacture of defective products, production downtimes, operational disruptions and other significant costs, which could adversely affect our reputation, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Risks Related to Legal and Regulatory Matters
We could incur substantial costs as a result of violations of or liabilities under environmental laws and regulations.
Our operations and facilities are subject to a number of federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations that govern, among other things, discharges of pollutants into the air and water, the generation, handling, storage and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes, the remediation of contamination and the health and safety of our employees. Environmental laws and regulations may require that the Company investigate and remediate the effects of the release or disposal of materials at sites associated with past and present operations. Certain facilities and third-party sites utilized by subsidiaries of the Company have been identified as potentially responsible parties under the federal superfund laws and comparable state laws. The Company is currently involved in the investigation and remediation of a number of sites under applicable laws.
Estimates of the Company’s environmental liabilities are based on current facts, laws, regulations and technology. These estimates take into consideration the Company’s prior experience and professional judgment of the Company’s environmental advisors. Estimates of the Company’s environmental liabilities are further subject to uncertainties regarding the nature and extent of site contamination, the range of remediation alternatives available, evolving remediation standards, imprecise engineering evaluations and cost estimates, the extent of corrective actions that may be required and the number and financial condition of other potentially responsible parties, as well as the extent of their responsibility for the remediation.
Accordingly, as investigations and remediations proceed, it is likely that adjustments in the Company’s accruals will be necessary to reflect new information. The amounts of any such adjustments could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations or cash flows in a given period. Based on currently available information, however, the Company does not believe that future environmental costs in excess of those accrued with respect to sites for which the Company has been identified as a potentially responsible party are likely to have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition.
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We may be subject to periodic litigation and regulatory proceedings, including Fair Labor Standards Act and state wage and hour class action lawsuits, which may adversely affect our business and financial performance.
From time to time, we are involved in lawsuits and regulatory actions brought or threatened against us in the ordinary course of business. These actions and proceedings may involve claims for, among other things, compensation for alleged personal injury, workers’ compensation, employment discrimination, or breach of contract. In addition, we may be subject to class action lawsuits, including those involving allegations of violations of consumer product statutes or the Fair Labor Standards Act and state wage and hour laws. Due to the inherent uncertainties of litigation, we cannot accurately predict the ultimate outcome of any such actions or proceedings. The outcome of litigation, particularly class action lawsuits and regulatory actions, is difficult to assess or quantify, as plaintiffs may seek recovery of very large or indeterminate amounts in these types of lawsuits, and the magnitude of the potential loss may remain unknown for substantial periods of time. In addition, plaintiffs in many types of actions may seek punitive damages, civil penalties, consequential damages or other losses, or injunctive or declaratory relief. These proceedings could result in substantial cost and may require us to devote substantial resources to defend ourselves. The ultimate resolution of these matters through settlement, mediation, or court judgment could have a material impact on our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
We could be adversely affected if one of our products cause an aircraft to crash.
Our operations expose us to potential liabilities for personal injury or death as a result of the failure of an aircraft product that we have designed, manufactured or serviced. While we maintain liability insurance to protect us from future product liability claims, in the event of product liability claims our insurers may attempt to deny coverage or any coverage we have may not be adequate. We also may not be able to maintain insurance coverage in the future at an acceptable cost. Any liability not covered by insurance or for which third party indemnification is not available could result in significant liability to us.
In addition, a crash caused by one of our products could damage our reputation for quality products. We believe our customers consider safety and reliability as key criteria in selecting a provider of aircraft products. If a crash were to be caused by one of our products, or if we were to otherwise fail to maintain a satisfactory record of safety and reliability, our ability to retain and attract customers may be materially adversely affected.
Risks Related to Financial Matters
We have recorded a significant amount of intangible assets, which may never generate the returns we expect.
Mergers and acquisitions have resulted in significant increases in identifiable intangible assets and goodwill. Identifiable intangible assets, which primarily include trademarks, trade names, customer relationships, and technology, were approximately $2.8 billion at September 30, 2021, representing approximately 14% of our total assets. Goodwill recognized in accounting for the mergers and acquisitions was approximately $8.6 billion at September 30, 2021, representing approximately 44% of our total assets. We may never realize the full value of our identifiable intangible assets and goodwill, and to the extent we were to determine that our identifiable intangible assets or our goodwill were impaired within the meaning of applicable accounting standards, we would be required to write-off the amount of any impairment.
We may be subject to risks relating to changes in our tax rates or exposure to additional income tax liabilities.
We are subject to income taxes in the U.S. and various non-U.S. jurisdictions. The Company’s domestic and international tax liabilities are dependent upon the location of earnings among these different jurisdictions. The Company’s future results of operations could be adversely affected by changes in the Company’s effective tax rate as a result of changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets, challenges by tax authorities or changes in tax laws or regulations. In addition, the amount of income taxes paid by the Company is subject to ongoing audits by U.S. federal, state and local tax authorities and by non-U.S. tax authorities. If these audits result in assessments different from amounts reserved, future financial results may include unfavorable adjustments to the Company’s tax liabilities, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations.
We do not regularly declare and pay quarterly or annual cash dividends on our stock.
Notwithstanding special cash dividends, of which the most recent declaration by the Company’s Board of Directors occurred on December 20, 2019 in the amount of $32.50 per outstanding share of common stock and cash dividend equivalent payments on options granted under its equity compensation plans, we do not anticipate declaring regular quarterly or annual cash dividends on our common stock or any other equity security in the foreseeable future.
The amounts that may be available to us to pay future special cash dividends are restricted under our debt and other agreements. Any payment of special cash dividends on our common stock in the future will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on our results of operations, earnings, capital requirements, financial condition, future prospects, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our Board of Directors. Therefore, shareholders should not rely on regular quarterly or annual dividend income from shares of our common stock and should not rely on special dividends with any regularity or at all.
17

General Risks
Our commercial business is sensitive to the number of flight hours that our customers’ planes spend aloft, the size and age of the worldwide aircraft fleet and our customers’ profitability. These items are, in turn, affected by general economic and geopolitical and other worldwide conditions.
Our commercial business is directly affected by, among other factors, changes in RPMs, the size and age of the worldwide aircraft fleet, the percentage of the fleet that is out-of-warranty and changes in the profitability of the commercial airline industry. RPMs and airline profitability have historically been correlated with the general economic environment, although national and international events also play a key role. For example, in addition to the current COVID-19 pandemic and the adverse impact it has had on the airline industry, past examples in which the airline industry has been negatively affected include downturns in the global economy, higher fuel prices, increased security concerns among airline customers following the events of September 11, 2001, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (“SARS”) epidemic, and conflicts abroad. Additional examples include future geopolitical or other worldwide events, such as war, terrorist acts, or additional worldwide infectious disease outbreaks.
In addition, global market and economic conditions have been challenging due to turbulence in the U.S. and international markets and economies and have prolonged declines in business and consumer spending. As a result of the substantial reduction in airline traffic resulting from the aforementioned events, the airline industry incurred large losses and financial difficulties. Some carriers have also parked or retired a portion of their fleets and have reduced workforces and flights. During periods of reduced airline profitability, some airlines may delay purchases of spare parts, preferring instead to deplete existing inventories, and delay refurbishments and discretionary spending. If demand for spare parts decreases, there would be a decrease in demand for certain of our products. An adverse change in demand could impact our results of operations, collection of accounts receivable and our expected cash flow generation from current and acquired businesses which may adversely impact our financial condition and access to capital markets.
U.S. military spending is dependent upon the U.S. defense budget.
The military and defense market is significantly dependent upon government budget trends, particularly the DOD budget. In addition to normal business risks, our supply of products to the U.S. Government is subject to unique risks largely beyond our control. DOD budgets could be negatively impacted by several factors, including, but not limited to, a change in defense spending policy as a result of the presidential election or otherwise, the U.S. Government’s budget deficits, spending priorities (e.g., allocating more spending to combat the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic), the cost of sustaining the U.S. military presence internationally and possible political pressure to reduce U.S. Government military spending, each of which could cause the DOD budget to remain unchanged or to decline. A significant decline in U.S. military expenditures could result in a reduction in the amount of our products sold to the various agencies and buying organizations of the U.S. Government.
Our stock price may be volatile, and an investment in our common stock could suffer a decline in value.
There has been significant volatility in the market price and trading volume of equity securities, which is unrelated to the operating performance of the companies issuing the securities. These market fluctuations may negatively affect the market price of our common stock. Shareholders may not be able to sell their shares at or above the purchase price due to fluctuations in the market price of our common stock. Such changes could be caused by changes in our operating performance or prospects, including possible changes due to the cyclical nature of the aerospace industry and other factors such as fluctuations in OEM and aftermarket ordering, which could cause short-term swings in profit margins. Or such changes could be unrelated to our operating performance, such as changes in market conditions affecting the stock market generally or the stocks of aerospace companies or changes in the outlook for our common stock, such as changes to or the confidence in our business strategy, changes to or confidence in our management, or expectations for future growth of the Company. Global health crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic could also cause significant volatility in the market price.
ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
18

ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES
TransDigm’s principal owned properties (defined as greater than 20,000 square feet or related to a principal operation) as of September 30, 2021 are as follows:
LocationReporting SegmentSquare
Footage
Brea, CA (1)
Airframe315,000 
Stillington, United KingdomAirframe274,800 
Montreal, CanadaAirframe271,700 
Miesbach, GermanyPower & Control242,000 
Liberty, SC (1)
Power & Control219,000 
Waco, TXPower & Control218,800 
Liverpool, NYPower & Control197,100 
Ingolstadt, GermanyAirframe191,900 
Kent, OH (1)
Airframe185,000 
Bridport, United KingdomAirframe174,700 
Union Gap, WA (1)
Airframe142,000 
Coachella, CA (1)
Power & Control140,000 
Phoenix, AZAirframe138,700 
Paks, HungaryAirframe137,800 
Los Angeles, CAPower & Control131,000 
Bohemia, NY (1)
Power & Control124,000 
Buena Park, CAPower & Control115,000 
Llangeinor, United KingdomAirframe110,000 
Bourges, FrancePower & Control109,400 
Westbury, NYPower & Control106,800 
Kent, WA (1)
Airframe100,000 
Painesville, OHPower & Control94,200 
Valencia, CA (1)
Airframe88,400 
Letchworth, United KingdomAirframe88,200 
Placentia, CAAirframe86,600 
Addison, IL (1)
Power & Control83,300 
Sarralbe, FrancePower & Control77,900 
Niort, FrancePower & Control69,000 
Clearwater, FLPower & Control64,200 
Prescott, AZAirframe62,400 
South Euclid, OHPower & Control60,000 
Wichita, KSPower & Control57,000 
Branford, CTAirframe52,000 
Avenel, NJPower & Control48,500 
Rancho Cucamonga, CA (1)
Power & Control47,000 
Pennsauken, NJAirframe38,000 
Ryde, United KingdomPower & Control33,200 
Rancho Cucamonga, CAAirframe32,700 
Melaka, MalaysiaPower & Control24,800 
Cheveley, United KingdomAirframe24,000 
Deerfield Beach, FLNon-aviation20,000 
(1)Subject to mortgage liens under our senior secured credit facility, our 6.25% senior secured notes due March 15, 2026 and our 8.00% senior secured notes due December 15, 2025.



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TransDigm’s principal leased properties (defined as greater than 20,000 square feet or related to a principal operation) as of September 30, 2021 are as follows:
LocationReporting SegmentSquare
Footage
Everett, WAAirframe337,000 
East Camden, ARPower & Control276,000 
Whippany, NJPower & Control229,600 
Nittambuwa, Sri LankaAirframe168,000 
Santa Ana, CAAirframe159,200 
Holmestrand, NorwayAirframe144,700 
Dayton, NVAirframe144,000 
Tijuana, MexicoAirframe141,000 
Anaheim, CAAirframe138,900 
Marlow, United KingdomAirframe116,100 
Melbourne, FLPower & Control107,000 
Farnborough, United KingdomPower & Control103,400 
Goldsboro, NCPower & Control101,000 
Fullerton, CAAirframe100,000 
Kunshan, ChinaAirframe95,200 
Sylmar, CAAirframe93,000 
Elkhart, INNon-aviation91,500 
Davis Junction, ILAirframe84,500 
Miesbach, GermanyPower & Control80,800 
Kunshan, ChinaNon-aviation75,300 
Camarillo, CAPower & Control70,000 
Gloucestor, United KingdomAirframe67,800 
Tijuana, MexicoPower & Control63,500 
Matamoros, MexicoPower & Control60,500 
Tijuana, MexicoPower & Control49,300 
Lillington, NCPower & Control48,800 
Sugar Grove, ILAirframe45,000 
Zunyi, ChinaPower & Control43,000 
Tempe, AZPower & Control40,200 
Collegeville, PAAirframe37,000 
Chongqing, ChinaAirframe36,300 
Rancho Santa Margarita, CAAirframe35,200 
Joensuu, FinlandAirframe32,300 
Ashford, United KingdomPower & Control28,000 
Nogales, MexicoAirframe27,000 
Bridgend, United KingdomAirframe24,800 
Ravenna, OHAirframe22,500 
Pennsauken, NJAirframe20,500 
Cleveland, OHCorporate20,100 
Our Cleveland, OH and Pasadena, CA corporate facilities house our principal executive offices, and we currently lease approximately 20,100 square feet and 5,300 square feet, respectively, for those purposes. TransDigm also leases certain of its other non-material facilities. Management believes that our machinery, plants and offices are in satisfactory operating condition and that it will have sufficient capacity to meet foreseeable future needs without incurring significant additional capital expenditures.
20

ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
The Company is involved in various claims and legal actions arising in the ordinary course of business. SEC regulations require us to disclose certain information about environmental proceedings when a governmental authority is a party to the proceedings if we reasonably believe that such proceedings may result in monetary sanctions above a stated threshold. Pursuant to such regulations, the Company uses a threshold of $1 million or more for purposes of determining whether disclosure of any such proceedings is required as we believe matters under this threshold are not material to the Company. While the Company is currently involved in certain legal proceedings, it believes the results of these proceedings will not have a material adverse effect on its financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
Information with respect to our legal proceedings is contained in Note 15, “Commitments and Contingencies,” within the notes to the consolidated financial statements included herein.
PART II
ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, under the ticker symbol “TDG.”
Holders
As of October 13, 2021, there were 33 stockholders of record of our common stock and approximately 194,000 beneficial stockholders, which includes an estimated number of stockholders who have their shares held in their accounts by banks and brokers.
Dividends
No dividends were declared during fiscal 2021. During fiscal 2020, TD Group’s Board of Directors declared a special cash dividend of $32.50 (in December 2019) on each outstanding share of common stock and cash dividend equivalent payments under options granted under its equity compensation plans.
Performance Graph
Set forth below is a line graph comparing the cumulative total return of a hypothetical investment in the shares of common stock of TD Group with the cumulative total return of a hypothetical investment in each of the S&P 500 Index and the S&P Aerospace & Defense Select Index. An investment of $100 (with reinvestment of all dividends) is assumed to have been made in our common stock and in each of the indexes on September 30, 2016, and its relative performance is tracked through September 30, 2021.
21

The following performance graph and related information shall not be deemed “soliciting material” nor to be “filed” with the SEC, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, each as amended, except to the extent we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.
COMPARISON OF 5 YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN*
Among TransDigm Group Inc., the S&P 500 Index and S&P Aerospace & Defense Select Index
tdg-20210930_g1.jpg
*$100 invested on 9/30/16 in stock or index, including reinvestment of dividends.
Copyright 2021 Standard & Poor’s, a division of S&P Global. All rights reserved.
9/30/169/30/179/30/189/30/199/30/209/30/21
TransDigm Group Inc.100.00 104.73 152.52 225.70 217.82 286.34 
S&P 500 Index100.00 118.61 139.85 145.80 167.89 218.27 
S&P Aerospace & Defense Select Index100.00 139.21 175.93 191.20 157.98 218.45 
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer or Affiliated Purchaser
On November 8, 2017, our Board of Directors, authorized a stock repurchase program permitting repurchases of our outstanding shares not to exceed $650 million in the aggregate, subject to any restrictions specified in the Credit Agreement and/or Indentures governing the existing Notes as described within the Liquidity and Capital Resources section of Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations.”
No repurchases were made under the program during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020, the Company repurchased 36,900 shares of its common stock at a gross cost of $18.9 million at the weighted average cost of $512.67 under the repurchase program. As of September 30, 2021, the remaining amount of repurchases allowable under the program was $631.1 million subject to any restrictions specified in the Credit Agreement and/or Indentures governing the existing Notes.
ITEM 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
[Reserved]
22

ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read together with TD Group’s consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this report. The following discussion may contain predictions, estimates and other forward-looking statements that involve a number of risks and uncertainties, including those discussed under the heading entitled “Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this report. These risks could cause our actual results to differ materially from any future performance suggested below.
Overview
For fiscal year 2021, we generated net sales of $4,798 million, gross profit of $2,513 million or 52.4% of net sales, and net income attributable to TD Group of $680 million. The COVID-19 pandemic has continued to cause a significant adverse impact on our net sales, net income and EBITDA As Defined when compared to pre-pandemic levels. Historically and as our business continues to recover from the pandemic, we believe we have achieved steady, long-term growth in sales and improvements in operating performance since our formation in 1993 due to our competitive strengths and through execution of our value-driven operating strategy. More specifically, focusing our businesses on our value-driven operating strategy of obtaining profitable new business, carefully controlling the cost structure and pricing our highly engineered value-added products to fairly reflect the value we provide and the resources required to do so has historically resulted in improvements in gross profit and income from operations over the long-term.
Our selective acquisition strategy has also contributed to the growth of our business. The integration of certain acquisitions into our existing businesses combined with implementing our proven operating strategy has historically resulted in improvements in the financial performance of the acquired business.
We believe our key competitive strengths include:
Large and Growing Installed Product Base with Aftermarket Revenue Stream. We provide components to a large and growing installed base of aircraft to which we supply aftermarket products. We estimate that our products are installed on over 100,000 commercial transport, regional transport, military and general aviation fixed wing turbine aircraft and rotary wing aircraft.
Diversified Revenue Base. We believe that our diversified revenue base reduces our dependence on any particular product, platform or market channel and has been a significant factor in maintaining our financial performance. Our products are installed on almost all of the major commercial aircraft platforms now in production. We expect to continue to develop new products for military and commercial applications. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, many of our businesses have taken the opportunity to explore new business opportunities by working on developing highly engineered solutions for emerging needs arising from the pandemic. Product solutions currently being explored include anti-viral or antimicrobial technology, air purification, and touchless technologies, among others.
Barriers to Entry. We believe that the niche nature of our markets, the industry’s stringent regulatory and certification requirements, the large number of products that we sell and the investments necessary to develop and certify products create potential disincentives to competition for certain products.
Our business strategy is made up of two key elements: (1) a value-driven operating strategy focused around our three core value drivers and (2) a selective acquisition strategy.
Value-Driven Operating Strategy. Our three core value drivers are:
Obtaining Profitable New Business. We attempt to obtain profitable new business by using our technical expertise and application skill and our detailed knowledge of our customer base and the individual niche markets in which we operate. We have regularly been successful in identifying and developing both aftermarket and OEM products to drive our growth.
Improving Our Cost Structure. We are committed to maintaining and continuously improving our lean cost structure through detailed attention to the cost of each of the products that we offer and our organizational structure, with a focus on reducing the cost of each.
Providing Highly Engineered Value-Added Products to Customers. We focus on the engineering, manufacturing and marketing of a broad range of highly engineered niche products that we believe provide value to our customers. We believe we have been consistently successful in communicating to our customers the value of our products. This has generally enabled us to price our products to fairly reflect the value we provide and the resources required to do so.
23

Selective Acquisition Strategy. We selectively pursue the acquisition of proprietary aerospace component businesses when we see an opportunity to create value through the application of our three core value-driven operating strategies. The aerospace industry, in particular, remains highly fragmented, with many of the companies in the industry being small private businesses or small non-core operations of larger businesses. We have significant experience among our management team in executing acquisitions and integrating acquired businesses into our company and culture. As of the date of this report, we have successfully acquired approximately 86 businesses and product lines since our formation in 1993. Many of these acquisitions have been integrated into an existing TransDigm production facility, which enables a higher production capacity utilization, which in turn improves gross profit levels due to the ability to spread the fixed manufacturing overhead costs over higher production volume. In the case of larger acquisitions that consists of multiple business units (such as the Esterline acquisition), we may pursue opportunities to divest certain acquired business units that are not in line with our long-term acquisition strategy.
Acquisitions and divestitures during the most recent three fiscal years are described in Note 2, “Acquisitions and Divestitures,” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included herein.
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic
The COVID-19 pandemic is continuing to cause an adverse impact on our employees, operations, supply chain and distribution system and the long-term impact to our business remains unknown. This is due to the numerous uncertainties that have risen from the pandemic, including the severity of the disease, the duration of the outbreak, the likelihood of resurgences of the outbreak, including due to the emergence and spread of variants, actions that may be taken by governmental authorities in response to the disease, the continued efficacy and public acceptance of vaccines, and unintended consequences of the foregoing.
The commercial aerospace industry, in particular, has been significantly disrupted, both domestically and internationally, by the pandemic. The pandemic has resulted in governments around the world implementing stringent measures to help control the spread of the virus, including quarantines, “shelter in place” and “stay at home” orders, travel restrictions, business curtailments and other measures. As a result, demand for travel declined at a rapid pace beginning in the second half of fiscal 2020 and has remained depressed compared to pre-pandemic levels. However, commercial air travel has increasingly shown signs of recovery in recent months with increasing air traffic, primarily in certain domestic markets. The recovery in international commercial air travel has been slower with international travel only slightly recovered from COVID-19 pandemic lows. The exact pace and timing of the commercial air travel recovery remains uncertain and is expected to continue to be uneven depending on factors such as trends in the number of COVID-19 infections (e.g., impact of new variants of COVID-19 resurfacing), the continued efficacy and public acceptance of vaccines and easing of quarantines and travel restrictions, among other factors. We currently expect COVID-19 to continue to cause an adverse impact on our net sales, net income and EBITDA as Defined compared to pre-pandemic levels into fiscal 2022. Longer-term, because the duration of the pandemic is unclear, it is difficult to forecast a precise impact on the Company’s future results.
The Company took immediate and aggressive action to minimize the spread of COVID-19 in our workplaces and reduce costs. Since the early days of the pandemic, we have been following guidance from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Center for Disease Control to protect employees and prevent the spread of the virus within all of our facilities globally.
For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021, COVID-19 restructuring costs incurred were approximately $36 million, of which $26 million was recorded in cost of sales and $10 million was recorded in selling and administrative expenses. These were costs related to the Company's actions to reduce its workforce to align with customer demand. Additionally, the Company incurred approximately $4 million in incremental costs related to the pandemic that are not expected to recur once the pandemic has subsided and are clearly separable from normal operations (e.g., additional cleaning and disinfecting of facilities by contractors above and beyond normal requirements, personal protective equipment).
As of September 30, 2021, the restructuring accrual associated with the costs incurred in response to the COVID-19 pandemic was approximately $19 million. In fiscal 2022, the Company may incur additional restructuring and incremental costs related to the COVID-19 pandemic though at a reduced level in comparison to fiscal 2021 and 2020.
24

Results of Operations
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, certain operating data of the Company, including presentation of the amounts as a percentage of net sales (amounts in millions):
Fiscal Years Ended September 30,
20212021 % of
Net Sales
20202020 % of
Net Sales
Net sales$4,798 100.0 %$5,103 100.0 %
Cost of sales2,285 47.6 %2,456 48.1 %
Selling and administrative expenses685 14.3 %727 14.2 %
Amortization of intangible assets137 2.9 %169 3.3 %
Income from operations1,691 35.2 %1,751 34.3 %
Interest expense, net1,059 22.1 %1,029 20.2 %
Refinancing costs37 0.8 %28 0.5 %
Other income(51)(1.1)%(46)(0.9)%
Gain on sale of businesses, net(69)(1.4)%— — %
Income tax provision34 0.7 %87 1.7 %
Income from continuing operations681 14.2 %653 12.8 %
Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests(1)— %(1)— %
Income from continuing operations attributable to TD Group680 14.2 %652 12.8 %
Income from discontinued operations, net of tax— — %47 0.9 %
Net income attributable to TD Group$680 14.2 %$699 13.7 %
Net income applicable to TD Group common stockholders$607 
(1)
12.7 %$514 
(1)
10.1 %
Earnings per share:
Earnings per share from continuing operations—basic and diluted$10.41
(2)
$8.14
(2)
Earnings per share from discontinued operations—basic and diluted
(2)
0.82
(2)
Earnings per share$10.41$8.96
Cash dividends paid per common share$— $32.50 
Weighted-average shares outstanding—basic and diluted58.4 57.3 
Other Data:
EBITDA$2,027 
(3)
$2,052 
(3)
EBITDA As Defined$2,189 (3)45.6 %$2,278 (3)44.6 %
(1)Net income applicable to TD Group common stockholders represents net income attributable to TD Group less special dividends declared or paid on participating securities, including dividend equivalent payments of $73 million and $185 million for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2021 and 2020.
(2)Earnings per share from continuing operations is calculated by dividing net income applicable to TD Group common stockholders, excluding income from discontinued operations, net of tax, by the basic and diluted weighted average common shares outstanding. Earnings per share from discontinued operations is calculated by dividing income from discontinued operations, net of tax, by the basic and diluted weighted average common shares outstanding.
(3)Refer to “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” in this discussion and analysis for additional information and limitations regarding these non-GAAP financial measures, including a reconciliation to the comparable GAAP financial measure.
25

Fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 compared with fiscal year ended September 30, 2020
Total Company
Net Sales. Net organic sales and acquisition and divestiture sales and the related dollar and percentage changes for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 were as follows (amounts in millions):
Fiscal Years EndedChange% Change
Net Sales
September 30, 2021September 30, 2020
Organic sales$4,520 $4,900 $(380)(7.4)%
Acquisition and divestiture sales278 203 75 1.4 %
Net sales$4,798 $5,103 $(305)(6.0)%
Organic sales represent sales from existing businesses owned by the Company, excluding sales from acquisitions and divestitures. Acquisition sales represent sales from acquired businesses for the period up to one year subsequent to their respective acquisition date. Divestiture sales represent sales from businesses divested in fiscal 2021. Acquisition and divestiture sales are excluded from organic sales due to the variability in the nature, timing and extent of acquisitions and divestitures and resulting variable impact on underlying trends.
The decrease in organic sales of $380 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 compared to the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020, is primarily related to decreases in commercial OEM sales ($315 million, a decrease of 25.6%) and commercial aftermarket sales ($233 million, a decrease of 18.1%); partially offset by increases in defense sales ($115 million, an increase of 5.4%) and non-aerospace sales ($53 million, an increase of 19.8%). The decreases in the commercial OEM market and commercial aftermarket are primarily attributable to the adverse impact that the COVID-19 pandemic has had on the customer demand for air travel worldwide particularly in the first half of fiscal 2021 and build rate reductions by aircraft OEMs. Both commercial OEM and aftermarket sales increased in the second half of fiscal 2021 compared to the previous year’s comparable period. The increase in defense sales and non-aerospace sales in fiscal 2021 is primarily driven by the OEM market.
The increase in acquisition and divestiture sales for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 is primarily attributable to the acquisition of Cobham Aero Connectivity (“CAC”) in the second quarter of fiscal 2021 and the divestitures of ScioTeq and TREALITY Simulation Visual Systems ("ScioTeq and TREALITY") and Technical Airborne Components (“TAC”), all of which were completed in the third quarter of fiscal 2021. Refer to Note 2, “Acquisitions and Divestitures,” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included herein for further information on the businesses acquired and divested by the Company in fiscal years 2020 and 2021.
26

Cost of Sales and Gross Profit. Cost of sales decreased by $171 million, or 7.0%, to $2,285 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 compared to $2,456 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020. Cost of sales and the related percentage of net sales for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 were as follows (amounts in millions):
Fiscal Years EndedChange% Change
September 30, 2021September 30, 2020
Cost of sales - excluding costs below$2,280 $2,414 $(134)(5.6)%
% of net sales47.5 %47.3 %
COVID-19 pandemic restructuring costs26 37 (11)(29.7)%
% of net sales0.5 %0.7 %
Non-cash stock compensation expense13 44.4 %
% of net sales0.3 %0.2 %
Foreign currency losses11 22 (11)(50.0)%
% of net sales0.2 %0.4 %
Inventory acquisition accounting adjustments— 100.0 %
% of net sales0.1 %— %
Acquisition integration costs10 (6)(60.0)%
% of net sales0.1 %0.2 %
Loss contract amortization(55)(36)(19)52.8 %
% of net sales(1.1)%(0.7)%
Total cost of sales$2,285 $2,456 $(171)(7.0)%
% of net sales47.6 %48.1 %
Gross profit$2,513 $2,647 $(134)(5.1)%
Gross profit percentage52.4 %51.9 %
The decrease in the dollar amount of cost of sales during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 was primarily due to lower sales volume from decreased customer demand due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the other factors summarized above, including those factors that partially offset the decrease in cost of sales.
Gross profit as a percentage of net sales increased by 0.5 percentage points to 52.4% for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 from 51.9% for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020. In addition to the factors summarized above, the increase in the gross profit percentage is primarily driven by the realization of the cost mitigation measures that began to be enacted in the second half of fiscal 2020 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The material cost mitigation measures enacted are described in Note 1, "Description of the Business and Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic," in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included herein. Partially offsetting were higher material costs due to inflationary effects and shortages in the global supply chain for certain raw materials and component parts. Also partially offsetting were fixed overhead costs spread over a lower production volume during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021.
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Selling and Administrative Expenses. Selling and administrative expenses decreased by $42 million to $685 million, or 14.3% of sales, for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 from $727 million, or 14.2% of sales, for the comparable period in the prior year. Selling and administrative expenses and the related percentage of total sales for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 were as follows (amounts in millions):
Fiscal Years EndedChange% Change
September 30, 2021September 30, 2020
Selling and administrative expenses - excluding costs below$534 $592 $(58)(9.8)%
% of net sales11.1 %11.6 %
Non-cash stock compensation expense116 84 32 38.1 %
% of net sales2.4 %1.6 %
Acquisition and divestiture transaction-related expenses15 14 1,400.0 %
% of net sales0.3 %— %
Acquisition integration costs10 20 (10)(50.0)%
% of net sales0.2 %0.4 %
COVID-19 pandemic restructuring costs10 11.1 %
% of net sales0.2 %0.2 %
Bad debt expense— 21 (21)(100.0)%
% of net sales— %0.4 %
Total selling and administrative expenses$685 $727 $(42)(5.8)%
% of net sales14.3 %14.2 %
The decrease in total selling and administrative expenses during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 is primarily due to the realization of the cost mitigation measures that began to be enacted in the second half of fiscal 2020 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, partially offset by the other factors summarized above. The material cost mitigation measures enacted are described in Note 1, "Description of the Business and Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic," in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included herein. The increase in non-cash stock compensation expense is attributable to the new stock option grants awarded in fiscal 2021 and the impact of the Black-Scholes fair value on certain fiscal 2021 stock option grant modifications and on the fiscal 2020 grants in connection with the change in vesting terms approved by the Compensation Committee of the Board of Directors in the first quarter of fiscal 2021. The decrease in bad debt expense for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 is primarily driven by a decrease in estimated losses from certain commercial aerospace customers that were more adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Amortization of Intangible Assets. Amortization of intangible assets was $137 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 compared to $169 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020. The decrease in amortization expense of $32 million was primarily due to the amortization expense on sales order backlog recorded in fiscal 2020 in connection with the acquisition of Esterline that did not occur in fiscal 2021 as sales order backlog was fully amortized by the end of fiscal 2020. This was partially offset by amortization expense on intangible assets related to the CAC acquisition in the second quarter of fiscal 2021.
Interest Expense-net. Interest expense-net includes interest on borrowings outstanding, amortization of debt issuance costs, original issue discount and premium, revolving credit facility fees and interest on finance leases; slightly offset by interest income. Interest expense-net increased $30 million, or 2.9%, to $1,059 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 from $1,029 million for the comparable period in the prior year. The increase in interest expense-net was primarily due to an increase in the weighted average level of outstanding borrowings, which was approximately $20.0 billion for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 compared to approximately $19.1 billion for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020. The weighted average interest rate for cash interest payments on total borrowings outstanding for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 was 5.03%.
Refinancing Costs. Refinancing costs of $37 million were recorded for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 compared to $28 million recorded for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020. The refinancing costs are primarily related to fees incurred on the early redemptions of the 6.50% Senior Subordinated Notes due 2024 (the "2024 Notes") and the 2025 Notes that occurred in the second and third quarters of fiscal 2021, respectively.
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Other Income. Other income of $51 million was recorded for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 compared to $46 million recorded for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020. Other income for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 was primarily driven by $24 million recorded for the settlement of the insurance claim for Leach International Europe’s Niort, France operating facility fire in August 2019. This primarily represents the insurance proceeds received in excess of the carrying value of the damaged fixed assets and inventory and proceeds from the business interruption settlement. The remaining $27 million is primarily driven by non-service related components of net periodic benefit costs on the Company's defined benefit pension plans ($14 million), receipt of payment of Canadian governmental subsidies ($7 million) and the release of a litigation reserve ($3 million). Other income for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020 was primarily driven by proceeds or proceeds receivable from business interruption insurance settlements ($34 million) and non-service related components of net periodic benefit costs on the Company's defined benefit pension plans ($12 million).
Gain on Sale of Businesses-net. Gain on sale of businesses-net of $69 million was recorded for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021, and is primarily related to the net gain on sale recognized during the third quarter of fiscal 2021 as a result of the ScioTeq and TREALITY and TAC divestitures. There was no gain on sale of businesses-net recorded for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020.
Income Taxes. Income tax expense as a percentage of income before income taxes was approximately 4.7% for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 compared to 11.7% for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020. The Company’s lower effective tax rate for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 was primarily due to the Company's ability to utilize its net interest deduction limitation carryforward pursuant to IRC Section 163(j) resulting in the release of the valuation allowance applicable to such carryforward and the discrete impact of excess tax benefits associated with share-based compensation.
Income from Discontinued Operations, net of tax. There were no discontinued operations for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021. Income from discontinued operations, net of tax, for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020 was $47 million and consisted of $7 million from the results of operations of Souriau-Sunbank and a gain on the sale of Souriau-Sunbank, net of tax, of $40 million.
Net Income Attributable to TD Group. Net income attributable to TD Group decreased $19 million, or 2.7%, to $680 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 compared to net income attributable to TD Group of $699 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020.
Earnings per Share. Basic and diluted earnings per share was $10.41 for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021. There was no impact on earnings per share from discontinued operations for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021. Basic and diluted earnings per share from continuing operations and discontinued operations were $8.14 and $0.82, respectively, for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020. Net income attributable to TD Group for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021 of $680 million was decreased by dividend equivalent payments of $73 million, or $1.24 per share, resulting in net income applicable to TD Group common stockholders of $607 million, or $10.41 per share. Net income attributable to TD Group for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020 of $699 million was decreased by dividend equivalent payments of $185 million, or $3.22 per share, resulting in net income applicable to TD Group common stockholders of $514 million, or $8.96 per share. The increase of $1.45 per share is primarily a result of the factors referred to above.
Business Segments
Segment Net Sales. Net sales by segment for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 were as follows (amounts in millions):
Fiscal Years Ended September 30,Change% Change
2021% of Net Sales2020% of Net Sales
Power & Control$2,550 53.2 %$2,695 52.8 %$(145)(5.4)%
Airframe2,083 43.4 %2,253 44.2 %(170)(7.5)%
Non-aviation165 3.4 %155 3.0 %10 6.5 %
Net sales$4,798 100.0 %$5,103 100.0 %$(305)(6.0)%
Net sales for the Power & Control segment decreased $145 million, a decrease of 5.4%, for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021. The sales decrease resulted primarily from decreases in organic sales in commercial OEM ($101 million, a decrease of 18.5%) and commercial aftermarket ($81 million, a decrease of 12.7%); partially offset by an increase in organic defense sales ($44 million, an increase of 3.2%). The decreases in commercial OEM and commercial aftermarket sales are attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic and its adverse impact on the commercial aerospace sector, particularly in the first half of fiscal 2021, and build rate reductions by aircraft OEMs. The increase in defense sales is primarily attributable to the rebound in demand from the temporary pandemic-induced decline for certain platforms in fiscal 2020. The change in acquisition and divestiture sales was immaterial for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021.
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Net sales for the Airframe segment decreased $170 million, a decrease of 7.5%, for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021. The sales decrease resulted primarily from decreases in organic sales in commercial OEM ($214 million, a decrease of 31.8%) and commercial aftermarket ($151 million, a decrease of 23.4%); partially offset by an increase in organic defense sales ($72 million, an increase of 10.4%). The decreases in commercial OEM and commercial aftermarket sales are attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic and its adverse impact on the commercial aerospace sector, particularly in the first half of fiscal 2021. The increase in defense sales is primarily attributable to the rebound in demand from the temporary pandemic-induced decline for certain platforms in fiscal 2020. Acquisition and divestiture sales increased $85 million, primarily due to the acquisition of CAC in the second quarter of fiscal 2021.
Net sales for the Non-aviation segment increased by $10 million, an increase of 6.5%, for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021. The sales increase resulted primarily from an increase in organic sales in non-aerospace ($21 million, an increase of 18.7%). Acquisition and divestiture sales decreased by $9 million.
EBITDA As Defined. Refer to the “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” section within Item 7 for further information on EBITDA as Defined. EBITDA As Defined by segment for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2021 and 2020 were as follows (amounts in millions):
Fiscal Years Ended September 30,Change% Change
2021% of Segment
Net Sales
2020% of Segment
Net Sales
Power & Control$1,319 51.7 %$1,345 49.9 %$(26)(1.9)%
Airframe878 42.2 %955 42.4 %(77)(8.1)%
Non-aviation62 37.6 %54 34.8 %14.8 %
$2,259 47.1 %$2,354 46.1 %$(95)(4.0)%
Organic EBITDA As Defined represents EBITDA As Defined from existing businesses owned by the Company as of September 30, 2021, excluding EBITDA As Defined from acquisitions and divestitures. EBITDA As Defined from acquisitions and divestitures represents EBITDA As Defined from acquired businesses up to one year subsequent to the respective acquisition date and from businesses divested by the Company during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021.
EBITDA As Defined for the Power & Control segment decreased approximately $26 million, a decrease of 1.9%, primarily as a result of lower organic sales in the commercial OEM market and commercial aftermarket due to the COVID-19 pandemic and its adverse impact on the commercial aerospace sector, particularly in the first half of fiscal 2021, and build rate reductions by aircraft OEMs. The change in EBITDA As Defined for the Power & Control segment from acquisitions and divestitures was immaterial for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021.
EBITDA As Defined for the Airframe segment decreased approximately $77 million, a decrease of 8.1%, primarily as a result of lower organic sales in the commercial OEM market and commercial aftermarket due to the COVID-19 pandemic and its adverse impact on the commercial aerospace sector, particularly in the first half of fiscal 2021, and build rate reductions by aircraft OEMs. EBITDA As Defined for the Airframe segment from acquisitions and divestitures increased by $27 million, primarily due to the acquisition of CAC in the second quarter of fiscal 2021.
EBITDA As Defined for the Non-aviation segment increased approximately $8 million, an increase of 14.8%, primarily as a result of favorable organic sales mix specifically from other non-aerospace sales. The change in EBITDA As Defined for the Non-aviation segment from acquisitions and divestitures was immaterial for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021.
Fiscal year ended September 30, 2020 compared with fiscal year ended September 30, 2019
For our results of operations for fiscal 2020 compared with fiscal 2019, refer to the discussion in Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations” of Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020, as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 12, 2020.
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Liquidity and Capital Resources
The following table presents selected balance sheet, cash flow and other financial data relevant to the liquidity or capital resources of the Company for the periods specified below (in millions):
As of September 30,
20212020
Selected Balance Sheet, Cash Flow and Other Financial Data:
Cash and cash equivalents$4,787 $4,717 
Working capital5,367 5,344 
Total assets19,315 18,395 
Total debt (1)
19,998 20,009 
TD Group stockholders’ deficit(2,916)(3,972)
Cash flows provided by (used in):
Operating activities$913 913 1,213 
Investing activities(785)(785)799 
Financing activities(70)(70)1,230 
Capital expenditures105 105 105 
Ratio of earnings to fixed charges (2)
1.7x1.7x1.7x
(1)Includes debt issuance costs and original issue discount and premiums. Reference Note 12, “Debt,” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included herein for additional information.
(2)For purposes of computing the ratio of earnings to fixed charges, earnings consist of earnings from continuing operations before income taxes plus fixed charges. Fixed charges consist of interest expense, amortization of debt issuance costs, original issue discount and premium and the “interest component” of rental expense.
We have historically maintained a capital structure comprising a mix of equity and debt financing. We vary our leverage both to optimize our equity return and to pursue acquisitions. We expect to meet our current debt obligations as they come due through internally generated funds from current levels of operations and/or through refinancing in the debt markets prior to the maturity dates of our debt.
If the Company has excess cash, it generally prioritizes allocating the excess cash in the following manner: (1) capital spending at existing businesses, (2) acquisitions of businesses, (3) payment of a special dividend and/or repurchases of our common stock and (4) prepayment of indebtedness or repurchase of debt. Whether the Company undertakes common stock repurchases or other aforementioned activities will depend on prevailing market conditions, the Company's liquidity requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors. The amounts involved may be material. In addition, the Company may issue additional debt if prevailing market conditions are favorable to doing so.
The Company’s ability to make scheduled interest payments on, or to refinance, the Company’s indebtedness, or to fund non-acquisition related capital expenditures and research and development efforts, will depend on the Company’s ability to generate cash in the future. This is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond its control, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
The Company is continuing to strategically manage the Company’s cash and cash equivalents in response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and related uncertainty of the duration and impact of the pandemic on the Company’s business in fiscal 2022 and beyond. For instance, due to favorable market conditions in the high yield bond market, the Company refinanced $1,950 of its senior subordinated notes in fiscal 2021 resulting in a reduced interest rate (estimated $35 million reduction in annual interest payments) and an extended maturity date.
As of September 30, 2021, the Company has significant cash liquidity as illustrated in the table presented below (in millions):
As of September 30, 2021
Cash and cash equivalents (1)
$4,787 
Availability on revolving credit facility (1)
529 
Cash liquidity$5,316 
(1)On October 6, 2021, the Company repaid $200 million drawn on the revolving credit facility using existing cash on hand, increasing the borrowings available under the revolving credit facility to $728.9 million.
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We believe our significant cash liquidity will allow us to meet our anticipated funding requirements. We expect to meet our short-term cash liquidity requirements (including interest obligations and capital expenditures) through net cash from operating activities, cash on hand and, if needed, additional draws on the revolving credit facility. Long-term cash liquidity requirements consist primarily of obligations under our long-term debt agreements. There is no maturity on any tranche of term loans or notes until August 2024.
In connection with the continued application of our three core value-driven operating strategies (obtaining profitable new business, continually improving our cost structure and providing highly engineered value-added products to customers), we expect our efforts will continue to generate strong margins and provide sufficient cash provided by operating activities to meet our interest obligations and liquidity needs. We believe our cash provided by operating activities and available borrowing capacity will enable us to make strategic business acquisitions (such as the CAC acquisition completed in the second quarter of fiscal 2021 for an enterprise value of $965 million using existing cash on hand), pay dividends to our shareholders and make opportunistic investments in our own stock, subject to any restrictions in our existing credit agreement and market conditions in consideration of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
In the future, the Company may increase its borrowings in connection with acquisitions, if cash flow from operating activities becomes insufficient to fund current operations or for other short-term cash needs or for stock repurchases or dividends. Our future leverage will also be impacted by the then current conditions of the credit markets.
Operating Activities. The Company generated $913 million of net cash from operating activities during fiscal 2021 compared to $1,213 million during fiscal 2020. The change from prior year is primarily driven by changes in working capital as further described below.
The change in trade accounts receivable during fiscal 2021 was a use of cash of $78 million in cash compared to a source of cash of $352 million in fiscal 2020. The increase in the use of cash of $430 million is primarily attributable to the decrease in accounts receivable from lower sales due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Company continues to actively manage its accounts receivable, the related agings and collection efforts in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
The change in inventories during fiscal 2021 was a source of cash of $79 million compared to a use of cash of $62 million in fiscal 2020. The increase in the source of cash is primarily driven by decreased purchasing of raw materials particularly in the first half of fiscal 2021 from lower demand as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and actively managing inventory levels.
The change in accounts payable during fiscal 2021 was a source of cash of $3 million compared to a use of cash of $62 million in fiscal 2020 primarily due to timing of payments to suppliers.
Investing Activities. Net cash used in investing activities was $785 million during fiscal 2021, consisting primarily of $945 million from the acquisition of CAC in the second quarter of fiscal 2021 and capital expenditures of $105 million. This was partially offset by proceeds of $259 million from the completion of the divestitures of certain businesses, and $24 million of insurance proceeds received from the Leach International Europe facility fire claim. The Company estimates its capital expenditures in fiscal year 2022 to be between $135 million and $155 million with the increase from prior year attributable to projects that were delayed into fiscal 2022 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The Company’s capital expenditures incurred from year-to-year are primarily for projects that are consistent with our three core value-driven operating strategies (obtaining profitable new business, continually improving our cost structure and providing highly engineered value-added products to customers).
Financing Activities. Net cash used in financing activities during fiscal 2021 was $70 million. The use of cash was primarily attributable to the redemptions of the 2024 Notes and 2025 Notes for $1,220 million and $762 million, respectively, repayment on term loans of $75 million and dividend equivalent payments of $73 million. This was partially offset by $1,189 million in net proceeds from the completion of the 4.625% 2029 Notes offering, $743 million in net proceeds from the completion of the 4.875% 2029 Notes offering and $128 million in proceeds from stock option exercises.
Description of Senior Secured Term Loans and Indentures
Senior Secured Credit Facilities
TransDigm has $7,374 million in fully drawn term loans (the “Term Loans Facility”) and a $760 million revolving credit facility. The Term Loans Facility consists of three tranches of term loans as follows (aggregate principal amount disclosed is as of September 30, 2021):
Term Loans FacilityAggregate PrincipalMaturity DateInterest Rate
Tranche E $2,177 millionMay 30, 2025LIBOR + 2.25%
Tranche F$3,454 millionDecember 9, 2025LIBOR + 2.25%
Tranche G$1,743 millionAugust 22, 2024LIBOR + 2.25%
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The Term Loans Facility requires quarterly aggregate principal payments of $18.8 million. The revolving credit facility consists of two tranches which include up to $151.5 million of multicurrency revolving credit. At September 30, 2021, the Company had $31 million in letters of credit outstanding, $200 million drawn and outstanding, and $529 million in borrowings available under the revolving credit facility. On October 6, 2021, the Company repaid the $200 million drawn using existing cash on hand.
The interest rates per annum applicable to the loans under the Credit Agreement are, at TransDigm’s option, equal to either an alternate base rate or an adjusted LIBOR for one, two, three or six-month (or to the extent agreed to by each relevant lender, nine or twelve-month) interest periods chosen by TransDigm, in each case plus an applicable margin percentage. The adjusted LIBOR related to tranche E, tranche F and tranche G term loans are not subject to a floor. For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021, the applicable interest rate was approximately 2.33% on the existing term loans. Interest rate swaps and caps used to hedge and offset, respectively, the variable interest rates on the credit facility are described in Note 21, “Derivatives and Hedging Activities,” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included herein.
Fiscal 2021 Amendment to the Credit Agreement
On May 24, 2021, the Company entered into Amendment No. 8 and Loan Modification Agreement (herein, "Amendment No. 8"). Under the terms of Amendment No. 8, the Company, among other things, (i) extends the maturity date of the revolving credit commitments and revolving loans under its existing Credit Agreement to May 24, 2026, and (ii) the LIBOR interest rate per annum applicable to the revolving loans under its existing Credit Agreement is 2.50%, a decrease from the 3.00% rate that applied previous to the amendment. The other terms and conditions that apply to the revolving loans are substantially the same as the terms and conditions that applied to the revolving loans immediately prior to Amendment No. 8.
Indentures
The following table represents the notes outstanding as of September 30, 2021:
DescriptionAggregate PrincipalMaturity DateInterest Rate
2025 Secured Notes$1,100 millionDecember 15, 20258.00%
2026 Secured Notes$4,400 millionMarch 15, 20266.25%
6.875% 2026 Notes$500 millionMay 15, 20266.875%
6.375% 2026 Notes$950 millionJune 15, 20266.375%
7.50% 2027 Notes$550 millionMarch 15, 20277.50%
5.50% 2027 Notes$2,650 millionNovember 15, 20275.50%
4.625% 2029 Notes$1,200 millionJuly 15, 20294.625%
4.875% 2029 Notes$750 millionOctober 15, 20294.875%
Refer to Note 12, "Debt," in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included herein for information over the Company’s issuances and redemptions of senior subordinated notes executed during fiscal year 2021.
The 6.375% 2026 Notes, the 7.50% 2027 Notes, the 5.50% 2027 Notes, the 4.625% 2029 Notes and the 4.875% 2029 Notes (collectively, the “TransDigm Inc. Notes”) were issued at a price of 100% of the principal amount. The 6.875% 2026 Notes (the "TransDigm UK Notes" and together with the TransDigm Inc. Notes, the "Notes," are further described below) offered in May 2018 were issued at a price of 99.24% of the principal amount, resulting in gross proceeds of $496.2 million. The 2025 Secured Notes (the "Secured Notes") were issued at a price 100% of the principal amount. The initial $3,800 million offering of the 2026 Secured Notes (the "Secured Notes") were issued at a price of 100% of their principal amount and the subsequent $200 million and $400 million offerings of the 2026 Secured Notes in the second quarter of fiscal 2019 and the third quarter of fiscal 2020, respectively, were issued at a price of 101% of their principal amount, resulting in gross proceeds of $4,410.5 million.
The Notes do not require principal payments prior to their maturity. Interest under the Notes is payable semi-annually. The Notes represent our unsecured obligations ranking subordinate to our senior debt, as defined in the applicable indentures. The Notes contain many of the restrictive covenants included in the Credit Agreement. TransDigm is in compliance with all of the covenants contained in the Notes.
Guarantor Information
The Notes are subordinated to all of our existing and future senior debt, rank equally with all of our existing and future senior subordinated debt and rank senior to all of our future debt that is expressly subordinated to the Notes. The TransDigm Inc. Notes are fully and unconditionally guaranteed on a senior subordinated unsecured basis by TD Group and TransDigm Inc.'s Domestic Restricted Subsidiaries. The TransDigm UK Notes are guaranteed on a senior subordinated basis by TransDigm Inc., TD Group and TransDigm Inc.'s Domestic Restricted Subsidiaries. The guarantees of the Notes are subordinated to all of the guarantors’ existing and future senior debt, rank equally with all of their existing and future senior subordinated debt and rank senior to all of their future debt that is expressly subordinated to the guarantees of the Notes. The Notes are structurally subordinated to all of the liabilities of TD Group’s non-guarantor subsidiaries.
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The Secured Notes are senior secured obligations of TransDigm and rank equally in right of payment with all of TransDigm’s existing and future senior secured debt, including indebtedness under TransDigm’s existing senior secured credit facilities, and are senior in right of payment to all of TransDigm’s existing and future senior subordinated debt, including the Notes, TransDigm’s other outstanding senior subordinated notes and TransDigm’s guarantees in respect of TransDigm UK’s outstanding senior subordinated notes. The Secured Notes are guaranteed on a senior secured basis by TD Group, TransDigm UK and TransDigm’s wholly-owned U.S. subsidiaries named in the Secured Notes Indentures. The guarantees of the Secured Notes rank equally in right of payment with all of the guarantors’ existing and future senior secured debt and are senior in right of payment to all of their existing and future senior subordinated debt. The Secured Notes are structurally subordinated to all of the liabilities of TransDigm’s non-guarantor subsidiaries. The Secured Notes contain many of the restrictive covenants included in the Credit Agreement. TransDigm is in compliance with all of the covenants contained in the Secured Notes.
Separate financial statements of TransDigm Inc. are not presented because the Secured Notes are fully and unconditionally guaranteed on a senior secured basis by TD Group, TransDigm UK and all of TransDigm Inc.'s Domestic Restricted Subsidiaries. TD Group has no significant operations or assets separate from its investment in TransDigm Inc.
Separate financial statements of TransDigm Inc. are not presented because the TransDigm Inc. Notes are fully and unconditionally guaranteed on a senior subordinated basis by TD Group, TransDigm UK and all of TransDigm Inc.'s Domestic Restricted Subsidiaries. TD Group has no significant operations or assets separate from its investment in TransDigm Inc.
Separate financial statements of TransDigm UK are not presented because TransDigm UK's 6.875% 2026 Notes, issued in May 2018, are fully and unconditionally guaranteed on a senior subordinated basis by TD Group, TransDigm Inc. and all of TransDigm Inc.'s Domestic Restricted Subsidiaries. TD Group has no significant operations or assets separate from its investment in TransDigm Inc.
The financial information presented is that of TD Group and the Guarantors, which includes TransDigm Inc. and TransDigm UK, on a combined basis and the financial information of non-issuer and non-guarantor subsidiaries has been excluded. Intercompany balances and transactions between TD Group and Guarantors have been eliminated, and amounts due from, amounts due to, and transactions with non-issuer and non-guarantor subsidiaries have been presented separately.
Summarized Balance Sheet Information (in millions):September 30, 2021
Current assets$5,452 
Goodwill6,794 
Other non-current assets2,656 
Current liabilities1,019 
Non-current liabilities20,156 
Amounts due from subsidiaries that are non-issuers and non-guarantors - net(865)
Summarized Results of Operations (in millions):Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2021
Net sales$3,496 
Sales to subsidiaries that are non-issuers and non-guarantors37 
Cost of sales1,442 
Expense from subsidiaries that are non-issuers and non-guarantors - net39 
Income from continuing operations456 
Net income attributable to TD Group456 
    Certain Restrictive Covenants in Our Debt Documents
The Credit Agreement and the Indentures governing the Notes contain restrictive covenants that, among other things, limit the incurrence of additional indebtedness, the payment of special dividends, transactions with affiliates, asset sales, acquisitions, mergers and consolidations, liens and encumbrances, and prepayments of certain other indebtedness.
The restrictive covenants included in the Credit Agreement are subject to amendments executed periodically. The most recent amendment that impacted the restrictive covenants contained in the Credit Agreement is Amendment No. 7.
Under the terms of the Credit Agreement, TransDigm is entitled, on one or more occasions, to request additional term loans or additional revolving commitments to the extent that the existing or new lenders agree to provide such incremental term loans or additional revolving commitments provided that, among other conditions, our consolidated net leverage ratio would be no greater than 7.25x and the consolidated secured net debt ratio would be no greater than 5.00x, in each case, after giving effect to such incremental term loans or additional revolving commitments.
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If any such default occurs, the lenders under the Credit Agreement and the holders of the Notes may elect to declare all outstanding borrowings, together with accrued interest and other amounts payable thereunder, to be immediately due and payable. The lenders under the Credit Agreement also have the right in these circumstances to terminate any commitments they have to provide further borrowings. In addition, following an event of default under the Credit Agreement, the lenders thereunder will have the right to proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure the debt, which includes our available cash, and they will also have the right to prevent us from making debt service payments on the Notes.
With the exception of the revolving credit facility, the Company has no maintenance covenants in its existing term loan and indenture agreements. Under the Credit Agreement, if the usage of the revolving credit facility exceeds 35%, or $266 million, of the total revolving commitments, the Company is required to maintain a maximum consolidated net leverage ratio of net debt to trailing four-quarter EBITDA As Defined of 7.25x as of the last day of the fiscal quarter.
As of September 30, 2021, the Company was in compliance with all of its debt covenants and expects to remain in compliance with its debt covenants in subsequent periods.
    Trade Receivables Securitization
During fiscal 2014, the Company established a trade receivable securitization facility (the “Securitization Facility”). The Securitization Facility effectively increases the Company’s borrowing capacity depending on the amount of the domestic operations’ trade accounts receivable. The Securitization Facility includes the right for the Company to exercise annual one year extensions as long as there have been no termination events as defined by the agreement. The Company uses the proceeds from the Securitization Facility as an alternative to other forms of debt, effectively reducing borrowing costs.
On July 27, 2021, the Company amended the Securitization Facility to, among other things, (i) extend the maturity date to July 26, 2022, and (ii) bear interest at a rate of 1.20% plus three month LIBOR, compared to the interest rate of 1.35% plus 0.50% or three-month LIBOR, whichever is greater, that applied prior to the amendment. The Securitization Facility is collateralized by substantially all of the Company’s domestic operations’ trade accounts receivable. As of September 30, 2021, the Company has borrowed $350 million under the Securitization Facility, which is fully drawn.
Dividend and Dividend Equivalent Payments
No dividends were declared or paid in fiscal 2021. We do not anticipate declaring regular quarterly or annual cash dividends on our common stock in the near future. Any declaration of special cash dividends on our common stock in the future will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend upon our results of operations, earnings, capital requirements, financial condition, future prospects, contractual restrictions under the senior secured credit facility and Indentures, the availability of surplus under Delaware law and other factors deemed relevant by our Board of Directors. TD Group is a holding company and conducts all of its operations through direct and indirect subsidiaries. Unless TD Group receives dividends, distributions, advances, transfers of funds or other payments from our subsidiaries, TD Group will be unable to pay any dividends on our common stock in the future. The ability of any subsidiaries to take any of the foregoing actions is limited by the terms of our senior secured credit facility and Indentures and may be limited by future debt or other agreements that we may enter into.
Dividend equivalent payments made in fiscal 2021 were $73 million. Pursuant to the Third Amended and Restated TransDigm Group Incorporated 2003 Stock Option Plan Dividend Equivalent Plan, the Second Amended and Restated TransDigm Group Incorporated 2006 Stock Incentive Plan Dividend Equivalent Plan and the 2014 Stock Option Plan Dividend Equivalent Plan, all of the options granted under the existing stock option plans are entitled to certain dividend equivalent payments in the event of the declaration of a dividend by the Company.
    Stock Repurchase Program
On November 8, 2017, our Board of Directors, authorized a stock repurchase program permitting repurchases of our outstanding shares not to exceed $650 million in the aggregate, subject to any restrictions specified in the Credit Agreement and/or Indentures governing the existing Notes.
No repurchases were made under the program during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2021. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2020, the Company repurchased 36,900 shares of its common stock at a gross cost of $18.9 million at the weighted average cost of $512.67 under the repurchase program. As of September 30, 2021, the remaining amount of repurchases allowable under the program was $631.1 million subject to any restrictions specified in the Credit Agreement and/or Indentures governing the existing Notes.
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Contractual Obligations and Commitments
The following table summarizes the Company’s cash requirements from all significant contractual obligations as of September 30, 2021 (in millions):
TotalPayment Due by Period
ContractualLess thanBetweenBetweenOver
Obligations1 Year1-3 Years3-5 Years5 Years
Senior Subordinated and Secured Notes (1)
$12,100 $— $— $6,950 $5,150 
Senior Secured Term Loans (2)
7,374 75 1,840 5,459 — 
Scheduled Interest Payments (3)
4,966 1,034 2,088 1,440 404 
Pension Funding Minimums (4)
464350 24 25 65 
Securitization Facility350350 — — — 
Revolving Credit Facility (5)
200— — 200 — 
Finance Leases21581818171
Operating Leases12724352345
Total Contractual Cash Obligations$25,796 $1,841 $4,005 $14,115 $5,835 
(1)Represents principal maturities which excludes interest, debt issuance costs, original issue discount and premiums.
(2)The tranche E term loans mature in May 2025, the tranche F term loans mature in December 2025 and the tranche G term loans mature in August 2024. The term loans require quarterly principal payments totaling $18.8 million.
(3)Assumes that the variable interest rate on our tranche E, tranche F and tranche G term loans under our Senior Secured Term Loans range from approximately 2.38% to 3.94% based on anticipated movements in the LIBOR. In addition, interest payments include the impact of the existing interest rate swap and cap agreements described in Note 21, “Derivatives and Hedging Activities,” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included herein.
(4)Represents future benefit payments expected to be paid from the pension and post-retirement benefit plans or from the Company’s assets. Expected benefit payments in fiscal year 2022 primarily relates to the termination of the Esterline Retirement Plan (“ERP”), effective June 30, 2021. The Company anticipates the termination process to be completed within the next 12 months, with the ERP expected to be fully liquidated by the end of fiscal year 2022.
(5)On October 6, 2021, the Company repaid the $200 million drawn on the revolving credit facility using existing cash on hand.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
The Company utilizes letters of credit to back certain payment and performance obligations. Letters of credit are subject to limits based on amounts outstanding under the Company’s revolving credit facility. As of September 30, 2021, the Company had $31 million in letters of credit outstanding.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. GAAP, which often requires the judgment of management in the selection and application of certain accounting principles and methods. Management believes that the quality and reasonableness of our most critical policies enable the fair presentation of our financial position and results of operations. However, investors are cautioned that the sensitivity of financial statements to these methods, assumptions and estimates could create materially different results under different conditions or using different assumptions.
Below are those policies applied in preparing our financial statements that management believes are the most dependent on the application of estimates and assumptions. For additional significant accounting policies, see Note 3, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included herein.
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Revenue Recognition – Revenue is recognized from the sale of products when control transfers to the customer, which is demonstrated by our right to payment, a transfer of title, a transfer of the risk and rewards of ownership, or the customer acceptance, but most frequently upon shipment where the customer obtains physical possession of the goods. The majority of the Company's revenue is recorded at a point in time. Sales recognized over time are generally accounted for using an input measure to determine progress completed at the end of the period. Sales for service contracts generally are recognized as the services are provided. For agreements with multiple performance obligations, judgment is required to determine whether performance obligations specified in these agreements are distinct and should be accounted for as separate revenue transactions for recognition purposes based on the standalone selling price of each performance obligation. The primary method used to estimate a standalone selling price is the price observed in standalone sales to customers for the same product or service. We consider the contractual consideration payable by the customer and assesses variable consideration that may affect the total transaction price. Variable consideration is included in the estimated transaction price when there is a basis to reasonably estimate the amount, including whether the estimate should be constrained in order to avoid a significant reversal of revenue in a future period. These estimates are based on historical experience, anticipated performance under the terms of the contract and our best judgment at the time.
Inventories – Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost of inventories is generally determined by the average cost and the first-in, first-out (“FIFO”) methods and includes material, labor and overhead related to the manufacturing process. Because the Company sells products that are installed on airframes that can be in-service for 25 or more years, it must keep a supply of such products on hand while the airframes are in use. Where management estimated that the net realizable value was below cost or determined that future demand was lower than current inventory levels, based on historical experience, current and projected market demand, current and projected volume trends and other relevant current and projected factors associated with the current economic conditions, a reduction in inventory cost to estimated net realizable value was made by recording a provision included in cost of sales. Additionally, management believes that the Company’s estimates of excess and obsolete inventory are reasonable and material changes in future estimates or assumptions used to calculate our estimate is unlikely. However, actual results may differ materially from the estimates and additional provisions may be required in the future. A 10% change in our excess and obsolete inventory reserve at September 30, 2021 would not have a material impact on our results. In accordance with industry practice, all inventories are classified as current assets as all inventories are available and necessary to support current sales, even though a portion of the inventories may not be sold within one year.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets – In accordance with ASC 805, “Business Combinations,” the Company uses the acquisition method of accounting to allocate costs of acquired businesses to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values at the dates of acquisition. The excess costs of acquired businesses over the fair values of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed are recognized as goodwill. The valuations of the acquired assets and liabilities will impact the determination of future operating results. Determining the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed requires management’s judgment and often involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions, including assumptions with respect to future cash inflows and outflows, revenue growth rates and EBITDA margins, discount rates, customer attrition rates, royalty rates, asset lives and market multiples, among other items. We determine the fair values of intangible assets acquired generally in consultation with third-party valuation advisors. Fair value adjustments to the Company’s assets and liabilities are recognized and the results of operations of the acquired business are included in our consolidated financial statements from the effective date of the merger or acquisition.
Intangible assets other than goodwill are recognized if the benefit of the intangible asset is obtained through contractual or other legal rights, or if the intangible asset can be sold, transferred, licensed or exchanged, regardless of the Company’s intent to do so. Goodwill and identifiable intangible assets are recorded at their estimated fair value on the date of acquisition and are reviewed at least annually for impairment based on cash flow projections and fair value estimates.
U.S. GAAP requires that the annual, and any interim, goodwill impairment assessment be performed at the reporting unit level. The reporting unit level is one level below an operating segment. Substantially all goodwill was determined and recognized for each reporting unit pursuant to the accounting for the merger or acquisition as of the date of each transaction. With respect to acquisitions integrated into an existing reporting unit, any acquired goodwill is combined with the goodwill of the reporting unit.
At the time of goodwill impairment testing, the Company first assesses qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, and whether it is necessary to perform the quantitative goodwill impairment test. The quantitative test is required only if the Company concludes that it is more likely than not that a reporting unit’s fair value is less than its carrying amount, or if the Company elects not to perform a qualitative assessment of a reporting unit. For the quantitative test, management determines the estimated fair value through the use of a discounted cash flow valuation model incorporating discount rates commensurate with the risks involved for each reporting unit. If the calculated estimated fair value is less than the current carrying value, impairment of goodwill of the reporting unit may exist. The use of a discounted cash flow valuation model to determine estimated fair value is common practice in impairment testing. The key assumptions used in the discounted cash flow valuation model for impairment testing includes discount rates, revenue growth rates and EBITDA margins, cash flow projections and terminal value rates. Discount rates are set by using the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (“WACC”) methodology. The WACC methodology considers market and industry data as well as company specific risk factors for each reporting unit in determining the appropriate discount rates to be used. The discount rate utilized for each reporting unit is indicative of the return an investor would expect to receive for investing in such a business.
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Management, considering industry and company-specific historical and projected data, develops growth rates, sales projections and cash flow projections for each reporting unit. Terminal value rate determination follows a common methodology of capturing the present value of perpetual cash flow estimates beyond the last projected period assuming a constant WACC and low long-term growth rates.
Management tests indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment at the asset level, as determined by appropriate asset valuation at the time of acquisition. The impairment test for indefinite-lived intangible assets consists of a comparison between the estimated fair values and carrying values. If the carrying amounts of intangible assets that have indefinite useful lives exceed their estimated fair values, an impairment loss will be recognized in an amount equal to the difference. Management utilizes the royalty savings valuation method to determine the estimated fair value for each indefinite-lived intangible asset. In this method, management estimates the royalty savings arising from the ownership of the intangible asset. The key assumptions used in estimating the royalty savings for impairment testing include discount rates, royalty rates, growth rates, sales projections and terminal value rates. Discount rates used are similar to the rates developed by the WACC methodology considering any differences in company-specific risk factors between reporting units and the indefinite-lived intangible assets. Royalty rates are established by management with the advice of valuation experts. Management, considering industry and company-specific historical and projected data, develops growth rates and sales projections for each significant intangible asset. Terminal value rate determination follows common methodology of capturing the present value of perpetual sales estimates beyond the last projected period assuming a constant WACC and low long-term growth rates.
The discounted cash flow and royalty savings valuation methodologies require management to make certain assumptions based upon information available at the time the valuations are performed. Actual results could differ from these assumptions. Management believes the assumptions used are reflective of what a market participant would have used in calculating fair value considering the current economic conditions.
Given the continued adverse global economic and market conditions attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly as it pertains to the commercial aerospace sector, the Company continues to monitor for any indicators of impairment of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets. For certain reporting units that have higher commercial aerospace content and potentially present a higher risk for impairment, the Company performed a quantitative impairment test using an income approach in the prior year annual impairment assessment. In the second quarter of fiscal 2021, the Company reviewed the key assumptions used within the models to identify if any changes were necessary. Key assumptions reviewed included revenue growth rates and EBITDA margins, available industry data and management’s determination of the prospective financial information with consideration of the estimated length of time for the commercial aerospace sector to rebound to pre-pandemic levels. The Company also utilized a third party valuation firm to assist in the determination of the WACC. As a result of the interim impairment testing performed as of April 3, 2021, no goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets were determined to be impaired. We updated our assessment during the third quarter of fiscal 2021 and validated that the assumptions used in the analyses performed as of April 3, 2021 and the resulting conclusions remain appropriate as of July 3, 2021.
The Company had 46 reporting units with goodwill and 43 reporting units with indefinite-lived intangible assets as of the first day of the fourth quarter of fiscal 2021, the date of the annual impairment test. Based on its initial qualitative assessment over each of the reporting units, the Company identified 16 reporting units to test for impairment using a quantitative test for both goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets. The estimated fair value of each of these reporting units was in excess of its respective carrying value, and therefore, no impairment was recorded on goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets. The Company performed a sensitivity analysis on the discount rate, which is a significant assumption in the calculation of fair values. With a one percentage point increase in the discount rate, all of the reporting units would continue to have fair values in excess of their respective carrying values.
Stock-Based Compensation – The cost of the Company’s stock-based compensation is recorded in accordance with ASC 718, “Stock Compensation.” The Company uses a Black-Scholes pricing model to estimate the grant-date fair value of the stock options awarded. The Black-Scholes pricing model requires assumptions regarding the expected volatility of the Company’s common shares, the risk-free interest rate, the expected life of the stock options award and the Company’s dividend yield. The Company utilizes historical data in determining the assumptions. An increase or decrease in the assumptions or economic events outside of management’s control could have an impact on the Black-Scholes pricing model. The Company estimates stock option forfeitures based on historical data. The total number of stock options expected to vest is adjusted by actual and estimated forfeitures. Changes to the actual and estimated forfeitures will result in a cumulative adjustment in the period of change. The Company also evaluates any subsequent changes to the respective option holders terms under the modification rules of ASC 718. If determined to be a modification, the Black-Scholes pricing model is updated as of the date of the modification resulting in a cumulative catch-up to expense.
Income Taxes – The Company estimates income taxes in each jurisdiction in which it operates. This involves estimating taxable earnings, specific taxable and deductible items, the likelihood of generating sufficient future taxable income to utilize deferred tax assets and possible exposures related to future tax audits. To the extent these estimates change, adjustments to deferred and accrued income taxes are made in the period in which the changes occur. Historically, such adjustments have not been significant.
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New Accounting Standards
For information about new accounting standards, see Note 4, “Recent Accounting Pronouncements,” in the notes to the consolidated financial statements included herein.
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Non-GAAP Financial Measures
We present below certain financial information based on our EBITDA and EBITDA As Defined. References to “EBITDA” mean earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization, and references to “EBITDA As Defined” mean EBITDA plus, as applicable for each relevant period, certain adjustments as set forth in the reconciliations of income from continuing operations to EBITDA and EBITDA As Defined and the reconciliations of net cash provided by operating activities to EBITDA and EBITDA As Defined presented below.
Neither EBITDA nor EBITDA As Defined is a measurement of financial performance under U.S. GAAP. We present EBITDA and EBITDA As Defined because we believe they are useful indicators for evaluating operating performance and liquidity.
Our management believes that EBITDA and EBITDA As Defined are useful as indicators of liquidity because securities analysts, investors, rating agencies and others use EBITDA to evaluate a company’s ability to incur and service debt. In addition, EBITDA As Defined is useful to investors because the revolving credit facility under our senior secured credit facility requires compliance under certain circumstances, on a pro forma basis, with a financial covenant that measures the ratio of the amount of our secured indebtedness to the amount of our Consolidated EBITDA defined in the same manner as we define EBITDA As Defined herein.
In addition to the above, our management uses EBITDA As Defined to review and assess the performance of the management team in connection with employee incentive programs and to prepare its annual budget and financial projections. Moreover, our management uses EBITDA As Defined to evaluate acquisitions.
Although we use EBITDA and EBITDA As Defined as measures to assess the performance of our business and for the other purposes set forth above, the use of these non-GAAP financial measures as analytical tools has limitations, and you should not consider any of them in isolation, or as a substitute for analysis of our results of operations as reported in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Some of these limitations are:
neither EBITDA nor EBITDA As Defined reflects the significant interest expense, or the cash requirements, necessary to service interest payments on our indebtedness;
although depreciation and amortization are non-cash charges, the assets being depreciated and amortized will often have to be replaced in the future, and neither EBITDA nor EBITDA As Defined reflects any cash requirements for such replacements;
the omission of the substantial amortization expense associated with our intangible assets further limits the usefulness of EBITDA and EBITDA As Defined;
neither EBITDA nor EBITDA As Defined includes the payment of taxes, which is a necessary element of our operations; and
EBITDA As Defined excludes the cash expense we have incurred to integrate acquired businesses into our operations, which is a necessary element of certain of our acquisitions.
Because of these limitations, EBITDA and EBITDA As Defined should not be considered as measures of discretionary cash available to us to invest in the growth of our business. Management compensates for these limitations by not viewing EBITDA or EBITDA As Defined in isolation and specifically by using other U.S. GAAP measures, such as net income, net sales and operating profit, to measure our operating performance. Neither EBITDA nor EBITDA As Defined is a measurement of financial performance under U.S. GAAP, and neither should be considered as an alternative to net income or cash flow from operations determined in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Our calculation of EBITDA and EBITDA As Defined may not be comparable to the calculation of similarly titled measures reported by other companies.
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The following table sets forth a reconciliation of income from continuing operations to EBITDA and EBITDA As Defined (in millions):
Fiscal Years Ended September 30,
20212020
Income from continuing operations$681 $653 
Adjustments:
Depreciation and amortization expense253 283 
Interest expense, net1,059 1,029 
Income tax provision34 87 
EBITDA2,027 2,052 
Adjustments:
Inventory acquisition accounting adjustments (1)
— 
Acquisition integration costs (2)
14 30 
Acquisition and divestiture transaction-related expenses (3)
15 
Non-cash stock compensation expense (4)
129 93 
Refinancing costs (5)
37 28 </