Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
Tredegar
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$17.29 33 $574
10-Q 2019-03-31 Quarter: 2019-03-31
10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-09-30 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-06-30 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-09-30 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-06-30 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-03-31 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-09-30 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-06-30 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-03-31 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2015-12-31 Annual: 2015-12-31
10-Q 2015-09-30 Quarter: 2015-09-30
10-Q 2015-06-30 Quarter: 2015-06-30
10-Q 2015-03-31 Quarter: 2015-03-31
10-K 2014-12-31 Annual: 2014-12-31
10-Q 2014-09-30 Quarter: 2014-09-30
10-Q 2014-06-30 Quarter: 2014-06-30
10-Q 2014-03-31 Quarter: 2014-03-31
10-K 2013-12-31 Annual: 2013-12-31
8-K 2019-06-28 Enter Agreement, Leave Agreement, Off-BS Arrangement, Exhibits
8-K 2019-05-10 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-05-02 Shareholder Vote, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-03-19 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-09 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-01 Other Events
8-K 2018-08-16 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-02 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-06-04 Exit Costs
8-K 2018-05-10 Officers
8-K 2018-05-02 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-01 Accountant, Officers, Shareholder Vote, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-19 Officers
PXD Pioneer Natural Resources 25,850
SNPS Synopsys 17,700
WEX WEX 8,820
LRN K12 1,250
ATRS Antares Pharma 481
SRNE Sorrento Therapeutics 437
OPES Opes Acquisition 151
PDEX Pro Dex 74
HIHO Highway Holdings 12
PGAI PGI 0
TG 2019-03-31
Part I - Financial Information
Item 1. Financial Statements.
Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
Item 4. Controls and Procedures.
Part II - Other Information
Item 5. Risk Factors.
Item 6. Exhibits.
EX-31.1 tg-ex311_20190331x10q.htm
EX-31.2 tg-ex312_20190331x10q.htm
EX-32.1 tg-ex321_20190331x10q.htm
EX-32.2 tg-ex322_20190331x10q.htm

Tredegar Earnings 2019-03-31

TG 10Q Quarterly Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

10-Q 1 tg-20190331x10q.htm 10-Q Document
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-Q
 
 
(Mark One)
x
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2019
OR
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission file number 1-10258 
 
Tredegar Corporation
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
 
 
Virginia
 
54-1497771
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
1100 Boulders Parkway
Richmond, Virginia
 
23225
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
 
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code: (804) 330-1000
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  x    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 
¨
Accelerated filer
x
Smaller reporting company
 
¨
 
 
 
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer
 
¨ 
 
Emerging growth company
 
¨
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  ¨    No  x
The number of shares of Common Stock, no par value, outstanding as of May 3, 2019: 33,351,452
Title of each class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, no par value
TG
New York Stock Exchange
 




PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
Item 1.
Financial Statements.
Tredegar Corporation
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(In Thousands, Except Share Data)
(Unaudited)
 
March 31,
 
December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Assets
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
36,302

 
$
34,397

Accounts and other receivables, net of allowance for doubtful accounts and sales returns of $3,194 in 2019 and $2,937 in 2018
122,947

 
124,727

Dividend receivable from investment in kaléo
17,582

 

Income taxes recoverable
5,098

 
6,783

Inventories
100,394

 
93,810

Prepaid expenses and other
8,493

 
9,564

Total current assets
290,816

 
269,281

Property, plant and equipment, at cost
797,577

 
793,072

Less accumulated depreciation
(565,236
)
 
(564,703
)
Net property, plant and equipment
232,341

 
228,369

Right-of-use leased assets
19,999

 

Investment in kaléo (cost basis of $7,500)
84,100

 
84,600

Identifiable intangible assets, net
35,396

 
36,295

Goodwill
81,404

 
81,404

Deferred income taxes
1,404

 
3,412

Other assets
3,917

 
4,012

Total assets
$
749,377

 
$
707,373

Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
111,202

 
$
112,758

Accrued expenses
40,857

 
42,495

Lease liability, short-term
2,526

 

Total current liabilities
154,585

 
155,253

Lease liability, long-term
19,073

 

Long-term debt
110,000

 
101,500

Pension and other postretirement benefit obligations, net
86,145

 
88,124

Deferred income taxes
1,092

 

Other noncurrent liabilities
5,861

 
7,639

Total liabilities
376,756

 
352,516

Shareholders’ equity:
 
 
 
Common stock, no par value (issued and outstanding - 33,358,408 shares at March 31, 2019 and 33,176,024 shares at December 31, 2018)
39,587

 
38,892

Common stock held in trust for savings restoration plan (73,381 shares at March 31, 2019 and 72,883 shares at December 31, 2018)
(1,568
)
 
(1,559
)
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation adjustment
(97,730
)
 
(96,940
)
Gain (loss) on derivative financial instruments
(1,954
)
 
(1,601
)
Pension and other post-retirement benefit adjustments
(79,367
)
 
(81,446
)
Retained earnings
513,653

 
497,511

Total shareholders’ equity
372,621

 
354,857

Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity
$
749,377

 
$
707,373

See accompanying notes to financial statements.

2



Tredegar Corporation
Consolidated Statements of Income
(In Thousands, Except Per Share Data)
(Unaudited)
 
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Revenues and other items:
 
 
 
Sales
$
248,466

 
$
258,711

Other income (expense), net
17,110

 
8,233

 
265,576

 
266,944

Costs and expenses:
 
 
 
Cost of goods sold
200,653

 
203,189

Freight
9,021

 
8,790

Selling, general and administrative
22,012

 
21,829

Research and development
4,485

 
4,311

Amortization of identifiable intangibles
891

 
1,029

Pension and postretirement benefits
2,415

 
2,578

Interest expense
1,232

 
1,644

Asset impairments and costs associated with exit and disposal activities, net of adjustments
1,056

 
123

Total
241,765

 
243,493

Income before income taxes
23,811

 
23,451

Income taxes
4,026

 
5,287

Net income
$
19,785

 
$
18,164

 
 
 
 
Earnings per share:
 
 
 
Basic
$
0.60

 
$
0.55

Diluted
$
0.60

 
$
0.55

Shares used to compute earnings per share:
 
 
 
Basic
33,123

 
32,982

Diluted
33,127

 
32,988

Dividends per share
$
0.11

 
$
0.11

See accompanying notes to financial statements.


3



Tredegar Corporation
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss)
(In Thousands)
(Unaudited)

 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Net income
$
19,785

 
$
18,164

  Other comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation adjustment (net of tax of $0 in 2019 and tax of $0 in 2018)
(790
)
 
1,906

Derivative financial instruments adjustment (net of tax of $83 in 2019 and tax benefit of $144 in 2018)
(353
)
 
(285
)
Amortization of prior service costs and net gains or losses (net of tax of $592 in 2019 and tax of $762 in 2018)
2,079

 
2,612

Other comprehensive income (loss)
936

 
4,233

Comprehensive income (loss)
$
20,721

 
$
22,397

 
 
 
 
See accompanying notes to financial statements.


4



Tredegar Corporation
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(In Thousands)
(Unaudited)

 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
Cash flows from operating activities:
 
 
 
Net income (loss)
$
19,785

 
$
18,164

Adjustments for noncash items:
 
 
 
Depreciation
7,168

 
7,490

Amortization of identifiable intangibles
891

 
1,029

Amortization of right-of-use lease asset
632

 

Deferred income taxes
2,410

 
4,834

Accrued pension and post-retirement benefits
2,415

 
2,578

(Gain)/loss on investment in kaléo accounted for under the fair value method
(17,082
)
 
(8,200
)
(Gain)/loss on asset impairments and divestitures
421

 

Net (gain)/loss on disposal of assets
(385
)
 

Changes in assets and liabilities, net of effects of acquisitions and divestitures:
 
 
 
Accounts and other receivables
1,595

 
(14,412
)
Inventories
(6,794
)
 
1,846

Income taxes recoverable/payable
1,664

 
6,344

Prepaid expenses and other
1,078

 
748

Accounts payable and accrued expenses
(2,033
)
 
(4,785
)
Lease liability
(640
)
 

Pension and postretirement benefit plan contributions
(1,724
)
 
(1,187
)
Other, net
1,727

 
560

Net cash provided by operating activities
11,128

 
15,009

Cash flows from investing activities:
 
 
 
Capital expenditures
(12,879
)
 
(5,062
)
Return of escrowed funds relating to acquisition earn-out

 
4,250

Proceeds from the sale of assets and other
22

 

Net cash used in investing activities
(12,857
)
 
(812
)
Cash flows from financing activities:
 
 
 
Borrowings
23,750

 
24,000

Debt principal payments
(15,250
)
 
(35,000
)
Dividends paid
(3,652
)
 
(3,643
)
Proceeds from exercise of stock options and other
(815
)
 
(247
)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
4,033

 
(14,890
)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash
(399
)
 
337

Increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
1,905

 
(356
)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period
34,397

 
36,491

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period
$
36,302

 
$
36,135

See accompanying notes to financial statements.


5



Tredegar Corporation
Consolidated Statement of Shareholders’ Equity
(In Thousands, Except Share and Per Share Data)
(Unaudited)

The following summarizes the changes in shareholders’ equity for the three month period ended March 31, 2019:
 
 
 
Accumulated Other
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
 
 
 
Common
Stock
 
Retained
Earnings
 
Trust for
Savings
Restoration
Plan
 
Foreign
Currency
Translation
 
Gain
(Loss) on
Derivative
Financial
Instruments
 
Pension &
Other
Post-retirement
Benefit
Adjustment
 
Total
Shareholders’
Equity
Balance at January 1, 2019
$
38,892

 
$
497,511

 
$
(1,559
)
 
$
(96,940
)
 
$
(1,601
)
 
$
(81,446
)
 
$
354,857

Net income

 
19,785

 

 

 

 

 
19,785

Other comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation adjustment (net of tax of $0)

 

 

 
(790
)
 

 

 
(790
)
Derivative financial instruments adjustment (net of tax of $83)

 

 

 

 
(353
)
 

 
(353
)
Amortization of prior service costs and net gains or losses (net of tax of $592)

 

 

 

 

 
2,079

 
2,079

Cash dividends declared ($0.11 per share)

 
(3,652
)
 

 

 

 

 
(3,652
)
Stock-based compensation expense
1,510

 

 

 

 

 

 
1,510

Issued upon exercise of stock options & other
(815
)
 

 

 

 

 

 
(815
)
Tredegar common stock purchased by trust for savings restoration plan

 
9

 
(9
)
 

 

 

 

Balance at March 31, 2019
$
39,587

 
$
513,653

 
$
(1,568
)
 
$
(97,730
)
 
$
(1,954
)
 
$
(79,367
)
 
$
372,621



6



The following summarizes the changes in shareholders’ equity for the three month period ended March 31, 2018:

 
 
 
Accumulated Other
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
 
 
 
Common
Stock
 
Retained
Earnings
 
Trust for
Savings
Restoration
Plan
 
Foreign
Currency
Translation
 
Gain
(Loss) on
Derivative
Financial
Instruments
 
Pension &
Other
Post-retirement
Benefit
Adjust.
 
Total
Shareholders’
Equity
Balance at January 1, 2018
$
34,747

 
$
487,230

 
$
(1,528
)
 
$
(86,178
)
 
$
459

 
$
(90,950
)
 
$
343,780

Net income

 
18,164

 

 

 

 

 
18,164

Other comprehensive income (loss):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Foreign currency translation adjustment (net of tax of $0)

 

 

 
1,906

 

 

 
1,906

Derivative financial instruments adjustment (net of tax benefit of $144)

 

 

 

 
(285
)
 

 
(285
)
Amortization of prior service costs and net gains or losses (net of tax of $762)

 

 

 

 

 
2,612

 
2,612

Cash dividends declared ($0.11 per share)

 
(3,643
)
 

 

 

 

 
(3,643
)
Stock-based compensation expense
612

 

 

 

 

 

 
612

Issued upon exercise of stock options & other
(247
)
 

 

 

 

 

 
(247
)
Tredegar common stock purchased by trust for savings restoration plan

 
8

 
(8
)
 

 

 

 

Balance at March 31, 2018
$
35,112

 
$
501,759

 
$
(1,536
)
 
$
(84,272
)
 
$
174

 
$
(88,338
)
 
$
362,899

See accompanying notes to financial statements.


7



TREDEGAR CORPORATION
NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED INTERIM FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
 
1
BASIS OF PRESENTATION
In the opinion of management, the accompanying consolidated financial statements of Tredegar Corporation and its subsidiaries (“Tredegar,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” or “our”) contain all adjustments necessary to state fairly, in all material respects, Tredegar’s consolidated financial position as of March 31, 2019, the consolidated results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, the consolidated cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, and the consolidated changes in shareholders’ equity for the three months ended March 31, 2019 in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). All such adjustments, unless otherwise detailed in the notes to the consolidated interim financial statements, are deemed to be of a normal, recurring nature.
The Company operates on a calendar fiscal year except for the Aluminum Extrusions segment, which operates on a 52/53-week fiscal year basis.  As such, the fiscal first quarter for 2019 and 2018 for this segment references 13-week periods ended March 31, 2019 and March 25, 2018, respectively.  The Company does not believe the impact of reporting the results of this segment as stated above is material to the consolidated financial results.
The financial position data as of December 31, 2018 that is included herein was derived from the audited consolidated financial statements provided in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018 (“2018 Form 10-K”) but does not include all disclosures required by GAAP. These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes included in the 2018 Form 10-K. The results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2019, are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year. Certain prior year balances have been reclassified to conform with current year presentation (see Notes 12 & 13 for additional detail).
2
REVENUE RECOGNITION
As of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, accounts receivable and other receivables, net, were $122.9 million and $124.7 million, respectively, made up of the following:
 
 
March 31,
 
December 31,
(In thousands)
2019
 
2018
Customer receivables
$
121,949

 
$
122,182

Other accounts and notes receivable
4,192

 
5,482

      Total accounts and other receivables
126,141

 
127,664

Less: Allowance for bad debts and sales returns
(3,194
)
 
(2,937
)
Total accounts and other receivables, net
$
122,947

 
$
124,727

For the three months ended March 31, 2019, the Company had no material bad-debt expense and there were no material contract assets, contract liabilities or deferred contract costs recorded on the consolidated balance sheets as of March 31, 2019. Payment terms start from the date of satisfaction of the performance obligation and vary from COD (cash on delivery) to 120 days. The Company’s contracts generally include one performance obligation, which is satisfied at a point in time.
For the three months ended March 31, 2019, revenue recognized from performance obligations related to prior periods (for example, changes in transaction price), was not material.
Revenue expected to be recognized in any future period related to remaining performance obligations, excluding i) revenue pertaining to contracts that have an original expected duration of one year or less, ii) contracts where revenue is recognized as invoiced and iii) variable consideration related to unsatisfied performance obligations, is not expected to materially impact the Company’s financial results. 


8



3
GAINS AND LOSSES ASSOCIATED WITH PLANT SHUTDOWNS, ASSET IMPAIRMENTS AND RESTRUCTURINGS, SALES OF ASSETS AND OTHER ITEMS
Plant shutdowns, asset impairments, restructurings, sales of assets and other items are shown in the net sales and operating profit by segment table in Note 11 and are also included in “Asset impairments and costs associated with exit and disposal activities, net of adjustments” in the consolidated statements of income, unless otherwise noted below.
Plant shutdowns, asset impairments, restructurings and other items in the first quarter of 2019 include:
Pretax charges of $0.9 million for professional fees associated with the implementation of new accounting guidance and analysis and revisions to the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (included in “Selling, R&D and general expenses” in the condensed consolidated statements of income);
Pretax charges of $0.4 million for the write-off of a Personal Care production line at PE Films’ Guangzhou, China facility;
Pretax charges of $0.4 million for severance and other employee-related costs associated with restructurings in PE Films;
Pretax charges of $0.3 million related to estimated excess costs associated with the ramp-up of new product offerings and additional expenses related to strategic capacity expansion projects by PE Films (included in “Cost of goods sold” in the consolidated statements of income); and
Pretax charges of $0.2 million associated with the shutdown of PE Films’ manufacturing facility in Shanghai, China, which consists of other facility-related costs.
Plant shutdowns, asset impairments, restructurings and other items in the first three months of 2018 include:
Pretax charges of $1.0 million related to estimated excess costs associated with the ramp-up of new product offerings and additional expenses related to strategic capacity expansion projects by PE Films (included in “Cost of goods sold” in the consolidated statements of income);
Pretax charges of $0.3 million for professional fees associated with the Terphane Limitada worthless stock deduction, the impairment of assets of Flexible Packaging Films and determining the effect of the new U.S. federal income tax law (included in “Selling, general and administrative expenses” in the consolidated statements of income); and
Pretax charges of $0.1 million for severance and other employee-related costs associated with restructurings in PE Films and Aluminum Extrusions.
Results on the Company’s investment in kaléo, which is accounted for under the fair value method, in the first quarter of 2019 include a gain of $17.1 million ($14.3 million after taxes), which included a $17.6 million dividend declared on March 29, 2019, compared to a gain of $8.2 million ($6.4 million after taxes) in the first quarter of 2018 (included in “Other income (expense), net” in the consolidated statements of income). See Note 7 for additional information on investments.
In June 2018, the Company announced plans to close its facility in Shanghai, China, which primarily produced plastic films used as components for personal care products (“Shanghai transition”).  Production ceased at this plant during the fourth quarter of 2018.  The Company expects to recognize costs associated with exit and disposal activities of $5.0 million from June 2018 to completion, comprised of: (i) retention, severance and related costs ($2.9 million), (ii) customer-related costs ($0.5 million), and (iii) legal, asset disposal and other cash costs ($1.6 million).  In addition, the Company expects non-cash asset write-offs and accelerated depreciation of $0.6 million.  Net annual cash savings from consolidating operations of $1.7 million is expected.  Proceeds from expected property disposals are uncertain. The Company anticipates that these activities, including property disposals, will be completed by the end of 2019.
Total expenses associated with the Shanghai transition were $0.2 million in the three months ended March 31, 2019 and $3.5 million since project inception. Cash expenditures were $0.2 million in the three months ended March 31, 2019 and $2.7 million since project inception.

9



A reconciliation of the beginning and ending balances of accrued expenses associated with exit and disposal activities and charges associated with asset impairments and reported as “Asset impairments and costs associated with exit and disposal activities, net of adjustments” in the consolidated statements of income for the three months ended March 31, 2019 is as follows:
(In thousands)
Severance (a)
 
Asset Impairments
 
Other (b)
 
Total
Balance at January 1, 2019
$
616

 
$

 
$
160

 
$
776

Changes in 2019:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Charges
455

 
404

 
197

 
1,056

Cash payments
(242
)
 

 
(226
)
 
(468
)
Charges against assets

 
(404
)
 

 
(404
)
Reversed to income
 
 

 
 
 

Balance at March 31, 2019
$
829

 
$

 
$
131

 
$
960

(a) Severance cash spent includes severance payments associated with the Shanghai transition.
(b) Other primarily includes other restructuring costs associated with Aluminum Extrusions.

4
INVENTORIES
The components of inventories are as follows:
 
 
March 31,
 
December 31,
(In thousands)
2019
 
2018
Finished goods
$
25,100

 
$
24,938

Work-in-process
17,192

 
15,648

Raw materials
39,046

 
33,741

Stores, supplies and other
19,056

 
19,483

Total
$
100,394

 
$
93,810

 
5
EARNINGS PER SHARE
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing net income by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing net income by the weighted average common and potentially dilutive common equivalent shares outstanding, determined as follows:
 
Three Months Ended
 
March 31,
(In thousands)
2019
 
2018
Weighted average shares outstanding used to compute basic earnings per share
33,123

 
32,982

Incremental dilutive shares attributable to stock options and restricted stock
4

 
6

Shares used to compute diluted earnings per share
33,127

 
32,988

Incremental shares attributable to stock options and restricted stock are computed under the treasury stock method using the average market price during the related period. For the three months ended March 31, 2019, average out-of-the-money options to purchase shares that were excluded from the calculation of incremental shares attributable to stock options and restricted stock were 975,904. For the three months ended March 31, 2018, average out-of-the-money options to purchase shares that were excluded from the calculation of incremental shares attributable to stock options and restricted stock were 313,834.


10



6
ACCUMULATED OTHER COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
The following table summarizes the after-tax changes in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) for the three months ended March 31, 2019:
(In thousands)
Foreign
currency
translation
adjustment
 
Gain (loss) on
derivative
financial
instruments
 
Pension and
other
post-retirement
benefit
adjustments
 
Total
Beginning balance, January 1, 2019
$
(96,940
)
 
$
(1,601
)
 
$
(81,446
)
 
$
(179,987
)
Other comprehensive income (loss) before reclassifications
(790
)
 
(1,011
)
 

 
(1,801
)
Amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)

 
658

 
2,079

 
2,737

Net other comprehensive income (loss) - current period
(790
)
 
(353
)
 
2,079

 
936

Ending balance, March 31, 2019
$
(97,730
)
 
$
(1,954
)
 
$
(79,367
)
 
$
(179,051
)
    
The following table summarizes the after-tax changes in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) for the three months ended March 31, 2018:
(In Thousands)
Foreign
currency
translation
adjustment
 
Gain (loss) on
derivative
financial
instruments
 
Pension and
other
post-retirement
benefit
adjustments
 
Total
Beginning balance, January 1, 2018
$
(86,178
)
 
$
459

 
$
(90,950
)
 
$
(176,669
)
Other comprehensive income (loss) before reclassifications
1,906

 
(132
)
 

 
1,774

Amounts reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)

 
(153
)
 
2,612

 
2,459

Net other comprehensive income (loss) - current period
1,906

 
(285
)
 
2,612

 
4,233

Ending balance, March 31, 2018
$
(84,272
)
 
$
174

 
$
(88,338
)
 
$
(172,436
)

11



Reclassifications of balances out of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) into net income (loss) for the three months ended March 31, 2019 are summarized as follows:
(In Thousands)
Amount
reclassified from
other
comprehensive
income (loss)
 
Location of gain
(loss) reclassified
from accumulated
other
comprehensive
income (loss) to net
income (loss)
Gain (loss) on derivative financial instruments:
 
 
 
Aluminum future contracts, before taxes
$
(617
)
 
Cost of sales
Foreign currency forward contracts, before taxes
(191
)
 
Selling, general & administrative
Foreign currency forward contracts, before taxes
15

 
Cost of sales
Total, before taxes
(793
)
 
 
Income tax expense (benefit)
(135
)
 
Income taxes
Total, net of tax
$
(658
)
 
 
Amortization of pension and other post-retirement benefits:
 
 
 
Actuarial gain (loss) and prior service costs, before taxes
$
(2,671
)
 
(a)
Income tax expense (benefit)
(592
)
 
Income taxes
Total, net of tax
$
(2,079
)
 
 
(a)
This component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) is included in the computation of net periodic pension cost (see Note 9 for additional detail).
 
 
 
 
Reclassifications of balances out of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) into net income for the three months ended March 31, 2018 are summarized as follows:
(In Thousands)
Amount
reclassified from
other
comprehensive
income (loss)
 
Location of gain
(loss) reclassified
from accumulated
other
comprehensive
income (loss) to net
income (loss)
Gain (loss) on derivative financial instruments:
 
 
 
Aluminum future contracts, before taxes
$
232

 
Cost of sales
Foreign currency forward contracts, before taxes
(41
)
 
Selling, general & administrative
Foreign currency forward contracts, before taxes
15

 
Cost of sales
Total, before taxes
206

 
 
Income tax expense (benefit)
53

 
Income taxes
Total, net of tax
$
153

 
 
Amortization of pension and other post-retirement benefits:
 
 
 
Actuarial gain (loss) and prior service costs, before taxes
$
(3,374
)
 
(a)
Income tax expense (benefit)
(762
)
 
Income taxes
Total, net of tax
$
(2,612
)
 
 
(a)
This component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) is included in the computation of net periodic pension cost (see Note 9 for additional detail).
 
 
 
 



12



7
INVESTMENTS
In August 2007 and December 2008, the Company made an aggregate investment of $7.5 million in kaléo, a privately held specialty pharmaceutical company dedicated to building innovative solutions for serious and life-threatening medical conditions. Tredegar owns Series A-3 Preferred Stock and Series B Preferred Stock in kaléo that, taken together, represents on a fully-diluted basis an approximate 20% interest in kaléo. Tredegar accounts for its investment in kaléo under the fair value option. At the time of the initial investment, the Company elected the fair value option of accounting since its investment objectives were similar to those of venture capitalists, which typically do not have controlling financial interests.
The estimated fair value of the Company’s investment was $101.7 million as of March 31, 2019 and $84.6 million as of December 31, 2018. The fair value estimate at March 31, 2019 includes a receivable of $17.6 million for a cash dividend declared by kaléo on March 29, 2019 and paid on April 30, 2019 (“kaléo dividend”). This is the first dividend that the Company has received on its investment in kaléo. Future dividends are subject to the discretion of kaléo’s board of directors. The Company recognized a gain on its investment in kaléo of $17.1 million ($14.3 million after taxes), which includes the kaléo dividend, in the first quarter of 2019. Gains or losses associated with the Company’s investment in kaléo are included in “Other income (expense), net” in the consolidated statements of income and separately stated in the segment operating profit table in Note 10.
Kaléo transitioned from a company with net losses in 2017 to a company with net income in 2018. Tredegar’s assessment of kaléo’s risk profile has improved during this transition resulting in a lower discount rate versus a year ago that is applied to kaléo’s projected unlevered after-tax cash flows to estimate kaléo’s enterprise value (“EV”) (the “DCF Method”) and the Company’s underlying share of kaléo’s equity value. Moreover, with net income as well as earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”), the EV of kaléo can also be estimated by applying the EV-to-adjusted EBITDA multiple of guideline public companies to kaléo’s most recent trailing 12-month adjusted EBITDA (the “EBITDA Multiple Method”).
The Company estimates the fair value of its investment in kaléo by: (i) computing the weighted average estimated EV utilizing both the DCF Method and EBITDA Multiple Method (including adjustments for any surplus or deficient working capital and estimates of contingent liabilities), (ii) adding cash and cash equivalents, (iii) subtracting interest-bearing debt, (iv) subtracting a private company liquidity discount estimated at 15% of the net result of (i) through (iii) and (v) applying liquidation preferences and fully diluted ownership percentages to the estimated equity value computed in (i) through (iv).
The Company’s estimate of kaléo’s EV as of March 31, 2019 was determined by weighting the EBITDA Multiple Method by 80% and the DCF Method by 20%, which was consistent with the weighting applied at December 31, 2018. The heavier weighting towards the EBITDA Multiple Method was due to its heuristic nature and kaléo’s transition and actual performance in 2018, versus the hypothetical nature of the projections used in the DCF Method. The DCF Method projections rely on numerous assumptions and Level 3 inputs, including estimating market growth, market share, pricing, net margins (after allowances for temporary discounts, prompt pay discounts, product returns, wholesaler fees, chargebacks, rebates and copays), selling expenses, R&D expenses, general and administrative expenses, income taxes on unlevered pretax income, working capital, capital expenditures and the risk-adjusted discount rate. In addition, there are various regulatory and legal enforcement efforts, including an ongoing Department of Justice investigation related to kaléo’s Evzio business, which could have a material adverse effect on kaléo’s business that require assessment in any valuation method applied.
The table below provides a sensitivity analysis of the estimated fair value at March 31, 2019, of the Company’s investment in kaléo (including the kaléo dividend receivable) for changes in the EBITDA multiple used in applying the EBITDA Multiple Method and the changes in the weighting of the DCF Method.
($ Millions)
 
EV-to-Adjusted EBITDA Multiple
 
 
6.4 x

7.4 x

8.4 x

9.4 x

10.4 x

Weighting to DCF Method
50
%
$
90.9

$
97.9

$
105.0

$
112.1

$
119.1

40
%
$
86.9

$
95.4

$
103.9

$
112.4

$
120.8

30
%
$
83.0

$
92.9

$
102.8

$
112.7

$
122.5

20
%
$
79.1

$
90.4

$
101.7

$
113.0

$
124.3

10
%
$
75.1

$
87.9

$
100.6

$
113.3

$
126.0

%
$
71.2

$
85.3

$
99.5

$
113.6

$
127.7



13



The ultimate value of the Company’s ownership interest in kaléo will be determined and realized only if and when a liquidity event occurs, and the ultimate value could be materially different from the $101.7 million estimated fair value reflected in the Company’s financial statements at March 31, 2019.

8
DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
Tredegar uses derivative financial instruments for the purpose of hedging margin exposure from fixed-price forward sales contracts in Aluminum Extrusions and exposure from currency volatility that exist as part of ongoing business operations (primarily in Flexible Packaging Films). These derivative financial instruments are designated as and qualify as cash flow hedges and are recognized in the consolidated balance sheet at fair value. The fair value of derivative instruments recorded on the consolidated balance sheets are based upon Level 2 inputs. If individual derivative instruments with the same counterparty can be settled on a net basis, the Company records the corresponding derivative fair values as a net asset or net liability.
In the normal course of business, Aluminum Extrusions enters into fixed-price forward sales contracts with certain customers for the future sale of fixed quantities of aluminum extrusions at scheduled intervals. In order to hedge margin exposure created from the fixing of future sales prices relative to volatile raw material (aluminum) costs, Aluminum Extrusions enters into a combination of forward purchase commitments and futures contracts to acquire or hedge aluminum, based on the scheduled purchases for the firm sales commitments. The fixed-price firm sales commitments and related hedging instruments generally have durations of not more than 12 months, and the notional amount of aluminum futures contracts that hedged future purchases of aluminum to meet fixed-price forward sales contract obligations was $24.6 million (22.2 million pounds of aluminum) at March 31, 2019 and $25.4 million (22.5 million pounds of aluminum) at December 31, 2018.
The table below summarizes the location and gross amounts of aluminum futures contract fair values (Level 2) in the consolidated balance sheets as of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018:
 
March 31, 2019
 
December 31, 2018
(In thousands)
Balance Sheet
Account
 
Fair
Value
 
Balance Sheet
Account
 
Fair
Value
Derivatives Designated as Hedging Instruments
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Asset derivatives:
Aluminum futures contracts
Accrued Expenses
 
$
25

 
Accrued Expenses
 
$
20

Liability derivatives:
Aluminum futures contracts
Accrued Expenses
 
(1,284
)
 
Accrued Expenses
 
$
(1,650
)
Net asset (liability)
 
 
$
(1,259
)
 
 
 
$
(1,630
)
In the event that a counterparty to an aluminum fixed-price forward sales contract chooses not to take delivery of its aluminum extrusions, the customer is contractually obligated to compensate Aluminum Extrusions for any losses on the related aluminum futures and/or forward contracts through the date of cancellation.

14



The table below summarizes the location and gross amounts of foreign currency forward contract fair values (Level 2) in the consolidated balance sheets as of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018:
 
March 31, 2019
 
December 31, 2018
(In Thousands)
Balance Sheet
Account
 
Fair
Value
 
Balance Sheet
Account
 
Fair
Value
Derivatives Designated as Hedging Instruments
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Asset derivatives:
Foreign currency forward contracts
Prepaid expenses and other
 
$
11

 
Prepaid expenses and other
 
$
37

Liability derivatives:
Foreign currency forward contracts
Accrued Expenses
 
(1,561
)
 
Accrued Expenses
 
(1,090
)
Net asset (liability)
 
 
$
(1,550
)
 
 
 
$
(1,053
)
The Company's earnings are exposed to foreign currency exchange risk primarily through the translation of the financial statements of subsidiaries that have a functional currency other than the U.S. Dollar. The Company estimates that the net mismatch translation exposure between Flexible Packaging Films business unit in Brazil, Terphane Ltda.'s (“Terphane Ltda.”) U.S. Dollar quoted or priced sales and underlying Brazilian Real (“R$”) quoted or priced operating costs (excluding depreciation and amortization) is annual net costs of R$125 million. Terphane Ltda. has the following outstanding foreign exchange average forward rate contracts to purchase Brazilian Real and sell U.S. Dollars:
USD Notional Amount (000s)
Average Forward Rate Contracted on USD/BRL
R$ Equivalent Amount (000s)
Applicable Month
Estimated % of Terphane Ltda. R$ Operating Cost Exposure Hedged
$2,025
3.6690
R$7,430
Apr-19
72%
$2,025
3.6795
R$7,451
May-19
73%
$2,025
3.6904
R$7,473
Jun-19
72%
$1,800
3.8826
R$6,989
Jul-19
65%
$1,800
3.8950
R$7,011
Aug-19
68%
$1,800
3.9070
R$7,033
Sep-19
66%
$1,800
3.9203
R$7,056
Oct-19
67%
$1,800
3.9331
R$7,080
Nov-19
67%
$1,800
3.9455
R$7,102
Dec-19
73%
$1,400
3.8256
R$5,356
Jan-20
51%
$1,400
3.8331
R$5,366
Feb-20
52%
$1,400
3.8377
R$5,373
Mar-20
49%
$1,400
3.8456
R$5,384
Apr-20
50%
$1,400
3.8539
R$5,395
May-20
51%
$1,400
3.8621
R$5,407
Jun-20
50%
$1,400
3.8727
R$5,422
Jul-20
48%
$1,400
3.8850
R$5,439
Aug-20
50%
$1,400
3.8964
R$5,455
Sep-20
49%
$1,400
3.9079
R$5,471
Oct-20
50%
$1,400
3.9187
R$5,486
Nov-20
50%
$1,400
3.9306
R$5,503
Dec-20
54%
$33,675
3.8510
R$129,682
 
58%
These foreign currency exchange contracts have been designated and qualify as cash flow hedges of Terphane Ltda. forecasted sales to customers quoted or priced in U.S. Dollars over that period. By changing the currency risk associated with these U.S. Dollar sales, the derivatives have the effect of offsetting operating costs quoted or priced in Brazilian Real and decreasing the net exposure to Brazilian Real in the consolidated statements of income. The net fair value of the open forward contracts was a negative $1.5 million as of March 31, 2019.

15



These derivative contracts involve elements of market risk that are not reflected on the consolidated balance sheet, including the risk of dealing with counterparties and their ability to meet the terms of the contracts. The counterparties to any forward purchase commitments are major aluminum brokers and suppliers, and the counterparties to any aluminum futures contracts are major financial institutions. Fixed-price forward sales contracts are only made available to the best and most credit-worthy customers. The counterparties to the Company’s foreign currency cash flow hedge contracts are major financial institutions.
The pretax effect on net income (loss) and other comprehensive income (loss) of derivative instruments classified as cash flow hedges and described in the previous paragraphs for the three month periods ended March 31, 2019 and 2018 is summarized in the table below:
(In thousands)
Cash Flow Derivative Hedges
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
Aluminum Futures Contracts
 
Foreign Currency Forwards
 
2019
 
2018
 
2019
2019
 
2018
 
2018
Amount of pretax gain (loss) recognized in other comprehensive income (loss)
$
(246
)
 
$
(392
)
 
$

$
(816
)
 
$

 
170

Location of gain (loss) reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) into net income (effective portion)
Cost of
sales

 
Cost of
sales

 
Cost of
sales

Selling, general & admin

 
Cost of
sales

 
Selling, general & admin
Amount of pretax gain (loss) reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) to net income effective portion)
$
(617
)
 
$
232

 
$
15

$
(191
)
 
$
15

 
(41
)
As of March 31, 2019, the Company expects $1.2 million of unrealized after-tax losses on derivative instruments reported in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) to be reclassified to earnings within the next 12 months. For the three month periods ended March 31, 2019 and 2018, net gains or losses realized, from previously unrealized net gains or losses on hedges that had been discontinued, were not material.
 
9
PENSION AND OTHER POSTRETIREMENT BENEFITS
Tredegar sponsors a noncontributory defined benefit (pension) plan covering certain current and former U.S. employees. The plan for salaried and hourly employees currently in effect is based on a formula using the participant’s years of service and compensation or using the participant’s years of service and a dollar amount. The plan is closed to new participants and pay for active plan participants for benefit calculations was frozen as of December 31, 2007. As of January 31, 2018, the plan no longer accrued benefits associated with crediting employees for service, thereby freezing all future benefits under the plan.
The components of net periodic benefit cost for the pension and other postretirement benefit programs reflected in the consolidated statements of income are shown below:
 
Pension Benefits
 
Other PostRetirement Benefits
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
(In thousands)
2019
 
2018
 
2019
 
2018
Service cost
$

 
$
5

 
$
8

 
$
10

Interest cost
3,067

 
2,882

 
73

 
69

Expected return on plan assets
(3,404
)
 
(3,761
)
 

 

Amortization of prior service costs, (gains) losses and net transition asset
2,729

 
3,428

 
(58
)
 
(54
)
Net periodic benefit cost
$
2,392

 
$
2,554

 
$
23

 
$
25

Pension and other postretirement liabilities were $86.8 million and $88.8 million at March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively ($0.6 million included in “Accrued expenses” at March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, with the remainder included in “Pension and other postretirement benefit obligations, net” in the consolidated balance sheets). The Company’s required contributions are expected to be $8.1 million in 2019. Contributions to the pension plan during the first three months of 2019 were $1.7 million. Tredegar funds its other postretirement benefits (life insurance and health benefits) on a claims-made basis; for 2019, the Company anticipates the amount will be consistent with amounts paid for the year ended December 31, 2018, or $0.3 million.
 

16



10
OTHER INCOME (EXPENSE), NET
Other income (expense), net consists of the following:
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
(In thousands)
2019
 
2018
Gain on investment in kaléo accounted for under fair value method
$
17,082

 
$
8,200

Other
28

 
33

Total
$
17,110

 
$
8,233

The gain on investment in kaléo accounted for under fair value method shown above includes a cash dividend of $17.6 million from kaléo. See Note 7 for more details on the investment in kaléo.

11
BUSINESS SEGMENTS
The Company’s business segments are PE Films, Flexible Packaging Films and Aluminum Extrusions. Information by business segment is reported below. There are no accounting transactions between segments and no allocations to segments. Net sales (sales less freight) and operating profit from ongoing operations are the measures of sales and operating profit used by the chief operating decision maker for purposes of assessing performance.

17



The following table presents net sales and operating profit by segment for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018:
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
(In thousands)
2019
 
2018
Net Sales
 
 
 
PE Films
$
66,779

 
$
93,249

Flexible Packaging Films
33,619

 
28,437

Aluminum Extrusions
139,047

 
128,235

Total net sales
239,445

 
249,921

Add back freight
9,021

 
8,790

Sales as shown in the Consolidated Statements of Income
$
248,466

 
$
258,711

Operating Profit (Loss)
 
 
 
PE Films:
 
 
 
Ongoing operations
$
2,951

 
$
14,034

Plant shutdowns, asset impairments, restructurings and other
(1,378
)
 
(1,052
)
Flexible Packaging Films:
 
 
 
Ongoing operations
2,859

 
1,715

Plant shutdowns, asset impairments, restructurings and other

 

Aluminum Extrusions:
 
 
 
Ongoing operations
12,085

 
10,199

Plant shutdowns, asset impairments, restructurings and other
(40
)
 
(53
)
Total
16,477

 
24,843

Interest income
59

 
56

Interest expense
1,232

 
1,644

Gain (loss) on investment in kaléo accounted for under fair value method
17,082

 
8,200

Stock option-based compensation costs
415

 
86

Corporate expenses, net
8,160

 
7,918

Income (loss) before income taxes
23,811

 
23,451

Income taxes (benefit)
4,026

 
5,287

Net income (loss)
$
19,785

 
$
18,164

The following table presents identifiable assets by segment at March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018:
(In thousands)
March 31, 2019
 
December 31, 2018
PE Films
$
234,301

 
$
231,720

Flexible Packaging Films
59,550

 
58,964

Aluminum Extrusions
302,153

 
281,372

Subtotal
596,004

 
572,056

General corporate
117,071

 
100,920

Cash and cash equivalents
36,302

 
34,397

Total
$
749,377

 
$
707,373



18



The following tables disaggregate the Company’s revenue by geographic area and product group for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018:
Net Sales by Geographic Area (a)
 
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
(In thousands)
2019
 
2018
United States
$
172,254

 
$
159,562

Exports from the United States to:
 
 
 
Asia
13,493

 
23,592

Canada
3,605

 
13,298

Europe
1,360

 
1,822

Latin America
2,867

 
3,052

Operations outside the United States:
 
 
 
Brazil
28,138

 
23,151

The Netherlands
9,587

 
11,928

Hungary
6,834

 
8,818

China
230

 
2,274

India
1,077

 
2,424

Total
$
239,445

 
$
249,921

Net Sales by Product Group
 
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
(In thousands)
2019
 
2018
PE Films:
 
 
 
Personal care materials
44,855

 
61,644

Surface protection films
19,888

 
29,815

LED lighting products & other films
2,036

 
1,790

Subtotal
66,779

 
93,249

Flexible Packaging Films
33,619

 
28,437

Aluminum Extrusions:
 
 
 
Nonresidential building & construction
69,638

 
65,280

Consumer durables
15,545

 
15,189

Distribution
8,573

 
10,971

Automotive
12,627

 
9,673

Residential building & construction
11,672

 
9,601

Machinery & equipment
9,923

 
9,094

Electrical
11,069

 
8,427

Subtotal
139,047

 
128,235

Total
239,445

 
249,921

See the previous page for a reconciliation of net sales to sales (as shown in the Consolidated Statements of Income).
(a)
Export sales relate primarily to PE Films. Operations outside the U.S. in The Netherlands, Hungary, China and India also relate to PE Films. Operations in Brazil are primarily related to Flexible Packaging Films, but also include PE Films operations. Sales from locations in The Netherlands and Hungary are primarily to customers located in Europe. Sales from locations in China (Guangzhou and Shanghai) are primarily to customers located in China, but also include other customers in Asia.


19



12
INCOME TAXES
Tredegar recorded tax expense of $4.0 million on pretax net income of $23.8 million in the first three months of 2019. Therefore, the effective tax rate in the first three months of 2019 was 16.9%, compared to 22.5% in the first three months of 2018. The quarterly effective tax rate is an estimate based on a proration of the components of the Company’s estimated annual effective tax rate. The significant differences between the U.S. federal statutory rate and the effective income tax rate for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018 are as follows:
(In thousands, except percentages)
2019
 
2018
Three Months Ended March 31,
Amount
 
%
 
Amount
 
%
Income tax expense at federal statutory rate
$
5,000

 
21.0

 
$
4,925

 
21.0

U.S. Tax on Foreign Branch Income
465

 
2.0

 
357

 
1.5

Foreign rate differences
329

 
1.4

 
221

 
0.9

State taxes, net of federal income tax benefit
180

 
0.8

 
321

 
1.4

Non-deductible expenses
73

 
0.3

 
84

 
0.4

Global Intangible Low Tax Income (GILTI)

 

 
32

 
0.1

Research and development tax credit
(86
)
 
(0.4
)
 
(100
)
 
(0.4
)
Stock-based compensation
(133
)
 
(0.6
)
 
173

 
0.7

Foreign Derived Intangible Income (FDII)
(194
)
 
(0.8
)
 
(153
)
 
(0.7
)
Valuation allowance due to foreign losses and impairments
(253
)
 
(1.1
)
 
(362
)
 
(1.5
)
Foreign tax incentives
(436
)
 
(1.8
)
 
(211
)
 
(0.9
)
Tax impact of dividend received
(919
)
 
(3.9
)
 

 

Effective income tax rate
$
4,026

 
16.9

 
$
5,287

 
22.5

Tredegar accrues U.S. federal income taxes on unremitted earnings of all foreign subsidiaries where required. However, due to changes in the taxation of dividends under the U.S. Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, Tredegar will only record U.S. federal income taxes on unremitted earnings of its foreign subsidiaries where Tredegar cannot take steps to eliminate any potential tax on future distributions from its foreign subsidiaries.
The Brazilian federal statutory income tax rate is a composite of 34.0% (25.0% of income tax and 9.0% of social contribution on income). Terphane Ltda.’s manufacturing facility in Brazil is the beneficiary of certain income tax incentives that allow for a reduction in the statutory Brazilian federal income tax rate to 15.25% levied on the operating profit on certain of its products. The incentives have been granted for a 10-year period, from the commencement date of January 1, 2015. The benefit from the tax incentives was $0.4 million and $0.2 million in the first three months of 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Tredegar and its subsidiaries file income tax returns in the U.S., various states, and jurisdictions outside the U.S. With exceptions for some U.S. states and non-U.S. jurisdictions, Tredegar and its subsidiaries are no longer subject to U.S. federal, state or non-U.S. income tax examinations by tax authorities for years before 2014.
The Company includes tax-related interest and penalties in income tax expense. As of March 31, 2019, $0.2 million of interest and penalties are accrued as a tax liability. During the first quarter of 2019, no additional interest or penalties were recorded.

20



13
NEW ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
New accounting pronouncements adopted in 2019:
ASU 2016-02, LEASES (TOPIC 842)
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued a revised standard on lease accounting. Lessees will need to recognize virtually all of their leases with a term longer than 12 months on the balance sheet, by recording a right-of-use (“ROU”) asset and lease liability. The revised standard requires additional analysis of the components of a transaction to determine if a right-of-use asset is embedded in the transaction that needs to be treated as a lease. Substantial additional disclosures are also required by the revised standard. The revised standard is effective for the Company for fiscal years beginning after December 31, 2018, including the interim periods within those fiscal years. A modified retrospective transition approach which requires a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings on the effective date is required for leases existing at, or entered into after, the effective date, with certain practical expedients available. The Company elected to use certain transition practical expedients that allow it to elect to not reassess: i) whether expired or existing contracts contain leases under the new definition of a lease; ii) lease classification for expired or existing leases; and iii) whether previously capitalized initial direct costs would qualify for capitalization under Topic 842. The Company adopted the new guidance in the first quarter of 2019, electing the modified retrospective transition approach. The adoption did not have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements. The most significant impact of the new standard was the recognition of new ROU assets of approximately $21 million and lease liabilities of approximately $22 million for real estate, office equipment and vehicle operating leases.
ASU 2017-12, DERIVATIVES AND HEDGING (TOPIC 815)
In August 2017, the FASB issued amended guidance on the accounting for hedging activities. The amended guidance makes more hedging strategies qualify for hedge accounting. After initial qualification, the amended guidance permits a qualitative effectiveness assessment for certain hedges instead of a quantitative test, if the company can reasonably support an expectation of effectiveness throughout the term of the hedge. The amended guidance is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after January 1, 2019, but may be adopted immediately. The Company adopted the amended guidance in the first quarter of 2019 and there was no impact from adoption on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
ASU 2018-2, REPORTING COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (TOPIC 220)
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-2 to provide entities an option to reclassify certain “stranded tax effects” resulting from the recent U.S. tax reform from accumulated other comprehensive income (AOCI) to retained earnings. This new standard takes effect for all entities in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company has elected to not reclassify the income tax effects resulting from tax reform from AOCI to retained earnings.


14
LEASES
Tredegar has various lease agreements with terms up to 12 years, including leases of real estate, office equipment and vehicles. Some leases include options to purchase, terminate or extend for one or more years. These options are included in the lease term when it is reasonably certain that the option will be exercised.
At inception, the Company determines if an arrangement contains a lease and whether that lease meets the classification criteria of a finance or operating lease. The Company has elected to not record short-term leases with an original lease term of one year or less in the consolidated balance sheet. To the extent such leases contain renewal options that the Company intends to exercise, the related ROU asset and lease liability are included in the consolidated balance sheet. Some of the Company’s lease arrangements contain lease components (e.g. minimum rent payments) and non-lease components (e.g. maintenance, labor charges, etc.). The Company generally accounts for the lease and non-lease components as a single lease component.
Certain of the Company’s lease agreements include rental payments that are adjusted periodically for an index or rate. The leases are initially measured using the projected payments adjusted for the index or rate in effect at the commencement date. The Company’s lease agreements do not contain any material residual value guarantees or material restrictive covenants.

21



Operating Leases
Operating leases are included in “Right-of-use lease assets”, “Lease liabilities - short-term” and “Lease liabilities - long-term” on the consolidated balance sheets. These assets and liabilities are recognized at the commencement date based on the present value of remaining lease payments over the lease term using the Company’s secured incremental borrowing rates, adjusted for term and geographic location using country-based swap rates. From reviewing the lease contracts in the implementation effort, the Company found no instance where it could readily determine the rate implicit in the lease.
Lease expense for operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Variable lease expense is recognized in the period in which the obligation for those payments is incurred. Depending upon the specific use of the ROU asset, lease expense is included in the “Cost of goods sold”, “Freight”, “Selling, general and administrative”, and “Research and development” line items on the consolidated statements of income. Lease income is not material to the results of operations for the quarter ended March 31, 2019.
The following table presents information about the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from the Company’s operating leases as of March 31, 2019.
(In thousands)
 
As of March 31, 2019
Maturity of Lease Liabilities
Future Lease Payments
2019 (remaining)
 
2,555

2020
 
3,379

2021
 
3,353

2022
 
2,451

2023
 
2,344

Thereafter
 
12,132

Total undiscounted operating lease payments
 
26,214

Less: Imputed interest
 
4,615

Present value of operating lease liabilities
 
21,599

 
 
 
Balance Sheet Classification
 
 
Lease liabilities, short-term
 
2,526

Lease liabilities, long-term
 
19,073

Total operating lease liabilities
 
21,599

 
 
 
Other Information:
 
 
Weighted-average remaining lease term for operating leases
 
9 Years

Weighted-average discount rate for operating leases
 
4.35
%

Rental expense was $5.2 million in 2018. Rental commitments under all noncancellable leases as of December 31, 2018, were as follows:
(In thousands)
 
2019
$
4,445

2020
4,007

2021
3,591

2022
2,391

2023
1,245

Remainder
2,630

Total minimum lease payments
$
18,309



22



Cash Flows
An initial right-of-use asset of $21 million was recognized as a non-cash asset addition and an initial lease liability of $22 million was recognized as a non-cash liability addition with the adoption of the new lease accounting standard.
Operating Lease Costs
Operating lease costs were $1.4 million during the first quarter of 2019. These costs are primarily related to long-term operating leases, but also include amounts for variable leases and short-term leases.


23



Item 2.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Forward-looking and Cautionary Statements
Some of the information contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (“Form 10-Q”) may constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the “safe harbor” provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. When using the words “believe,” “estimate,” “anticipate,” “expect,” “project,” “plan,” “likely,” “may” and similar expressions, Tredegar does so to identify forward-looking statements. Such statements are based on then current expectations and are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those addressed in the forward-looking statements. It is possible that actual results and financial condition may differ, possibly materially, from the anticipated results and financial condition indicated in or implied by these forward-looking statements. Accordingly, you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause actual results to differ from expectations include, without limitation, the following:
loss or gain of sales to significant customers on which our business is highly dependent;
ability to achieve sales to new customers to replace lost business;
ability to develop, efficiently manufacture and deliver new products at competitive prices;
failure of our customers to achieve success or maintain market share;
failure to protect our intellectual property rights;
risks of doing business in countries outside the U.S. that affect our substantial international operations;
political, economic, and regulatory factors concerning our products;
uncertain economic conditions in countries in which we do business;
competition from other manufacturers, including manufacturers in lower-cost countries and manufacturers benefiting from government subsidies;
impact of fluctuations in foreign exchange rates;
a change in the amount of our underfunded defined benefit (pension) plan liability;
an increase in the operating costs incurred by our operating companies, including, for example, the cost of raw materials and energy;
inability to successfully identify, complete or integrate strategic acquisitions; failure to realize the expected benefits of such acquisitions; and assumption of unanticipated risks in such acquisitions;
disruption to our manufacturing facilities;
an information technology system failure or breach;
volatility and uncertainty of the valuation of our investment in kaléo;
the impact of the imposition of tariffs and sanctions on imported aluminum ingot used in our aluminum extrusions;
the impact of new tariffs or duties imposed as a result of rising trade tensions between the U.S. and other countries;
failure to establish and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting;
the termination of anti-dumping duties on products imported to Brazil that compete with products produced by Flexible Packaging;
and the other factors discussed in the reports Tredegar files with or furnishes to the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) from time to time, including the risks and important factors set forth in additional detail in Part I, Item 1A of Tredegar’s 2018 Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “2018 Form 10-K”) and Part II, Item 5 of this Form 10-Q. Readers are urged to review and consider carefully the disclosures Tredegar makes in its filings with the SEC, including the 2018 Form 10-K.
Tredegar does not undertake, and expressly disclaims any duty, to update any forward-looking statement to reflect any change in management’s expectations or any change in conditions, assumptions or circumstances on which such statements are based, except as required by applicable law.
References herein to “Tredegar,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” are to Tredegar Corporation and its subsidiaries, collectively, unless the context otherwise indicates or requires.

24



Executive Summary
Tredegar is a manufacturer of polyethylene plastic films through its PE Films segment, polyester films through its Flexible Packaging Films segment and aluminum extrusions through its Aluminum Extrusions segment. PE Films is composed of personal care materials, surface protection films, polyethylene overwrap films and films for other markets. Flexible Packaging Films produces polyester-based films for use in packaging applications that have specialized properties, such as heat resistance, strength, barrier protection and the ability to accept high-quality print graphics. Aluminum Extrusions produces high-quality, soft-alloy and medium-strength aluminum extrusions primarily for building and construction, automotive, consumer durables, machinery and equipment, electrical and distribution markets.
First quarter 2019 net income was $19.8 million ($0.60 per share) compared with net income of $18.2 million ($0.55 per share) in the first quarter of 2018. Net income for the first quarter of 2019 had an after-tax gain on the Company’s investment in Kaleo, Inc. (“kaléo”) of $14.3 million ($0.43 per share), which is accounted for under the fair value method, that includes an after-tax dividend of $14.7 million ($0.44 per share) from kaléo (see Note 7 for more details). Other losses related to plant shutdowns, asset impairments, restructurings and other items are described in Note 3. Net sales (sales less freight) and operating profit from ongoing operations are the measures of sales and operating profit used by the chief operating decision maker of each segment for purposes of assessing performance. See the table in Note 11 for a presentation of Tredegar’s net sales and operating profit by segment for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018.
PE Films
A summary of operating results from ongoing operations for PE Films is provided below:
 
Three Months Ended
 
Favorable/
(Unfavorable)
% Change
 
(In thousands, Except Percentages)
March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
Sales volume (lbs)
25,846

 
34,823

 
(25.8
)%
 
Net sales
$
66,779

 
$
93,249

 
(28.4
)%
 
Operating profit from ongoing operations
$
2,951

 
$
14,034

 
(79.0
)%
 

First Quarter 2019 Results vs. First Quarter 2018 Results

Net sales (sales less freight) in the first quarter of 2019 decreased by $26.5 million versus 2018 primarily due to lower volume in Personal Care and Surface Protection. The volume decline in Personal Care was primarily related to lower sales of topsheet materials used in feminine hygiene products, including a large portion associated with the previously disclosed customer product transition discussed below. Volume for elastics products in Personal Care increased slightly year-over-year.

Net sales in Surface Protection declined in the first quarter of 2019 versus particularly strong sales in the first quarter of 2018, which was a continuation of a very strong market in the second half of 2017. The Company believes that lower sales volume and an unfavorable sales mix resulted from a customer’s inventory build in the first half of 2018 and a slowdown in the mobile phone market in the current quarter. The Company estimates that the previously disclosed customer product transition to alternative processes or materials, which is discussed further in the subsection below, had little impact on sales as lower volume was offset by volume-based higher selling prices.

Operating profit from ongoing operations in the first quarter of 2019 decreased by $11.1 million versus the first quarter of 2018 primarily due to:
Lower contribution to profits from Personal Care primarily due to lower volume and unfavorable product mix ($5.9 million), unfavorable pricing ($0.9 million) and unfavorable production cost variances ($1.4 million), partially offset by the net favorable impact of the timing of resin cost passthroughs ($2.0 million), lower selling, general and administrative costs ($1.1 million) and favorable foreign exchange impact ($0.2 million); and
Lower contribution to profits from Surface Protection, primarily due to lower volume, which was partially offset by volume-based higher selling prices (net unfavorable impact of $4.5 million), and unfavorable mix ($1.2 million), higher research and development costs ($0.3 million) and obsolete inventory expense ($0.2 million).

25



In June 2018, the Company announced plans to close its facility in Shanghai, China, which primarily produced topsheet films used as components for personal care products.  Production ceased at this plant during the fourth quarter of 2018. Net annual cash savings from consolidating operations is projected at $1.7 million, with realized cost savings in the first quarter of 2019 of $0.4 million (reflected in the analysis above). Additional information on costs associated with exit and disposal activities (currently estimated at $5.0 million) and other details are available in Note 3 in the Notes to Financial Statements.
Customer Product Transitions in Personal Care and Surface Protection    
During October 2018, the Personal Care component of PE Films completed negotiations with its customer regarding a previously disclosed significant product transition. The total annual sales that will be adversely impacted by this product transition is approximately $70 million. During 2019, the Company expects sales for the product of $30 to $35 million with the potential for no sales thereafter. Any actions that the Company takes to reduce fixed costs to partially mitigate the decline in variable contribution that will accompany the decline in sales will depend on the level of success that Personal Care has with replacing the lost business with new products and business.
The Personal Care component of PE Films had operating profit from ongoing operations plus depreciation and amortization of $0.8 million in the first quarter of 2019 versus $3.1 million in the fourth quarter of 2018. As a result of the decline in sales from the significant product transition discussed above, the Company expects operating profit from ongoing operations plus depreciation and amortization for this component of approximately negative $0.5 million during the first half of 2019. Personal Care projects its operating profit from ongoing operations plus depreciation and amortization to be positive in the second half of 2019 assuming productivity improvement and sales growth targets are achieved.
The Surface Protection component of PE Films supports manufacturers of optical and other specialty substrates used in flat panel display products. These films are primarily used by customers to protect components of displays in the manufacturing and transportation process and then discarded.
The Company previously reported the risk that a portion of its film products used in surface protection applications could be made obsolete by possible future customer product transitions to less costly alternative processes or materials. These transitions principally relate to one customer. The Company previously believed the transitions could possibly be fully implemented by the fourth quarter of 2019; however, the transitions by the customer continue to encounter delays. If fully implemented, the Company estimates that the annualized adverse impact on future operating profit from this customer shift would be approximately $11 million. To offset the potential adverse impact, the Company is aggressively pursuing and making progress on new surface protection products, applications, markets and customers.
Capital Expenditures, Depreciation & Amortization
Capital expenditures in PE Films were $6.7 million in the first three months of 2019 compared to $1.9 million in the first three months of 2018. The Company’s latest estimate for 2019 includes projected capital expenditures of $33 million including: $12 million of a total $25 million needed to complete the North American capacity expansion for elastics products in Personal Care ($5 million spent in the first quarter of 2019); $4 million for a new scale-up line in Surface Protection to improve development and speed to market for new products; $5 million for other development projects; and $10 million for capital expenditures required to support continuity of current operations.
Depreciation expense was $3.6 million in the first three months of 2019 and $3.8 million in the first three months of 2018. Depreciation expense is projected to be $15 million in 2019.
Flexible Packaging Films
A summary of operating results from ongoing operations for Flexible Packaging Films, which is also referred to as Terphane, is provided below:
 
Three Months Ended
 
Favorable/
(Unfavorable)
% Change
 
(In thousands, Except Percentages)
March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
Sales volume (lbs)
25,462

 
23,318

 
9.2
%
 
Net sales
$
33,619

 
$
28,437

 
18.2
%
 
Operating profit (loss) from ongoing operations
$
2,859

 
$
1,715

 
66.7
%
 

26



First Quarter 2019 Results vs. First Quarter 2018 Results
Net sales increased in the first quarter of 2019 compared with the first quarter of 2018 due to higher shipments resulting from improved demand and increased selling prices associated with the pass-through of higher resin costs. The higher sales volume was associated with increased production capacity for Terphane’s Brazilian operations resulting from the re-start of a previously idled production line in June 2018.
Terphane’s operating results from ongoing operations in the first quarter of 2019 increased by $1.1 million versus the first quarter of 2018 primarily due to:
The benefit from higher volume ($1.6 million) was fully offset by higher production, operating and selling, general and administrative costs;
Favorable foreign currency translation of Real-denominated operating costs ($1.1 million), which was offset by a $0.1 million loss on foreign currency forward contracts that partially hedged Real-denominated operating costs; and
Benefit from net foreign currency transaction gain of $0.1 million (minimal gains in 2019 versus losses of $0.1 million in 2018).
Terphane’s quarterly financial results have been volatile, and the Company expects continued uncertainty and volatility until industry capacity utilization and the competitive dynamics in Latin America improve.
Capital Expenditures, Depreciation & Amortization
Capital expenditures in Terphane were $1.7 million in the first three months of 2019 compared to $0.6 million in the first three months of 2018. Capital expenditures are projected to be $12 million in 2019, including $7 million for new capacity for value-added products and productivity projects and $5 million for capital expenditures required to support continuity of current operations. Depreciation expense was $0.2 million in the first three months of 2019 and $0.3 million in the first three months of 2018. Depreciation expense is projected to be $1.0 million in 2019. Amortization expense was $0.1 million in the first three months of 2019 and $0.1 million in the first three months of 2018, and is projected to be $0.5 million in 2019.
Aluminum Extrusions
A summary of operating results from ongoing operations for Aluminum Extrusions is provided below:
 
Three Months Ended
 
Favorable/
(Unfavorable)
% Change
 
(In thousands, Except Percentages)
March 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
Sales volume (lbs)
53,616

 
51,503

 
4.1
%
 
Net sales
$
139,047

 
$
128,235

 
8.4
%
 
Operating profit from ongoing operations
$
12,085

 
$
10,199

 
18.5
%
 
First Quarter 2019 Results vs. First Quarter 2018 Results
Net sales in the first quarter of 2019 increased versus 2018 primarily due to higher sales volume and an increase in average selling prices to cover higher operating costs, partially offset by the pass-through of lower metal costs.
Sales volume in the first quarter of 2019 increased by 4.1% versus 2018 mainly due to higher volume in building & construction and automotive markets. 
Operating profit from ongoing operations in the first quarter of 2019 increased by $1.9 million in comparison to the first quarter of 2018, due to the following:
Higher sales volume and pricing partially offset by higher freight and die costs ($8.5 million net impact); and
Higher expenses for labor primarily related to headcount for manufacturing operations associated with anticipated demand ($3.8 million), higher supplies and maintenance costs ($2.2 million) and higher selling, general and administrative expenses ($0.6 million).
The operating profit at the facility in Niles, Michigan was approximately $1 million below expectations and continues to suffer from inefficiencies.

27



Capital Expenditures, Depreciation & Amortization
Capital expenditures in Aluminum Extrusions were $4.4 million in the first three months of 2019 compared to $2.5 million in the first three months of 2018. Capital expenditures are projected to be $18 million in 2019, including approximately $8 million for infrastructure upgrades at the Carthage, Tennessee facility and other productivity improvements, and approximately $10 million required to support continuity of current operations. Depreciation expense was $3.3 million in the first three months of 2019 compared to $3.3 million in the first three months of 2018, and is projected to be $13 million in 2019. Amortization expense was $0.8 million in the first three months of 2019 and $0.9 million in the first three months of 2018, and is projected to be $3 million in 2019.
Corporate Expenses, Interest and Taxes
Pension expense was $2.4 million in the first three months of 2019, versus $2.6 million in the first three months of 2018. The impact on earnings from pension expense is reflected in “Corporate expenses, net” in the net sales and operating profit by segment table in Note 11. Pension expense is projected to be approximately $9.7 million in 2019. Corporate expenses, net, increased in the first three months of 2019 versus 2018 primarily due to higher stock-based employee benefit costs, consulting fees related to new lease accounting and software implementation and identification and remediation of previously disclosed material weaknesses in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
Interest expense was $1.2 million in the first three months of 2019 in comparison to $1.6 million in the first three months of 2018, primarily due to lower average debt levels.
The effective tax rate used to compute income taxes in the first three months of 2019 was 16.9% compared to 22.5% in the first three months of 2018. The differences between the U.S. federal statutory rate and the effective tax rate for the first three months is shown in the table provided in Note 12.
Net capitalization and other credit measures are provided in Liquidity and Capital Resources.
Critical Accounting Policies
In the ordinary course of business, the Company makes a number of estimates and assumptions relating to the reporting of results of operations and financial position in the preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”). The Company believes the estimates, assumptions and judgments described in the section “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Critical Accounting Policies” of the 2018 Form 10-K have the greatest potential impact on our financial statements, so Tredegar considers these to be its critical accounting policies. These policies include accounting for impairment of long-lived assets and goodwill, investment accounted for under the fair value method, pension benefits and income taxes. These policies require management to exercise judgments that are often difficult, subjective and complex due to the necessity of estimating the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. Actual results could differ significantly from those estimates under different assumptions and conditions. The Company believes the consistent application of these policies enables it to provide readers of the financial statements with useful and reliable information about our operating results and financial condition. Since December 31, 2018, there have been no changes in these policies that have had a material impact on results of operations or financial position. For more information on new accounting pronouncements, see Note 13.
Results of Operations
First Quarter of 2019 Compared with the First Quarter of 2018
Overall, sales in the first quarter of 2019 decreased by 4.0% compared with the first quarter of 2018. Net sales decreased 28.4% in PE Films. Personal Care was down primarily due to sales of topsheet materials, including a large portion associated with a previously disclosed customer transition. Sales were down in Surface Protection, which the Company believes was due to a slowdown in the mobile phone market and comparison to particularly strong sales in the prior year. Net sales in Flexible Packaging Films increased 18.2% due to higher demand and additional production from the restart of a previously idled manufacturing line in the second quarter of 2018. Net sales increased 8.4% in Aluminum Extrusions primarily due to higher sales volume and an increase in average selling prices to cover higher operating costs. For more information on net sales and volume, see the Executive Summary.

28



Consolidated gross profit (sales minus cost of goods sold and freight) as a percentage of sales was 15.6% in the first quarter of 2019 compared to 18.1% in the first quarter of 2018. The gross profit margin in PE Films decreased primarily due to lower volume in personal care films and surface protection films, unfavorable production cost variances, and higher operating costs. The gross profit margin in Flexible Packaging Films increased slightly due to higher volume. The gross profit margin in Aluminum Extrusions increased primarily as a result of higher volume and selling prices.
As a percentage of sales, selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) and R&D expenses were 10.7% in the first quarter of 2019, compared with 10.1% in the first quarter of last year. SG&A expenses were up slightly year-over-year, with the higher SG&A percentage in 2019 being attributable to lower net sales in 2019 versus 2018.
Plant shutdowns, asset impairments, restructurings and other items in the first quarter of 2019 and 2018 are shown in the segment operating profit table in Note 11 and are described in detail in Note 3. A discussion of gains and losses on investments can also be found in Note 7.    
Interest expense was $1.2 million in the first quarter of 2019 compared to $1.6 million in the first quarter of 2018.     Average debt outstanding and interest rates were as follows:
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
(In Millions)
2019
 
2018
Floating-rate debt with interest charged on a rollover basis at one-month LIBOR plus a credit spread:
 
 
 
Average outstanding debt balance
$
108.7

 
$
155.1

Average interest rate
4.1
%
 
3.4
%
Fixed-rate and other debt:
 
 
 
Average outstanding debt balance
$

 
$

Average interest rate
n/a

 
n/a

Total debt:
 
 
 
Average outstanding debt balance
$
108.7

 
$
155.1

Average interest rate
4.1
%
 
3.4
%
 
 
 
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Tredegar’s management continues to focus on improving working capital management. Measures such as days sales outstanding (“DSO”), days inventory outstanding (“DIO”) and days payables outstanding (“DPO”) are used to evaluate changes in working capital. Changes in operating assets and liabilities from December 31, 2018 to March 31, 2019 are summarized as follows:
 
Accounts and other receivables decreased $1.8 million (1.4%).
Accounts and other receivables in PE Films decreased by $4.3 million primarily due to lower net sales for certain Personal Care products, a focus on collection efforts and the timing of cash receipts. DSO (represents trailing 12 months net sales divided by a rolling 12-month average of accounts and other receivables balances) was approximately 44.2 days for the 12 months ended March 31, 2019 and 43.2 days for the 12 months ended December 31, 2018.
Accounts and other receivables in Flexible Packaging Films decreased by $0.2 million primarily due to the timing of cash receipts. DSO was approximately 40.5 days for the 12 months ended March 31, 2019 and 43.7 days for the 12 months ended December 31, 2018.
Accounts and other receivables in Aluminum Extrusions increased by $2.8 million primarily due to the timing of cash receipts. DSO was approximately 46.1 days for the 12 months ended March 31, 2019 and 44.6 days for the 12 months ended December 31, 2018.
Inventories increased $6.6 million (7.0%).
Inventories in PE Films increased by $0.3 million primarily due to lower sales and the timing of raw material purchases. DIO (represents trailing 12 months costs of goods sold calculated on a first-in, first-out basis divided by

29



a rolling 12-month average of inventory balances calculated on the first-in, first-out basis) was approximately 55.0 days for the 12 months ended March 31, 2019 and 54.9 days for the 12 months ended December 31, 2018.
Inventories in Flexible Packaging Films increased by approximately $0.2 million primarily due to a higher production level leading to more finished goods on hand. DIO was approximately 85.3 days for the 12 months ended March 31, 2019 and 77.9 days for the 12 months ended December 31, 2018.
Inventories in Aluminum Extrusions increased by $6.0 million due to shipments lower than planned and the timing of purchases. DIO was approximately 34.8 days for the 12 months ended March 31, 2019 and 33.5 days for the 12 months ended December 31, 2018.
Net property, plant and equipment increased $4.0 million (1.7%) primarily due to capital expenditures of $12.9 million, which exceeded depreciation expenses of $7.2 million.
Other identifiable intangibles, net decreased by $0.9 million (2.5%) primarily due to amortization expense of $0.9 million.
Accounts payable decreased $1.6 million (1.4%).
Accounts payable in PE Films increased $0.6 million due to lower production, longer supplier terms and the normal volatility associated with the timing of payments. DPO (represents trailing 12 months costs of goods sold calculated on a first-in, first-out basis divided by a rolling 12-month average of accounts payable balances) was approximately 43.7 days for the 12 months ended March 31, 2019 and 43.7 days for the 12 months ended December 31, 2018.
Accounts payable in Flexible Packaging Films decreased $2.5 million due to lower inventory levels and resin prices and the normal volatility associated with the timing of payments. DPO was approximately 54.2 days for the 12 months ended March 31, 2019 and 51.9 days for the 12 months ended December 31, 2018.
Accounts payable in Aluminum Extrusions increased by $0.9 million primarily due to higher volume, negotiation of longer payment terms and the normal volatility associated with the timing of payments. DPO was approximately 50.3 days for the 12 months ended March 31, 2019 and 49.7 days for the 12 months ended December 31, 2018.
Accrued expenses decreased by $1.6 million (3.9%) from December 31, 2018 due to the reversal of accruals of employee related benefits and severance accruals related to the Shanghai transition.
Cash provided by operating activities was $11.1 million in the first three months of 2019 compared with $15.0 million in the first three months of 2018. The decrease is primarily due to lower operating profit before depreciation and amortization from ongoing operations ($8.5 million).
Cash used in investing activities was $12.9 million in the first three months of 2019 compared with $0.8 million in the first three months of 2018. Cash used in investing activities primarily represents capital expenditures, which were $12.9 million and $5.1 million in the first three months of 2019 and 2018, respectively. Additionally, in the first quarter of 2018, the Company received $5 million from escrowed funds related to an earnout from the acquisition of Futura, of which $4.3 million was classified in cash flows for investing activities.
Cash provided by financing activities was $4.0 million in the first three months of 2019 primarily related to net borrowings from the Credit Agreement of $8.5 million, partially offset by the payment of regular quarterly dividends of $3.7 million (11 cents per share). Cash used in financing activities was $14.9 million in the first three months of 2018 and was primarily related to net repayments of $11.0 million under the Credit Agreement and the payment of regular quarterly dividends of $3.6 million (11 cents per share).
Further information on cash flows for the three months ended March 31, 2019 and 2018 is provided in the consolidated statements of cash flows.

30



On March 1, 2016, the Company executed its five-year, $400 million secured revolving credit agreement that expires on March 1, 2021 (“Credit Agreement”). Net capitalization and indebtedness as defined under the Credit Agreement as of March 31, 2019 were as follows:
Net Capitalization and Indebtedness as of March 31, 2019
(In thousands)
Net capitalization:
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
36,302

Debt:
 
Credit Agreement
110,000

Debt, net of cash and cash equivalents
73,698

Shareholders’ equity
372,621

Net capitalization
$
446,319

Indebtedness as defined in Credit Agreement:
 
Total debt
$
110,000

Face value of letters of credit
2,686

Indebtedness
$
112,686

The credit spread and commitment fees charged on the unused amount under the Credit Agreement at various indebtedness-to-adjusted EBITDA levels are as follows:
Pricing Under The Credit Agreement (Basis Points)
Indebtedness-to-Adjusted EBITDA Ratio
Credit Spread
Over LIBOR
 
Commitment
Fee
> 3.5x but <= 4.0x
250

 
45

> 3.0x but <= 3.5x
225

 
40

> 2.0x but <= 3.0x
200

 
35

> 1.0x but <= 2.0x
175

 
30

<= 1.0x
150

 
25

At March 31, 2019, the interest rate on debt under the Credit Agreement existing at that date was priced at one-month LIBOR plus the applicable credit spread of 175 basis points. Under the Credit Agreement, borrowings are permitted up to $400 million, and approximately $259 million was available to borrow at March 31, 2019 based upon the most restrictive covenants within the Credit Agreement.


31



The computations of adjusted EBITDA, adjusted EBIT, the leverage ratio and interest coverage ratio as defined in the Credit Agreement are presented below. Adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBIT as defined in the Credit Agreement are not intended to represent net income (loss) or cash flow from operations as defined by GAAP and should not be considered as an alternative to either Net income (loss) or to cash flow.

Computations of Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBIT, Leverage Ratio and Interest Coverage Ratio as Defined in the Credit Agreement Along with Related Most Restrictive Covenants as of and for the Twelve Months Ended March 31, 2019 (In Thousands)
Computations of adjusted EBITDA and adjusted EBIT as defined in the Credit Agreement for the twelve months ended March 31, 2019:
Net income (loss)
$