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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, DC 20549
___________________________________________
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JANUARY 31, 2022 OR
o TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File No. 001-33866
___________________________________________
TITAN MACHINERY INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware45-0357838
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)(IRS Employer Identification No.)
644 East Beaton Drive
West Fargo, ND 58078-2648
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
(701) 356-0130
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.00001 par value per shareTITNThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
___________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o    No x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o    No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x    No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x    No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated fileroAccelerated filer
 x
Non-accelerated fileroSmaller reporting companyo
Emerging Growth Companyo
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o    No x
The aggregate market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates as of July 31, 2021 was approximately $567.7 million (based on the last sale price of $28.53 per share on such date as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market).
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant's common stock as of March 28, 2022 was 22,587,476 shares.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the proxy statement for the registrant's 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of Part III of this report.



Table of Contents
Page No.
    We make available, free of charge, copies of our annual report on Form 10-K (the "Form 10-K"), quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, on our website, http://www.titanmachinery.com, as soon as reasonably practicable after filing such material electronically or otherwise furnishing it to the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). We are not including the information on our website as a part of, or incorporating it by reference into, this Form 10-K.

i


ITEM 1.    BUSINESS
Our Company
    Titan Machinery Inc. and its subsidiaries (collectively, "Titan Machinery," the "Company," "we," or "our") own and operate a network of full service agricultural and construction equipment stores in the United States and Europe. We have been an authorized dealer of CNH Industrial N.V. or its U.S. subsidiaries (collectively referred to in this Form 10-K as "CNH Industrial") since our inception in 1980. CNH Industrial is a leading manufacturer and supplier of agricultural and construction equipment, which includes the Case IH Agriculture, New Holland Agriculture, Case Construction and New Holland Construction brands. Based upon information provided to us by CNH Industrial, we are the largest retail dealer of Case IH Agriculture equipment in the world, one of the largest retail dealers of Case Construction equipment in North America and one of the largest retail dealers of New Holland Agriculture and New Holland Construction equipment in the United States. In addition to the CNH Industrial brands, we sell and service equipment made by a variety of other manufacturers.
    We operate our business in three reportable segments, Agriculture, Construction and International, within which we engage in four principal business activities:
new and used equipment sales;
parts sales;
equipment repair and maintenance services; and
equipment rental and other activities.
    We offer our customers a one-stop solution by providing equipment and parts sales, equipment repair and maintenance services, and rental functions in each store. Our full service approach provides us with multiple points of customer contact and cross-selling opportunities. We believe our mix of equipment sales and recurring parts and service sales, as well as our geographic footprint, provide us with diversification, lowering our overall exposure to adverse economic cycles that affect particular geographic markets or segments. We also believe our scale, customer service, diverse and stable customer base, centralized resources, and experienced management team provide us with a competitive advantage in many of our local markets.
    Throughout our 41-year operating history, we have built an extensive, geographically contiguous network of 74 stores in the United States and 35 stores in Europe. Our Agriculture stores in the U.S. are located in Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming and include several highly productive farming regions, such as the Red River Valley in eastern North Dakota and northwestern Minnesota, portions of the corn belt in Iowa, eastern South Dakota and southern Minnesota, and along the I-80 corridor in Nebraska, which sits on top of the Ogallala Aquifer. Our Construction stores are located in Colorado, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. Our international stores are located in the European countries of Bulgaria, Germany, Romania, and Ukraine.
    We have a history of growth through acquisitions. Since January 1, 2003, we have completed the acquisition of over 50 dealerships located in 11 U.S. states and four European countries, along with establishing a new network of dealership stores in Ukraine. We believe that there will continue to be opportunities for dealership consolidation in the future, and we expect that acquisitions will continue to be a component of our long-term growth strategy.
Products and Services
    Within each of our segments, we have four principal sources of revenue: new and used equipment sales, parts sales, equipment repair and maintenance services, and equipment rental and other business activities.
New and Used Equipment Sales
    We sell new agricultural and construction equipment manufactured under the CNH Industrial family of brands as well as equipment from a variety of other manufacturers. The used equipment we sell is primarily acquired through trade-ins from our customers. The agricultural equipment we sell and service includes machinery and attachments for uses ranging from large-scale farming to home and garden purposes. The construction equipment we sell and service includes heavy construction machinery, light industrial machinery for commercial and residential construction, and road and highway construction machinery. Equipment sales generate cross-selling opportunities by populating our markets with equipment in need of service and parts. Equipment revenue represented 75.4%, 72.0% and 70.3% of total revenue for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020.
1

Parts Sales
    We maintain an extensive in-house parts inventory to provide timely parts and repair and maintenance support to our customers. Our parts sales provide a relatively stable revenue stream that is less sensitive to economic cycles than our equipment sales. Parts revenue represented 15.6%, 17.3% and 17.9% of total revenue for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020.
Equipment Repair and Maintenance Services
    We provide repair and maintenance services, including warranty repairs, for our customers' equipment. All of our stores have service shops staffed by trained service technicians. In addition, our technicians are able to make off-site repairs at customer locations. We provide proactive and comprehensive customer service by maintaining service histories for each piece of equipment owned by our customers, maintaining 24/7 service hours in times of peak equipment usage, providing on-site repair services, scheduling off-season maintenance activities with customers, notifying customers of periodic service requirements and providing training programs to customers in order to educate them on standard maintenance requirements. Our after-market repair and maintenance services have historically provided a high-margin, relatively stable source of revenue through changing economic cycles. Service revenue represented 6.8%, 7.6% and 7.6% of total revenue for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020.
Equipment Rental and Other Business Activities
    We rent equipment to our customers, primarily in the Construction segment, for periods ranging from a few days to seasonal rentals. We actively manage the size, quality, age and composition of our rental fleet and closely monitor and analyze customer demand and rate trends. We service our fleet through our on-site parts and services team, and market our rental equipment through our retail sales force. Our rental activities create cross-selling opportunities in equipment sales, including rent-to-own purchase options on our non-fleet rentals.
    We provide ancillary equipment support activities such as equipment transportation, Global Positioning System ("GPS") signal subscriptions and other precision farming products, farm data management products, and CNH Industrial finance and insurance products.
    Equipment rental and other revenue represented 2.2%, 3.1% and 4.2% of total revenue for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020.
Industry Overview
Agricultural Equipment Industry
    Agricultural equipment is purchased primarily by commercial farmers for the production of crops used for food, fiber, feed grain and feedstock for renewable energy. Agricultural equipment is also purchased by "life-style farmers" and for home and garden applications, and for maintenance of commercial, residential and government properties. Deere & Company ("Deere"), CNH Industrial, and Agco Corporation ("AGCO") are the largest global manufacturers of agricultural equipment, and they each manufacture a full line of equipment and parts that supply the primary machinery requirements of farmers. In addition to the major manufacturers, several short-line manufacturers produce specialized equipment that satisfies various niche requirements of farmers. Agricultural equipment manufacturers typically grant dealers in the United States defined sales and marketing territories with designated store locations to distribute their products.
    We believe there are many factors that influence demand for agricultural equipment, parts, and repair and maintenance services, including net farm income, commodity markets, production yields, tariffs and trade policies, interest rates, government policies, European Union subvention funds and individual European country subsidies, tax policies, local growing conditions, and general economic conditions. Any of these conditions can change materially in a short time period, creating volatility in demand for our products and services. U.S federal legislation, such as the Farm Bill, attempts to stabilize the agriculture industry through various policies including (i) commodity programs consisting of direct, counter-cyclical and price support payments to farmers; (ii) conservation programs; (iii) crop insurance programs; and (iv) disaster relief programs. In recent years, the U.S. federal government has furnished market facilitation program payments to farmers or ranchers to compensate for the adverse impact of trade policies, along with payments under the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security ("CARES") Act, which payments have assisted our customers. We believe that these various federal policies reduce financial volatility in the agriculture industry and assist farmers in continuing to operate their farms during economic down cycles and through the adverse headwinds caused by trade policies and tariffs.
2

Construction Equipment Industry
    Construction equipment is purchased primarily for use in commercial, residential and infrastructure construction, as well as for agriculture, demolition, energy production and forestry operations. Caterpillar, Inc., Deere, Komatsu Ltd., the Volvo Group, Terex Corporation, Doosan, and CNH Industrial are some of the largest global manufacturers of construction and industrial equipment. The market for construction equipment is segmented across multiple categories including earth moving, lifting, light industrial, asphalt and paving, and concrete and aggregate equipment. As with agricultural equipment, distribution of construction equipment in the United States is accomplished primarily through manufacturer authorized dealers.
    CNH Industrial and industry reports show that demand for construction equipment in our markets is driven by several factors, including (i) public spending on roads, highways, sewer and water projects, and other public works projects; (ii) public and private expenditures for the energy industries, which are driven in part by demand for fossil fuels, metals and other commodities; (iii) business conditions in the agriculture industry; and (iv) general economic and market conditions of the construction sector for residential and commercial buildings.
Business Strengths
    We believe the following attributes are important factors in our ability to compete effectively and to achieve our long-term financial objectives:
Centralized Inventory Management
    We believe our significant scale enables us to centrally manage our inventory, permitting us to more effectively manage inventory levels at each store while still providing a significant breadth of equipment and parts inventories to our customers throughout our footprint. Moreover, our floorplan financing capacity enables us to opportunistically purchase and carry inventory to satisfy market demands.
Superior Customer Service at the Local Level
    Our centralization of numerous administrative functions better positions our employees in the field to focus on customer service. We believe that the following capabilities enable us to better service our customers:
our ability to staff a large number of highly-trained service technicians across our network of stores, which makes it possible to schedule repair services on short notice without affecting our technician utilization rates;
our ability to staff and leverage product and application specialists across our network of stores, which makes it possible to offer valuable pre-sale and aftermarket services, including equipment training, best practices education and precision farming technology support; and
our ability to innovate and lead our industry through initiatives such as precision farming and farm data management products and services, which provide our customers with the latest advances in technology and operating practices.
    We spend significant time and resources training our employees to effectively service our customers in each of our local markets. Our training program involves active participation in all manufacturer-sponsored training programs, the use of industry experts for customized training programs, and a centralized training team to assist in training programs and the integration of newly-acquired dealerships. We also partner with several technical colleges to sponsor students who we plan to eventually employ as service technicians.
Ability to Act on Acquisition Opportunities
    We believe that our experienced management team and access to capital enables us to be opportunistic in responding to accretive growth opportunities, primarily arising from the continued consolidation of the equipment dealer network.
Superior Centralized Marketing Systems
    Our shared resource group includes a professional marketing team that supports all aspects of brand and solution awareness, customer analytics and targeting, and lead generation through multichannel campaigns that typically incorporate digital marketing (email, website, search, social and syndication), direct mail, and regional and local advertising and sponsorships. Our marketing functions also drive increased customer engagement and loyalty through participation in trade shows and industry events and communication and coordination for local store open houses, service clinics, equipment demonstrations, product showcases and customer appreciation outings.
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Ability to Attract and Retain Superior Employees.
    We recognize that attracting and retaining talented employees is essential to achieving outstanding company performance. We strive to develop our employees through a structured training program, and to invest in our employees' development. In addition, we have robust compensation tools that allow us to react to rapidly changing market conditions and reward employees for high performance. We believe that our efforts in these areas will enable us to attract and retain superior employees, necessary for us to be successful in our industry. See "Human Capital".
Diverse and Stable Customer Base Reduces Market Risk
    Our large geographic footprint covering eight U.S. states and four European countries provides a diversified customer base. We believe that this diverse customer base reduces the potential impact of risks associated with customer concentration and fluctuations in local market conditions. During fiscal 2022, none of our customers accounted for more than 1.0% of our total revenue. Revenue from customers located outside of the United States is primarily included in our International segment, which represented 18.6%, 15.5% and 18.1% of total consolidated revenue during fiscal 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively. In addition, our large geographic footprint enables us to capitalize on crop diversification and disparate weather conditions in growing regions, as well as local trends in residential, infrastructure and commercial construction.
Experienced Management Team
    Our executive team is led by David Meyer, our Board Chair and Chief Executive Officer, who has over 40 years of industry experience. Our other executive team members, managers in the field, and equipment sales consultants also have extensive knowledge and experience in our industry. We compensate, develop and review our managers and sales employees based on an approach that aligns their incentives with the goals and objectives of our Company, including achievement of revenue, profitability, market share and balance sheet objectives. We believe the strength of our management team assists to improve our success in the marketplace.
Growth Strategy
    We pursue the following growth strategies:
Increasing Same-Store Sales and Market Share
    Increasing same-store sales and market share are among our top priorities. This type of growth both enhances our current period revenue and increases our potential future revenue during the life of the sold equipment as a result of the potential for recurring parts and service business. We seek to generate growth in same-store sales and market share through the following:
employing significant marketing and advertising programs, including targeted direct mailings, internet based marketing, advertising with targeted local media outlets, participation in and sponsorship of trade shows and industry events, our Titan Trader monthly magazine, and by hosting open houses, service clinics, equipment demonstrations, product showcases and customer appreciation outings;
supporting and providing customers with training on evolving technologies, such as precision farming and farm data management, which can be difficult for small dealers to support;
maintaining state-of-the-art service facilities, mobile service trucks and trained service technicians to maximize our customers' equipment uptime through preventative maintenance programs and seasonal 24/7 service support; and
centrally managing our inventory to optimize the availability of equipment and parts for our customers.
Strategic Acquisitions
    Since January 1, 2003, we have completed the acquisition of over 50 dealerships located in 11 U.S. states and four European countries. In addition, we have added dealership locations in Ukraine through new start-up operations. The agricultural and construction equipment dealership industries are fragmented and consist of many relatively small, independent businesses serving discrete local markets. We believe a favorable climate for dealership consolidation will continue to exist in the future due to several factors, including the competitiveness of our industry, increased dealer capitalization requirements, increased sophistication and complexity of equipment and related technologies, increased expectations from our customers and our equipment suppliers, and the lack of succession alternatives for many current owners. We intend to pursue acquisitions with the objectives of entering new markets, consolidating distribution within our existing footprint, and strengthening our competitive position. We expect that strategic acquisitions will continue to be a component of our long-term growth strategy.
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    We regularly assess the acquisition landscape, evaluating potential acquisitions in terms of availability and alignment to our long-term growth strategy. Typically, in an acquisition, we have acquired only the working capital and fixed assets that we believe are necessary to run an efficient store, and we do not generally assume any indebtedness. On occasion, we have acquired all of the outstanding equity of a company. Acquisitions are typically financed with available cash balances, floorplan payable line of credit capacity, and long-term debt.
    The consent of CNH Industrial is required to acquire any CNH Industrial dealership. Additionally, the consent of our lender group, consisting of a number of national and regional banks (the "Bank Syndicate"), is required for acquisitions meeting certain thresholds or other criteria as defined in our credit agreement.
Suppliers
CNH Industrial—Case IH Agriculture, Case Construction, New Holland Agriculture and New Holland Construction
    CNH Industrial is a publicly-traded, global leader in the agricultural and construction equipment industries. In 2021, CNH Industrial generated $17.8 billion in revenue from its equipment operations. CNH Industrial is the world's second largest manufacturer of agricultural equipment, manufacturing the Case IH Agriculture and New Holland Agriculture brands of equipment. Case IH Agriculture, recognized by the red color of its equipment, possesses over 170 years of farm equipment heritage. New Holland Agriculture, recognized by the blue color of its tractors and the yellow color of its harvesting and hay equipment, has over 120 years of farm equipment industry experience. The Case Construction and New Holland Construction brands are also owned and operated by CNH Industrial.
    In fiscal 2022, CNH Industrial supplied approximately 76% of the new equipment sold in our Agriculture segment, 66% of the new equipment sold in our Construction segment, and 70% of the new equipment sold in our International segment. In addition, CNH Industrial provides financing and insurance products and services to our end-user customers through its affiliate CNH Industrial Capital America, LLC ("CNH Industrial Capital").
    Our relationship with CNH Industrial is more than a typical supply relationship; it is strategic for both our Company and CNH Industrial. In that regard, we believe that it is in each company's interest to maintain and develop the longstanding strong relationship we share.
Dealership Agreements
    We have entered into separate dealership agreements with CNH Industrial to sell and service the Case IH Agriculture, New Holland Agriculture, Case Construction and New Holland Construction brands (collectively the “CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements”). Separate CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements exist for each of our North American stores or store complexes, and for each of the European countries in which we operate. The structure of the North American and European agreements are very similar. Except as noted, the following discussion describes each of the North American CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements.
    Each of the CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements assign to us a geographically defined area of primary responsibility, providing us with distribution and product support rights within the identified territory for specific equipment products. Although the dealer appointment is non-exclusive, in each territory there is typically only one dealer responsible for retail sales to end-users and for after-sales product support of the equipment. If we sell certain CNH Industrial construction equipment outside of our designated sales and service areas, CNH Industrial has the right to require that we pay sales and service fees for purposes of compensating the dealer assigned to such territory. We are authorized to display and use CNH Industrial trademarks and trade names at our stores, with certain restrictions.
    Under our CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements, we have both the right and obligation to sell CNH Industrial equipment and related parts and products and to provide customers with repair services. The CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements impose various requirements on us regarding the location and appearance of facilities, satisfactory levels of new equipment and parts inventories, the training of personnel, adequate business enterprise and information technology systems, adequate working capital, a maximum adjusted debt to tangible net worth ratio, development of annual sales and marketing goals, and furnishing of monthly and annual financial information to CNH Industrial. We must obtain the approval or consent of CNH Industrial in the event of proposed fundamental changes to our ownership, governance or business structure (defined as "change in control" events) including, among other things, (i) a merger, consolidation or reorganization, unless securities representing more than 50% of the total combined voting power of the successor corporation are immediately owned, directly or indirectly, by persons that owned our securities prior to the transaction; (ii) a sale of all or substantially all of our assets; (iii) any transaction or series of transactions resulting in a person or affiliated group acquiring 30% or more of the combined voting power of our securities or, in the case of a competitor of CNH Industrial, acquiring 20% or more of the combined voting power of our securities; (iv) a substantial disposition of shares of our common stock by certain named executives; (v) certain significant changes in the
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composition of our Board of Directors; and (vi) replacement of our Chief Executive Officer. The CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements do not establish mandatory minimum or maximum retail pricing for our equipment, parts, or service offerings.
    The Case IH Agricultural dealership agreement and the Case Construction dealership agreement have fixed terms expiring on December 31, 2027, and renew automatically for successive 5-year terms unless either party notifies the other party of its intention not to renew or otherwise exercises its termination rights under the agreement. The New Holland dealership agreement is a 12-month agreement, with automatic 1-year renewals unless either party notifies the other party of its intention not to renew or otherwise exercises its termination rights under the agreement.
    CNH Industrial has the right to terminate its dealer agreements with us immediately in certain circumstances, including in the event of (i) our insolvency or bankruptcy, (ii) a material breach by us of the provisions of a CNH Industrial Dealer Agreement or (iii) our failure to secure the consent of CNH Industrial prior to the occurrence of a “change in control” event. The CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements governing Case Construction equipment grant CNH Industrial the right to terminate these CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements for any reason upon 120 days prior written notice. In addition, we have the right to terminate any of the CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements at any time, with or without cause, upon 60 days prior written notice. Subject to protections provided under state dealer protection laws, in the event that CNH Industrial offers a new dealer agreement or an amendment to the existing CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements to all authorized CNH Industrial dealers located in the state, CNH Industrial is permitted to terminate our existing CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements for stores located in that state upon at least 180 days prior written notice if we refuse or otherwise fail to enter into such new agreements or amendments. In addition, to the extent CNH Industrial determines that we are not meeting our obligations under the CNH Industrial Dealer Agreement with respect to a particular product, CNH Industrial may, upon 60 days prior written notice to us, remove such product from the authorized product list allowed to be sold or serviced by us. In the event of termination of any of the CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements, CNH Industrial is obligated to repurchase the inventory of the CNH Industrial brand applicable to the agreement being terminated. The CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements generally do not include non-compete provisions that apply during or after the term of such agreements or limit our operations apart from our designated CNH Industrial dealership store locations. Our CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements for Case Construction equipment, absent consent of CNH Industrial, restrict our ability to sell competing products (new equipment and parts) of other manufacturers at our Case dealership store locations during the term of such agreements. Our CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements require us to operate any material business activities not related to sales of CNH Industrial products or services to customers in agricultural, construction, industrial or similar markets separately from our CNH Industrial dealership business.
    CNH Industrial and other equipment suppliers frequently provide to its dealers interest free financing on equipment purchases. The interest free periods are for varying terms but generally less than 6 months. After the supplier's interest free floorplan expires, for any equipment that has not already been sold at retail, we typically pay off the supplier's financing with cash or through one of our lower interest rate floorplan credit facilities. Generally, payment for parts purchased from CNH Industrial entities is due within 30 days. CNH Industrial makes available to us any floorplan programs, parts return programs, sales or incentive programs or similar plans or programs it offers to its other dealers, and provides us with promotional items and marketing materials.
    The CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements for our European operations, with the exception of Ukraine, grant to us exclusive territories. We are restricted in our ability to sell competing products in our assigned territories. Our CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements for our European operations do not have a fixed term. CNH Industrial can terminate these agreements immediately in certain circumstances constituting cause, and for any reason upon 24 months' prior written notice.
Other Suppliers
    In addition to products supplied by CNH Industrial, we sell a variety of new equipment and parts supplied by other manufacturers. These products tend to address specialized niche markets and complement the CNH Industrial products we sell by filling gaps in the CNH Industrial line of products. We believe our offering of products for specialized niche markets supports our goal of being a one-stop solution for our customers' equipment needs at each of our stores. Approximately 27% of our total new equipment sales in fiscal 2022 resulted from sales of products manufactured by companies other than CNH Industrial, with our single largest manufacturer other than CNH Industrial representing approximately 2% of our total new equipment sales during fiscal 2022. The terms of our arrangements with these other suppliers vary, but most of the dealership agreements contain termination provisions allowing the supplier to terminate the agreement after a specified notice period, which is typically 30 days. Payment and financing practices with these other suppliers are similar to those practices described above with respect to CNH Industrial.
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Customers
    Our North America agriculture customers vary from small, single machine owners to large farming operations, primarily in the states of Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming. In fiscal 2022, no single agriculture customer accounted for more than 1.0% of our Agriculture revenue.
    Our Construction customers include a wide range of construction contractors, public utilities, forestry, energy companies, farmers, municipalities and maintenance contractors, primarily in the states of Colorado, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. They vary in size from small, single machine owners to large firms. In fiscal 2022, no single construction equipment customer accounted for more than 2.0% of our Construction revenue.
    Our international customers vary from small, single machine owners to large farming operations, primarily in the European countries of Bulgaria, Germany, Romania, and Ukraine. We also sell Case construction equipment in Bulgaria and Romania. In fiscal 2022, no single international customer accounted for more than 2.0% of our International revenue.
Floorplan Payable Financing
    We attempt to maintain at each store, or have readily available at other stores in our network, sufficient new equipment inventory to satisfy customer demand. Inventory levels fluctuate throughout the year and tend to increase before the primary sales seasons for agricultural equipment.
    The cost of floorplan payable financing is an important factor affecting our financial results. CNH Industrial Capital offers floorplan payable financing to CNH Industrial dealers to finance the purchase of inventory from CNH Industrial and for used equipment inventory purchased on trade-ins from our customers. CNH Industrial Capital provides this financing in part to enable dealers to carry representative inventories of equipment and encourage the purchase of goods by dealers in advance of seasonal retail demand. CNH Industrial Capital charges variable market rates of interest based on the prime rate on balances outstanding after any interest-free periods and receives a security interest in inventory and other assets. Interest-free periods are generally about four months in duration for both new and used agriculture and construction equipment. As of January 31, 2022, we had a $450.0 million floorplan credit facility with CNH Industrial Capital.
    In addition to the CNH Industrial Capital floorplan line of credit, as of January 31, 2022, we also had a $185.0 million wholesale floorplan line of credit under the Bank Syndicate Agreement, and a $50.0 million credit facility with DLL Finance LLC that can be used to finance inventory purchases. In addition, we have other lines of credit offered by various financial institutions as well as floorplan payable financing programs offered by manufacturers and suppliers, or their third party lenders, from which we purchase equipment inventory.
Sales and Marketing
    We currently market our products and services through:
our sales employees, who operate out of our network of local stores and call on customers in the markets surrounding each store;
our area product support managers, and our store parts managers and service managers, who provide our customers with comprehensive after-market support;
our website;
local and regional advertising efforts, including broadcast, cable, print and web-based media; and
alternative channels, such as auctions, for selling our aged equipment inventories.
Equipment Sales Consultants and Centralized Support
    Our equipment sales employees (who we refer to as "equipment sales consultants") perform a variety of functions, such as servicing customers at our stores, calling on existing customers, and soliciting new business at farming, construction and industrial sites. We develop customized marketing programs for our sales force by analyzing each customer group for profitability, buying behavior and product selection. All members of our sales force are expected to participate in internal and external manufacturer-sponsored training sessions to develop product and application knowledge, sales techniques and financial acumen. Our shared resources group provides centralized sales and marketing support for our field operations, and coordinates centralized media buys, strategic planning, sales support and training. In addition, we enable our regional and area managers and their sales teams to develop localized sales and marketing strategies.
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Parts Managers and Service Managers
    Our parts managers and service managers at our stores are involved in our efforts to market our parts and service offerings, taking advantage of our seasonal marketing campaigns in parts and service sales. As a group, they have won multiple awards from our suppliers for their efforts benefiting both our customers and our key suppliers.
Website
    Our used equipment inventories are marketed on our website, www.titanmachinery.com, through an equipment search feature which allows users to search by equipment type, manufacturer, price and/or store. A picture of each piece of equipment is shown, along with the equipment specifications, price and store location. Parts manufactured by the CNH Industrial brands are marketed and can be purchased directly through our website. Other sales and financing programs are also marketed through our website. Finally, our website provides dealer locator search functions and provides the contact information for the various departments at each of our stores.
Print, Broadcast and Web-Based Advertising Campaigns
    Each year we initiate several targeted direct mail, print and broadcast advertising and marketing campaigns. CNH Industrial and other suppliers periodically provide us with advertising funds, which we primarily use to promote new equipment, parts and financing programs. We will continue to explore and launch additional sales channels as appropriate, including, for example, additional internet-based efforts.
Channels for Selling Aged Equipment Inventory
    In certain circumstances, we sell aged equipment inventories through the use of alternative channels such as onsite and online auctions.
Competition
    The agricultural and construction equipment sales and distribution industries are highly competitive and fragmented, with large numbers of companies operating on a regional or local scale. Our competitors range from multi-location, regional operators to single-location dealers and include dealers and distributors of competing equipment brands, including Deere, Caterpillar and the AGCO brands, as well as other dealers and distributors of the CNH Industrial family of brands. Competition among equipment dealers, whether they offer agricultural or construction products or both, is primarily based on the price, value, reputation, quality and design of the products, technology, customer service including repair and maintenance service provided by the dealer, the availability of equipment and parts, and the accessibility of stores. While we believe we compete favorably on each of these competitive factors, our sales and margins may be impacted by (i) aggressive pricing competition by equipment manufacturers or their dealers, (ii) our ability to obtain higher service margins based on our service quality and reputation, and (iii) our ability to attract new and maintain existing customers based on the availability and quality of the products we offer and our local relationships and reputation.
    We are one of the established regional-scale agricultural and construction equipment dealers in the United States and Europe. The number of other agricultural and construction equipment dealers operating on a regional scale is limited. Our primary regional-scale competitors include RDO Equipment Co., Butler Machinery Company, Ziegler Inc., Brandt Holdings Co., Wagner Equipment Co., 21st Century Equipment, LLC, AKRS Equipment Solutions, Inc., C & B Operations, LLC, and Van Wall Equipment, Inc.
Corporate Information
    We were incorporated as a North Dakota corporation in 1980 and reincorporated in Delaware in December 2007 prior to our initial public offering. Our executive offices are located at 644 East Beaton Drive, West Fargo, ND 58078-2648. Our telephone number is (701) 356-0130. We maintain a website at www.titanmachinery.com. Our SEC filings are available on the Investor Relations page of our website or at www.sec.gov.
Intellectual Property
    We have registered trademarks for certain names and designs used in our business and have trademark applications pending for certain others. We operate each of our stores under the Titan Machinery name. Case IH, Case and New Holland are registered trademarks of CNH Industrial, which we are authorized to use pursuant to the terms of the CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements. We also license trademarks and trade names from other suppliers of equipment to us.
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Product Warranties
    Product warranties for new equipment and parts are provided by the original equipment manufacturer ("OEM"). The term and scope of these warranties vary greatly by OEM and by product. At the time equipment is purchased, we also offer customers the option of purchasing extended warranty protection provided by the OEM or through various third-party warranty providers. We are paid by the OEM for repairs we perform on equipment under warranty. We generally sell used equipment "as is" and without OEM warranty unless the original warranty period has not expired and is transferable. We also offer extended warranty programs on certain used equipment through various third-party warranty providers.
Seasonality & Weather
    The agricultural and construction equipment businesses are highly seasonal, which causes our quarterly results and our cash flow to fluctuate during the year. Our customers generally purchase and rent equipment in preparation for, or in conjunction with, their busy seasons. For farmers, the busy seasons are spring planting and fall harvesting. For construction customers, the busy season is typically the second and third quarters of our fiscal year for much of our Construction footprint, subject to weather conditions. Our parts and service revenues are typically highest during our customers' busy seasons as well, due to the increased use of their equipment during this time, which generates the need for more parts and service work. Weather conditions impact the timing of our customers' busy times, which may cause our quarterly financial results to differ between fiscal years. In addition, the fourth quarter typically is a significant period for equipment sales in the U.S. because of our customers’ year-end tax planning considerations, the timing of dealer incentives and the increase in availability of funds from completed harvests and construction projects.
    Seasonal weather trends, particularly severe wet or dry conditions, can have a significant impact on regional agricultural and construction market performance by affecting crop production yields and the ability to undertake construction projects. Weather conditions that adversely affect the agricultural or construction markets would have a negative effect on the demand for our products and services.
    In addition, numerous external factors such as credit markets, commodity prices, production yields, and other circumstances may disrupt normal purchasing practices and buyer sentiment, further contributing to the seasonal fluctuations.
Human Capital
    We recognize that our success is highly dependent upon the talents and dedication of our employees. As a result, we are committed to attracting, developing and retaining a team of highly talented and motivated employees.
Employee Recruitment
    We strive to attract the best talent from a variety of sources to meet the current and future needs of our business. We have established relationships with multiple high schools, trade schools and colleges across our footprint, which we utilize as a source for entry-level talent. Additionally, we believe it is incumbent upon all of our managers to continuously monitor their local markets for experienced individuals who might be successful additions to our organization. We seek a workforce that reflects the communities in which we operate, and strive to create diverse, equal and inclusive workplaces where our employees have the opportunity to achieve their full potential.
Compensation Programs and Employee Benefits
    We conduct regular assessments of our pay and benefit practices. Our compensation programs are designed to attract, retain, motivate and reward employees who must operate in a highly competitive, fast-paced environment. In general, our compensation programs consist of a base salary or hourly rate, commissions for employees in front-line customer facing sales roles, cash performance bonuses, health and dental insurance benefits, health savings and flexible spending accounts, a 401(k) plan, paid time off, family leave, an employee assistance program, tuition assistance, and other benefit programs.
Training and Development
    We devote significant resources to staff training and development, including tuition assistance for career-enhancing academic programs. Our training and development programs are designed to facilitate the development and advancement of talent from within our organization to ensure we continuously fill our ranks with qualified employees for critical positions in the organization. Members of our training and development team collaborate with employees from our various operations teams to identify our strategic training needs and prioritize the development of appropriate training content.
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Employee Engagement and Retention
    We conduct periodic comprehensive employee engagement surveys designed to measure organizational culture and engagement. The purposes of the surveys are to monitor overall employee engagement, identify actions that can be taken to improve our employee engagement and motivation, and to continuously improve employee retention. Data collected in each employee engagement survey is maintained and used to track our progress.
    Management continually monitors employee turnover data, which is supplemented with additional data from exit surveys, to assist in determining the reasons for voluntary employee terminations. The turnover rate of our service technicians is also monitored closely by management, as the retention of skilled service technicians is critical to our success. Demand for service technicians across the country is very high, and turnover in this role is also traditionally high for all equipment dealers.
Health and Safety
    Employee health and safety is of paramount importance to us. We strongly believe that a safe work environment will help us gain a competitive advantage, and that doing what is right, honest and ethical is essential to developing trust with our partners. This includes providing a safe place to works, safety training relevant to the employee's position, and following all safety and environmental regulations. We ensure that safety performance data is tracked, aggregated, and reviewed on an ongoing basis across our organization. Our corporate safety team collects data on recordable injury rates, serious injury rates, and near misses from each of our facilities, and engages in a root cause analysis and identifies corrective action to prevent future occurrences. This data is reviewed monthly by the executive leadership team and shared with the Company's Board of Directors on a quarterly basis.
    We are also interested in improving the health and well-being of our employees. The purpose of our U.S. employee wellness program is to help educate, motivate and reward our employees for maintaining healthy lifestyles.
Performance Management
    We have developed an employee performance management program that is consistently applied throughout our U.S. operations. The core goal of our performance management process is to develop and maintain a high-performing organization that is positioned to meet our business objectives. Our performance management program focuses on enabling staff employees and their managing supervisors to gain alignment through:
a.a structured annual goal-setting process where managers and associates work collaboratively to develop specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time bound (SMART) goals that align with our overarching business objectives and our Company values;
b.clear, organization-wide expectations that managers and staff employees monitor progress toward completion of their SMART goals with regular coaching sessions and periodic evaluations; and
c.an annual performance discussion.
Commitment to Core Values and Ethical Culture
    In addition to our focus on performance, our employees are also guided by our corporate core values of: “Our People”, “Integrity”, “Excellence”, and “Teamwork.” We continue to promote these values from the top down. In addition, we promote a commitment to ethics and compliance among our global workforce through our Code of Ethics and related training programs.
Community Engagement
    As a Company, we believe being good community citizens is critical to our success, and we encourage our employees to be involved in the communities where we operate. We offer paid time off for employees to volunteer their time to community efforts.
Employees
    As of January 31, 2022, we employed 2,288 people on a full-time basis, 1,637 in the U.S. and 651 in Europe, and an additional 148 part-time employees. We do not regularly use independent contractors in our business operations. To date, we have not experienced any work stoppages as a result of labor disputes, and we consider our relationship with our employees to be good. Our employees are not covered by a collective bargaining agreement.
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Environmental and Other Governmental Regulation
    We are subject to a wide range of environmental laws and regulations, including those governing discharges into water, air emissions, storage of petroleum substances and chemicals, handling and disposal of solid and hazardous wastes, remediation of various types of contamination, and otherwise relating to health, safety and protection of the environment.
    Our business involves the generation, use, handling, and disposal of hazardous or toxic substances and wastes and the use of above ground and underground storage tanks (ASTs and USTs). Operations involving the management of wastes and the use of ASTs and USTs are subject to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, analogous state statutes, and their implementing regulations. Pursuant to these laws, federal and state environmental agencies have established approved methods for handling, storing, treating, transporting, and disposing of regulated substances and wastes with which we must comply.
    We also are subject to laws and regulations governing responses to any releases of contamination at or from our facilities or at facilities that receive our hazardous wastes for treatment or disposal. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act and similar state statutes, can impose strict and joint and several liability for cleanup costs on those that are considered to have contributed to the release of a "hazardous substance."
    We also are subject to the Clean Water Act, analogous state statutes, and their implementing regulations which, among other things, prohibit discharges of pollutants into regulated waters without permits, require containment of potential discharges of oil or hazardous substances, and require preparation of spill contingency plans.
    We have incurred, and will continue to incur, costs and capital expenditures to comply with these environmental laws and regulations. We believe that our operations currently are conducted in substantial compliance with all applicable regulations. None of our dealerships have been subject to any material liabilities in the past, nor do we know of any fact or condition that would result in any material liabilities being incurred in the future.
    In addition to the environmental regulations discussed above, we are subject to numerous federal, state, and local laws regulating the conduct of our business, including those relating to sales and marketing, taxation, employment practices, working conditions, data privacy, and corruption. The foreign countries and domestic states that we operate in, subject us to a significant number of regulatory jurisdictions. We believe that we are currently in material compliance with laws and regulations applicable to our business operations.
ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS
Risks related to our Reliance on CNH Industrial
We are substantially dependent upon CNH Industrial, our primary supplier of equipment and parts inventory.
    The substantial majority of our business involves the sale and distribution of new equipment and after-market parts supplied by CNH Industrial and the servicing of equipment manufactured by CNH Industrial. In fiscal 2022, CNH Industrial supplied approximately 76% of the new equipment sold in our Agriculture segment, 66% of the new equipment sold in our Construction segment, and 70% of the new equipment sold in our International segment, and supplied a significant portion of our parts inventory. The success of our stores, and our business as a whole, is dependent on CNH Industrial in several key respects.
    First, we rely on CNH Industrial for new equipment inventory. Our ability to maintain or grow market share is dependent on CNH Industrial’s ability to design, manufacture, and allocate to our stores at the right time high quality and desirable products that compare favorably to those of our principal competitors in terms of price, quality, functionality, features, connected and digital solutions, and autonomy. Supply chain issues and labor shortages could diminish the manufacturing output of CNH Industrial's plants, resulting in our stores not receiving inventories in the expected quantities and timelines necessary to satisfy customer demand. Any failure of CNH Industrial to offer competitive products, or delays in bringing strategic new products to market, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
    Second, CNH Industrial supports our business by providing financial assistance and marketing support including the following:
Floorplan payable financing for the purchase of a substantial portion of our equipment inventory;
Retail financing used by many of our customers to purchase CNH Industrial equipment from us;
Incentive programs and discount programs offered from time to time that enable us to price our products more competitively; and
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Promotional and marketing activities on national, regional and local levels.
    Our financial performance is dependent on CNH Industrial's continued commitment to these offerings, at a level that allows us to be competitive in our markets.
    Third, CNH Industrial provides product warranties and, in some cases, extended warranties to our customers. Our stores perform warranty work for equipment under these product warranties, and we direct bill CNH Industrial as opposed to invoicing the store customer. At any particular time, we have significant receivables from CNH Industrial for warranty work performed. CNH Industrial’s commitment to its product warranties is important to both our market share success and our parts and service revenue.
    CNH Industrial may be adversely impacted by economic downturns, industry declines, natural disasters, labor strikes or similar disruptions, financial performance and liquidity concerns, supply shortages or rising raw materials costs, failed strategic initiatives, or other adverse events. Our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially adversely affected as a result of any event that has a material adverse effect on CNH Industrial.
    Furthermore, our financial performance and future success are highly dependent on the overall reputation, brand and success of CNH Industrial in the agricultural and construction equipment manufacturing industries, including its ability to maintain a competitive position in product innovation, product quality, and product pricing.
The terms of our CNH Industrial dealer agreements subject us to restrictions that may adversely impact our business including our ability to acquire additional stores.
    We have entered into CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements under which we sell CNH Industrial’s branded agricultural and construction equipment, along with after-market parts and repair services. Subject to applicable state statutes that may govern the dealer-manufacturer legal relationship, CNH Industrial may terminate our CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements immediately in certain circumstances, following written notice and cure periods for certain breaches of the agreement, and for any reason under our Case Construction agreement following 120 days' prior written notice. If CNH Industrial were to terminate all or any of its CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements with us, our business would be severely harmed.
    Furthermore, CNH Industrial may unilaterally change its operating practices under the terms of the CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements to, among other things, change or authorize additional dealers in our sales and service areas, change its distribution system to the detriment of its dealers like us, limit our product offerings, and change pricing or delivery terms. If CNH Industrial were to change the terms of our CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements or its operating practices in a manner that adversely affects us, our business and results of operations would be harmed.
Our CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements impose obligations and restrictions on us.
    Under our CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements, we are obligated to actively promote the sale of CNH Industrial equipment within our designated geographic areas of responsibility, fulfill the product warranty obligations of CNH Industrial (subject to CNH Industrial’s payment to us of the agreed upon reimbursement), maintain adequate facilities and workforce to service the needs of our customers, maintain equipment and parts inventories at the level deemed necessary by CNH Industrial to meet sales goals as stated in the annual business plan mutually agreed upon by us and CNH Industrial, maintain adequate working capital, and maintain stores only in authorized locations.
    Consent of CNH Industrial is required for certain material changes in our ownership, governance or business structure, including the acquisition by any person or group of persons of 30% or more of our outstanding stock or 20% or more of our outstanding stock if the acquiring person or group is a competitor of CNH Industrial. This requirement may have the effect of discouraging a sale or other change in control of the Company, including transactions that may be in the best interests of our stockholders.
    The acquisition of additional CNH Industrial geographic areas of responsibility and store locations in our Agriculture, Construction and International segments requires the consent of CNH Industrial under our CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements. CNH Industrial may decline, in its sole discretion, to consent to any acquisition of an additional CNH Industrial store location we may pursue. If CNH Industrial is unwilling to consent to any future proposed acquisition of additional dealerships, our ability to execute on our acquisition strategy and to grow our business may be impaired.
     Our CNH Industrial Dealer Agreements require us to operate any material business activities not related to sales of CNH Industrial products or services to customers in agricultural, construction, industrial or similar markets separately from our CNH Industrial dealership business. In addition, our CNH Industrial Dealer Agreement for Case Construction equipment prohibits us from carrying other suppliers' products (new equipment and parts) at our Case Construction stores that are
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competitive with CNH Industrial's products. These restrictions may discourage or prevent us from pursuing activities that we believe will grow our business.
Risks Related to Economic Conditions Affecting our Customers' Demand for our Products and Services
Our agriculture equipment sales are significantly affected by net farm income, which is influenced by factors which we have no control.
    Farmers' capital expenditures often follow a cyclical pattern, with increased equipment purchases typically occurring during boom cycles spurred by high net farm income and strong farmer balance sheets. Net farm income is influenced by factors such as:
the price of agricultural commodities and the ability to competitively export agricultural commodities;
the profitability of agricultural enterprises, farmers’ income and their capitalization;
the demand for food products;
the availability of stocks from previous harvests; and
agricultural policies, including aid and subsidies to agricultural enterprises provided by governments, policies impacting commodity prices or limiting the export or import of commodities, and alternative fuel mandates.
    In addition to macroeconomic drivers of net farm income, local growing conditions also influence farmers’ buying sentiment within the affected geography. Therefore, droughts, excess rain, hail, and other unfavorable climatic conditions affecting certain geographic regions will adversely impact the local farmers’ buying sentiment.
    The nature of the agricultural industry is such that a downturn in equipment demand can occur suddenly, resulting in negative impact on dealers in the form of declining revenues, reduced profit margins, excess new and used equipment inventories, and increased floorplan interest expenses. These downturns may be prolonged, and during these periods, our revenues and profitability could be harmed.
    Demand for our parts and repair services, although not as cyclical as equipment purchases, also can be negatively affected in agricultural industry downturns and in regions affected by adverse weather or growing conditions which result in fewer acres planted or harvested.
Our construction equipment sales are affected by several market factors over which we have no control.
    Our construction equipment customers primarily operate in the natural resource, construction, transportation, agriculture, manufacturing, industrial processing and utilities industries. The construction equipment market is influenced by factors such as:
public infrastructure spending;
new residential and non-residential construction; and
capital spending in oil and gas, forestry, agricultural and mining.

    The construction industry in many of our geographical areas has experienced periodic, and sometimes prolonged, economic down cycles. During these downturns our revenues and profitability could be adversely impacted.

    The ability to obtain affordable financing is an important part of a customer's decision to purchase agricultural or construction equipment. Projected interest rate hikes will increase financing costs of our customers, which may make equipment purchases less affordable for customers and, as a result, our revenue and profitability may decrease.
Risks Related to the Competitive Conditions of the Equipment Distribution Industry
The equipment distribution market is subject to sudden supply-demand imbalances arising from factors over which we have no control, which can affect our equipment sales and margins.
    Over-production of equipment by one or more manufacturers, or a sudden reduction in demand for equipment, can dramatically disrupt the equipment market and cause downward pressure on our equipment profit margins. Customer leasing arrangements in the agriculture and construction equipment industries may also impact the level of industry-wide equipment inventory supplies. When leased equipment comes off lease, there may be an increase in the availability of late-model used equipment, which can create an inventory over-supply condition and put pressure on our equipment sales and margins, and have an adverse effect on values of our used equipment inventory and rental fleet equipment. Similarly, rental house companies engage in regular sales of rental fleet units, which can further disrupt the supply-demand balance. We have no control over or ability to significantly influence any of the foregoing factors affecting the equipment distribution markets.
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Our industry is highly competitive.
    The agricultural and construction equipment distribution (including parts and service) and rental industries are highly competitive and fragmented, with large numbers of companies operating on a regional or local basis. Historically, our competitors have competed aggressively on the basis of pricing or inventory availability, resulting in decreased margins on our sales to the extent we choose to match our competitors' pricing. To the extent we choose not to match or remain within a reasonable range of our competitors' pricing, we may lose sales and market share. In addition, to the extent CNH Industrial's equipment manufacturer competitors (such as Deere, Caterpillar, Komatsu, Volvo, and AGCO) provide their dealers with more innovative or higher quality products, lower cost products, better customer financing, or have more effective marketing programs, or the CNH Industrial reputation is tarnished in the marketplace or with our customers, our ability to compete and our results of operations could be adversely affected. In addition, e-commerce companies selling parts have negatively impacted dealers' parts sales and margins, and we expect that this competitive pressure will continue to increase in the future.     
Risks Related to Supply Chain
    Following the business interruptions caused by COVID-19, our suppliers have experienced continuing supply chain disruptions, including country of origin production and port delays. Additionally, trucker, dockworker, and labor shortages, a surge of consumer demand, and other factors have led to industry-wide delays and inflationary trends. Our suppliers' challenges directly affect us through price increases, and disruptions and delays on delivery of certain products, which may cause us to lose business.
Risks of International Operations
Our international operations expose us to risks and uncertainties.
    We currently operate dealership locations in Bulgaria, Germany, Romania, and Ukraine. In fiscal 2022, total International segment revenues were 18.6% of our consolidated total revenue. As of January 31, 2022, total International segment assets were 16.4% of our consolidated total assets.
    Our operations in international markets subject us to risks and uncertainties arising from the differing legal, political, social and regulatory environments and economic conditions in the countries in which we operate. These risks include:
difficulties in implementing our business model in foreign markets;
costs and diversion of domestic management attention related to oversight of international operations;
unexpected adverse changes in export duties, quotas and tariffs and difficulties in obtaining import licenses;
cyclicality of demand in European Union member states for agricultural equipment, based on availability of European Union government subsidy programs and tax incentives;
unexpected adverse changes in foreign laws or regulatory requirements;
compliance with a variety of tax regulations, foreign laws and regulations;
compliance with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other U.S. laws that apply to the international operations of U.S. companies which may be difficult and costly to implement and monitor, can create competitive disadvantages if our competitors are not subject to such laws, and which, if violated, may result in substantial financial and reputational harm;
fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates to which we are exposed may adversely affect the results of our operations, the value of our foreign assets and liabilities and our cash flows;
the laws of the European countries in which we operate, unlike U.S. states, do not include specific dealer protection laws and, therefore, we may be more susceptible to actions of suppliers that are adverse to our interests such as termination of our dealer agreements for any reason or installing additional dealers in our designated territories; and
geopolitical or economic instability in the regions in which we operate, including the impact of the Russian invasion of Ukraine.
The Russian-Ukraine conflict has presented significant challenges and risks for our Ukraine operations.
    The Russian military occupation of Ukraine has significantly disrupted our Ukrainian operations and resulted in the shut-down of our 10 Ukrainian stores for a period of time, some of which have reopened. The outcome of the Russian military operation remains unclear and we cannot predict when or if our stores and business operations will reopen. The military conflict and related political instability may make it impossible for us to effectively operate our Ukraine dealerships, which may result in our decision to cease operations in Ukraine. This would result in asset write-offs and a loss in revenues and profits. See additional information in Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements at Item 8. Even if we are able to continue operations, we expect that the military conflict will significantly impact our customers' liquidity and their purchasing decisions for our
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products and services. If no crops are planted or the upcoming growing season is negatively impacted, it will limit our ability to maintain working capital loans or increase the cost of maintaining such loans, and as a result of imposed currency exchange controls and other restrictions, restrict our ability to manage our cash held in Ukraine and our investment in our Ukrainian business. Additional risks related to our operations in Ukraine, likely made more acute by the impact of the military conflict, include further devaluation of the local currency, increased interest rates and increased inflation.
    These factors, in addition to others that we have not anticipated, may negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Financial Matters
Our financial performance is dependent on our ability to effectively manage our inventory.
    Our dealership network requires substantial inventories of equipment and parts to be maintained at each store and company-wide to facilitate sales to customers on a timely basis. Our equipment inventory has traditionally represented a significant portion of our total assets. We need to maintain a proper balance of new and used equipment to assure satisfactory inventory turnover and to minimize floorplan financing costs.
    Our orders for the purchase of new equipment and parts are based primarily on projected demand. If actual sales are materially less than our forecasts, for example because of a significant drop in net farm income, weather disruptions to the agricultural growing regions, or a construction industry recession, we would experience an over-supply of new equipment inventory. An over-supply of new equipment inventory will generally cause downward pressure on our product sale prices and margins, decrease our inventory turns, and increase our floorplan financing expenses.
    Our used equipment is generally acquired as trade-ins from customers in connection with equipment sales to those customers. Equipment inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Adjustments to market value of inventory are recognized as a cost of sales, negatively impacting earnings, in the periods in which they occur. Our estimates of net realizable value for our used equipment, as determined at the time of the trade-in, may prove to be inaccurate, given the potential for sudden changes in market conditions and other factors beyond our control. Moving from our normal retail marketing channel to more aggressive marketing channels for specific pieces or categories of equipment inventory, particularly as equipment inventory ages, will generally result in lower sales prices. Pricing and other terms of sale of used equipment can be significantly adversely affected by the limited market for certain types of used equipment.
Our level of indebtedness could limit our financial and operational flexibility.
    As of January 31, 2022, our indebtedness included floorplan payable financing, real estate mortgage financing arrangements that are secured by real estate assets and other long-term debt. In addition, we have obligations under our lease agreements for our store locations and corporate headquarters. Our level of indebtedness could have important consequences. For example, it could:
increase our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate; and
limit our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or general corporate purposes.
    We expect to use cash flow from operations and borrowings under our credit facilities to fund our operations, debt service and capital expenditures. However, our cash flow and ability to borrow depends on our future performance, which will be affected by financial, business, economic and other factors, many of which may be beyond our control.
The credit agreements governing our indebtedness restrict our ability to engage in certain corporate and financial transactions, and require us to satisfy financial covenants.
    The credit agreements governing our indebtedness contain covenants that, among other things, may limit or place conditions on our ability to:
incur more debt;
make investments;
create liens;
merge, consolidate, or make certain acquisitions;
transfer and sell assets, or divest of dealership stores;
pay dividends or repurchase stock; and
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issue equity instruments.
    Our credit facilities with CNH Industrial Capital, DLL Finance, and certain of our real estate lenders require us to satisfy a net leverage ratio and fixed charge coverage ratio on an ongoing basis, measured at the end of each fiscal quarter. Under the Bank Syndicate Agreement, if our excess availability (i.e., borrowing base capacity less outstanding loan balance and certain reserves) falls below a certain threshold, we become subject to a minimum fixed charge coverage ratio. Our ability to borrow under these credit agreements depends upon compliance with these financial covenants.
    Our failure to satisfy any covenant, absent a waiver or amendment, would cause us to be in default under our credit facilities and would enable our lenders to accelerate payment of the outstanding indebtedness. Each of our credit agreements include cross-default provisions which state that certain types of defaults under any other indebtedness agreement will also constitute a default under that credit agreement. If an event of default occurred, and the lender demanded accelerated payment, we may not be able to satisfy a pay-off request, whether through internal funds or a new financing.
Our variable rate indebtedness exposes us to interest rate risk.
    A substantial portion of our floorplan and working capital borrowings, including the credit facilities with CNH Industrial Capital, the Bank Syndicate, DLL Finance, and our international floorplan facilities are at variable rates of interest and expose us to interest rate risk. As such, our results of operations are sensitive to movements in interest rates. There are many economic factors outside our control that have in the past and may, in the future, impact rates of interest including publicly announced indices that underlie the interest obligations related to a certain portion of our debt. Factors that impact interest rates include governmental monetary policies, inflation, recession, changes in unemployment, the money supply, and international instability impacting domestic and foreign financial markets. Any increases in interest rates could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
We are in the process of implementing a new enterprise resource planning (“ERP”) system, and problems with the design or implementation of this ERP system could interfere with our business and operations.
    We are engaged in the implementation of a new ERP system. The ERP system is designed to accurately maintain our books and records and provide information to management important to the operation of our business. Our ERP transition has required, and will continue to require, the investment of significant human and financial resources. We have and may continue to experience challenges as we work toward the completion of the ERP conversion. Beyond cost and scheduling, potential flaws in the implementation of an ERP system may pose risks to the Company’s ability to operate successfully and efficiently, including timely and accurate SEC filings. If we are unable to successfully implement the new ERP system as planned, our financial position, results of operations and cash flows could be negatively impacted.
    Moreover, if the ERP system does not effectively collect, store, process, and report relevant data for the operation of our business (whether due to equipment malfunction or constraints, software deficiencies, cybersecurity attack, and/or human error), our ability to effectively plan, forecast, and execute our business plan and comply with applicable laws and regulations will be impaired, perhaps materially. Any such impairment could materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and the timeliness with which we report our internal and external operating results.    
The agricultural and construction equipment industries are highly seasonal, which can cause significant fluctuations in our results of operations and cash flow.
    The agricultural and construction equipment businesses are highly seasonal, which causes our quarterly results to fluctuate during the year. Farmers generally purchase agricultural equipment and service work in preparation for, or in conjunction with, the spring planting and fall harvesting seasons. Construction equipment customers’ purchases of equipment and service work, as well as rental of equipment, are also seasonal in our stores located in colder climates where construction work slows significantly in the winter months. In addition, the fourth quarter typically is a significant period for equipment sales in the United States because of our customers’ year-end tax planning considerations, the timing of dealer incentives and the increase in availability of farmers’ funds from completed harvests and construction customers' funds from completed projects. Also, numerous external factors such as credit markets, commodity prices, weather conditions, and other circumstances may disrupt normal purchasing practices and customers’ sentiment, further contributing to the seasonal fluctuations.
We are exposed to customer credit risks.
    We extend credit to our customers for parts and service work, rental charges, and also for some equipment sales in our domestic and international operations. If we are unable to manage these credit risk issues adequately, or if a large number of customers should have financial difficulties at the same time, our credit losses could increase above historical levels and our
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operating results would be adversely affected. Delinquencies and credit losses generally would be expected to increase if there was a worsening of economic conditions in any of our reporting segments.
Our rental operations subject us to risks including increased maintenance costs as our rental fleet ages, increased costs of new replacement equipment we use in our fleet, and losses upon disposition of rental fleet units.

    Our rental fleet margins are materially impacted by utilization of fleet assets, which is seasonal and can fluctuate materially due to weather and economic factors. If our rental equipment ages, the costs of maintaining that equipment, if not replaced within a certain period of time, will likely increase. The cost of new equipment for use in our rental fleet could also increase due to increased material costs for our suppliers or other factors beyond our control. Furthermore, changes in customer demand could cause some of our existing equipment to become obsolete and require us to purchase new equipment at increased costs.

    Upon the sale of a rental fleet unit, we include in operating income the difference between the sales price and the depreciated value of the equipment sold. The market value of any given piece of rental equipment could be less than its depreciated value at the time it is sold. The market value of used rental equipment depends on several factors, including:

market prices for like equipment;
hours and condition of the equipment;
time of year that the equipment is sold;
the supply of used equipment in the market; and
general economic conditions.

    Any significant decline in the selling prices for used rental equipment, or increased costs resulting from our rental operations, could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows.
Risks Related to Governmental Regulation
Enactment of "right to repair" legislation could adversely affect the sales and profitability of our parts and service business.
    Proposed state and federal legislation has been introduced that generally would require the manufacturers of products to provide the purchaser and/or independent repair technicians with documents, diagnostic software, and other information that would allow the equipment to be repaired without having it returned to the dealer for repair. Moreover, recent versions of the proposed legislation require that the manufacturer sell certain spare parts to users and third-party repair shops at the same price as offered by the manufacturer to its authorized dealers. To date, no form of legislation has passed in the states where we do business or at the federal level.
    It is difficult to predict whether any form of this legislation will be enacted in any of the states where we do business or at the federal level. If enacted, however, any such legislation could have negative impacts on our parts and service business as follows:
Increased competition for repair services. We would become subject to additional competition from independent repair shops and/or other equipment dealers’ repair shops, who would have greater access to manufacturer furnished diagnostic tools as necessary to perform repair and maintenance services on CNH Industrial branded equipment.
Loss of parts sales. If customers, third-party repair shops, and/or parts vendors are able to purchase parts directly from the manufacturer at the same price as available to us, then our parts business would be negatively impacted.
Margin Compression on Parts and Service Revenue. With the increased competition for repair service and parts sales, we would expect that this new competition would result in margin compression in our sales.
Climate and Weather Risks
Weather conditions may negatively impact the agricultural and construction equipment markets and affect our financial results.
    Weather conditions, particularly severe floods and droughts, can have a significant adverse effect on growing conditions and on regional agricultural and construction markets. Adverse weather conditions may result in fewer acres being planted or harvested by farmers and reduced crop yields on those acres that are planted, and in delays or cancellations of construction projects. This in turn could result in lower demand for our agricultural and construction equipment and services and adversely affect our results of operation. Many scientific reports predict that severe weather events can be expected to become more frequent as a result of global climate change.
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New or more stringent greenhouse gas emission standards designed to address climate change could increase costs of the equipment we purchase from our suppliers and increase our customers’ costs of operations.
    There is global scientific consensus that emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) continue to alter the composition of Earth’s atmosphere in ways that are affecting and are expected to continue to affect the global climate. These considerations may lead to new international, national, regional or local legislative or regulatory responses. Various stakeholders, including legislators and regulators, shareholders and non-governmental organizations, as well as companies in many business sectors are continuing to look for ways to reduce GHG emissions.
    The regulation of GHG emissions from the equipment we sell could result in additional manufacturing costs to our suppliers who, in turn, will likely pass along those costs to us. We may not be successful in passing along the equipment price increases to our customers, which could impact our results of operation. To the extent that we attempt to pass along price increases to our customers, the increased costs of equipment will likely negatively affect their purchasing decisions.
    Moreover, the GHG regulations could increase other input costs for our customers, such as fuel and fertilizer, and impose indirect compliance-related costs on our customers. These economic impacts could negatively impact our customers’ purchasing decisions.
    Because the impact of any future GHG legislative, regulatory or product standard requirements is dependent on the timing and design of mandates or standards, we are unable to predict their potential impact at this time.
Risks of our Growth Strategy
If our acquisition plans are unsuccessful, we may not achieve our planned long-term revenue growth.
    Our ability to grow through the acquisition of additional CNH Industrial geographic areas of responsibility and store locations or other businesses will be dependent upon the availability of suitable acquisition candidates at acceptable values, our ability to compete effectively for available acquisition candidates and the availability of capital to complete the acquisitions. We may not successfully identify suitable targets, or if we do, we may not be able to close the transactions, or if we close the transactions, they may not be profitable. In addition, CNH Industrial's consent is required for the acquisition of any CNH Industrial dealership, and the consent of our lenders may be required for certain acquisitions. CNH Industrial typically evaluates management, historical performance, and capitalization of a prospective acquirer in determining whether to consent to the sale of a CNH Industrial dealership. We may not obtain the consent of CNH Industrial or our lenders for certain acquisitions we may propose.
Our acquisitions may not be successful.
    There are risks associated with acquisitions of new dealerships. These risks include incurring significantly higher than anticipated capital expenditures and operating expenses; failing to integrate the operations and personnel of the acquired dealerships; failing to integrate the operations and personnel of the acquired dealerships; employee attrition at the acquired business; disrupting our ongoing business; diluting the effectiveness of our management; failing to maintain uniform standards, controls and policies; and impairing relationships with employees and customers as a result of changes in management. To the extent we do not successfully avoid or overcome the risks or problems related to acquisitions, our results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected. Future acquisitions also may have a significant impact on our financial position and capital needs, and could cause substantial fluctuations in our quarterly and yearly results of operations. Acquisitions could include significant goodwill and intangible assets. If the acquisitions giving rise to these intangible assets are unsuccessful, this may result in future impairment charges that would reduce our stated earnings.
Human Capital Risks
Our business success depends on attracting and retaining qualified personnel.
    Our success in executing our operating and strategic plans depends on the efforts and abilities of our management team and key employees, including the managers of our field operations and our country managers in our international operations. The failure to attract and retain members of our management team and key employees will harm us.
    In recent years, the equipment industry has experienced a shortage of qualified service technicians. If this trend worsens and we are not able to hire and retain qualified service technicians at acceptable levels, our ability to satisfy customers' service needs would be negatively impacted. Moreover, the technician shortage may increase our service technician compensation expense, and reduce our gross margins on service work.
In addition, in recent years it has been unusually difficult to hire and retain employees, which we believe is primarily attributable to COVID-19 pandemic related factors and which in turn has created increased competition in labor markets.
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Difficulties in hiring and retaining employees and heightened competition for employees may impact our ability to serve customers, increase our costs, and impair our efficiency and effectiveness and our ability to pursue growth opportunities.
Labor organizing activities could negatively impact us.
    Although none of our employees are covered by a collective bargaining agreement, there have been attempts to unionize our store personnel. The unionization of all or a substantial portion of our workforce could result in work slowdowns or stoppages, could increase our overall costs, could reduce our operating margins and reduce the efficiency of our operations at the affected locations, could adversely affect our flexibility to run our business competitively, and could otherwise have an adverse effect on our business.
Liability Risks
Selling and renting agricultural and construction equipment, selling parts, and providing repair services subject us to liability risks that could adversely affect our financial condition and reputation.
    Products sold, rented or serviced by us may expose us to potential liabilities for personal injury or property damage claims that arise from the use of those products. Our commercial liability insurance may not be adequate to cover significant product liability claims, or we may not be able to secure such insurance on economically reasonable terms. An uninsured or partially insured claim for which indemnification from the manufacturer is not available could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations. Furthermore, if any significant claims are made against us or against CNH Industrial or any of our other suppliers, our business may be adversely affected by any related negative publicity or any adverse impact on the reputation or brand of any of our suppliers, including CNH Industrial.
Stock Price Volatility
Our common stock price has fluctuated significantly and may continue to do so in the future.
    The price at which our common stock trades may be volatile and could be subject to significant fluctuations in response to our operating results and financial condition as set forth in our earnings releases, guidance estimates released by agricultural or construction equipment manufacturers that serve the markets in which we operate, announcements by our competitors, analyst recommendations, our ability to meet or exceed analysts’ or investors’ expectations, fluctuations in the price of crop commodities and natural resources, the condition of the financial markets, and other factors. Quarterly fluctuations resulting from the seasonality of our business may cause our results of operations and cash flows to underperform in relation to the expectations of financial analysts or investors, which may cause volatility or decreases in our stock price.
Data Security Risks
Security breaches and other disruptions could compromise our information systems and expose us to liability, which would cause our business and reputation to suffer.
    The efficient operation of our business is dependent on our information technology systems. We use information technology systems to record, process and summarize financial information and results of operations for internal reporting purposes and to comply with regulatory financial reporting, legal and tax requirements. Additionally, in the ordinary course of our business, we collect and store sensitive data, including proprietary business information, of our customers and suppliers, as well as personally identifiable information of our customers and employees, in our data centers and on our networks. The secure operation of these information technology networks and the systems of the third parties with whom we do business and the processing and maintenance of information is critical to our operations. Despite our and the third parties with whom we do business' security measures and business continuity plans, our information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to damage, disruptions or shutdowns due to attacks by hackers or breaches due to employee error or malfeasance or other disruptions arising from power outages, telecommunication failures, terrorist acts, natural disasters, or other catastrophic events. The occurrence of these events could compromise our networks, and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Any such access, disclosure or other loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability or regulatory penalties under laws that protect the privacy of personally identifiable information, disrupt our operations, and damage our reputation, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition. In particular, given our Europe operations, the European Union General Data Protection Regulation imposes stringent data protection requirement and provides significant penalties for noncompliance. In addition, as security threats continue to evolve and increase in frequency and sophistication, we may need to invest additional resources to protect the security of our systems.
    We maintain cyber risk insurance, but this insurance may not be sufficient to cover all of our losses from any future breaches of our systems.
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ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
    None.
ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES
Equipment Stores
    As of January 31, 2022, we operated 109 agricultural and construction equipment stores in the United States and Europe in the following locations:
Agriculture SegmentConstruction SegmentInternational SegmentTotal
United States
North Dakota10 — 15 
Minnesota12 — 15 
Iowa11 — 14 
Nebraska13 — 15 
South Dakota— 10 
Colorado— — 
Wisconsin— — 
Wyoming— — 
European Countries
Bulgaria— — 
Germany— — 
Romania— — 13 13 
Ukraine— — 10 10 
Total55 19 35 109 
Store Lease Arrangements
    As of January 31, 2022, we leased 66 store facilities with lease arrangements expiring at various dates through January 31, 2031. Many of our lease agreements include fair market value purchase options, rights of first refusal, lease term extension options, or month-to-month or year-to-year automatic renewal provisions at the conclusion of the original lease period. A majority of the leases provide for fixed monthly rental payments and require us to pay the real estate taxes on the properties for the lease periods. We are generally responsible for utilities and maintenance of the leased premises. All of the leases require that we maintain public liability, property casualty, and personal property insurance on each of the leased premises. The leases generally require us to indemnify the lessor in connection with any claims arising from the leased premises during our occupation of the property. We believe our facilities are adequate to meet our current and anticipated needs.
    In recent years, we have been strategically purchasing real estate and financing the purchases with long term debt, to take advantage of low interest rates. We currently own the store facilities for 39 U.S. dealership locations and four Germany dealership locations. We have incurred debt financing and granted mortgages on these owned facilities. The remainder of our U.S. and international store locations are leased from third parties.
    As part of our due diligence review prior to a dealership acquisition, we evaluate the adequacy, suitability and condition of the related real estate. Our evaluation typically includes a Phase I environmental study, and if deemed necessary, a Phase II environmental study, of the real property to determine whether there are any environmental concerns. If any environmental concerns exist, we generally require that such concerns be addressed prior to acquisition of the dealership real estate.
Headquarters
    We currently lease and occupy approximately 48,000 square feet in West Fargo, North Dakota for our headquarters and this lease expires on January 31, 2028. We continually review our location needs, including the adequacy of our headquarters space, to ensure our space is sufficient to support our operations. We believe there is ample opportunity for expansion in our West Fargo headquarters facility if necessary.
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ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
    We are, from time to time, subject to claims and suits arising in the ordinary course of business. Such claims have, in the past, generally been covered by insurance. Management believes the resolution of other legal matters will not have a material effect on our financial condition, results of operation or cash flow, although the ultimate outcome of any such actions is not assured. Furthermore, our insurance may not be adequate to cover all liabilities that may arise out of claims brought against us.
ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
    Not applicable.
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INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
    The names, ages and positions of our executive officers are as follows:
NameAgePosition
David Meyer68Board Chair and Chief Executive Officer
Mark Kalvoda50Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer
Bryan Knutson43Chief Operating Officer
    David Meyer is our Board Chair and Chief Executive Officer. Mr. Meyer worked for JI Case Company in 1975. From 1976 to 1980, Mr. Meyer was a partner in a Case/New Holland Dealership with locations in Lisbon, North Dakota and Wahpeton, North Dakota. In 1980, Mr. Meyer, along with a partner, founded Titan Machinery Inc. Mr. Meyer has served on both the Case CE and CaseIH Agriculture Dealer Advisory Boards. Mr. Meyer is the past chairman of the North Dakota Implement Dealers Association, and currently serves as a Trustee on the University of Minnesota Foundation.
    Mark Kalvoda became our Chief Financial Officer in April 2011 and previously served as our Chief Accounting Officer since September 2007. Prior to joining us, he held various positions between 2004 and 2007 at American Crystal Sugar Co., including Corporate Controller, Assistant Secretary and Assistant Treasurer. Prior to working for American Crystal Sugar Co., he served in various financial positions within Hormel Foods Corporation.
    Bryan Knutson became our Chief Operating Officer in August 2017 and previously served as our Vice President, Ag Operations since 2016. Mr. Knutson joined the company in 2002 where he began his career in equipment sales later advancing to store manager, complex manager and region manager prior to his current role. Mr. Knutson is a current board member of the Pioneer Equipment Dealers Association.
PART II
ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
MARKET INFORMATION
    Our common stock is listed for trading on the Nasdaq Stock Market and trades under the symbol "TITN". As of March 28, 2022, there were approximately 575 record holders of our common stock, which excludes holders whose stock is held either in nominee name or street name brokerage accounts.
DIVIDENDS
    We have not historically paid any dividends on our common stock. Payment of future cash dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors after taking into account various factors, including our financial condition, operating results, current and anticipated cash needs, outstanding indebtedness and plans for expansion and restrictions imposed by lenders, if any.
UNREGISTERED SALES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
    We did not have any unregistered sales of equity securities during the fiscal quarter ended January 31, 2022.
SECURITIES AUTHORIZED FOR ISSUANCE UNDER EQUITY COMPENSATION PLANS
    For information on securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans, refer to Item 12, "Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters."
REPURCHASES
    We did not engage in any repurchases of our common stock during the fiscal quarter ended January 31, 2022.
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STOCK PERFORMANCE GRAPH
    The following graph compares the cumulative total return for the last trading day of our last five fiscal years on a $100 investment (assuming dividend reinvestment) on January 31, 2017, the last trading day before our fifth preceding fiscal year, in each of our common stock, the Russell 2000 Stock Index and the S&P Retailing Group Index.
titn-20220131_g1.jpg
January 31,
201720182019202020212022
Titan Machinery Inc.$100.00 $155.61 $135.70 $88.41 $154.24 $223.03 
Russell 2000 Index100.00 115.65 110.10 118.52 152.27 148.95 
S&P 500 Retail Index100.00 143.84 150.77 180.19 253.16 275.65 

ITEM 6.    [RESERVED]
    
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ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
    You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with our financial statements and the related notes appearing under Item 8 of this Form 10-K. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis or set forth elsewhere in this annual report, including information with respect to our plans and strategy for our business and expected financial results, includes forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. You should review the "Information Regarding Forward-Looking Statements" in this Item 7 and "Risk Factors" presented under Item 1A for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described in or implied by the forward-looking statements contained in the following discussion and analysis in this annual report.
    A discussion of changes in our Financial Results and Cash Flow Comparisons from fiscal year 2020 to fiscal year 2021 has been omitted from this Form 10-K, but may be found in Item 7 of Part II of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on March 31, 2021.
BUSINESS DESCRIPTION
    We own and operate a network of full service agricultural and construction equipment stores in the United States and Europe. Based upon information provided to us by CNH Industrial N.V. or its U.S. subsidiary CNH Industrial America, LLC, collectively referred to in this Form 10-K as CNH Industrial, we are the largest retail dealer of Case IH Agriculture equipment in the world, one of the largest retail dealers of Case Construction equipment in North America and one of the largest retail dealers of New Holland Agriculture and New Holland Construction equipment in the U.S. We operate our business through three reportable segments: Agriculture, Construction and International. Within each segment, we have four principal sources of revenue: new and used equipment sales, parts sales, service, and equipment rental and other activities.
    The agricultural equipment we sell and service includes machinery and attachments for uses ranging from large-scale farming to home and garden use. The construction equipment we sell and service includes heavy construction machinery, light industrial machinery for commercial and residential construction, road and highway construction machinery, energy, and forestry operations equipment. We offer our customers a one-stop solution for their equipment needs through:
new and used equipment sales;
parts sales;
equipment repair and maintenance services; and
equipment rental and other activities.
    The new equipment and parts we sell are supplied primarily by CNH Industrial. According to its public reports, CNH Industrial is a leading manufacturer and supplier of agricultural and construction equipment based on the number of units sold, primarily through the Case IH Agriculture, New Holland Agriculture, Case Construction and New Holland Construction brands. Sales of new CNH Industrial products accounted for approximately 73% of our new equipment revenue in fiscal 2022, with our single largest manufacturer other than CNH Industrial representing approximately 2% of our total new equipment sales in fiscal 2022. We acquire used equipment for resale primarily through trade-ins from our customers and in some cases through selective purchases. We sell parts and provide in-store and on-site repair and maintenance services. We rent equipment and provide other ancillary services such as equipment transportation, GPS signal subscriptions, farm data management systems, precision farming equipment, and finance and insurance products.
    Throughout our 41-year operating history, we have built an extensive, geographically contiguous network of 74 stores located in the United States and 35 stores in Europe. We have a history of growth through acquisitions, including over 50 acquisitions in 11 U.S. states and four European countries since January 1, 2003. We believe that there will continue to be opportunities for dealership consolidation in the future, and we expect that acquisitions will continue to be a component of our long-term growth strategy.
Certain External Factors Affecting our Business
    We are subject to a number of factors that affect our business including those factors discussed in the sections in this annual report entitled "Risk Factors" and "Information Regarding Forward-Looking Statements." Certain of these external factors include, but are not limited to, the following:
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Russia/Ukraine Geopolitical Conflict
    As discussed in Risk Factors and Note 22, to the consolidated Financial Statements, our Ukrainian operations closed for a period of time. While some have reopened others may remain closed indefinitely or perhaps permanently. To the extent the conflict continues, our International revenues and profits will be adversely affected.
Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on the Company
    The outbreak and global spread of COVID-19, which was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization and a national emergency by the President of the United States in March 2020, continues to have an impact on society, economies, financial markets, and businesses. While the Company's products and services were determined to be an essential business, the pandemic has had an impact on our business operations, existing employees and ability to find new employees, customers, and suppliers. Uncertainty remains regarding the magnitude and duration of the pandemic and the resulting financial effects and will depend on future developments including the efficacy of vaccines, the spread of COVID-19 variants, and the extent of governmental responses, including potential vaccine or testing mandates.
    On November 5, 2021, the Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") announced an Emergency Temporary Standard ("ETS") requiring all employers with at least 100 employees to ensure their employees are fully vaccinated or require weekly testing of unvaccinated employees. On January 13, 2022, the US Supreme Court granted emergency relief to stay the implementation of the ETS and on January 26, 2022, OSHA withdrew the standard. Although OSHA withdrew the vaccination and testing ETS as an enforceable emergency temporary standard, the agency is not withdrawing the ETS as a proposed rule. The agency is prioritizing resources and is focusing on finalizing a permanent COVID-19 Healthcare Standard. The ultimate impact of a permanent standard on the Company, if one were to be adopted, is currently unknown and difficult to predict.
    The Company has assessed the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on its results of operations for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022, and although there have been challenges, no material adverse impacts were identified. We continue to monitor developments involving our workforce, customers, and suppliers and continue to take steps to mitigate against additional impacts.
Supply Chain Disruptions
    In recent months, we have seen increasing supply chain disruptions, including country of origin production and port delays. Additionally, trucker, dockworker, and labor shortages, a surge of consumer demand, and other factors have led to industry-wide delays. In response, we have been, and expect to continue to be, proactive in ordering inventory, parts, and components to ensure our operations can continue without significant delay; however, we have experienced price increases, disruptions and delays on delivery of certain products.
Macroeconomic and Industry Factors
    Our Agriculture and International businesses are primarily driven by the demand for agricultural equipment for use in the production of food, fiber, feed grain and renewable energy; home and garden applications; and the maintenance of commercial, residential and government properties. Agriculture industry factors such as changes in agricultural commodity prices and net farm income, have an effect on customer sentiment and their ability to secure financing for equipment purchases. Macroeconomic and industry factors that affect commodity prices and net farm income include changing worldwide demand for agriculture commodities, crop yields and supply disruptions caused by weather patterns and crop diseases, crop stock levels, production costs, and changing U.S. dollar foreign currency exchange rates. Based on U.S. Department of Agriculture ("USDA") publications, the most recent estimate of net farm income for calendar year 2021 increased 25.1% compared to calendar year 2020 due to U.S. crop production and increased commodity exports and partially offset by a reduction in U.S. Federal government's direct farm program payments. Based on its February 2022 report, the USDA projected net farm income for calendar year 2022 to decrease 4.5%, as compared to calendar year 2021.
    Our Construction business is primarily impacted by the demand for construction equipment for use in private and government commercial, residential, and infrastructure construction; demolition; maintenance; energy and forestry operations. Industry reports show that demand for construction equipment in our markets is driven by several factors, one of which is public infrastructure spending, including roads and highways, sewer and water. Any growth in federal allocations to public infrastructure spending over the next few years should positively impact our future results of operations. Likewise, any decline in federal allocations to public infrastructure spending over the next few years should negatively impact our future results of operations.
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Seasonality & Weather
    The agricultural and construction equipment businesses are highly seasonal, which causes our quarterly results and our available cash flow to fluctuate during the year. Our customers generally purchase and rent equipment in preparation for, or in conjunction with, their busy seasons, which for farmers are the spring planting and fall harvesting seasons; and which for Construction customers is typically the second and third quarters of our fiscal year for much of our Construction footprint. Our parts and service revenues are typically highest during our customers' busy seasons as well, due to the increased use of their equipment during this time, which generates the need for more parts and service work. However, weather conditions impact the timing of our customers' busy times, which may cause greater than expected fluctuations in our quarterly financial results year over year. In addition, the fourth quarter typically is a significant period for equipment sales in the U.S. because of our customers’ year-end tax planning considerations, the timing of dealer incentives and the increase in availability of funds from completed harvests and construction projects.
    Seasonal weather trends, particularly severe wet or dry conditions, can have a significant impact on regional agricultural and construction market performance by affecting crop production and the ability to undertake construction projects. Weather conditions that adversely affect the agricultural or construction markets decrease the demand for our products and services.
    In addition, numerous external factors such as credit markets, commodity prices, and other circumstances may disrupt normal purchasing practices and buyer sentiment, further contributing to the seasonal fluctuations.
Dependence on our Primary Supplier
    The majority of our business involves the distribution and servicing of equipment manufactured by CNH Industrial. In fiscal 2022, CNH Industrial supplied approximately 76% of the new equipment sold in our Agriculture segment, 66% of the new equipment sold in our Construction segment, and 70% of the new equipment sold in our International segment, and represented a significant portion of our parts revenue. Thus, we believe the following factors have a significant impact on our operating results:
CNH Industrial’s product offerings, reputation and market share;
CNH Industrial’s product prices and incentive and discount programs;
CNH Industrial's supply of inventory;
CNH Industrial's offering of floorplan payable financing for the purchase of a substantial portion of our inventory; and
CNH Industrial's offering of financing and leasing used by our customers to purchase CNH Industrial equipment from us.
Credit Market Changes
    Changes in credit markets can affect our customers' ability and willingness to make capital expenditures, including purchasing our equipment. Tight credit markets, a low level of liquidity in many financial markets, and extreme volatility in fixed income, credit, currency and equity markets have the potential to adversely affect our business. Such disruptions in the overall economy and financial markets and the related reduction in consumer confidence in the economy, slow activity in the capital markets, negatively affect access to credit on commercially acceptable terms, and may adversely impact our customers' access to credit and the terms of any such credit. However, if retail interest rates remain low, our business may be positively affected by customers who find financing purchases of our equipment more attractive due to lower borrowing costs.
    Our business is also particularly dependent on our access to credit markets to manage inventory and finance acquisitions. We cannot predict what future changes will occur in credit markets or how these changes will impact our business.
Inflation
    Inflationary pressures have led to rising inventory and supply costs as well as increased labor costs. To date, in those instances in which we have experienced cost increases, we have been able to increase selling prices to offset much of the increases and expect to continue to do so in the future.
Significant Items Impacting Our Financial Position and Results of Operations
Jaycox Acquisition
On December 1, 2021, we continued our strategy of acquiring dealerships in desired market areas with our acquisition of Jaycox Implement ("Jaycox"). Jaycox consists of three CaseIH agriculture dealership locations in Worthington and Luverne,
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Minnesota and Lake Park, Iowa. Total cash consideration paid for the business was $28.2 million which was financed through available cash resources. In conjunction with the acquisition, we purchased the real estate for $5.5 million which was financed with available cash and long term debt. The three Jaycox locations are included within our Agriculture segment.
Montana and Wyoming Divestiture
    On January 24, 2022, we divested four dealership locations in Billings, Great Falls, and Missoula, Montana and Gillette, Wyoming. The sale of these locations resulted in a $5.7 million gain which is included in fiscal 2022 consolidated operating expenses. The gain on the sale is included in the Construction segment.
HorizonWest Acquisition
    On May 4, 2020, the Company acquired certain assets of HorizonWest Inc. This acquired Case IH agriculture dealership complex consisted of three agriculture equipment stores in Scottsbluff and Sidney, Nebraska and Torrington, Wyoming, which expands the Company's agriculture presence in Nebraska and into Wyoming. The total consideration transferred for the acquired business was $6.8 million paid in cash, which the Company financed through available cash resources and capacity under our existing floorplan payable and other credit facilities. The three HorizonWest dealerships are included within our Agriculture segment.
Critical Accounting Policies and Use of Estimates
    In the preparation of financial statements prepared in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP"), we are required to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and the related disclosures. While we believe the estimates and judgments we use in preparing our financial statements are appropriate, they are subject to future events and uncertainties regarding their outcome and therefore actual results may materially differ from these estimates. We describe in Note 1, Business Activity and Significant Accounting Polices, of the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements the significant accounting policies used in preparing the consolidated financial statements. We consider the following items in our consolidated financial statements to require significant estimation or judgment.
Revenue Recognition
    Equipment revenue transactions include the sale of agricultural and construction equipment and often include both cash and noncash consideration received from our customers, with noncash consideration in the form of used, trade-in, equipment assets. The amount of revenue recognized in the sale transaction is dependent on the value assigned to the trade-in asset. Significant judgment is required to estimate the value of trade-in assets. We assign value based on the estimated selling price for that piece of equipment in the applicable market, less a gross profit amount to be realized at the time the trade-in asset is sold and an estimate of any reconditioning work required to ready the asset for sale. We estimate future selling prices of trade-in assets using various external industry data and relevant internal information, and consider the impact of various factors including model year, hours of use, overall condition, and other equipment specifications. Our estimates of the value of trade-in assets are impacted by changing market values of used equipment and the availability of relevant and reliable third-party data. In instances in which relevant third-party information is not available, the value assigned to trade-in equipment is dependent on internal judgments.
Inventories
    New and used equipment inventories are stated at the lower of cost (specific identification) or net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation. The majority of our used equipment inventory is acquired through trade-ins from our customers and is initially measured and recognized based on the estimated future selling price of the equipment, less a gross profit amount to be realized when the trade-in asset is sold and an estimate of any reconditioning work required to ready the asset for sale. Subsequent to the initial recognition, all new and used equipment inventories are subject to lower of cost or net realizable value assessments. We estimate net realizable value using internal information, management judgment and third-party data that considers various factors including age and condition of equipment, hours of use and market conditions. Generally, used equipment prices are more volatile to changes in market conditions than prices for new equipment due to incentive programs that may be offered by manufacturers to assist in the sale of new equipment. We review our equipment inventory values and adjust them whenever the carrying amount exceeds the estimated net realizable value.
    Parts inventories are valued at the lower of average cost or net realizable value. We estimate net realizable value of our parts inventories based on various factors including aging and sales history of each type of parts inventory.
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Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
    Our long-lived assets consist primarily of property and equipment and operating lease assets. We review these assets for potential impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Recoverability is measured by comparing the estimated future undiscounted cash flows of such assets to their carrying values. If the estimated undiscounted cash flows exceed the carrying value, the carrying value is considered recoverable and no impairment recognition is required. However, if the sum of the undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying value of the asset, the second step of the impairment analysis must be performed to measure the amount of the impairment, if any. The second step of the impairment analysis compares the estimated fair value of the long-lived asset to its carrying value and any amount by which the carrying value exceeds the fair value is recognized as an impairment charge.
    When reviewing long-lived assets for impairment, we group long-lived assets with other assets and liabilities at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities. Long-lived assets deployed and used by individual store locations are reviewed for impairment at the individual store level. Other long-lived assets shared across stores within a segment or shared across segments are reviewed for impairment on a segment or consolidated level as appropriate.
    During our 2022 fiscal year, we determined that events or circumstances were present that may indicate that the carrying amount of certain of our store long-lived assets might not be recoverable. The events or circumstances which indicated that certain of our store long-lived assets might not be recoverable included a current period operating loss combined with historical losses and anticipated future operating losses within certain of our stores, or an expectation that a long-lived asset (or asset group) will be disposed of before the end of its previously estimated useful life. In light of these circumstances, we performed step one of the impairment analysis for these assets, which have a combined carrying value of $25.8 million, to determine if the asset values are recoverable. In certain cases, the analysis indicated that the carrying value is not recoverable. The aggregate carrying value of such assets totaled $5.2 million. Based on this conclusion, we performed step two of the impairment analysis and estimated the fair value of these assets using an income approach that incorporated unobservable inputs including estimated forecasted net cash flows generated from the use and disposition of these assets. Step two of the analysis indicated that an impairment charge in the amount of $0.4 million was necessary, which related to the International segment. In all other cases, in which the aggregate carrying value of such assets totaled $20.6 million, our analyses indicated that the carrying values are recoverable based on our estimates of future undiscounted cash flows under step one of the impairment analysis.
    Our impairment analyses require significant judgment, including identification of the grouping of long-lived and other assets and liabilities for impairment testing, estimates of future cash flows arising from these groups of assets and liabilities, and estimates of the remaining useful lives of the long-lived assets being evaluated. Our estimates inherently include a degree of uncertainty and are impacted by macroeconomic and industry conditions, the competitive environment and other factors. Adverse changes in any of these factors in future periods could result in impairment charges in future periods which could materially impact our results of operations and financial position.
Income Taxes
    In determining our provision for (benefit from) income taxes, we must make certain judgments and estimates, including an assessment of the realizability of our deferred tax assets. In evaluating our ability to realize the benefit of our deferred tax assets we consider all available positive and negative evidence, including our historical operating results and our expectation of future taxable income, the availability to implement prudent tax-planning strategies, and the carryforward periods over which the assets may be realized. These assumptions require significant judgment and estimation.
    In reviewing our deferred tax assets as of January 31, 2022, we concluded that a full valuation allowance continued to be warranted on our Ukrainian subsidiary. It was also concluded that a full valuation allowance was warranted on our German subsidiary which was previously only a partial valuation allowance. We also recorded a full valuation allowance on our Luxembourg holding company. Due to improved performance, a partial release of a valuation allowance for the Company's Bulgarian subsidiary was recorded. In total, valuation allowances of $6.0 million exist for our international entities as of January 31, 2022.
    At the end of fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, the Company concluded, a full valuation allowance continued to be warranted in certain jurisdictions. It was also concluded that a full valuation allowance for the Company's Ukrainian subsidiary was warranted and a partial valuation allowance for the Company's German subsidiary was warranted, as such the Company recorded an additional $3.8 million valuation allowance for these two subsidiaries. In total, valuation allowances of $6.1 million existed for certain of our international entities as of January 31, 2021.
    The initial recognition of, and any changes in, a deferred tax asset valuation allowance are recorded to the provision for income taxes and impacts our effective tax rate. Our assessment of the need for and magnitude of valuation allowances for
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our deferred tax assets may be impacted by changes in tax laws, our assumptions regarding the ability to generate future taxable income and the availability of tax-planning strategies. Changes in any of these factors could lead to a change in the recognized valuation allowance which may impact our future results of operations and financial position.
New Accounting Pronouncements    
    Refer to Note 1, Business Activity and Significant Accounting Polices, of the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements for a description of new accounting pronouncements recently adopted or not yet adopted and the impact or anticipated impact of such pronouncements to our consolidated financial statements.
Key Financial Metrics
    In addition to tracking our sales and expenses to evaluate our operational performance, we also monitor the following key financial metrics. The results of some of these metrics are discussed further throughout the Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations section of this Form 10-K.
Inventory Turnover
    Inventory turnover measures the rate at which inventory is sold during the year. We calculate it by dividing cost of sales on equipment for the last twelve months by the average of the month-end balances of our equipment and parts inventories for the same twelve-month period. We believe that inventory turnover is an important management metric in evaluating the efficiency at which we are managing and selling our inventories.
Same-Store Results
    Same-store results for any period represent results of operations by stores that were part of our Company for the entire comparable period in the preceding fiscal year. We do not distinguish relocated or newly-expanded stores in this same-store analysis. Closed stores are excluded from the same-store analysis.
Absorption
    Absorption is an industry term that refers to the percentage of an equipment dealer's operating expense covered by the combined gross profit from parts, service and rental fleet activity. We calculate absorption by dividing our gross profit from sales of parts, service and rental fleet by our operating expenses, less commission expense on equipment sales, plus interest expense on floorplan payables and rental fleet debt. We believe that absorption is an important management metric because during economic down cycles our customers tend to postpone new and used equipment purchases while continuing to run, maintain and repair their existing equipment. Thus, operating at a high absorption rate enables us to operate profitably throughout economic down cycles.
Dollar Utilization
    Dollar utilization is a measurement of asset performance and profitability used in the rental industry. We calculate the dollar utilization of our rental fleet equipment by dividing the rental revenue earned on our rental fleet by the average gross carrying value of our rental fleet (comprised of original equipment costs plus additional capitalized costs) for that period. While our rental fleet has variable expenses related to repairs and maintenance, its primary expense for depreciation is fixed. Low dollar utilization of our rental fleet has a negative impact on gross profit margin and gross profit dollars due to the fixed depreciation component. However, high dollar utilization of our rental fleet has a positive impact on gross profit margin and gross profit dollars.
Adjusted EBITDA
    EBITDA is a non-GAAP financial measure defined as earnings before finance costs, income taxes, depreciation and amortization and is a metric frequently used to assess and evaluate financial performance. Management uses Adjusted EBITDA as a measure of financial performance, as a supplemental measure to evaluate the Company's overall operating performance and believes it provides a useful metric for comparability between periods and across entities within our industry by excluding differences in capital structure, income taxes, non-cash charges and certain activities that occur outside of the ordinary course of our business. We calculate Adjusted EBITDA as our net income (loss), adjusted for net interest (excluding floorplan interest expense), income taxes, depreciation, amortization, and items included in our non-GAAP reconciliation, for each of the respective periods. Adjusted EBITDA should be evaluated in addition to, and not considered a substitute for, or superior to, any GAAP measure of net income (loss). In addition, other companies may calculate Adjusted EBITDA in a different manner, which may hinder comparability with other companies. Refer to the Non-GAAP Financial Measures section for a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to net income.
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Key Financial Statement Components
Revenue
Equipment: We derive equipment revenue from the sale of new and used agricultural and construction equipment.
Parts: We derive parts revenue from the sale of parts for brands of equipment that we sell, other makes of equipment, and other types of equipment and related components. Our parts sales provide us with a relatively stable revenue stream that is less sensitive to the economic cycles that affect our equipment sales.
Service: We derive service revenue from repair and maintenance services to our customers' equipment. Our repair and maintenance services provide a high-margin, relatively stable source of revenue through changing economic cycles.
Rental and other: We derive other revenue from equipment rentals and ancillary equipment support activities such as equipment transportation, GPS signal subscriptions and reselling financial and insurance products.
Cost of Revenue
Equipment: Cost of equipment revenue is the lower of the acquired cost or the net realizable value of the specific piece of equipment sold.
Parts: Cost of parts revenue is the lower of the acquired cost or the market value of the parts sold, based on average costing.
Service: Cost of service revenue represents costs attributable to services provided for the maintenance and repair of customer-owned equipment and equipment then on-rent by customers.
Rental and other: Costs of other revenue represent costs associated with equipment rental, such as depreciation, maintenance and repairs, as well as costs associated providing transportation, hauling, parts freight, GPS subscriptions and damage waivers, including, among other items, drivers' wages, truck depreciation, fuel costs, shipping costs and our costs related to damage waiver policies.
Operating Expenses
    Our operating expenses include sales and marketing expenses, sales commissions (which generally are based upon equipment gross profit margins), payroll and related benefit costs, insurance expenses, professional fees, property rental and related costs, property and other taxes, administrative overhead, and depreciation associated with property and equipment (other than rental and trucking equipment).
Floorplan Interest
    The cost of financing inventory is an important factor affecting our results of operations. Floorplan payable financing from CNH Industrial Capital, the Bank Syndicate Agreement, DLL Finance and various credit facilities related to our foreign subsidiaries represent the primary sources of financing for equipment inventories. CNH Industrial regularly offers interest-free periods as well as additional incentives and special offers. As of January 31, 2022, 78.8% of our floorplan payable financing was non-interest bearing.
Other Interest Expense
    Interest expense represents the interest on our debt instruments, other than floorplan payable financing facilities. This includes long-term debt used to finance the purchase of real estate and vehicles.
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Results of Operations
    Comparative financial data for each of our four sources of revenue for fiscal 2022 and 2021 are presented below. The results include the acquisitions made during these periods. The year-to-year comparison included below is not necessarily indicative of future results. Information regarding segment revenue and income (loss) before income taxes is presented for each fiscal year following our discussion of the consolidated results of operations. Additional information regarding our segments is included in Note 21 of our consolidated financial statements.
Year Ended January 31,
20222021
(dollars in thousands)
Equipment
Revenue$1,291,684 $1,016,071 
Cost of revenue1,130,205 911,170 
Gross profit$161,479 $104,901 
Gross profit margin12.5 %10.3 %
Parts
Revenue$266,916 $244,676 
Cost of revenue186,324 171,873 
Gross profit$80,592 $72,803 
Gross profit margin30.2 %29.8 %
Service
Revenue$115,641 $107,229 
Cost of revenue38,771 36,692 
Gross profit$76,870 $70,537 
Gross profit margin66.5 %65.8 %
Rental and other
Revenue$37,665 $43,246 
Cost of revenue23,882 30,125 
Gross profit$13,783 $13,121 
Gross profit margin36.6 %30.3 %
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    The following table sets forth our statements of operations data expressed as a percentage of revenue for the fiscal years indicated.
Year Ended January 31,
20222021
Revenue
Equipment75.4 %72.0 %
Parts15.6 %17.3 %
Service6.8 %7.6 %
Rental and other2.2 %3.1 %
Total Revenue100.0 %100.0 %
Total Cost of Revenue80.6 %81.5 %
Gross Profit Margin19.4 %18.5 %
Operating Expenses14.1 %15.6 %
Impairment of Goodwill— %0.1 %
Impairment of Intangible and Long-Lived Assets0.1 %0.1 %
Income from Operations5.3 %2.7 %
Other Income (Expense)(0.2)%(0.5)%
Income Before Income Taxes5.1 %2.2 %
Provision for Income Taxes1.2 %0.8 %
Net Income3.9 %1.4 %
Fiscal Year Ended January 31, 2022 Compared to Fiscal Year Ended January 31, 2021
Consolidated Results
Revenue
Year Ended January 31,Increase/Percent
20222021(Decrease)Change
(dollars in thousands)
Equipment$1,291,684 $1,016,071 $275,613 27.1 %
Parts266,916 244,676 22,240 9.1 %
Service115,641 107,229 8,412 7.8 %
Rental and other37,665 43,246 (5,581)(12.9)%
Total Revenue$1,711,906 $1,411,222 $300,684 21.3 %
    The increase in total revenue for fiscal 2022, as compared to fiscal 2021, was primarily the result of Company-wide same-store sales increase of 23.5% over the prior fiscal year and our acquisitions of HorizonWest and Jaycox, completed in May 2020 and December 2021, respectively. The strong same store sales increase was primarily driven by strong agriculture equipment sales due to higher commodity prices, higher net farm income, and good growing conditions in our international footprint.


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Gross Profit
Year Ended January 31,Increase/Percent
20222021(Decrease)Change
(dollars in thousands)
Gross Profit
Equipment$161,479 $104,901 $56,578 53.9 %
Parts80,592 72,803 7,789 10.7 %
Service76,870 70,537 6,333 9.0 %
Rental and other13,783 13,121 662 5.0 %
Total Gross Profit$332,724 $261,362 $71,362 27.3 %
Gross Profit Margin
Equipment12.5 %10.3 %2.2 %21.4 %
Parts30.2 %29.8 %0.4 %1.3 %
Service66.5 %65.8 %0.7 %1.1 %
Rental and other36.6 %30.3 %6.3 %20.8 %
Total Gross Profit Margin19.4 %18.5 %0.9 %4.9 %
Gross Profit Mix
Equipment48.6 %40.1 %8.5 %21.2 %
Parts24.2 %27.9 %(3.7)%(13.3)%
Service23.1 %27.0 %(3.9)%(14.4)%
Rental and other4.1 %5.0 %(0.9)%(18.0)%
Total Gross Profit Mix100.0 %100.0 %
    Gross profit increased 27.3% or $71.4 million from fiscal 2021 to fiscal 2022, primarily due to higher revenue and gross profit from our equipment, parts, and service business. Gross profit margin increased from 18.5% in fiscal 2021 to 19.4% in fiscal 2022. The increase in overall gross profit margin was primarily due to stronger equipment margins, which were positively impacted by favorable end market conditions, healthy inventory, and a $6.4 million increase in the amount earned under manufacturer incentive programs.
    Our company-wide absorption rate improved to 84.6% for fiscal 2022 as compared to 77.7% during fiscal 2021 as the increase in gross profit from parts and service combined with lower floorplan interest expenses more than offset the increase in operating expenses compared to that of fiscal 2021. The overall absorption rate in fiscal 2022 was positively impacted by a one-time gain of $5.7 million on the fourth quarter divestiture of three Montana and one Wyoming stores in our Construction segment.
Operating Expenses
Year Ended January 31,Increase/Percent
20222021(Decrease)Change
(dollars in thousands)
Operating Expenses$241,044 $220,774 $20,270 9.2 %
Operating Expenses as a Percentage of Revenue14.1 %15.6 %(1.5)%(9.6)%
    Operating expenses for fiscal 2022 increased $20.3 million, as compared to fiscal 2021. The increase in operating expenses was primarily due to variable expenses associated with increased sales, which was partially offset by a one-time gain of $5.7 million on the fourth quarter fiscal 2022 divestiture of three Montana and one Wyoming stores in our Construction segment. In fiscal 2022, operating expenses as a percentage of revenue decreased to 14.1% from 15.6% in fiscal 2021. The decrease in operating expenses as a percentage of total revenue was due to the increase in total revenue in fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021, which positively affected our ability to leverage our fixed operating costs.
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Impairment
Year Ended January 31,Percent
20222021DecreaseChange
(dollars in thousands)
Impairment of Goodwill$— $1,453 $(1,453)n/m
Impairment of Intangible and Long-Lived Assets1,498 1,727 (229)(13.3)%
    During fiscal 2022, the Company did not recognize any goodwill impairment charges and recognized a total of $1.5 million of impairment charges related to certain intangible and long-lived assets. In fiscal 2021, the Company recognized $1.5 million of impairment charges related to goodwill and $1.7 million of impairment charges related to other intangible and long lived assets. The fiscal 2022 and 2021 impairment expenses were primarily related to the impairment of goodwill and certain other intangible assets in our International segment.
Other Income (Expense)
Year Ended January 31,Increase/Percent
20222021(Decrease)Change
(dollars in thousands)
Interest and other income (expense)$2,431 $527 $1,904 n/m
Floorplan interest expense(1,175)(3,339)(2,164)(64.8)%
Other interest expense(4,537)(3,843)694 18.1 %
    The increase in Interest and other income (expense) compared to fiscal 2021 is primarily the result of fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, primarily the Ukrainian currency. The decrease in floorplan interest expense for fiscal 2022, as compared to fiscal 2021, was due to an overall lower interest rate environment as well as lower borrowings. The increase in other interest expense in fiscal 2022 is the result of an increased amount of long term debt resulting from real estate purchased in fiscal 2022.
Provision for Income Taxes
Year Ended January 31,Percent
20222021IncreaseChange
(dollars in thousands)
Provision for Income Taxes$20,854 $11,397 $9,457 83.0 %
    Our effective tax rate decreased from 37.1% in fiscal 2021 to 24.0% in fiscal 2022. The Company's effective tax rate decreased due to changes in valuation allowances recognized for deferred tax assets. In fiscal 2021, the Company added a full valuation allowance for the Company's Ukrainian subsidiary as well as a partial valuation allowance for the Company's German subsidiary. In fiscal 2022, the Company released a portion of the valuation allowance on its Bulgarian subsidiary's deferred tax assets, which was offset by a valuation allowance on its Luxembourg holding company.
    See Note 14 to our consolidated financial statements for further details on our effective tax rate.
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Segment Results
Year Ended January 31,Increase/Percent
20222021(Decrease)Change
(dollars in thousands)
Revenue
Agriculture$1,076,751 $886,485 $190,266 21.5 %
Construction317,164 305,745 11,419 3.7 %
International317,991 218,992 98,999 45.2 %
Total$1,711,906 $1,411,222 $300,684 21.3 %
Income (Loss) Before Income Taxes
Agriculture$60,567 $34,422 $26,145 76.0 %
Construction15,543 186 15,357 n/m
International12,552 (6,025)18,577 n/m
Segment income before income taxes88,662 28,583 60,079 210.2 %
Shared Resources(1,761)2,170 (3,931)n/m
Total$86,901 $30,753 $56,148 182.6 %
Agriculture
    Agriculture segment revenue for fiscal 2022 increased 21.5% or $190.3 million compared to the same period last year. Agriculture same-store sales increased 19.3% for fiscal 2022, as compared to fiscal 2021. Equipment sales were driven by increased equipment demand due to higher commodity prices and higher net farm income. The HorizonWest and Jaycox acquisitions, which were completed in May 2020 and December 2021, respectively, also contributed to the total sales growth for the segment.
    Agriculture segment income before income taxes for fiscal 2022 improved by $26.1 million or 76.0% compared to fiscal 2021. The improvement in segment results was the result of stronger equipment margins which were positively impacted by favorable end market conditions, healthy inventory, and a $5.1 million increase in the amount earned under manufacturer incentive programs. Decreased inventory levels resulted in lower floorplan interest expense which also contributed to the improvement in segment results.
Construction
    Construction segment revenue for fiscal 2022 increased 3.7% or $11.4 million compared to fiscal 2021 due to a same-store sales increase of 14.8% which more than offset our divestiture of the Phoenix and Tucson stores in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2021. Higher equipment sales were driven by increased construction activity throughout the footprint.
    The Construction segment income before income taxes was $15.5 million for fiscal 2022 compared to income of $0.2 million for the prior year. The improvement in segment results was the result of improved equipment margins and lower floorplan and other interest expense. The segment also benefited from a $5.7 million gain on the divestiture of our Billings, Great Falls, and Missoula, Montana and Gillette, Wyoming locations.
International
    International segment revenue for fiscal 2022 increased 45.2% or $99.0 million compared to fiscal 2021. Higher segment revenue is being driven by higher commodity prices as well as favorable growing conditions for much of our farming footprint, which had a positive impact on all sources of sales, but primarily equipment sales.
    Our International segment income before income taxes was $12.6 million for fiscal 2022, compared to loss before income taxes of $6.0 million for fiscal 2021. The higher segment results were primarily the result of increased equipment sales and equipment gross profit margin including a $1.3 million increase in manufacturer incentive programs. Impairment charges of $1.5 million were recognized in fiscal 2022, compared to impairment charges of $2.3 million in fiscal 2021.
Shared Resources/Eliminations
    We incur centralized expenses/income at our general corporate level, which we refer to as “Shared Resources,” and then allocate most of these net expenses to our segments. Since these allocations are set early in the year, and a portion is
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planned to be unallocated, unallocated balances may occur. Shared Resource loss before income taxes was $1.8 million for fiscal 2022 compared to income before income taxes of $2.2 million for fiscal 2021.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
    To supplement our net income and diluted earnings per share ("diluted EPS"), both GAAP measures, we present and our management utilizes adjusted net income, adjusted diluted EPS, and adjusted EBITDA, all non-GAAP financial measures. Generally, these non-GAAP financial measures include adjustments for items such as ERP transition costs for fiscal year 2021, impairment charges, and foreign currency remeasurement gains/losses in Ukraine. Furthermore, we calculate adjusted EBITDA as our net income (loss), adjusted for net interest (excluding floorplan interest expense), income taxes, depreciation, amortization, and the adjustments included in our non-GAAP reconciliation as described above, for each of the respective periods. We believe that the presentation of adjusted net income, adjusted diluted EPS and adjusted EBITDA is relevant and useful to our management and investors because they each provide a measurement of earnings on activities that we consider to occur in the ordinary course of our business. In addition, our management uses adjusted EBITDA, as a supplemental measure of financial performance, to evaluate the Company's overall operating performance and believes it provides a useful metric for comparability between periods and across entities within our industry by excluding differences in capital structure, income taxes, non-cash charges and certain activities that occur outside of the ordinary course of our business. Adjusted net income, adjusted diluted EPS, and adjusted EBITDA should be evaluated in addition to, and not considered a substitute for, or superior to, the most comparable GAAP financial measure. In addition, other companies may calculate these non-GAAP financial measures in a different manner, which may hinder comparability of our results with those of other companies.
Changes in Presentation of Non-GAAP Financial Measures
    Beginning in the third quarter of fiscal 2022, the Company discontinued the use of the adjusted cash-flow measure and revised its presentation of two non-GAAP financials measures, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS, to better align with SEC guidance. The adjustment for income tax valuation allowance, a non-cash tax expense related to the use of deferred tax assets in certain jurisdictions, will no longer be an adjustment included in these two non-GAAP financial measures. For comparability, references to prior periods' non-GAAP financial measures have also been updated to show the effect of omitting the valuation allowance from Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS - see tables below.
    The following tables reconcile net income and diluted EPS, GAAP financial measures, to adjusted net income, adjusted diluted EPS, and adjusted EBITDA, all non-GAAP financial measures.
Year Ended January 31,
20222021
(dollars in thousands, except per share data)
Adjusted Net Income
Net Income
$66,047 $19,356 
Adjustments
ERP transition costs— 2,990 
Impairment charges1,498 3,180 
Ukraine remeasurement (gain) / loss(263)1,174 
Total Pre-Tax Adjustments1,235 7,344 
  Tax Effect of Adjustments (1)— 2,227 
Total Adjustments1,235 5,117 
Adjusted Net Income
$67,282 $24,473 
Adjusted Diluted EPS
Diluted EPS$2.92 $0.86 
Adjustments (2)
ERP transition costs— 0.13 
Impairment charges0.07 0.14 
Ukraine remeasurement (gain) / loss(0.01)0.05 
Total Pre-Tax Adjustments0.06 0.32 
  Tax Effect of Adjustments (1)— 0.09 
Total Adjustments0.06 0.23 
Adjusted Diluted EPS$2.98 $1.09 
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Year Ended January 31,
20222021
(dollars in thousands, except per share data)
Adjusted EBITDA
Net Income
$66,047 $19,356 
Adjustments
Interest expense, net of interest income4,208 3,574 
Provision for income taxes20,854 11,397 
Depreciation and amortization22,139 23,701 
EBITDA113,248 58,028 
Adjustments
ERP transition costs— 2,990 
Impairment charges1,498 3,180 
Ukraine remeasurement (gain) / loss(263)1,174 
Total Adjustments1,235 7,344 
Adjusted EBITDA$114,483 $65,372 
(1)The tax effect of U.S. related adjustments was calculated using a 26% tax rate, determined based on a 21% federal statutory rate and a 5% blended state income tax rate. The tax effect of the Germany related adjustments was calculated using a 29% tax rate. Included in the tax effect of the adjustments is the tax impact of foreign currency changes in Ukraine of $1.2 million for fiscal 2021.
(2)Adjustments are net of the impact of amounts allocated to participating securities where applicable

Liquidity and Capital Resources
Sources of Liquidity
    Our primary sources of liquidity are cash reserves, cash generated from operations, and borrowings under our floorplan payable and other credit facilities. We expect these sources of liquidity to be sufficient to fund our working capital requirements, acquisitions, capital expenditures and other investments in our business, service our debt, pay our tax and lease obligations and other commitments and contingencies, and meet any seasonal operating requirements for the foreseeable future, provided, however, that our borrowing capacity under our credit agreements is dependent on compliance with various financial covenants as further described in Note 8 to our consolidated financial statements included in this Form 10-K. We have worked in the past, and will continue to work in the future if necessary, with our lenders to implement satisfactory modifications to these financial covenants when appropriate for the business conditions confronted by us.
Equipment Inventory and Floorplan Payable Credit Facilities
    Floorplan payable balances reflect the amount owed for new equipment inventory purchased from a manufacturer and used equipment inventory, which is primarily purchased through trade-in on equipment sales, net of unamortized debt issuance costs incurred for floorplan credit facilities. Certain of the manufacturers from which we purchase new equipment inventory offer financing on these purchases, either offered directly from the manufacturer or through the manufacturers’ captive finance affiliate. CNH Industrial's captive finance subsidiary, CNH Industrial Capital, also provides financing of used equipment inventory. We also have floorplan payable balances with non-manufacturer lenders for new and used equipment inventory. Borrowings and repayments on manufacturer floorplan facilities are reported as operating cash flows, while borrowings and repayments on non-manufacturer floorplan facilities are reported as financing cash flows in our consolidated statements of cash flows.
    As of January 31, 2022, we had floorplan payable lines of credit for equipment purchases totaling $752.0 million, which includes a $450.0 million credit facility with CNH Industrial Capital, a $185.0 million floorplan payable line under the Bank Syndicate Agreement, a $50.0 million credit facility with DLL Finance, and additional credit facilities related to our foreign subsidiaries. Available borrowing capacity under these lines of credit are reduced by amounts outstanding under such facilities, borrowing base calculations and amount of standby letters of credit outstanding with respect to the Bank Syndicate Agreement, and certain acquisition-related financing arrangements with respect to the CNH Industrial Capital credit facility. As of January 31, 2022, the Company was in compliance with the financial covenants under its credit agreements. Additional
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details on each of these credit facilities are disclosed in Note 8 to our consolidated financial statements included in this annual report.
    As of January 31, 2022, the Company was not subject to the fixed charge ratio covenant under the Bank Syndicate Agreement as our adjusted excess availability plus eligible cash collateral (as defined in the Bank Syndicate Agreement) was not less than 15% of the total amount of the credit facility. Please refer to Note 8 to our consolidated financial statement included in Item 8 for further information regarding the Company's line of credit.
    Our equipment inventory turnover increased to 3.4 times for fiscal 2022 compared to 2.0 times for fiscal 2021. Our equipment inventories amount decreased 4.2% from January 31, 2021 to January 31, 2022. The improvement in equipment turnover was due to the combination of the increase in equipment sales volume in fiscal 2022 as compared to fiscal 2021 and a decrease in our average equipment inventory over these time periods. Our equity in equipment inventory, which reflects the portion of our equipment inventory balance that is not financed by floorplan payables, increased to 58.2% as of January 31, 2022, from 52.1% as of January 31, 2021. The increase in our equity in equipment inventory is primarily due to a high level of cash generation in fiscal 2022, which was applied against interest bearing floorplan payables.
Long-Term Debt Facilities
    As of January 31, 2021, we had a $65.0 million working capital line of credit under the Bank Syndicate Agreement (the "Revolver Loan"). The Revolver Loan is used to finance our working capital requirements and fund certain capital expenditures, as needed. As of January 31, 2022, the Company did not have a need to utilize any of the Revolver Loan, as such the outstanding balance was zero. The Company works with various lenders to finance the purchase of real estate we currently lease or are acquiring through an acquisition. The Company may also decide in the future to finance a portion of our rental fleet as well as our capital expenditures using long-term debt from various lenders.
Adequacy of Capital Resources
    Our primary uses of cash have been to fund our operating activities, including the purchase of inventories and providing for other working capital needs; meeting our debt service requirements; making payments due under our various leasing arrangements; and funding capital expenditures, including the purchase of rental fleet assets. The primary factor affecting our ability to generate cash and to meet cash requirements, is our operating performance as impacted by (i) industry factors, (ii) competition, (iii) general economic conditions, (iv) the timing and extent of acquisitions, and (v) business and other factors including those identified in Item 1A "Risk Factors" and discussed in this Form 10-K.
    Our ability to service our debt will depend upon our ability to generate necessary cash. This will in turn depend on our future acquisition activity, operating performance, general economic conditions, and financial, competitive, business and other factors, some of which are beyond our immediate control. Based on our current operational performance, we believe our cash flow from operations, available cash, and available borrowings under our existing credit facilities will be adequate to meet our liquidity needs for, at a minimum, the next 12 months.
    In fiscal 2022, we used $14.6 million in cash for rental fleet purchases and $23.0 million in cash for property and equipment purchases and financed $14.6 million in property and equipment purchases with long-term debt and finance leases. The property and equipment purchases in fiscal 2022 primarily related to improvements to, or purchases of, real estate assets and the purchase of vehicles. In fiscal 2021, we used $7.1 million in cash for rental fleet purchases, $13.0 million in cash for property and equipment purchases, and financed $19.5 million in property and equipment purchases with long-term debt. The property and equipment purchases in fiscal 2022 primarily related to the purchase of vehicles, trucks and real estate. We expect our cash expenditures for property and equipment, exclusive of rental fleet purchases, for fiscal 2023 to be approximately $25.0 million and expect cash expenditures for our rental fleet for fiscal 2023 to be approximately $10.0 million. The actual amount of our fiscal 2023 capital expenditures will depend upon factors such as general economic conditions, growth prospects for our industry and our decisions regarding financing and leasing options. We currently expect to finance property and equipment purchases with borrowings under our existing credit facilities, financing with long-term debt, with available cash or with cash flow from operations. We may need to incur additional debt if we pursue any future acquisitions.
    There can be no assurances, however, that our business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future borrowings will be available under the credit facilities with the Bank Syndicate, CNH Industrial Capital and DLL Finance in amounts sufficient to allow us to service our indebtedness and to meet our other commitments. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow from operations or to obtain sufficient future borrowings, we may be required to seek one or more alternatives such as refinancing or restructuring our indebtedness, selling material assets or operations or seeking to raise additional debt or equity capital. There can be no assurances that we will be able to succeed with one of these alternatives on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. In addition, if we pursue strategic acquisitions, we may require additional equity or debt financing to consummate the transactions, and we cannot assure you that we will succeed in obtaining this financing on favorable terms or at all. If we incur additional indebtedness to finance any of these transactions, this may place increased
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demands on our cash flow from operations to service the resulting increased debt. Our existing debt agreements contain restrictive covenants that may restrict our ability to adopt any of these alternatives. Any non-compliance by us under the terms of our debt agreements could result in an event of default which, if not cured, could result in the acceleration of our debt. We have met all financial covenants under these credit agreements as of January 31, 2022. If anticipated operating results create the likelihood of a future covenant violation, we would seek to work with our lenders on an appropriate modification or amendment to our financing arrangements.
Cash Flow
Cash Flow Provided By Operating Activities
    Net cash provided by operating activities in fiscal 2022 was $158.9 million compared to $173.0 million in fiscal 2021. The decrease in net cash provided by operating activities of $14.1 million from fiscal 2021 to fiscal 2022 is primarily the result of a consistent inventory balance and manufacturer floorplan payable balance during fiscal 2022 compared to a reduction in inventories in fiscal 2021, this was partially offset by an increase in receivables and prepaid expenses for fiscal 2022.
Cash Flow Used For Investing Activities
    Net cash used for investing activities is primarily comprised of cash used for property and equipment purchases, including rental fleet purchases, and for business acquisitions.
    Net cash used for investing activities was $55.2 million in fiscal 2022, compared to $20.3 million in fiscal 2021. In fiscal 2022, the Company used $37.6 million of cash, compared to use of $20.1 million in fiscal 2021, for additional investment in our rental fleet, vehicles, capital improvements, and purchases of real estate. In addition, the Company utilized $33.6 million of cash in fiscal 2022, compared to use of $6.8 million in the prior fiscal year, for acquisitions.
Cash Flow Provided By (Used For) Financing Activities
    Net cash used for financing activities was $35.3 million in fiscal 2022, compared to net cash used for financing activities of $117.9 million in fiscal 2021. In fiscal 2022, net cash used for financing activities was the result of decreased non-manufacturer floorplan payables, which was reduced due to use of cash provided by operating activities.
Future Cash Requirements
    We enter into contractual obligations in the ordinary course of business that may require future cash payments. Such obligations include, but are not limited to, debt arrangements, leasing arrangements, and costs related to Information Technology ("IT"), including ERP expenses. The Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements provide additional information in regard to Long Term Debt (Note 10) and Leases (Note 13). Other purchase obligations consist primarily of ERP related expenses with estimated cash payments of $4.4 million for fiscal 2023, $9.1 million combined for fiscal years 2024, 2025, and 2026.     
Information Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
    The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 provides a "safe harbor" for forward-looking statements. We include "forward-looking" information in this Form 10-K, including this Item 7, as well as in other materials filed or to be filed by us with the SEC (as well as information included in oral statements or other written statements made or to be made by us).
    This Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the following words: "anticipate," "believe," "continue," "could," "estimate," "expect," "intend," "may," "ongoing," "plan," "potential," "predict," "project," "should," "will," "would," or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our or our industry's actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are only predictions and are not guarantees of performance. These statements are based on our management's beliefs and assumptions, which in turn are based on currently available information. Our forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K generally relate to the following:
our beliefs and intentions with respect to our growth strategies, including growth through strategic acquisitions, the types of acquisition targets we intend to pursue, the availability of suitable acquisition targets, the industry climate for dealer consolidation, and our ability to implement our growth strategies;
our beliefs with respect to factors that will affect demand and seasonality of purchasing in the agricultural and construction industries;
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our beliefs with respect to our primary supplier (CNH Industrial) of equipment and parts inventory;
our beliefs with respect to the equipment market, our competitors and our competitive advantages;
our beliefs with respect to the impact of U.S federal government policies on the agriculture economy;
our beliefs with respect to the impact of commodity prices for the fossil fuels and other commodities on our operating results;
our beliefs with respect to the impact of government regulations;
our beliefs with respect to our business strengths and the diversity of our customer base;
our plans and beliefs with respect to real property used in our business;
our plans and beliefs regarding future sales, sales mix, and marketing activities;
our beliefs and assumptions regarding the payment of dividends;
our beliefs and assumptions regarding valuation reserves, equipment inventory balances, fixed operating expenses, and absorption rate;
our beliefs and expectations regarding the impact of the Russia-Ukraine military conflict on our Ukrainian operations;
our beliefs and assumptions with respect to our rental equipment operations;
our beliefs with respect to our employee relations;
our assumptions, beliefs and expectations with respect to past and future market conditions, including interest rates, and public infrastructure spending, new environmental standards, and the impact these conditions will have on our operating results;
our beliefs with respect to the impact of our credit agreements, including future interest expense, limits on corporate transactions, financial covenant compliance, and ability to negotiate amendments or waivers, if needed;
our beliefs with respect to the impact of increase or decrease in applicable foreign exchange rates;
our plans and assumptions for future capital expenditures and rental fleet purchases;
our cash needs, sources of liquidity, and the adequacy of our working capital.
    Forward-looking statements are only predictions and are not guarantees of performance. These statements are based on our management's beliefs and assumptions, which in turn are based on currently available information. Important assumptions relating to the forward-looking statements include, among others, assumptions regarding demand for our products, the expansion of product offerings geographically, the timing and cost of planned capital expenditures, competitive conditions and general economic conditions. These assumptions could prove inaccurate. Forward-looking statements also involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties, which could cause actual results that differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statement. Many of these factors are beyond our ability to control or predict. Such factors include, but are not limited to, the following:
the impact of the Russian-Ukraine military conflict on our operations in Ukraine;
assumptions regarding our cash needs and the amount of inventory we need on hand;
general economic conditions and construction activity in the markets where we operate;
our dependence on CNH Industrial, our primary supplier of equipment and parts inventory, and our relationships with other equipment suppliers;
the terms of the CNH dealer agreements that subject us to restrictions that may adversely impact our business and growth;
the risks associated with our international operations;
risks resulting from the implementation or design of our new ERP system;
risks resulting from the impact of the enactment of "right to repair" legislation;
the impact of security breaches and other disruptions to our information system;
our level of indebtedness and ability to comply with the terms of agreements governing our indebtedness;
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the risks associated with the expansion of our business;
the risks resulting from outbreaks or other public health crises, including COVID-19;
the potential inability to integrate any businesses we acquire;
competitive pressures;
significant fluctuations in the price of our common stock;
risks related to our dependence on our information technology systems and the impact of potential breaches and other disruptions;
compliance with laws and regulations; and
other factors discussed under "Risk Factors" or elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
    You should read the risk factors and the other cautionary statements made in this Form 10-K as being applicable to all related forward-looking statements wherever they appear in this Form 10-K. We cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K will prove to be accurate. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified timeframe, if at all. Other than as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update these forward-looking statements, even though our situation may change in the future.
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ITEM 7A.    QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
    We are exposed to various market risks, including changes in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates. Market risk is the potential loss arising from adverse changes in market rates and prices such as interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates.
Interest Rate Risk
    Exposure to changes in interest rates results from borrowing activities used to fund operations. For fixed rate debt, interest rate changes affect the fair value of financial instruments but do not impact earnings or cash flows. Conversely, for floating rate debt, interest rate changes generally do not affect the fair market value but do impact future earnings and cash flows, assuming other factors are held constant. We have both fixed and floating rate financing. Some of our floating rate credit facilities contain minimum rates of interest to be charged. Based upon our interest-bearing balances and interest rates as of January 31, 2022, holding other variables constant, a one percentage point increase in interest rates for the next 12-month period would decrease pre-tax earnings and cash flow by approximately $0.3 million. Conversely, a one percentage point decrease in interest rates for the next 12-month period would result in an increase to pre-tax earnings and cash flow of approximately $0.3 million. At January 31, 2022, we had total floorplan payables outstanding of $135.4 million, of which $28.6 million was interest-bearing at variable interest rates and $106.8 million was non-interest bearing. In addition, at January 31, 2022, we had total long-term debt outstanding and finance lease liabilities of $89.6 million, primarily all of which is fixed rate debt.
Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Risk
    Our foreign currency exposures arise as the result of our foreign operations. We are exposed to transactional foreign currency exchange rate risk through our foreign entities holding assets and liabilities denominated in currencies other than their functional currency. In addition, the Company is exposed to foreign currency transaction risk as a result of certain intercompany financing transactions. The Company attempts to manage its transactional foreign currency exchange rate risk through the use of derivative financial instruments, primarily foreign exchange forward contracts, or through natural hedging instruments. Based upon balances and exchange rates as of January 31, 2022, holding other variables constant, we believe that a hypothetical 10% increase or decrease in all applicable foreign exchange rates would not have a material impact on our results of operations or cash flows. As of January 31, 2022, our Ukrainian subsidiary had $1.7 million of net monetary assets denominated in Ukrainian hryvnia (UAH). We have attempted to minimize our net monetary asset position through reducing overall asset levels in Ukraine and through borrowing in UAH which serves as a natural hedging instrument offsetting our net UAH denominated assets. With the Russia/Ukraine conflict significantly intensifying in February 2022, currency and payment controls imposed by the National Bank of Ukraine limit our ability to manage our net monetary asset position. However in late March 2022, Ukraine's government classified agriculture as a critical industry. This has allowed us to convert hryvnia to pay for certain parts and equipment invoices. Continuation of political tensions in the Russian/Ukraine conflict could lead to more significant UAH devaluations. The inability to fully manage our net monetary asset position and continued UAH devaluations for an extended period of time, could have a material impact on our results of operations and cash flows.
    In addition to transactional foreign currency exchange rate risk, we are also exposed to translational foreign currency exchange rate risk as we translate the results of operations and assets and liabilities of our foreign operations from their functional currency to the U.S. dollar. As a result, our results of operations, cash flows and net investment in our foreign operations may be adversely impacted by fluctuating foreign currency exchange rates. We believe that a hypothetical 10% increase or decrease in all applicable foreign exchange rates, holding all other variables constant, would not have a material impact on our results of operations or cash flows.
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ITEM 8.    FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
    The Consolidated Balance Sheets of the Company as of January 31, 2022 and 2021, and the related Consolidated Statements of Operations, Comprehensive Income, Stockholders' Equity, and Cash Flows for the years ended January 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, and the notes thereto, have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm.

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Page
Titan Machinery Inc.—Financial Statements
Audited Consolidated Financial Statements
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm (PCAOB ID No. 34)
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
Consolidated Balance Sheets as of January 31, 2022 and 2021
Consolidated Statements of Operations for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders' Equity for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the fiscal years ended January 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the stockholders and the Board of Directors of Titan Machinery Inc.
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Titan Machinery Inc. and subsidiaries (the "Company") as of January 31, 2022 and 2021, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income, stockholders’ equity, and cash flows, for each of the three years in the period ended January 31, 2022, and the related notes and the schedule listed in the Index at Part IV, Item 15 (collectively referred to as the "financial statements"). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of January 31, 2022 and 2021, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended January 31, 2022, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of January 31, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated March 31, 2022, expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
Inventories – Valuation of Used Equipment Inventories — Refer to Notes 1 and 5 to the financial statements
Critical Audit Matter Description
The majority of the Company’s used equipment inventories are acquired through trade-ins from customers. Equipment that is traded-in is recorded at fair value less a normal gross profit margin. The Company determines fair value for the traded-in equipment through internal and third-party data that considers various factors including the age and condition of the equipment, hours of use, and market conditions. The Company’s used equipment inventories are stated at the lower of cost (specific identification) or net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation. The Company periodically subjects used equipment inventories to lower of cost or net realizable value assessments and adjusts carrying values when such values exceed estimated net realizable value. The Company estimates net realizable value using internal and third-party data that considers various factors including the age and condition of the equipment, hours of use, and market conditions. The used equipment inventories balance as of January 31, 2022 was $128.0 million.
Given the significant judgments made by management to determine the initial fair value and subsequent net realizable value of used equipment inventories, performing audit procedures to evaluate these judgments to determine the valuation of used equipment inventories required a high degree of auditor judgment and an increased extent of effort.
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How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit
Our audit procedures related to management’s judgments regarding the valuation of used equipment inventories included the following, among others:
We tested the effectiveness of controls over the valuation of used equipment inventories, including the reasonableness of various factors including the age and condition of the equipment, hours of use, and market conditions, used to determine the net realizable value of the equipment.
We tested the effectiveness of controls over the internal and external data used to determine the valuation of used equipment inventories.
We evaluated the reasonableness of management’s judgments utilized to determine the net realizable value of the used equipment inventories by:
Evaluating the reasonableness and consistency of the methodology and assumptions used by management to determine net realizable value.
Testing the underlying determination of the net realizable value by obtaining sales documentation containing the age of the equipment and hours of use and comparing it to comparable internal and external data.
Performing a retrospective lookback analysis of management’s process by comparing the actual selling prices of used equipment inventories units sold in the current year to the selling prices estimated by management for those units in the prior year.

/s/ DELOITTE & TOUCHE LLP
Minneapolis, Minnesota
March 31, 2022
We have served as the Company's auditor since 2013.

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the stockholders and the Board of Directors of Titan Machinery Inc.
Opinion on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
We have audited the internal control over financial reporting of Titan Machinery Inc. and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of January 31, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of January 31, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control — Integrated Framework (2013) issued by COSO.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended January 31, 2022, of the Company and our report dated March 31, 2022, expressed an unqualified opinion on those financial statements.
Basis for Opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ DELOITTE & TOUCHE LLP
Minneapolis, Minnesota
March 31, 2022
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TITAN MACHINERY INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
AS OF JANUARY 31, 2022 AND 2021
(in thousands, except per share data)
January 31, 2022January 31, 2021
Assets
Current Assets
Cash$146,149 $78,990 
Receivables, net of allowance for expected credit losses94,287 69,109 
Inventories 421,758 418,458 
Prepaid expenses and other28,135 13,677 
Total current assets690,329 580,234 
Noncurrent Assets
Property and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation 178,243 147,165 
Operating lease assets56,150 74,445 
Deferred income taxes1,328 3,637 
Goodwill8,952 1,433 
Intangible assets, net of accumulated amortization10,624 7,785 
Other1,041 1,090 
Total noncurrent assets256,338 235,555 
Total Assets$946,667 $815,789 
Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
Current Liabilities
Accounts payable$25,644 $20,045 
Floorplan payable 135,415 161,835 
Current maturities of long-term debt 5,876 4,591 
Current maturities of operating leases9,601 11,772 
Deferred revenue134,146 59,418 
Accrued expenses and other59,339 48,791 
Income taxes payable4,700 11,048 
Total current liabilities374,721 317,500 
Long-Term Liabilities
Long-term debt, less current maturities 74,772 44,906 
Operating lease liabilities55,595 73,567 
Deferred income taxes2,006 — 
Other long-term liabilities4,374 8,535 
Total long-term liabilities136,747 127,008 
Commitments and Contingencies (Note 12)
Stockholders' Equity
Common stock, par value $0.00001 per share, 45,000,000 shares authorized; 22,587,859 shares issued and outstanding at January 31, 2022; 22,552,967 shares issued and outstanding at January 31, 2021
  
Additional paid-in-capital254,455 252,913 
Retained earnings182,916 116,869 
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)(2,172)1,499 
Total stockholders' equity 435,199 371,281 
Total Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity$946,667 $815,789 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
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TITAN MACHINERY INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
YEARS ENDED JANUARY 31, 2022, 2021 AND 2020
(in thousands, except per share data)
202220212020
Revenue
Equipment$1,291,684 $1,016,071 $917,202 
Parts266,916 244,676 234,217 
Service115,641 107,229 99,165 
Rental and other37,665 43,246 54,587 
Total Revenue1,711,906 1,411,222 1,305,171 
Cost of Revenue
Equipment1,130,205 911,170 818,707 
Parts186,324 171,873 165,190 
Service38,771 36,692 33,446 
Rental and other23,882 30,125 37,010 
Total Cost of Revenue1,379,182 1,149,860 1,054,353 
Gross Profit332,724 261,362 250,818 
Operating Expenses241,044 220,774 225,722 
Impairment of Goodwill 1,453  
Impairment of Intangible and Long-Lived Assets1,498 1,727 3,764 
Income from Operations90,182 37,408 21,332 
Other Income (Expense)
Interest and other income2,431 527 3,126 
Floorplan interest expense(1,175)(3,339)(5,354)
Other interest expense(4,537)(3,843)(4,452)
Income Before Income Taxes86,901 30,753 14,652 
Provision for Income Taxes20,854 11,397 699 
Net Income$66,047 $19,356 $13,953 
Earnings per Share:
Basic$2.93 $0.86 $0.63 
Diluted$2.92 $0.86 $0.63 
Weighted Average Common Shares:
Basic22,238 22,100 21,946 
Diluted22,248 22,104 21,953 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
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TITAN MACHINERY INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
YEARS ENDED JANUARY 31, 2022, 2021 AND 2020
(in thousands)
202220212020
Net Income$66,047 $19,356 $13,953 
Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Foreign currency translation adjustments(3,671)