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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 20-F
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report:
For the transition period from                              to
Commission File number: 001-39968
TELUS International (Cda) Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Not Applicable
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)
Province of British Columbia
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
Floor 7, 510 West Georgia Street
Vancouver, BC V6B 0M3
(Address of principal executive offices)
Michel Belec
Chief Legal Officer
TELUS International (Cda) Inc.
Floor 7, 510 West Georgia Street
Vancouver, BC V6B 0M3
Tel: (604) 695-6400
(Name, telephone, e-mail and/or facsimile number and address of Company contact person)
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.
Title of each classTrading symbolName of each exchange on which registered
Subordinate voting share, no par valueTIXTNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act. None
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act. None
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
At February 10, 2022, 66,046,364 subordinate voting shares were issued and outstanding.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o No x
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of accelerated filer and large accelerated filer in Rule 12b of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer x
Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated Filer o
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
The term new or revised financial accounting standard refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
x International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting
Standards Board
o US GAAP
o Other
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow
o Item 17 o Item 18
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No x



TABLE OF CONTENTS

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INTRODUCTION
Unless otherwise indicated or where the context requires otherwise, all references in this annual report on Form 20-F (Annual Report) to the “Company”, “TELUS International”, “TI”, “we”, “us”, “our” or similar terms refer to TELUS International (Cda) Inc. and its subsidiaries. All references in this Annual Report to “TELUS” refer to TELUS Corporation and its subsidiaries other than TELUS International. All references in this Annual Report to “Baring” refer to Baring Private Equity Asia. All references in this Annual Report to “Competence Call Center” or “CCC” refer to the entirety of the assets and operations of Triple C Holding which was merged into TELUS International Germany GmbH on December 16, 2020 with TELUS International Germany GmbH as the surviving entity. All references in this Annual Report to “TI Northern Europe” or “TINE” refer to the entity comprised of substantially all the assets of CCC, which we acquired on January 31, 2020 and which was subsequently rebranded. All references to “TELUS International AI Data Solutions”, “TIAI Data Solutions”, “Lionbridge AI” or “TIAI” refer to the data annotation business of Lionbridge Technologies, Inc, which we acquired on December 31, 2020 and Playment, a Bangalore, India-based leader in computer vision tools and services specialized in 2D and 3D image, video and LiDAR (light detection and ranging), which we acquired on July 2, 2021.
We use various trademarks, trade names and service marks in our business, including TELUS, which is used under license from TELUS Corporation. For convenience, we may not include the ® or ™ symbols, but such omission is not meant to indicate that we would not protect our intellectual property rights to the fullest extent allowed by law. Any other trademarks, trade names or service marks referred to in this Annual Report are the property of their respective owners.
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report contains forward-looking statements concerning our business, operations and financial performance and condition, as well as our plans, objectives and expectations for our business operations and financial performance and condition. Any statements contained herein that are not statements of historical facts may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “aim”, “anticipate”, “assume”, “believe”, “contemplate”, “continue”, “could”, “due”, “estimate”, “expect”, “goal”, “intend”, “may”, “objective”, “plan”, “predict”, “potential”, “positioned”, “seek”, “should”, “target”, “will”, “would” and other similar expressions that are predictions of or indicate future events and future trends, or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology.
These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:
our ability to execute our growth strategy, including by expanding services offered to existing clients and attracting new clients;
our ability to maintain our corporate culture and competitiveness of our service offerings;
our ability to attract and retain talent;
our ability to integrate, and realize the benefits of, our acquisitions of CCC, Managed IT Services business (MITS) and TIAI;
the relative growth rate and size of our target industry verticals;
our projected operating and capital expenditure requirements; and
the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, including the development and spread of new and existing variants, and related conditions, on our business, financial condition, financial performance and liquidity.
These factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read with the other cautionary statements in this Annual Report. These forward-looking statements are based on our current expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about our business and the industry in which we operate and management’s beliefs and assumptions, and are not guarantees of future performance or development and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that are in some cases beyond our control. As a result, any or all of our forward-looking statements in this Annual Report may turn out to be inaccurate. Factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from current expectations include, among other things, those listed under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report. Potential investors are urged to consider these factors carefully in evaluating the forward-looking statements. Comparisons of results for current and any prior periods are not intended to express any future trends or indications of future performance, unless specifically expressed as such, and should only be viewed as historical data. These forward-looking statements speak only as at the date of this Annual Report. Except as
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required by law, we assume no obligation to update or revise these forward-looking statements for any reason, even if new information becomes available in the future.
This Annual Report contains estimates, projections, market research and other information concerning our industry, our business, and the markets for our services. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties, and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances that are assumed in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from our own internal estimates and research as well as from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry and general publications, government data and similar sources.
In addition, assumptions and estimates of our and our industry’s future performance are necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in “Risk Factors”. These and other factors could cause our future performance to differ materially from our assumptions and estimates.
Any references to forward-looking statements in this Annual Report include forward-looking information within the meaning of applicable Canadian securities laws.
PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL AND OTHER INFORMATION
The financial statements of TELUS International included in this Annual Report are presented in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), and consist of the consolidated statements of financial position as at December 31, 2021 and 2020 and the consolidated statements of income and other comprehensive income, changes in owners’ equity, and cash flows, for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2021.
In this Annual Report, unless otherwise specified, all monetary amounts are in U.S. dollars, all references to “US$”, “$”, “USD” and “dollars” mean U.S. dollars and all references to “C$”, “CDN$” and “CAD$”, mean Canadian dollars, and all references to “euro” and “€” mean the currency of the European Union.
ENFORCEMENT OF CIVIL LIABILITIES
We are incorporated under the laws of the Province of British Columbia, Canada, with our principal place of business in Vancouver, Canada. Some of our directors and officers, and the auditor named in this Annual Report, are residents of Canada or otherwise reside outside of the United States, and all or a substantial portion of their assets, and all or a substantial portion of our assets, are located outside of the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for shareholders who reside in the United States to effect service within the United States upon those directors, officers and experts who are not residents of the United States. It may also be difficult for shareholders who reside in the United States to realize in the United States upon judgments of courts of the United States predicated upon our civil liability and the civil liability of our directors, officers and experts under the United States federal securities laws. There can be no assurance that U.S. investors will be able to enforce against us, members of our board of directors, officers or certain experts named herein who are residents of Canada or other countries outside the United States, any judgments in civil and commercial matters, including judgments under the federal securities laws.
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PART I
ITEM 1   IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISORS 
Not applicable.
ITEM 2   OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE
Not applicable.
ITEM 3   KEY INFORMATION
B.Capitalization and Indebtedness
Not applicable.
C.Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds
Not applicable.
D.Risk Factors
Risk Factors Summary
Investing in our subordinate voting shares involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described in this “Item 3D—Risk Factors” before making a decision to invest in our subordinate voting shares. If any of these risks actually occur, our business, financial condition and financial performance would likely be materially adversely affected. In such case, the trading price of our subordinate voting shares would likely decline and you may lose part or all of your investment. Below is a summary of some of the principal risks we face:
We face intense competition from companies that offer services similar to ours.
Our growth prospects are dependent upon attracting and retaining enough qualified team members to support our operations, as competition for talent is intense.
Our ability to grow and maintain our profitability could be materially affected if changes in technology and client expectations outpace our service offerings and the development of our internal tools and processes or if we are not able to meet the expectations of our clients.
If we cannot maintain our culture as we grow, our services, financial performance and business may be harmed.
Our business and financial results could be adversely affected by economic and geopolitical conditions and the effects of these conditions on our clients’ businesses and demand for our services.
Three clients account for a significant portion of our revenue and loss of or reduction in business from, or consolidation of, these or any other major clients could have a material adverse effect.
Our business may not develop in ways that we currently anticipate due to negative public reaction to offshore outsourcing, proposed legislation or otherwise.
Our business and financial results have been, and in the future may be, adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and related conditions. 
Our business would be adversely affected if individuals providing data annotation services through TIAI’s crowdsourcing solutions were classified as employees and not as independent contractors.
We may be unable to successfully identify, complete, integrate and realize the benefits of acquisitions or manage the associated risks.
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The unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential client and customer data, through cyberattacks or otherwise, could expose us to protracted and costly litigation, damage our reputation and cause us to lose clients.
Our content moderation team members may suffer adverse effects in the course of performing their work. Although the wellness and resiliency programs we offer are designed to support the physical and mental well-being of our team members, there may be occasions where our wellness and resiliency programs do not sufficiently mitigate those effects, given the pace of change in the content to be moderated, changes in regulations, shifts in recommended approaches to address these effects and other influences on this type of work. Our failure to mitigate these effects could adversely affect our ability to attract and retain team members and could result in increased costs, including due to claims against us.

The dual-class structure contained in our articles has the effect of concentrating voting control and the ability to influence corporate matters with TELUS.
The market price of our subordinate voting shares may be affected by low trading volume and the market pricing for our subordinate voting shares may decline as a result of future sales, or the perception of the likelihood of future sales, by us or our shareholders in the public market.
TELUS appointed directors will, for the foreseeable future, control the TELUS International Board of Directors.
Risks Related to Our Business
We face intense competition from companies that offer services similar to ours. If we are unable to differentiate to compete effectively, our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows could be materially adversely impacted.
The market for the services we offer is very competitive and we expect competition to intensify and increase from a number of our existing competitors, including professional services companies that offer consulting services, information technology companies with digital capabilities, and traditional contact center and business process outsourcing (BPO) companies that are expanding their capabilities to offer higher-margin and higher-growth services. In addition, the continued expansion of the services we offer and the markets we operate in will result in new and different competitors, many of which may have significantly greater market recognition than we do in the markets we are entering, as well as increased competition with existing competitors who are also expanding their services to cover digital capabilities.
Many of these existing and new competitors have greater financial, human and other resources, greater technological expertise, longer operating histories and more established relationships in the verticals that we currently serve or may expand to serve in the future. In addition, some of our competitors may enter into strategic or commercial relationships among themselves or with larger, more established companies in order to increase their ability to address client needs or enter into similar arrangements with potential clients. We also face competition from service providers that operate in countries where we do not have delivery locations because our clients may, to diversify geographic risk and for other reasons, seek to reduce their dependence on any one country by shifting work to another country in which we do not operate. All of these factors present challenges for us in retaining and growing our business.
From time to time, our clients who currently use our services may determine that they can provide these services in-house. As a result, we face the competitive pressure to continually offer our services in a manner that will be viewed by our clients as better and more cost-effective than what they could provide themselves.
Our inability to compete successfully against companies that offer services similar to ours and to offer our clients a compelling alternative to taking the services we provide in-house could result in increased client churn, revenue loss, pressures on recruitment and retention of team members, service price reductions and increased marketing and promotional expenses, or reduced operating margins which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.

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Our growth prospects are dependent upon attracting and retaining enough qualified team members to support our operations, as competition for talent is intense, and failure to do so may result in an adverse impact on our business and financial results.
Our business is highly competitive and its success is dependent on our ability to access and retain skilled labour. Our growth prospects, success and ability to meet our clients’ expectations and our growth objectives depends on our ability to recruit and retain team members with the right technical skills and/or language capabilities at competitive cost levels. We need to continuously attract and seek new talent, and there is significant competition for professionals with skills necessary to perform the services we offer to our clients. In addition, in many of the geographies we operate there may be a limited pool of potential professionals with the skills we seek. The increased competition for these professionals increases our costs to recruit and retain team members and presents challenges for us in finding team members for our client programs. In particular, we depend on attracting and retaining key sales and account management talent. If we are unable to attract and retain key sales and account management talent, it may reduce our ability to gain new business and maintain existing client relationships.
Additionally, our failure to provide innovative benefits to our team members could decrease our competitiveness as an employer and adversely impact our ability to attract and retain a skilled workforce. To attract and retain highly skilled team members, we have had to offer, and believe we will need to continue to offer, differentiated compensation packages, specific to the geography and skill sets of the team members we are seeking to attract and hire. We have also had to incur costs to provide specialized services and amenities to our team members that impact the profitability of our business. We may need to make significant investments to attract and retain team members and we may not realize sufficient returns on these investments. An increase in the attrition rate among our team members, particularly among our higher-skilled workforce, would increase our recruiting and training costs and decrease our operating efficiency, productivity and profit margins. From time to time, and over the course of 2021 in some regions, we have also experienced higher levels of voluntary attrition, and, in those periods, we have been required to expend time and resources to recruit and retain talent, restructure parts of our organization, and train and integrate new team members. If we are not able to effectively attract and retain team members, we may see a decline in our ability to meet our clients’ demands, which may impact the demand for our services and we may not be able to innovate or execute quickly on our strategy, and our ability to achieve our strategic objectives will be adversely impacted and our business will be harmed.
Additionally, evolving technologies, competition and/or client demands may entail high costs associated with retaining and retraining existing team members and/or attracting and training team members with new backgrounds and skills. Changing team member demographics, organizational changes, inadequate organizational structure and staffing, inadequate team member communication, changes in the effectiveness of our leadership, a lack of available career and development opportunities, changes in compensation and benefits, the unavailability of appropriate work processes and tools, client reductions and operational efficiency initiatives may also negatively affect team member morale and engagement, harm our ability to retain acquired talent from our acquisitions, increase team member turnover, increase the cost of talent acquisition and negatively impact service delivery and the customer experience. If we are unable to attract and retain sufficient numbers of highly skilled professionals, our ability to effectively lead our current projects and develop new business could be jeopardized, and our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.
Our ability to grow and maintain our profitability could be materially affected if changes in technology and client expectations outpace our service offerings and the development of our internal tools and processes, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
Our growth, profitability and the diversity of our revenue sources will depend on our ability to develop and adopt new technologies to expand our existing offerings, proactively identify new revenue streams and improve cost efficiencies in our operations, all while meeting rapidly evolving client expectations. Although we are focused on maintaining and enhancing the range of our offerings, we may not be successful in anticipating or responding to our clients’ expectations and interests in adopting evolving technology solutions and the integration of these technology solutions into our offerings may not achieve the intended enhancements or cost reductions in our operations. New services and technologies offered by our competitors may make our service offerings uncompetitive, which may reduce our clients’ interest in our offerings and our ability to attract new clients. Our failure to innovate, maintain technological advantages or respond effectively and timely to changes in technology could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.

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If we fail to establish our digital brand and successfully market our digital service offerings, our growth prospects, anticipated business volumes and financial performance may be adversely affected.
Certain of our existing clients and potential new clients may only know us for our voice-based customer support services. Our ability to realize our digital first strategy and increase revenue across our core verticals, including Tech and Games, Communications and Media, eCommerce and FinTech, Travel and Hospitality and Healthcare, depends on our promotion of our ability to provide digital services in these areas to existing and potential clients. If we are not successful in establishing our digital brand and marketing our expanded service offerings to our existing and potential clients, our ability to shift our existing clients into more profitable digital services and attract new clients to these service offerings may be limited, which may adversely affect our growth prospects and anticipated business volumes and financial performance.
If we cannot maintain our culture as we grow, our services, financial performance and business may be harmed.
We believe that our unique customer-first and caring culture has led to our ability to attract and retain a highly skilled, diverse, engaged and motivated workforce. This has driven our strong client retention and the higher satisfaction scores we receive from our clients’ customers, which has, in part, been responsible for our growth and differentiation in the marketplace. It may become more difficult for us to maintain an inclusive culture that supports our success if we continue to evolve our products and services, grow into new geographies, open new delivery locations, increase the number of team members and acquire new companies. If our unique culture is not maintained, our ability to attract and retain highly skilled team members and clients across our core verticals may be adversely impacted, and our operational and financial results may be negatively affected.
If we fail to maintain a consistently high level of service experience and communicate and implement impactful environmental, social, governance (ESG) initiatives, our ability to attract new and retain existing clients and team members could be adversely affected.
Our clients’ loyalty, likelihood to expand the services that they use with us and likelihood to recommend us is dependent upon our ability to provide a service experience that meets or exceeds our clients’ expectations and that is differentiated from our competitors. Our ability to attract new clients, retain our existing clients and attract and retain team members is highly dependent on the satisfaction ratings that our clients provide about us and the satisfaction ratings that our clients receive from their customers based on the services we provide, all of which affects our reputation. We believe our focus on client experience is critical to attracting new clients and retaining and growing our business with our existing clients. If we are unable to maintain a consistently high level of service, our clients could change service providers, our revenues and profitability could be negatively impacted, and our reputation could suffer.
TELUS International's reputation with team members, customers, investors and stakeholders is related to our commitment to a caring culture that prioritizes our ESG initiatives related to diversity, inclusion, equity, giving back to our communities, sustainability and good governance. As we expand our business, if we fail to live up to our commitments in this regard or fail to do so on a timely basis, it could result in adverse financial and operating results. Further, the corporate sustainability and social-purpose activities that we host assist us in attracting and retaining clients. These activities are important to us and our team members and are a part of our culture, and thus are becoming a differentiating factor for clients in selecting a service provider. More and more companies, including many of our clients, are demanding that their service providers embody corporate sustainability and social purpose goals that reflect their own brand image and are consistent with the ones their customers and other stakeholders have adopted. If we are unable to meet or exceed the evolving expectations of our clients in these areas or implement initiatives on a timely basis, and effectively communicate them to our clients, our reputation may suffer, which may negatively impact our ability to attract new and retain existing clients. Our ESG programs and initiatives are also important to our team members, and our failure to meet or exceed the evolving expectations of our team members in these areas could have adverse impacts on our ability to attract and retain talent upon which our service offerings depend. As a result, we have invested significant resources in developing and maintaining our corporate sustainability and social purpose activities, and the required levels of such investments may increase in the future as such activities become increasingly important to our clients and team members, which would increase our costs and may adversely affect our financial performance and cash flows.
Although we strive to implement a “customer-first” culture, any failure to maintain a consistently high level of customer service, or a market perception that we do not maintain high-quality customer service, or a failure to communicate effectively or meet our clients’ and team members’ expectations about our ESG initiatives, could adversely affect our ability to attract new clients and retain existing clients, and increase attrition and other costs associated with retaining talent, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
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Our business and financial results could be adversely affected by economic and geopolitical conditions and these conditions could have an effect on our clients’ businesses and levels of business activity, demand for our services, as well as our and our clients’ liquidity and access to capital.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused, and is likely to continue to cause, additional slowdown in the global economy, as is evidenced by the recent declines in investments, exports and industrial production. The global spread of COVID-19 has created, and is likely to continue to create, significant volatility, uncertainty and economic disruption. In addition, volatility in the domestic politics of major markets may lead to changes in the institutional framework of the international economy. For further information, see “—Our business and financial results have been, and in the future may be, adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic”.
The global economy may enter into a deep recessionary period as there continues to be signs of continued economic slowdown and weakness around the world. Globally, countries may require additional financial support, sovereign credit ratings may continue to decline and there may be default on sovereign debt obligations of certain countries. Any of these global economic conditions may increase the cost of borrowing and cause credit to become more limited, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, financial performance and cash flows.
Changes in the general level of economic activity, such as decreases in business and consumer spending, could result in a decrease in demand for the products and services that our clients provide to their customers, and consequently reduce our clients’ demand for our services, which would reduce our revenue. Economic and political uncertainty could undermine business confidence and cause potential new clients to delay engaging us and our existing clients to reduce or defer their spending on our services or reduce or eliminate spending under existing contracts with us. These developments, or the perception that any of them could occur, have had and may continue to have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions and the stability of global financial markets. For example, the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union in January 2020, commonly referred to as “Brexit”, has created significant political and economic uncertainty regarding the future trading relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union. These and other economic and geopolitical conditions may affect our business in a number of ways, as we have operations in 28 countries and we service clients across multiple geographic regions. If any of these conditions affect the countries in which our largest clients, including TELUS, are located or conduct their business, we may experience reduced demand for and pricing pressure on our services, which could lead to a reduction in business volumes and could adversely affect financial performance.
The cost and availability of credit has been and may continue to be adversely affected by illiquid credit markets and wider credit spreads. The current global economic slowdown and the possibility of continued turbulence or uncertainty in the European Union, United States, countries in Asia and international financial markets and economies, and the political climate in the United States, may adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition, and the liquidity and financial condition of our clients. If these market conditions continue or worsen, it may limit our ability to access financing or increase our cost of financing to meet liquidity needs, and affect the ability of our clients to use credit to purchase our services or to make timely payments to us, which could result in material adverse effects on our business, financial condition, financial performance and cash flows.
We cannot predict the timing or duration of an economic slowdown or the timing or strength of a subsequent economic recovery generally or in our targeted verticals. If macroeconomic conditions worsen or the current global economic conditions continue for a prolonged period of time, we are not able to predict the impact that such conditions will have on our business, financial condition, financial performance and cash flows.
If we are unable to accurately forecast our pricing models or optimize the mix of products and services we provide to meet changing client demands, or if we are unable to adapt to changing pricing and procurement demands of our clients, our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows may be adversely affected.
Our contracts generally use a pricing model that provides for per-productive-hour or per-transaction billing models and compensation for materials and licensing costs. Industry pricing models are evolving, and companies are increasingly requesting transaction- or outcome-based pricing or other alternative pricing models, which require us to accurately forecast the cost of performance of the contract against the compensation we expect to receive. These forecasts are based on a number of assumptions relating to existing and potential contracts with existing and potential clients, including assumptions related to the team members, other resources and time required to perform the services and our clients’ ultimate use of the contracted service. If we make inaccurate assumptions in pricing our contracts, our profitability may be negatively affected. In addition, if the number of our clients that request alternative pricing models continues to increase in line with industry trends, we may be unable to maintain our historical levels of profitability under these evolving alternative pricing models and our financial performance may be adversely affected, or we may not be able to offer pricing that is attractive relative to our competitors.
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Some of our clients’ may continue to evolve their procurement methodology by increasing the use of alternative methods, such as reverse auctions. These methods may impact our ability to gain new business and maintain profit margins, and may require us to adapt our sales techniques, which we may be unsuccessful in doing in a timely manner or at all.
In addition, the revenue and income generated from the services we provide to our clients may decline or vary as the type and volume of services we provide under our contracts change over time, including as a result of a shift in the mix of products and services provided. For example, our lower-complexity interactions generate services with lower margins compared to our more complex, sensitive and localized content moderation and digital services, and a shift in the mix of these two types of services by a client could cause a meaningful change in our revenue from that client and the profitability of the services we provide. Furthermore, our clients, some of which have experienced significant and adverse changes in their business, substantial price competition and pressures on their profitability, have in the past and may in the future demand price reductions, decrease the volume of work or complexity of the services we are providing to them, automate some or all of their processes or change their customer experience strategy by moving more work in-house or to other providers, any of which could reduce our profitability. Any inability to accurately forecast the pricing that we use for our contracts, or any significant reduction in or the elimination of the use of the services we provide to any of our clients or any requirement to lower our prices that, in each case, we fail to anticipate, would harm our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
Three clients account for a significant portion of our revenue and loss of or reduction in business from, or consolidation of, these or any other major clients could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, financial performance and prospects.
We have derived and believe that, in the near term, we will continue to derive, a significant portion of our revenue from a limited number of large clients. Our largest client for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, a leading social media company, accounted for approximately 17.7% and 15.6% of our revenue for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. TELUS, our controlling shareholder, is our second largest client and accounted for approximately 16.1% and 19.6% of our revenue for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Our third largest client, Google Inc. (Google), accounted for approximately 11.0% and 7.5% of our revenue for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
One of our largest clients, based on our revenues earned from them, is TELUS, our controlling shareholder. We provide services to TELUS under the master services agreement (TELUS MSA), which expires in January 2031. The TELUS MSA provides for a minimum annual spend of $200 million, subject to adjustment in accordance with its terms, although TELUS has the ability to delay or terminate specific services for certain specified reasons with limited notice. See “Item 7B—Related Party Transactions—Our Relationship with TELUS—Master Services Agreement”. In addition, the master services agreements (MSAs) with all other clients do not have minimum annual spend and the terms of these master service agreements permit our clients to delay, postpone or even terminate contracted services at their discretion and with limited notice to us.
Additionally, the volume of work performed for specific clients or the revenue we generate can vary from year to year. For example, a client may demand price reductions, change its customer engagement strategy or move work in-house. Also, in many of the verticals in which we offer services, the continued consolidation activity could result in the loss of a client if, as a result of a merger or acquisition involving one or more of our clients, the surviving entity chooses to use one of our competitors for the services we currently provide or to provide the services we offer in-house. Our clients may also choose to consolidate their providers as they grow, as their business needs change, or as their leadership changes, and we could be removed from a client’s vendor network. As a result of the foregoing, a major client in one year may not provide the same level of revenue in any subsequent year. Any significant reduction in or elimination of the use of the services we provide as a result of consolidation or our removal from a key client’s vendor network would result in reduced revenue to us and could harm our business. In addition, such consolidation may encourage clients to apply increasing pressure on us to lower the prices we charge for our solutions. All the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, financial performance and prospects.
Our client contracts, which can be canceled at any time, are generally long-term, requiring us to estimate the resources and time required for the contracts upfront, and contain certain price benchmarking, compliance-related penalties and other provisions adverse to us, all of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
Although the term of our client contracts typically ranges from three to five years, with the vast majority of contracts having a term of three years, such contracts may be terminated by our clients for convenience with limited notice and without payment of a penalty or termination fee. Additionally, our clients, other than TELUS, are not contractually committed to provide us with specific volumes under the contracts we enter into with them. Our clients may also delay, postpone, cancel or remove certain of
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the services we provide without canceling the whole contract, which would adversely impact our revenue. Any failure to meet a client’s expectations could result in a cancellation or non-renewal of a contract or a reduction in the services provided by us. We may not be able to replace any client that elects to terminate or not renew its contract with us, which would reduce our revenues. The loss of or financial difficulties at any of our clients could have an adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows. For example, we have had a limited number of clients who entered into insolvency proceedings and have defaulted on their obligations to us.
Additionally, our contracts require us to comply with, or facilitate, our clients’ compliance with numerous and complex legal regimes on matters such as anti-corruption, internal and disclosure control obligations, data privacy and protection, wage-and-hour standards, and employment and labor relations. Many of our contracts contain provisions that would require us to pay penalties to our clients and/or provide our clients with the right to terminate the contract if we do not meet pre-agreed service level requirements. Failure to meet these requirements or accurately estimate the productivity benefits could result in the payment of significant penalties to our clients, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
A few of our contracts allow the client, in certain limited circumstances, to request a benchmark study comparing our pricing and performance with that of an agreed list of other service providers for comparable services. Based on the results of the study and depending on the reasons for any unfavorable variance, we may be required to make improvements in the services we provide, reduce the pricing for services on a prospective basis to be performed under the remaining term of the contract, or our clients could elect to terminate the contract, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
Some of our contracts contain provisions which, to various degrees, restrict our ability to provide certain services to other of our clients or to companies who are in competition with our clients. Such terms may restrict the same team members from providing services for competing clients, require us to ensure a certain distance between the locations from where we serve competing clients or prevent us from serving a competing client from locations in the same country, all of which reduce our flexibility in deploying our team members and delivery locations in the most effective and efficient manner and may force us to forego opportunities to attract business from companies that compete with our existing clients, even if such opportunities are more profitable or otherwise attractive to us.
Additionally, a number of our service contracts provide for high or unlimited liability for the benefit of our clients related to damages resulting from breaches of privacy or data security in connection with provision of our services. Violations of the terms of these contracts could subject us to significant legal liability. See “—The unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential client and customer data could expose us to protracted and costly litigation, damage our reputation and cause us to lose clients”.
Furthermore, in some of our customer experience management contracts we commit to long-term pricing structures under which we bear the risk of cost overruns, completion delays, resource requirements, wage inflation and adverse movements in exchange rates in connection with these contracts. If we fail to accurately estimate the team members, other resources and time required for these longer term contracts and their overall expected profitability, potential productivity benefits over time, future wage inflation rates or currency exchange rates (if we fail to effectively hedge our currency exchange rate exposure) or if we fail to complete our contractual obligations within the contracted timeframe, our financial performance, financial condition and cash flows may be negatively affected. See “—If we are unable to accurately forecast our pricing models or optimize the mix of products and services we provide to meet changing client demands, or if we are unable to adapt to changing pricing and procurement demands of our clients, our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows may be adversely affected”.
We may face difficulties in delivering complex projects for our clients that could cause clients to discontinue their work with us, which may have a material adverse impact on our financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
We have, over time, been expanding the nature, scope and complexity of our engagements. Our ability to offer a wider breadth of more complex services to our clients depends on our ability to attract new or existing clients to an expanded collection of service offerings. When seeking to obtain engagements for complex projects, we are more likely to compete with large, well-established international firms, many of which have greater resources and market reputation than we do. To compete for these projects, we will likely incur increased sales and marketing costs. Obtaining mandates for more complex projects will require us to establish closer relationships with our clients and develop a more thorough understanding of their operations. Our ability to establish such relationships will depend on a number of factors, including our ability to form a team with the necessary proficiency in these new services. We cannot be certain that we will effectively meet client needs at the necessary scale in the required timeframes in connection with these services. For example, if a new program requires us to hire a large number of
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team members with specific skills in a specific geography, we could face challenges in implementing the program on a client’s desired timetable or at all. Our failure to deliver services that meet the requirements specified by our clients could result in termination of client contracts, which could result in us being liable to our clients for significant penalties or damages and negatively impact our reputation. More complex projects may involve multiple engagements or stages, and there is a risk that a client may choose not to retain us for later stages or may cancel or delay additional planned engagements, which may be the more profitable portions of the overall planned engagement. Such cancellations or delays make it difficult to plan for project resource requirements and inaccuracies in such resource planning and allocation may have a material adverse impact on our financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
We often face a long selling cycle to secure a new client or a new program with an existing client. If we are not successful in obtaining and efficiently maintaining contractual commitments after the selling cycle our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows may be adversely affected.
We often face a long selling cycle to secure a new client contract or launch a new program for an existing client. When we are successful in obtaining a new engagement, which is generally followed by a long implementation period in which the services are planned in detail and we demonstrate to a client that we can successfully integrate our processes and resources with their operations. During this time a contract is also negotiated. Before or after entering into a definitive contract with a client, we may run a pilot program that may or may not be successful. There is then a long ramping up period in order to commence providing the services. We typically incur significant business development expenses during the selling cycle and may experience misalignment with the client on the magnitude of investment. Misalignment may occur when the client does not have prior experience with the type and scope of services that we are offering. At the end of this selling cycle, we may not succeed in winning a new client’s business due to a variety of factors, including changes in the client’s decision to move forward with our services, in which case we receive no revenues and may receive no reimbursement for such expenses. A potential client may choose a competitor or decide to perform the work in-house prior to the time a final contract is signed. Our clients may also experience delays in obtaining internal approvals or delays associated with technology or system implementations, thereby further lengthening the implementation cycle. If we enter into a contract with a client, we will typically receive no revenues until implementation actually begins. If we are not successful in obtaining contractual commitments after the selling cycle, in maintaining contractual commitments after the implementation cycle or in maintaining or reducing the duration of unprofitable initial periods in our contracts, our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows may be adversely affected.
The inelasticity of our labor costs relative to short-term movements in client demand could adversely affect our business, financial condition and financial performance.
Our business depends on maintaining large numbers of team members to service our clients’ business needs and on being able to quickly respond to new client programs or new programs for existing clients. As a result, and consistent with our caring culture, we try where possible not to terminate team members in response to temporary declines in demand when existing projects end or when clients terminate services. Moreover, rehiring and retraining team members at a later date could force us to incur additional expenses and we may not be able to do so in a timely manner. Additionally, any termination of our team members could also have a negative impact on our hiring and recruitment efforts and the morale of the remaining team members and could involve the incurrence of significant additional costs in the form of severance payments to comply with labor regulations in the various jurisdictions in which we operate, all of which would have an adverse impact on our operating profit margins. Furthermore, we are subject to a variety of legal requirements related to the termination of team members in the countries and cities where we operate. These factors limit our ability to adjust our labor costs for unexpected changes in client demand, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and financial performance, particularly if demand for our services fails to meet the levels we anticipate. See “—Our growth prospects are dependent upon attracting and retaining enough qualified team members to support our operations, as competition for highly skilled personnel is intense, and failure to do so may result in an adverse impact on our business and financial results”.
Team member wage increases in certain geographies may prevent us from sustaining our competitive advantage and may reduce our profit margin.
Our most significant costs are the salaries and related benefits of our team members. Our wage costs in India, the Philippines, Romania, El Salvador, Guatemala and Bulgaria have historically been significantly lower than wage costs in the United States, Canada and other parts of Europe for comparably skilled professionals, which has been one of our competitive advantages. As economic growth increases in the countries where we benefit from lower wage costs, concurrent with increased demand by us and our competitors for skilled employees, wages for comparably skilled employees are increasing at a faster rate than in the United States, Canada and other parts of Europe, which may, over time, reduce this competitive advantage. Similarly, inflationary pressures could drive up wage costs in certain areas where we currently have team members, which may also
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reduce this competitive advantage. In connection with potential future growth and inflation, we may need to increase the levels of team member compensation more rapidly than in the past to remain competitive in attracting and retaining the quality and number of team members that our business requires. To the extent that we are not able to control or share wage increases with our clients, wage increases may reduce our margins and cash flows. We may not be successful in our attempts to control such costs.
Our policies, procedures and programs to safeguard the health, safety and security of our team members and others may not be adequate.
We have undertaken to implement what we believe to be the best practices to safeguard the health, safety and security of our team members, independent contractors, clients and others at our worksites. If these policies, procedures and programs are not adequate, or team members do not receive related adequate training or do not follow these policies, procedures and programs for any reason, the consequences may be harmful to us, which could impair our operations and cause us to incur significant legal liability or fines as well as reputational damage and negatively impact the engagement of our team members. Our insurance may not cover, or may be insufficient to cover, any legal liability or fines that we incur for health, safety or security incidents.
Our senior management team is critical to our continued success and the loss of one or more members of our senior management team could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
Our future success substantially depends on the continued services and performance of the members of our senior management team, and other key team members possessing technical and business capabilities, including industry expertise, that are difficult to replace. Specifically, the loss of the services of one or more members our executive leadership team, without immediate and suitable successors, could seriously impair our ability to continue to manage and expand our business. There is intense competition for experienced senior management and personnel with technical and industry expertise in the industry in which we operate, and we may not be able to retain these members of our senior management team or other key team members. Although we have entered into employment and non-competition agreements with all of our executive officers, certain terms of those agreements may not be enforceable and, in any event, these agreements do not ensure the continued service of these executive officers. Further, although we have engaged in succession planning for our senior management team, we may not successfully implement those plans.
In addition, we currently do not maintain “key person” insurance covering any member of our management team. The loss of any of our key team members, particularly to competitors, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
If more stringent labor laws become applicable to us, if we are subject to more employment-related litigation, if our team members unionize, if our team members strike or cause other labor-related disruptions, or if more of our team members become part of workers councils, our business and financial results may be adversely affected.
Some of the geographies where we operate have stringent employee-friendly labor legislation, including legislation that sets forth detailed procedures for dispute resolution and employee separations that impose financial obligations on employers. Therefore, in some countries, it may be difficult for us to maintain flexible human resource policies and dismiss team members when there is a business need, and our compensation and/or legal expenses may increase significantly. Additionally, in certain of the states and regions in which we operate, we are subject to stringent wage and hour requirements, which has exposed us, and we expect will continue to expose us, to claims brought by individual team members and team member groups. Although these claims are not individually or in the aggregate material, we expect to be subject to more such claims in the future.
In addition, some of our team members may form unions, become part of workers councils, or may become subject to collective bargaining agreements. In certain countries, we are subject to laws that could require us to establish a co-determined supervisory board which could subject us to significant additional administrative requirements. As a result, we may be required to raise wage levels or grant other benefits that could result in an increase in our compensation expenses or lack of flexibility, or take on increased costs to address administrative requirements, in which case our financial performance and cash flows may be materially and adversely affected.
Furthermore, strikes by, or labor disputes with, our team members at our delivery locations and independent contractors that we retain may adversely affect our ability to conduct business. Work interruptions or stoppages could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
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We are vulnerable to natural disasters, technical disruptions, pandemics, accidents and other events impacting our facilities that could severely disrupt the normal operation of our business and adversely affect our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
Our delivery locations and our data and voice communications, including in Central America, India, Europe and the Philippines, in particular, may be damaged or disrupted as a result of natural disasters or extreme weather events, including those resulting from or exacerbated by climate change, such as earthquakes, floods, volcano eruptions, heavy rains, winter storms, tsunamis and cyclones; epidemics or pandemics, including the COVID-19 pandemic; technical disruptions and infrastructure breakdowns including damage to, or interruption of, electrical grids, transportation systems, communication systems or telecommunication cables; issues with information technology systems and networks, including computer glitches, software vulnerabilities and electronic viruses or other malicious code; accidents and other events such as fires, floods, failures of fire suppression and detection, heating, ventilation or air conditioning systems or other events, such as protests, riots, labor unrest, security threats and terrorist attacks. Any of these events may lead to the disruption of information systems and telecommunication services for sustained periods and may create delays and inefficiencies in providing services to clients and potentially result in closure of our sites. They also may make it difficult or impossible for team members to reach or work in our business locations. Some locations may not be well-suited to work-from-home approaches to providing client services due to connectivity, infrastructure or other issues. Damage or destruction that interrupts our provision of services could adversely affect our reputation, our relationships with our clients, our leadership team’s ability to administer and supervise our business or may cause us to incur substantial additional expenditures to repair or replace damaged equipment or sites. We also may be liable to our clients for disruption in service resulting from such damage or destruction. Our resiliency and disaster recovery plans may not be adequate to provide continuity and reliability of service during disruptions or reduce the duration and impact of service outages sufficiently or at all. While we currently have commercial liability insurance, our insurance coverage may be insufficient or may not provide coverage at all for certain events. Furthermore, we may be unable to secure such insurance coverage at premiums acceptable to us in the future, or such insurance may become unavailable. Prolonged disruption of our services could also entitle our clients to terminate their contracts with us or require us to pay penalties or damages to our clients. Any of the above factors may materially adversely affect our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
We may choose to expand our operations to additional countries, which carries significant risks, and we may not be successful in maintaining our current profit margins in, or repatriating cash from, our new locations due to factors beyond our control.
We have offices and operations in various countries around the world and provide services to clients globally. An important component of our growth strategy is our continuing international expansion, which depends in part on the availability of the resources we require in order to conduct business in new markets. We continuously evaluate additional locations outside of our current operating geographies in which to invest in delivery locations, in order to maintain an appropriate cost structure for our client programs. We cannot predict the availability of qualified workers, monetary and economic conditions or the existence or extent of government support in other countries. Additionally, we may expand into less developed countries that have less political, social or economic stability and more vulnerable infrastructure and legal systems. Although some of these factors will influence our decision to establish operations in another country, there are inherent risks beyond our knowledge and control, including exposure to currency fluctuations, political and economic instability, unexpected changes in regulatory regimes, foreign exchange restrictions and foreign regulatory restrictions. We may also face difficulties integrating new facilities in different countries into our existing operations. One or more of these factors, or other factors relating to expanded international operations, could affect our ability to repatriate cash, result in increased operating expenses and make it more difficult for us to manage our costs and operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
Our business may not develop in ways that we currently anticipate and demand for our services may be reduced due to negative reaction to offshore / nearshore outsourcing or automation.
We developed our strategy for future growth based on certain assumptions regarding our industry, future demand in the market for our services and the manner in which we would provide these services, including the assumption that a significant portion of the services we offer will continue to be delivered through offshore / nearshore facilities. The trend of transitioning key business processes to offshore / nearshore third parties may not continue and could reverse.
The issue of domestic companies outsourcing services to organizations operating in other countries is a topic of political discussion in the United States, as well as in Europe, countries in the Asia-Pacific region and other regions where we have clients. Some countries and special interest groups have expressed a perspective that associates offshore outsourcing with the loss of jobs in a domestic economy. This has resulted in increased political and media attention to offshore outsourcing,
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especially in the United States. It is possible that there could be a change in the existing laws that would restrict or require disclosure of offshore outsourcing or impose new standards that have the effect of restricting the use of certain visas in the foreign outsourcing context. The measures that have been enacted to date are generally directed at restricting the ability of government agencies to outsource work to offshore business service providers. These measures have not had a significant effect on our business because governmental agencies are not currently a focus of our operations. Some legislative proposals, however, would, for example, require delivery locations to disclose their geographic locations, require notice to individuals whose personal information is disclosed to non-U.S. affiliates or subcontractors, require disclosures of companies’ foreign outsourcing practices, or restrict U.S. private sector companies that have federal government contracts, federal grants or guaranteed loan programs from outsourcing their services to offshore service providers. In addition, changes in laws and regulations concerning the transfer of personal information to other jurisdictions could limit our ability to engage in work that requires us to transfer data in one jurisdiction to another. Potential changes in tax laws may also increase the overall costs of outsourcing or affect the balance of offshore and onshore business services. Such changes could have an adverse impact on the economics of outsourcing for private companies in the United States, which could, in turn, have an adverse impact on our business with U.S. clients.
Similar concerns have also led certain European Union jurisdictions to enact regulations which allow team members who are dismissed as a result of transfer of services, which may include outsourcing to non-European Union companies, to seek compensation either from the company from which they were dismissed or from the company to which the work was transferred. This could discourage European Union companies from outsourcing work offshore and/or could result in increased operating costs for us. In addition, there has been publicity about the negative experiences, such as theft and misappropriation of sensitive customer data of various companies that use offshore outsourcing.
Additionally, we may face negative public reaction to increased automation of or reduction in employment positions through the use of artificial intelligence or the other technologies we use to provide our services, which could reduce the demand for many of our service offerings. Increased negative public perception by public and private companies and related legislative efforts in economies around the world could have adverse impact on the demand for our services.
Terrorist attacks and other acts of violence, including those involving any of the countries in which we or our clients have operations, could lead to or exacerbate an economic recession and pose significant risks to our team members and facilities.
Terrorist attacks and other acts of violence or war may adversely affect worldwide financial markets and could potentially lead to, or exacerbate, an economic recession, which could adversely affect our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows. These events could adversely affect our clients’ levels of business activity and precipitate sudden significant changes in regional and global economic conditions and cycles. These events also pose significant risks to our team members and to our delivery locations and operations around the world. We generally do not have insurance for losses and interruptions caused by terrorist attacks, military conflicts and wars. Any such event could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
If we are not able to manage our resource utilization levels or price our services appropriately, our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows may be adversely affected.
Our profitability is largely a function of the efficiency with which we use our resources, particularly our team members and our delivery locations and the pricing that we are able to obtain for our services. Our resource utilization levels are affected by a number of factors, including our ability to attract, train, and retain team members, transition team members from completed projects to new assignments, forecast demand for our services (including potential client reductions in required resources or terminations) and maintain an appropriate number of team members in each of our delivery locations, as well as our need to dedicate resources to team member training and development. The prices we are able to charge for our services are affected by a number of factors, including price competition, our ability to accurately estimate revenues from client engagements, our ability to estimate resources and other costs for long-term pricing, margins and cash flows for long-term contracts, our clients’ perceptions of our ability to add value through our services, introduction of new services or products by us or our competitors, and general economic and political conditions. Therefore, if we are unable to appropriately price our services or manage our resource utilization levels, there could be a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.

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Our operating results may experience significant variability and, as a result, it may be difficult for us to make accurate financial forecasts and our actual operating results may experience variability, including falling short of our forecasts.
Our growth has not been, and in the future is not expected to be, linear as our period-to-period results have been in the past and may, in the future, fluctuate due to certain factors, including client demand, a long selling cycle, delays or failures by our clients to provide anticipated business, losses or wins of key clients, variations in team member utilization rates resulting from changes in our clients’ operations, delays or difficulties in expanding our delivery locations and infrastructure (including hiring new team members or constructing new delivery locations), capital investment amounts that may be inappropriate if our financial forecasts are inaccurate, changes to our pricing structure or that of our competitors, currency fluctuations, seasonal changes in the operations of our clients, our ability to recruit team members with the right skill set, failure to meet service delivery requirements as a result of technological disruptions, the timing of acquisitions and other events identified in this Annual Report, all of which may significantly impact our results and the accuracy of our forecasts from period to period. For example, the volume of business with some of our clients in our Travel and Hospitality vertical is significantly affected by seasonality, with our revenue typically higher in the third and fourth quarters due to spending patterns of our clients with calendar fiscal years.
Our revenues are also affected by changes in pricing under our contracts at the time of renewal or by pricing under new contracts. In addition, while we seek to forecast the revenue we expect to receive with a client when we enter into a contract, most of our contracts do not commit our clients to provide us with a specific volume of business over a specific period and, therefore, the associated revenue from such a contract could decline, and such forecasts may not prove to be correct. See “—If we are unable to accurately forecast our pricing models or optimize the mix of products and services we provide to meet changing client demands, or if we are unable to adapt to changing pricing and procurement demands of our clients, our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows may be adversely affected”. In addition, our clients are generally able to delay or postpone services for which we have been contracted to provide and, in many cases, terminate existing service contracts with us with limited notice, all of which could adversely impact revenue we expect to generate in any period. The selling cycle for our services and the budget and approval processes of prospective clients make it difficult to predict the timing of for the services we provide to our clients, entering into definitive agreements with new clients. The completion of implementation varies significantly based upon the complexity of the processes being implemented.
As a result, it may be difficult for us to accurately make financial forecasts and our actual operating results may experience variability, including falling short of our forecasts.
Our inability to manage our rapid growth effectively could have an adverse effect on our business and financial results.
Since we were founded in 2005, we have experienced rapid growth and significantly expanded our operations. The number of our team members has increased significantly over the past several years. We expect to develop and improve our internal systems in the locations where we operate in order to address the anticipated continued growth of our business. We are also continuing to look for delivery locations outside of our current operating geographies to decrease the risks of operating from a limited number of countries. We may not, however, be able to effectively manage our infrastructure and team member expansion, open additional delivery locations or hire additional skilled team members as and when they are required to meet the ongoing needs of our clients and to meet our current growth trajectory, and we may not be able to develop and improve our internal systems. We also need to manage cultural differences between our team member populations and that may increase the risk for employment law claims. Our inability to execute our growth strategy, to ensure the continued adequacy of our current systems or to manage our expansion, capital and other resources effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
Our business and financial results have been, and in the future may be, adversely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.
The global outbreak of COVID-19 continues to evolve. The COVID-19 pandemic has spread to nearly all countries around the world, including each of the countries where our delivery locations are located, and has created significant uncertainty and disruption. Governmental measures and regulations, such as city or country-wide lockdowns, local, domestic and international travel restrictions, as well as closures of the enabling infrastructure necessary for our business to operate smoothly, have resulted, and may in the future result, in restrictions on our ability to fully deliver services to our clients. Such measures present concerns that may dramatically affect our ability to conduct our business effectively, including, but not limited to, adverse effects on our team members’ health, a slowdown and often a stoppage of delivery, work, travel and other activities which are critical for maintaining on-going business activities. Our ability to continue operations effectively during the COVID-19 pandemic is dependent on a number of factors, such as the continued availability of high-quality internet bandwidth, an uninterrupted supply of electricity, the sustainability of social infrastructure to enable our team members who are working remotely to continue delivering services, and on otherwise adequate conditions for remote-working, all of which are outside of
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our control. For example, some of the geographies in which our team members work remotely may not be well-suited to work-from-home approaches to providing client services due to connectivity or other issues with the local infrastructure. Additionally, new governmental or other requirements that mandate COVID-19 vaccination of our team members in the jurisdictions where we operate could result in labor disruptions, employee attrition and difficulty in satisfying future labor needs. Additionally, we may be faced with conflicting mandates related to vaccination protocols, which could expose us to sanction from governmental bodies.
The effects of the pandemic have caused our clients to defer decision making, delay planned work, reduce volumes or seek to terminate current agreements with us. Additionally, a number of our clients in our Travel and Hospitality vertical have been and may, in the future, be negatively impacted as a result of the pandemic and the corresponding reduction in demand for their services may negatively affect the revenue we will be generating from those clients. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have had to temporarily close a number of our sites in accordance with government ordinances applicable in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. Closures of sites for such extended periods of time may impact our ability to retain and attract talent, which may have negative impacts on our human resources costs and our profitability.
Given the uncertainty around the severity and duration of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our clients’ businesses and the countries and communities in which we operate, including the effectiveness and availability of adequate supplies of vaccines, vaccination rates in the communities where we operate, possible resurgence of infection rates, the introduction of new variants, spread to communities previously not significantly affected and the changes in the mitigation and protective measures used to combat COVID-19, we cannot reasonably estimate its impact on our future business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
Following guidance from local public health authorities in the countries in which we operate, we have taken various measures to help reduce the spread of the virus and maintain the health and safety of our workforce, including, but not limited to, working with local governments and healthcare officials to supplement vaccination acquisition and roll-out for our team members and their families, maintaining remote-working arrangements and restricting access to sites and implementing other measures to help maintain the safety of our workforce, which allows us to carry out operations. We enabled over 95% of our team members to work from home. For team members who continue to work on TELUS International premises, we have introduced comprehensive safety practices, including, but not limited to, distributing masks and sanitizers, hourly site sanitization in high-traffic areas, thermal screening and daily health questionnaires, discontinued multiple use of workstations and equipment and imposed restrictions on access and movement within our sites to enhance social distancing. The effects of these policies may negatively impact productivity and the magnitude of any effect will depend, in part, on the length and severity of the restrictions and other limitations and on how such measures will affect our ability to conduct our business in the ordinary course. Some of these measures have required us to provide services and operate client processes in a remote environment that is not directly supervised, and while this has been acknowledged by our clients, such alternative operating models may affect the quality of service we are able to provide to our clients. Evolving interpretations of compliance and audit requirements may alter our profitability for clients that utilize flexible work models from home or remote environments.
International and domestic travel bans imposed as emergency measures by governments, our reduced ability to hire new team members, disruptions to our supply chain, lockdowns in geographies where clients are located and temporary closures of our delivery locations have impaired, and may continue to impair our ability to generate new business or expand our relationships with existing clients and, hence, may have a negative impact on our growth, financial condition, results and the future price of our shares.
The increase in remote working may also result in client confidentiality and privacy, IT security and fraud concerns as an at-home workforce introduces increased risks to satisfying our contractual obligations and maintaining the security and privacy of the data we process as the services are being delivered in a physically unsupervised environment and via computer systems and networks outside of our control and management. In addition, as a result of the acquisition of TIAI, we have become subject to the client privacy, IT security and fraud concerns associated with a workforce largely composed of independent contractors who use and rely on their own equipment. An increase in remote working increases our exposure to potential wage and hour claims and related issues.
To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business, financial condition, financial performance and cash flows, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section. Even after the COVID-19 pandemic has moderated and business conditions have eased, we may continue to experience similar adverse effects resulting from long-term changes to the behavior of our clients and a challenging economic environment that may persist.
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We rely on computer hardware, purchased or leased, and software licensed from and services rendered by third parties in order to provide our solutions and run our business and any loss of the right to use, disruption of supply of, or failures of third-party hardware, software or services could have an adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
We rely on computer hardware, purchased or leased, and software licensed from, and services rendered by, third parties in order to provide our solutions and run our business, other than the independent contractors in our data annotation business who generally use their own equipment. Third-party hardware, software and services may not continue to be available on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Licenses for such third-party technologies may be terminated or not renewed, and we may be unable to license such third-party technologies in the future. Any loss of the right to use or any failures of third-party hardware, software or services could result in delays in our ability to provide our solutions or run our business until equivalent hardware, software or services are developed by us or, if available, identified, obtained and integrated, which could be costly and time-consuming and may not result in an equivalent solution, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
We also rely on third-party suppliers to provide equipment and components necessary for our operations. Reliance on such third-party suppliers reduces our control over delivery schedules and quality of equipment and our international third-party suppliers may be subject to adverse economic conditions, all of which may ultimately impact our operations and our ability to effectively deliver services to our clients.
Further, clients could assert claims against us in connection with service disruption and/or cease conducting business with us altogether as a result of problems with the hardware we use to deliver services. Even if not successful, a claim brought against us by any of our clients would likely be time-consuming and costly to defend and could seriously damage our reputation and brand, making it harder for us to sell our solutions, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
We rely upon third-party providers of “cloud” computing services to operate certain aspects of our services and any disruption of or interference with our use of these cloud providers or increase in cost of their services could adversely impact our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
We rely on a limited number of cloud computing providers for a distributed computing infrastructure platform for our business operations, or what is commonly referred to as a “cloud” computing service. We have architected our software and computer systems so as to utilize data processing, storage capabilities and other services provided by these providers. Degradation or disruption of, interference with, or loss of our use of such cloud services may adversely impact our provision of services, and consequently, such events may adversely affect our revenues, reputation, our relationships with our clients, our leadership team’s ability to administer and supervise our business or may cause us to incur substantial additional expenditure to repair or replace damaged equipment or sites. We may also be liable to our clients for such disruptions in services. Prolonged disruption of our services could also entitle our clients to terminate their contracts with us or require us to pay penalties or damages to our clients. As a result of our reliance on these providers, including the complexity that a switch from one cloud provider to another would involve, increases in costs for these services may significantly increase our costs of operations. Additionally, certain of these vendors provide services to us pursuant so such vendors’ contracts with TELUS, and as a result, such services may be subject to interruptions due to factors beyond our control, or may be renegotiated from time to time without our participation on terms we cannot control. Any disruption of or interference with our use of these cloud providers or material changes in the price for such services would adversely impact our operations and our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows may be adversely impacted.
We or our vendors may disrupt our clients’ operations as a result of telecommunications or technology downtime or interruptions, which would have a negative impact on our revenues or reputation and cause us to lose clients.
Our dependence on our offshore / nearshore delivery locations to deliver services requires us to maintain active voice and data communications and transmission among our delivery locations, our international technology hubs and our clients’ offices. Although we maintain redundant facilities and communications links and have business continuity plans in place, disruptions could result from, among other things, technical breakdowns, faulty systems or software, computer glitches, viruses and other malicious software, weather conditions, global pandemics and geopolitical instability. Further, our business continuity plans may not be entirely successful in mitigating the effects of such events. A prolonged interruption, or frequent or persistent interruptions, in the availability of our services could disrupt our clients’ operations and materially harm our reputation and business, especially if we are not able to rapidly transition to an alternative service delivery model using a different delivery location or a different client service team. We also depend on certain significant vendors for facility storage and related maintenance of our main technology equipment and data at those technology hubs, as well as for some of the third-party
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technology and platforms we sometimes use to deliver our services. Any failure by these vendors to perform those services, any temporary or permanent loss of our equipment or systems, or any disruptions to basic infrastructure like power and telecommunications could impede our ability to provide services to our clients, have a negative impact on our revenues or reputation and cause us to lose clients, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
Our business would be adversely affected if the individuals providing data annotation services through TIAI’s crowdsourcing solutions were classified as employees and not as independent contractors.
We generally believe that most individuals who provide their data annotation services through TIAI’s crowdsourcing solution are independent contractors because, among other things, they can choose whether, when, and where to provide services, are free to provide services on competitors’ platforms, and use their own equipment. However, the classification of certain individuals who provide their services through third-party platforms as independent contractors, like TIAI’s independent contractors, is currently being challenged in courts, by legislators and by government agencies in the United States and other countries where our TIAI business uses the services of independent contractors. TIAI has been involved in, and we may continue to be involved in, litigation related to this classification. We may not be successful in defending the independent contractor classification in the jurisdictions where we operate or where such classification is challenged. The costs associated with defending, settling, or resolving any future lawsuits (including demands for arbitration) relating to the independent contractor classification could be material to our business.
Changes to foreign, state, and local laws governing the definition or classification of independent contractors, or judicial decisions regarding independent contractor classification, could require classification of our independent contractors as employees (or workers, quasi-employees or other statuses in jurisdictions where those statuses exist) and/or representation of our crowd members by labor unions. If, as a result of legislation or judicial decisions, we are required to classify all or most of our independent contractors as employees (or as workers, quasi-employees or other statuses in jurisdictions where those statuses exist), we could incur significant additional expenses for compensating independent contractors, potentially including expenses associated with the application of wage and hour laws (including minimum wage, overtime, and meal and rest period requirements), employee benefits, social security contributions, taxes (direct and indirect), and penalties. Further, any such reclassification could require us to change our business model for these services, which could consequently have an adverse effect on our business and financial condition. If any of the foregoing were to occur on a widespread basis, we may not be able to realize the expected value of the acquisition of TIAI and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
We may be unable to successfully identify, complete, integrate and realize the benefits of acquisitions or manage the associated risks, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
A key part of our business strategy is to continue to selectively consider acquisitions or investments, some of which may be material. Through the acquisitions we pursue, we may seek opportunities to expand the scope of our existing services, add new clients or enter new geographic markets. There can be no assurance that we will successfully identify suitable candidates in the future for strategic transactions at acceptable prices or at all, have sufficient capital resources to finance potential acquisitions or be able to consummate any desired transactions. Our failure to complete potential acquisitions in which we have invested or may invest significant time and resources could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
Acquisitions, including completed acquisitions, involve a number of risks, including diversion of management’s attention from operating our business, developing our relationships with key clients and seeking new revenue opportunities, failure to retain key personnel of acquired companies, legal risks and liabilities relating to the acquisition or the acquired entity’s historic operations which may be unknown or undisclosed and for which we may not be indemnified fully or at all. We have made significant acquisitions, including our acquisitions of Lionbridge AI, which forms the majority of our TIAI business, and CCC, which forms part of our TINE business. Our failure to integrate these acquisitions and any future acquisitions that we may complete in a timely manner, and, in the case of our potential acquisitions, our ability to finance the acquisitions on attractive terms or at all, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows. Future acquisitions may also result in the incurrence of indebtedness or the issuance of additional equity securities.
We could also experience financial or other setbacks if transactions encounter unanticipated problems, including problems related to execution, integration or underperformance relative to prior expectations and completion of post-acquisition activities. Post-acquisition activities include the review and alignment of employee cultures, accounting policies, treasury
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policies, corporate policies such as ethics and privacy policies, employee transfers and moves, information systems integration, optimization of service offerings and the establishment of control over new operations. Such activities may not be conducted efficiently and effectively. Our management may not be able to successfully integrate any future acquired business into our operations and culture on our anticipated timeline or at all, or maintain our standards, controls and policies, which could negatively impact the experience of our clients, optimization of our service offerings and control over operations and otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows. Consequently, any acquisition we complete may not result in anticipated or long-term benefits or synergies to us or we may not be able to further develop the acquired business in the manner we anticipated.
Following the completion of acquisitions, we may be required to rely on the seller to provide administrative and other support, including financial reporting and internal controls over financial reporting, and other transition services to the acquired business for a period of time. We may not have experience in working with the sellers of the business we have acquired to obtain the necessary support to operate a newly acquired business. There can be no assurance that the seller will do so in a manner that is acceptable to us.
If we are unable to attract or maintain a critical mass of qualified independent contractors, whether as a result of competition or other factors, the crowdsourcing solution of the TIAI business will become less appealing to our clients, and our financial results would be adversely impacted.
The success of the TIAI business depends significantly on its ability to attract and retain a large number of individuals to serve as annotators in various geographic markets. If individuals choose not to offer their services through the TIAI crowdsourcing solution, or elect to offer them through a competitor’s solution, we may lack a sufficient supply of qualified individuals to service the entirety of our clients’ demand with sufficient speed, scale and quality or at all. To the extent that we are unable to onboard a sufficient number of individuals to provide data annotation services, we may need to increase the incentives that we offer to individuals providing those services in order to maintain sufficient capacity to service our clients, which will increase costs and make our services less competitive or less profitable. In addition, if TIAI’s top clients reduce the volume of services they receive from the TIAI business or otherwise limit, modify or terminate their relationships with us, including as a result of the change of control in TIAI in connection with the acquisition, we may lack sufficient opportunities for our independent contractors to provide annotation services, which may reduce the perceived utility of our solution.
The number of independent contractors on TIAI’s crowdsourcing solution could decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including individuals ceasing to provide their services through the solution, low switching costs between competitor solutions or services, pricing models (including our inability to maintain or increase certain incentives), or other aspects of our business.
If we were to experience the foregoing supply constraints with respect to recruiting or retaining individuals on our solution, we may not be able to realize the expected value of the acquisition of TIAI and our business, financial condition and results of operations would be adversely affected.
We may need to raise additional funds to pursue our growth strategy or continue our operations, and we may be unable to raise capital when needed or on acceptable terms, which could lead us to be unable to expand our business.
From time to time, we may seek additional financing to fund our growth, enhance our technology, respond to competitive pressures or make acquisitions or other investments. We cannot predict the timing or amount of any such capital requirements at this time. General economic, financial or political conditions in our markets may deteriorate or other circumstances may arise, which, in each case, may have a material adverse effect on our cash flows and our business, leading us to seek additional capital. We may be unable to obtain financing on satisfactory terms, or at all. In this case, we may be unable to expand our business at the rate desired, or at all, and our financial performance may suffer. Financing through issuances of equity securities would be dilutive to holders of our shares.
If we are unable to collect our receivables from, or bill our unbilled services to, our clients, our financial performance, financial condition and cash flows could be adversely affected.
Our business depends on our ability to successfully obtain payment from our clients for work performed and to bill and collect on what are usually relatively short cycles. We evaluate the financial condition of our clients and maintain allowances against receivables. We might not accurately assess the creditworthiness of our clients. Actual losses on client balances could differ from those that we currently anticipate and, as a result, we might need to adjust our allowances. Macroeconomic conditions, such as any domestic or global credit crisis or disruption of the global financial system, could also result in financial difficulties for our clients, up to and including insolvency or bankruptcy, as well as limit their access to the credit markets and, as a result,
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could cause clients to delay payments to us, request modifications to their payment arrangements that could increase our receivables balance, or default on their payment obligations to us. We have had clients in the past who have entered into insolvency proceedings and have defaulted on their obligations to us. Timely collection of client balances also depends on our ability to complete our contractual commitments, including delivering on the service level our clients expect, and bill and collect our contracted revenues. If our client is not satisfied with our services or we are otherwise unable to meet our contractual requirements, we might experience delays in the collection of and/or be unable to collect our client balances, and if this occurs, our financial performance, financial condition and cash flows could be adversely affected. In addition, if we experience an increase in the time to bill and collect for our services, our cash flows could be adversely affected.
As a result of becoming a public company in the United States, we are subject to additional regulatory compliance requirements, including Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting.
Effective internal control over financial reporting is necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports. Effective internal controls, together with adequate disclosure controls and procedures, are designed to prevent or detect material misstatement due to fraud or error and to provide reasonable assurance as to the reliability of financial reporting. Deficiencies in our internal controls may adversely affect our management’s ability to record, process, summarize, and report financial data on a timely basis. As a public company, we are required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (Sarbanes-Oxley Act) and applicable Canadian securities laws, including National Instrument 52-109—Certification of Disclosure in Issuers’ Annual and Interim Filings, to include a report of management’s assessment on our internal control over financial reporting and, beginning with our annual report for the year ending December 31, 2021, an independent auditor’s attestation report on our internal control over financial reporting in our annual reports on Form 20-F or Form 40-F, subject to certain exceptions. If we fail to comply with the applicable requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in the required timeframe, we may be subject to sanctions, investigations or other enforcement actions by regulatory authorities, including the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE).
As of December 31, 2021, we have identified material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. Specifically, the Company did not fully design and implement effective controls in response to the risks of material misstatement related to the ongoing integration into our internal control framework of entities acquired by the Company during fiscal year 2020, in particular Lionbridge AI, which was acquired on December 31, 2020, resulting in ineffective control in the financial reporting processes of these recent acquisitions. In response, we have implemented, and continue to implement, measures designed to ensure that the control deficiencies in the newly acquired entities are remediated, such that these controls are designed, implemented, and operating effectively over a sustained period. Management will implement these remediation actions during the fiscal year ending December 31, 2022. We believe that these actions will remediate the material weaknesses described above. The control deficiency will not be considered remediated, however, until the applicable controls operate for a sufficient period of time and management has concluded, through testing, that these controls are operating effectively. In addition, as we implement these remediation efforts, we may determine that additional steps may be necessary to remediate the material weaknesses, or we may identify other material weaknesses or control deficiencies. We cannot provide assurance that these remediation efforts will be successful, that we will not identify new material weaknesses or that our internal control over financial reporting will be effective in accomplishing all control objectives all of the time. If we fail to remediate the material weaknesses or maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting in the future, we may not be able to accurately and timely report on our operating results or financial condition, which could adversely affect investor confidence in our company and the market price of our subordinate voting shares.
We may not be able to realize the entire book value of goodwill and other intangible assets from acquisitions.
We anticipate recording a significant amount of goodwill and intangible assets in connection with our acquisition strategy. For example, the acquisitions of CCC and TIAI have increased our goodwill and intangible assets balances significantly. Our carrying value of goodwill and intangible assets is periodically tested for impairment on an annual basis. We assess our goodwill and intangible assets by comparing the recoverable amounts of our cash generating unit to its carrying value. To the extent that the carrying value exceeds its recoverable amount, the excess amount would be recorded as a reduction in the carrying value of the asset and any remainder would be recorded as a reduction in the carrying value of the assets on a pro-rated basis. In the event that the carrying amount of goodwill or the intangible assets are impaired, any such impairment would be charged to earnings in the period of impairment. Since this involves the use of critical accounting policies and estimates, we cannot assure that future impairment of goodwill or intangible assets will not have a material adverse effect on our financial performance.

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We may incur liabilities for which we are not insured, and may suffer reputational damage in connection with certain claims against us.
We could be sued directly for claims that could be significant, such as claims related to breaches of privacy or network security, infringement of intellectual property rights, violation of wage and hour laws, or systemic discrimination, and our contracts may not fully limit or insulate us from those liabilities. Additionally, in our contracts with our clients, we indemnify our clients for losses they may incur for our failure to deliver services pursuant to the terms of service set forth in such service contracts, and a limited number of our service contracts provide for high or unlimited liability for the benefit of our clients related to damages resulting from breaches of privacy or data security in connection with the provision of our services. Although we have various insurance coverage plans in place, including coverage for general liability, errors or omissions, property damage or loss and information security and privacy liability, that coverage may not continue to be available on reasonable terms or in sufficient amounts to cover one or more claims. The policies may also have exclusions which would limit our ability to recover under them, the limits under the policy may be insufficient, or our insurers may deny coverage following their investigation of a claim. Currently we do not have insurance in place for certain types of claims, such as patent infringement, violation of wage and hour laws, failure to provide equal pay in the United States and our indemnification obligations to our clients based on employment law, because it is either not available or is not economically feasible. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that are excluded from our insurance coverage or exceed available insurance coverage, or changes in our insurance policies (including premium increases, the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements, changes in terms and conditions or outright cancellation or non-renewal of coverage), could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows. Furthermore, the assertion of such claims, whether or not successful, could cause us to incur reputational damage, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
We may not be able to comply with the covenants in our credit agreement, service our debt or obtain additional financing on competitive terms, which could result in a default of our credit agreement.
Our credit agreement contains various restrictive covenants. Our ability to comply with the restrictive covenants in our credit agreement, including the net debt to EBITDA ratio covenant will depend upon our future performance and various other factors, including but not limited to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows, any prolonged recessionary economic environment that may develop and competitive factors, many of which are beyond our control. The credit agreement also contains covenants related to our relationship with TELUS, which are not in our control. We may not be able to maintain compliance with all of these covenants. In that event, we may not be able to access the borrowing availability under our credit agreement and we may need to seek an amendment to our credit agreement or may need to refinance our indebtedness. There can be no assurance that we can obtain future amendments of or waivers under our existing and any future credit agreements and instruments, or refinance borrowings under our credit agreement, and, even if we were able to obtain an amendment or waiver in the future, such relief may only last for a limited period. Any noncompliance by us with the covenants under our credit agreement could result in an event of default thereunder, which may allow the lenders to accelerate payment of the related debt and may result in the acceleration of any other debt to which a cross-acceleration or cross-default provision applies. In the event our creditors accelerate the repayment of our indebtedness, we cannot assure you that we would have sufficient assets to make such repayment.
Our cash flow from operating activities will provide the primary source of funds for our debt service payments. If our cash flow from operating activities declines, we may not be able to service or refinance our current debt, which could adversely affect our business and financial condition. Our credit facility exposes us to changes in interest rates. We currently hedge a portion of our variable rate interest exposure but such hedging activities may not be successful in mitigating the risk of increasing interest rates, which may increase our debt service payments.
In preparing our financial statements, we make certain assumptions, judgments and estimates that affect amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements, which, if not accurate, may significantly impact our financial results.
In preparing our financial statements, we make certain assumptions, judgments and estimates that affect amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements, which, if not accurate, may significantly impact our financial results. We make assumptions, judgments and estimates for a number of items, including those listed in “Item 11—Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk”. These assumptions, judgments and estimates are drawn from historical experience and various other factors that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances as at the date of the consolidated financial statements. Actual results could differ materially from our estimates, and such differences could significantly impact our financial results.

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Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates could harm our financial performance.
Our primary operating currency is the U.S. dollar, but we also generate revenue and incur expenses in other currencies, including the euro, the Philippine peso and the Canadian dollar. As we expand our operations to new countries, our exposure to fluctuations in these currencies may increase and we may incur expenses in other currencies. There may be fluctuations in currency exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and other currencies we transact in which may adversely impact our financial results.
Our financial performance could be adversely affected over time by certain movements in exchange rates, particularly if currencies in which we incur expenses appreciate against the U.S. dollar or if the currencies in which we receive revenues depreciate against the U.S. dollar. Although we take steps to hedge a portion of our foreign currency exposures, there is no assurance that our hedging strategy will be successful or that the hedging markets will have sufficient liquidity or depth for us to implement our strategy in a cost-effective manner. In addition, in some countries such as India and China, we are subject to legal restrictions on hedging activities, as well as convertibility of currencies, which could limit our ability to use cash generated in one country to invest in another and could limit our ability to hedge our exposures. Finally, our hedging policies only provide near term protection from exchange rate fluctuations. If currencies in which we incur expenses appreciate against the U.S. dollar, we may have to consider additional means of maintaining profitability, including by increasing pricing or reducing costs, which may or may not be achievable.
Our financial condition could be negatively affected if countries reduce or withdraw tax benefits and other incentives currently provided to companies within our industry or if we are no longer eligible for these benefits.
TELUS International operates in various jurisdictions including Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Denmark, El Salvador, Finland, France, Germany, Guatemala, India, Ireland, Japan, Latvia, the Philippines, Poland, Republic of Korea, Romania, Singapore, Slovakia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States, which increases our exposures to multiple forms of taxation. Our tax expense and cash tax liability in the future could be adversely affected by various factors, including, but not limited to, changes in tax laws (including tax rates and the potential introduction of global minimum taxes), regulations, accounting principles or interpretations, the potential adverse outcome of tax examinations and international tax complexity and compliance. Changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, which may result from a decline in our profitability or changes in tax rates or legislation, could have a material adverse effect on our tax expense.
Our subsidiaries file tax returns and pay taxes in the various jurisdictions in which they are resident and carry on their business activities. Our tax expense and cash tax liability (including interest and penalties) could be adversely affected if a country were to successfully argue that any of our subsidiaries is resident in, or carries on business in, a country that is different from any jurisdiction in which it files its tax returns and pays taxes.
Certain cross-border payments may be subject to withholding taxes in the jurisdiction of the payer. Our tax expense and cash tax liability (including interest and penalties) could be adversely affected if a country were to successfully argue that any cross-border payments by our subsidiaries are subject to withholding tax in a manner or at a rate that differs from any amounts actually withheld in respect of any applicable withholding taxes. In addition, our tax expense and cash tax liability (including interest and penalties) could be adversely affected if a country were to successfully dispute the quantum and timing of any deduction related to any cross-border payment.
Certain of our delivery locations in India, which were established in Special Economic Zones (SEZ), are eligible for tax incentives that are expected to be phased out commencing 2024 through 2034. These delivery locations are eligible for a 100% income tax exemption for the first five years of operation and a 50% exemption for a period of up to ten years thereafter if certain conditions are met. Minimum tax is paid on income subject to the SEZ incentives which generates credits that can be carried forward for 15 years to be applied against taxes payable on regular income taxed at regular rates.
As our SEZ legislation benefits are being phased out, our Indian tax expense may materially increase and our after-tax profitability may be materially reduced, unless we can obtain comparable benefits under new legislation or otherwise reduce our tax liability. Minimum taxes imposed on the exempt income may increase our tax expense in future years if the minimum tax credits cannot be fully utilized during the carryover period.
We also benefit from corporate tax incentives for our Philippine delivery locations. These incentives are administered by the Philippine Economic Zone Authority (PEZA) and initially provide a four-year tax exemption for each PEZA registered location, followed by a preferential tax rate of 5% of gross profit. The PEZA incentive regime yields an average effective tax rate of less than 10% of pre-tax income with the rate determined by how many of the PEZA registered locations were in the
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exemption period during the year. The Corporate Recovery and Tax Incentives for Enterprises (CREATE) Act, signed into law in March 2021, grandfathers existing incentives but limits the 5% tax on gross profit period to 10 years. CREATE established a new incentive program with similar benefits including an income tax exemption period followed by either the 5% preferential tax on gross profit or the proposed regular corporate tax rate of 25% but with enhanced tax deductions.
Our operations in El Salvador benefit from a favorable tax exemption. Failure to qualify for the favorable tax regime in El Salvador (including as a result of its repeal) could result in income generated from centers in El Salvador being taxed at the prevailing annual tax rate of 30%.
Beginning in 2021, our US subsidiaries are subject to the base erosion and anti-abuse tax (BEAT) which was enacted in 2017 as a part of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. The BEAT is a minimum tax that applies to the extent that a taxpayer’s BEAT liability exceeds the regular tax liability. BEAT liability is calculated as modified taxable income (MTI) which is essentially regular taxable income calculated without the deduction for base erosion payments, multiplied by the BEAT rate (10% for taxable years before 2026 and 12.5% thereafter). Base erosion payments principally consist of any amount paid or accrued by the taxpayer to a “foreign related party” and for which a tax deduction is allowed. Our US subsidiaries make substantial service payments to their non-U.S. affiliates (most of which are characterized as “base erosion payments”) and as such incur a significant BEAT liability. However, the United States Internal Revenue Service (IRS) could disagree with our calculation of the BEAT liability or the interpretations on which those calculations are based including which payments are treated as base erosion payments and assess additional taxes, interest and penalties.

Canada, together with approximately 140 other countries comprising the OECD/G20 Inclusive Framework on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS), approved in principle in 2021 model Global Anti-Base Erosion Rules. These proposals introduced a form of 15% global minimum tax which is intended to be effective in 2023. Similar proposals were introduced by the European Commission in December 2021. These proposals, together with related changes to domestic laws and tax treaties, may result in an increase to our effective tax rate in certain jurisdictions.
As a result of the foregoing, our overall effective tax rate may increase in future years and such increase may be material and may have an adverse impact on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
If tax authorities were to successfully challenge the transfer pricing of our cross-border intercompany transactions, our tax liability may be different.
We have cross-border transactions among our subsidiaries in relation to various aspects of our business, including operations, financing, marketing, sales and delivery functions. Canadian transfer pricing regulations, as well as regulations applicable in other countries in which we operate, require that any cross-border transaction involving associated enterprises be on arm’s-length terms and conditions. We view the cross-border transactions entered into by our subsidiaries to be in accordance with the relevant transfer pricing laws and regulations. If, however, a tax authority in any jurisdiction successfully challenges our position and asserts that the terms and conditions of such cross-border transactions are not on arm’s-length terms and conditions, or that other income of our affiliates should be taxed in that jurisdiction, our tax liability, including accrued interest and penalties, may be different, which could cause our tax expense to be different, possibly materially, thereby changing our profitability and cash flows, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our financial performance, effective tax rate and financial condition.
Tax legislation and the results of actions by taxing authorities may have an adverse effect on our operations and our overall tax rate.
The Government of Canada or governing bodies in other jurisdictions where we have a presence could enact new tax legislation which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows. In addition, our ability to repatriate surplus earnings from our delivery locations in a tax-efficient manner is dependent upon interpretations of local laws, possible changes in such laws and the renegotiation of existing bilateral tax treaties. Changes to any of these may adversely affect our overall tax rate, or the cost of our services to our clients, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
Certain income of our non-Canadian subsidiaries may be taxable in Canada, and if the Canadian tax authorities were to successfully dispute the quantum of such income, our tax expense and tax liability may increase.
Certain income of our non-Canadian subsidiaries that is passive in nature or that has a particular connection to Canada may be taxable in Canada under the “foreign affiliate property income” (FAPI) regime in the Income Tax Act (Canada). Our tax expense and cash tax liability (including interest and penalties) could be adversely affected if the Canadian tax authorities were
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to successfully dispute the quantum of any FAPI earned by our non-Canadian subsidiaries, thereby adversely affecting our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
We and our clients are subject to laws and regulations globally, which increases the difficulty of compliance and may involve significant costs and risks. Any failure to comply with applicable legal and regulatory requirements could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
The jurisdictions where we operate, as well as our contracts, require us to comply with or facilitate our clients’ compliance with numerous, complex and sometimes conflicting legal regimes, both domestically and internationally. These laws and regulations relate to a number of aspects of our business, including anti-corruption, internal and disclosure control obligations, data privacy and protection, wage-and-hour standards, employment and labor relations, trade protections and restrictions, import and export control, tariffs, taxation, sanctions, data and transaction processing security, payment card industry data security standards, records management, user-generated content hosted on websites we operate, privacy practices, data residency, corporate governance, anti-trust and competition, team member and third-party complaints, telemarketing regulations, telephone consumer regulations, government affairs and other regulatory requirements affecting trade and investment. Our clients are located around the world, and the laws and regulations that apply include, among others, U.S. federal laws and regulations such as the Fair Credit Reporting Act, Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, Telephone Consumer Protection Act, Telemarketing Sales Rule, state laws on third-party administration services, utilization review services, data privacy and protection telemarketing services or state laws on debt collection in the U.S., collectively enforced by numerous federal and state government agencies and attorneys general, as well as similar consumer protection laws in other countries in which our clients’ customers are based. Failure to perform our services in a manner that complies with any such requirements could result in breaches of contracts with our clients. The application of these laws and regulations to our clients is often unclear and may at times conflict. The global nature of our operations increases the difficulty of compliance. For example, in many foreign countries, particularly in those with developing economies, it is common to engage in business practices that are prohibited by regulations applicable to us or our clients, including Canada’s Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act and the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. We cannot provide assurance that our clients will not take actions in violation of our internal policies or Canadian or United States laws. For example, payment card industry and HIPAA guidance is evolving in light of the increase in remote-working conditions globally, and thus there exists uncertainty over the additional cost and ability to comply with such evolving standards. Compliance with these laws and regulations may involve significant costs, consume significant time and resources or require changes in our business practices that result in reduced revenue and profitability. We may also face burdensome and expensive governmental investigations or enforcement actions regarding our compliance, including being subject to significant fines. Non-compliance could also result in fines, damages, criminal sanctions against us, our officers or our team members, prohibitions on the conduct of our business, and damage to our reputation, restrictions on our ability to process information, allegations by our clients that we have not performed our contractual obligations or other unintended consequences. In addition, we are required under various laws to obtain and maintain accreditations, permits and/or licenses for the conduct of our business in all jurisdictions in which we have operations and, in some cases, where our clients receive our services, including the United States, Canada and Europe. If we do not maintain our accreditations, licenses or other qualifications to provide our services or if we do not adapt to changes in legislation or regulation, we may have to cease operations in the relevant jurisdictions and may not be able to provide services to existing clients or be able to attract new clients. Our failure to comply with applicable legal and regulatory requirements could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
We are subject to economic, political and other risks of doing business globally and in emerging markets.
We are a global business with a substantial majority of our assets and operations located outside Canada and the United States. In addition, our business strategies may involve expanding or developing our business in emerging market regions, including Europe and Asia-Pacific. Due to the international nature of our business, we are exposed to various risks of international operations, including:
adverse trade policies or trade barriers;
inflation, hyperinflation and adverse economic effects resulting from governmental attempts to control inflation, such as the imposition of wage and price controls and higher interest rates;
difficulties in enforcing agreements or judgments and collecting receivables in foreign jurisdictions;
exchange controls or other currency restrictions and limitations on the movement of funds, such as on the remittance of dividends by subsidiaries;
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inadequate infrastructure and logistics challenges;
sovereign risk and the risk of government intervention, including through expropriation, or regulation of the economy;
challenges in maintaining an effective internal control environment with operations in multiple international locations, including language and cultural differences, expertise in international locations and multiple financial information systems;
concerns relating to the protection and security of our personnel and assets; and
labor disruptions, civil unrest, significant political instability, wars or other armed conflict.
These risks may impede our strategy by limiting the countries and regions in which we are able to expand. The impacts of these risks may also only materialize after we have begun preparations and made investments to provide services in this new country or region. The exposure to these risks may require us to incur additional costs to mitigate the impact of these risks on our business.
Additionally, there continues to be a great deal of uncertainty regarding U.S. and global trade policies for companies with multinational operations like ours, and trade policies may change in a manner that disrupts our operations or otherwise negatively affects our business, financial condition and results of operations. In recent years, there has been an increase in populism and nationalism in various countries around the world and, consequently, historical free trade principles are being challenged. For example, the U.S. government has at times indicated its intent to adopt a new approach to trade policy and, in some cases, to renegotiate, or potentially terminate, certain existing bilateral or multi-lateral trade agreements. As we continue to operate our business globally, our success will depend, in part, on the nature and extent of any such changes and how well we are able to anticipate, respond to and effectively manage any such changes.
Finally, international trade and political disputes can adversely affect the operations of multinational corporations like ours by limiting or disrupting trade and business activity between countries or regions. For example, we may be required to limit or halt operations, terminate client relationships or forego profitable client opportunities in countries which may, in the future, be subject to sanctions or other restrictions on business activity by corporations such as ours, by U.S. or Canadian legislation, executive order or otherwise. Some of our clients have been targeted by and may, in the future, be subject to such sanctions. Additionally, failure to resolve the trade dispute between the countries may also lead to unexpected operating difficulties in certain countries, including enhanced regulatory scrutiny, greater difficulty transferring funds or negative currency impacts.
All the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and prospects.
Some of our contractual arrangements with our clients require us to deliver a minimum quality of service, and our failure to meet those quality standards could adversely impact our business or subject us to liability or penalties.
Most of our agreements with clients contain service level and performance requirements, including requirements relating to the quality of our services. The services we provide are often critical to our clients’ businesses, and any failure to consistently provide those services in accordance with contractual specifications, whether as a result of errors made by our team members or otherwise, could disrupt the client’s business and result in harm to our reputation, reduction of the likelihood that our clients recommend us to others, an obligation for us to pay penalties to the client under the contract, a reduction in revenues or a claim for substantial damages against us, regardless of whether we are responsible for that failure.If we fail to meet our contractual obligations or otherwise breach obligations to our clients or vendors, we could be subject to legal liability.
We may enter into non-standard agreements because we perceive an important economic opportunity by doing so or because our personnel did not adequately adhere to our guidelines for the entry into contracts with new or existing clients. In addition, with respect to our client contracts, the contracting practices of our competitors may cause contract terms and conditions that are unfavorable to us to become standard in the marketplace. If we cannot or do not perform our obligations with clients or vendors, we could face legal liability and our contracts might not always protect us adequately through limitations on the scope and/or amount of our potential liability. If we cannot, or do not, meet our contractual obligations to provide solutions and services to clients, and if our exposure is not adequately limited through the enforceable terms of our agreements, we might face significant legal liability and our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected. Similarly, if we cannot, or do not, meet our contractual obligations with vendors,
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such as licensors, the vendors may have the right to terminate the contract, in which case we may not be able to provide clients solutions and services dependent on the products or services provided to us by such contracts.
The unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential client and customer data, through cyberattacks or otherwise, could expose us to protracted and costly litigation, damage our reputation and cause us to lose clients.
We are typically required to process, and sometimes collect and/or store sensitive data, including, but not limited to, personal data regulated by the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), The Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), the California Invasion of Privacy Act, Personal Data Protection Bill of 2018, and the Data Privacy Act of 2012, of our clients’ end customers in connection with our services, including names, addresses, social security numbers, personal health information, credit card account numbers, checking and savings account numbers and payment history records, such as account closures and returned checks. In addition, we collect and store data regarding our team members. As a result, we are subject to various data protection laws and regulations (as described above), and other industry-specific regulations and privacy laws and standards in the countries in which we operate, including the GDPR, the CCPA, the HIPAA, the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act and the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard, and the failure to comply with such laws could result in significant fines and penalties. The legislative and regulatory frameworks for privacy issues is constantly evolving in many countries where we operate and are likely to remain uncertain and dynamic for the foreseeable future. Legislators and regulators in numerous jurisdictions are increasingly adopting new privacy, information security and data protection guidance, laws and regulations, and compliance with current or future privacy, information security and data protection laws and regulations could result in higher compliance, technology or operating costs. The interpretation and application of such laws is often unclear or unsettled, and such laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner inconsistent with our current policies and practices, which may require changes to the features of our company’s platform or prohibit certain of our operations in certain jurisdictions. In addition, certain jurisdictions have adopted laws and regulations that restrict the transfer of data belonging to residents outside of their country. These laws and regulations could limit our ability to transfer such data to the locations in which we conduct operations, which would place limitations on our ability to operate our business.
Many jurisdictions, including all U.S. states, have enacted laws requiring companies to notify individuals and authorities of security breaches involving certain types of personal information. In addition, our agreements with our clients may obligate us to investigate and notify our clients of, and provide cooperation to our clients with respect to, such breaches. Many of our agreements with our clients do not include any limitation on our liability to them with respect to breaches of our obligation to keep the information we receive from them confidential. A failure to comply with these notification requirements could expose us to liability.
In the European Union, the GDPR went into effect in May 2018. The GDPR supersedes European Union member states’ national protection laws and imposes privacy and data security compliance obligations and increased penalties for noncompliance. In particular, the GDPR has introduced numerous privacy-related changes for companies operating within and outside the European Union, including greater control for, and rights granted to, data subjects, increased data portability for European Union consumers, data breach notification requirements, restrictions on automated decision-making and increased fines. GDPR enforcement has begun, and companies have faced fines for violations of certain provisions. Fines can reach as high as 4% of a company’s annual total revenue, potentially including the revenue of a company’s international affiliates. Additionally, foreign governments outside of the European Union are also taking steps to fortify their data privacy laws and regulations. For example, Brazil, India, the Philippines as well as some countries in Central America and Asia-Pacific and some U.S. states, have implemented or are considering GDPR-like data protection laws which could impact our engagements with clients (existing and potential), vendors and team members in those countries. The GDPR and the introduction of similar legislation in other jurisdictions increases the cost of regulatory compliance and increases the risk of non-compliance therewith, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
Although our network security and the authentication of our customer credentials are designed to protect against unauthorized disclosure, alteration and destruction of, and access to, data on our networks, it is impossible for such security measures to be perfectly effective. There can be no assurance that such measures will function as expected or will be sufficient to protect our network infrastructure against certain attacks, and there can be no assurance that such measures will successfully prevent or mitigate service interruptions or further security incidents. All network infrastructure is vulnerable to rapidly evolving cyber-attacks, and our user data and corporate systems and security measures may be breached due to the actions of outside parties (including malicious cyberattacks), team member error, malfeasance, internal bad actors, a combination of these, or otherwise. A breach may allow an unauthorized party to obtain access to or exfiltrate our data or our users’ or clients’ data. Additionally, outside parties may attempt to fraudulently induce team members, users or clients to install malicious software, disclose sensitive information or access credentials, or take other actions that may provide access to our data or our users’ or clients’ data. Because modern networking and computing environments are increasing in complexity and techniques used to
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obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service or sabotage systems change frequently, increase in sophistication over time or may be designed to remain dormant until a predetermined event and often are not recognized until launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or implement adequate preventative measures. If an actual or perceived breach of our security occurs (or a breach of a client’s security that can be attributed to our fault or is perceived to be our fault), the market perception of the effectiveness of our security measures could be harmed and we could lose users and clients. Security breaches also expose us to a risk of loss of this information, class action or other litigation brought both by clients and by individuals whose information was compromised, remediation costs, increased costs for security measures, loss of revenue, damage to our reputation, and potential liability.
While we believe our team members undergo appropriate training, if any person, including any of our team members, negligently disregards or intentionally breaches controls or procedures with which we are responsible for complying with respect to such data or otherwise mismanages or misappropriates that data, or if unauthorized access to or disclosure of data in our possession or control occurs, we could be subject to significant liability to our clients or our clients’ customers for breaching contractual confidentiality and security provisions or for permitting access to personal information subject to privacy laws, as well as liability and penalties in connection with any violation of applicable privacy laws or criminal prosecution. Unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential client or team member data, whether through breach of computer systems, systems failure, team member negligence, fraud or misappropriation, or otherwise, could damage our reputation and cause us to lose clients and result in liability to individuals whose information was compromised. Similarly, unauthorized access to or through our information systems and networks or those we develop or manage for our clients, whether by our team members or third parties, could result in negative publicity, damage to our reputation, loss of clients or business, class action or other litigation, costly regulatory investigations and other potential liability.
In addition, certain third parties to whom we outsource certain of our services or functions, or with whom we interface, store our information assets or our clients’ confidential information, as well as those third parties’ providers, are also subject to the risks outlined above. Although we generally require our vendors to hold sufficient liability insurance and provide indemnification for any liability resulting from the vendor’s breach of the services agreement, a breach or attack affecting these third parties, any delays in our awareness of the occurrence of such breach or attack, and our or third parties’ inability to promptly remedy such a breach or attack, could also harm our reputation, business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows, and could subject us to liability for damages to our clients and their customers. Failure to select third parties that have robust cybersecurity and privacy capabilities may also jeopardize our ability to attract new clients, who may factor their assessment of risks associated with such third parties in their decision.
Cyber-attacks penetrating the network security of our data centers or any unauthorized disclosure or access to confidential information and data of our clients or their end customers could also have a negative impact on our reputation and client confidence, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
Our team members, contractors, consultants or other associated parties may behave in contravention of our internal policies or laws and regulations applicable to us, or otherwise act unethically or illegally, which could harm our reputation or subject us to liability.
We have implemented and expect to implement a number of internal policies, including a code of ethics and conduct and policies related to security, privacy, respectful behavior in the workplace, anti-bribery and anti-corruption, security, localized labor and employment regulations, health and safety and securities trading in order to promote and enforce ethical conduct and compliance with laws and regulations applicable to us. Compliance with these policies requires awareness and understanding of the policies and any changes therein by the parties to whom they apply. We may fail to effectively or timely communicate internal policies or changes therein to our team members, contractors, consultants or other associates, and such persons may otherwise fail to follow our policies for reasons beyond our control. We are exposed to the risk that our team members, independent contractors, consultants or other associates may engage in activity that is unethical, illegal or otherwise contravenes our internal policies or the laws and regulations applicable to us, whether intentionally, recklessly or negligently. It may not always be possible to identify and deter misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may be ineffective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to comply with these laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including harm to our reputation and the imposition of significant fines or other sanctions, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our client relationships, business, financial condition and financial performance.

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Our content moderation team members may suffer adverse effects in the course of performing their work. Although the wellness and resiliency programs we offer are designed to support the physical and mental well-being of our team members, there may be occasions where our wellness and resiliency programs do not sufficiently mitigate these effects, given the pace of change in the content to be moderated, changes in regulations, shifts in recommended approaches to address these effects and other influences on this type of work . Our failure to mitigate these effects could adversely affect our ability to attract and retain team members and could result in increased costs.
Our content moderation team members are tasked with reviewing discriminatory, threatening, offensive, illegal or otherwise inappropriate multimedia content. Reviewing this content is emotionally and cognitively challenging for many of our team members, which may result in our team members suffering adverse psychological or emotional consequences. In addition, the wellness and resiliency programs that we provide to support our content moderators may not keep pace with the rapidly changing content required to be moderated or may otherwise be ineffective in mitigating any effects of content moderation on our team members. These impacts could lead to higher expenses to support our team members, higher levels of voluntary attrition and increased difficulty retaining and attracting team members. If we are not able to effectively attract and retain content moderation team members, we may experience a decline in our ability to meet our clients’ expectations, which may adversely impact the demand for our services.
Additionally, we may be required under applicable law to provide accommodations for team members who experience or who assert they are experiencing mental health consequences. These accommodations could result in increased costs and reductions in the availability of team members who can perform these tasks, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results. Our content moderation team members may also make claims under workers’ compensation programs or other public or private insurance programs in connection with negative mental health consequences experienced in connection with their employment, which could result in increased costs. We may also be exposed to claims by team members under applicable labor and other laws. Such litigation, whether or not ultimately successful, could involve significant legal fees and result in costly remediation, including payments for psychological treatment and ongoing monitoring, preventative intervention and treatment costs, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial results. While we have taken meaningful measures to ensure the well-being of our team members, these measures may not be sufficient to mitigate the effects on team members or our potential liability under applicable law.
Our business could be materially and adversely affected if we do not protect our intellectual property or if our services are found to infringe on the intellectual property of others.
Our success depends in part on certain methodologies, practices, tools and technical expertise we utilize in providing our services. We engage in designing, developing, implementing and maintaining applications and other proprietary materials. In order to protect our rights in these various materials, we may seek protection under trade secret, patent, copyright and trademark laws. We also generally enter into confidentiality and nondisclosure agreements with our clients and potential clients, and third-party vendors, and seek to limit access to and distribution of our proprietary information. For our team members and independent contractors, we require confidentiality and proprietary information agreements. These measures may not prevent misappropriation or infringement of our intellectual property or proprietary information and a resulting loss of competitive advantage. Additionally, we may not be successful in obtaining or maintaining trademarks for which we have applied.
We may be unable to protect our intellectual property and proprietary technology or brand effectively, which may allow competitors to duplicate our technology and products and may adversely affect our ability to compete with them. Given our international operations, the laws, rules, regulations and treaties in effect in the jurisdictions in which we operate, the contractual and other protective measures we take may not be adequate to protect us from misappropriation or unauthorized use of our intellectual property, or from the risk that such laws could change. To the extent that we do not protect our intellectual property effectively, other parties, including former team members, with knowledge of our intellectual property may leave and seek to exploit our intellectual property for their own or others’ advantage. We may not be able to detect unauthorized use and take appropriate steps to enforce our rights, and any such steps may not be successful. Infringement by others of our intellectual property, including the costs of enforcing our intellectual property rights, may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
In addition, competitors or others may allege that our systems, processes, marketing, data usage or technologies infringe on their intellectual property rights. Non-practicing entities may also bring baseless, but nonetheless costly to defend, infringement claims. We could be required to indemnify our clients if they are sued by a third party for intellectual property infringement arising from materials that we have provided to the clients in connection with our services and deliverables. We may not be successful in defending against such intellectual property claims or in obtaining licenses or an agreement to resolve any intellectual property disputes. Given the complex, rapidly changing and competitive technological and business environment in which we operate, and the potential risks and uncertainties of intellectual property-related litigation, we cannot
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provide assurances that a future assertion of an infringement claim against us or our clients will not cause us to alter our business practices, lose significant revenues, incur significant license, royalty or technology development expenses, or pay significant monetary damages or legal fees and costs. Any such claim for intellectual property infringement may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
We may be subject to litigation and other disputes, which could result in significant liabilities and adversely impact our financial results.
From time to time, we are subject to lawsuits, arbitration proceedings, and other claims brought or threatened against us in the ordinary course of business. These actions and proceedings may involve claims for, among other things, compensation for personal injury, workers’ compensation, employment discrimination, wage and hour and other employment-related damages, damages related to breaches of privacy or data security, breach of contract, property damage, liquidated damages, consequential damages, punitive damages and civil penalties or other losses, or injunctive or declaratory relief. In addition, we may also be subject to actions by state governments, class action lawsuits, including those alleging violations of the Fair Labor Standards Act, state and municipal wage and hour laws, or the laws applicable to the classification of independent contractors.
Due to the inherent uncertainties of litigation and other dispute resolution proceedings, we cannot accurately predict their ultimate outcome. The outcome of litigation, particularly class action lawsuits, is difficult to assess or quantify. Class action lawsuits may seek recovery of very large or indeterminate amounts. Accordingly, the magnitude of the potential loss may remain unknown for substantial periods of time. These proceedings could result in substantial cost and may require us to devote substantial resources to defend ourselves. The ultimate resolution of any litigation or proceeding through settlement, mediation, or a judgment could have a material impact on our reputation and adversely affect our financial performance and financial position.
Risks Related to Our Relationship with TELUS
TELUS and its directors and officers have limited liability to us and could engage in business activities that could be adverse to our interests and negatively affect our business.
TELUS and its directors and officers have no legal obligation to refrain from engaging in the same or similar business activities or lines of business as we do or from doing business with any of our clients. Any such activities could be adverse to our interests and could negatively affect our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
Potential indemnification liabilities to TELUS pursuant to various intercompany agreements could materially and adversely affect our businesses, financial condition, financial performance and cash flows.
The agreements between us and TELUS, among other things, provide for indemnification obligations designed to make us financially responsible for substantially all liabilities that may exist relating to our business activities. If we are required to indemnify TELUS under the circumstances set forth in the agreements we enter into with TELUS, we may be subject to substantial liabilities. Please refer to “Item 7B—Related Party Transactions—Our Relationship with TELUS”.
Certain of our executive officers and directors may have actual or potential conflicts of interest.
Certain of our executive officers and directors may have relationships with third parties that could create, or appear to create, potential conflicts of interest. Our executive officers and directors who are executive officers and directors of our significant shareholders could have, or could appear to have, conflicts of interests such as where our significant shareholders are required to make decisions that could have implications for both them and us. See “Management”.
We may have received better terms from unaffiliated third parties than the terms we will receive in our agreements with TELUS.
We entered into a number of agreements with TELUS, including the TELUS MSA, the transition and shared services agreement and the master reseller agreement. These agreements were negotiated by us with TELUS and may not reflect terms that would have been agreed to in an arm’s-length negotiation between unaffiliated third parties. For more information on the agreements we have entered into, or will enter into, please refer to the section entitled “Item 7B—Related Party Transactions”.

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Risks Related to Our Subordinate Voting Shares
The dual-class structure contained in our articles has the effect of concentrating voting control with TELUS , which impacts our ability to influence corporate matters that are subject to a shareholder vote.
We have two classes of shares outstanding: multiple voting shares and subordinate voting shares. Our multiple voting shares have ten votes per share and our subordinate voting shares have one vote per share. TELUS and Baring are the only shareholders who hold the multiple voting shares. As of the date hereof, TELUS has approximately 70.9% of the combined voting power of our outstanding shares and Baring has approximately 25.9% of the combined voting power of our outstanding shares.
As a result of the dual-class share structure, TELUS controls a majority of the combined voting power of our shares and therefore is able to control all matters submitted to our shareholders for approval until such date that TELUS sells its multiple voting shares, chooses to voluntarily convert them into subordinate voting shares or it retains less than 10% of our outstanding shares on a combined basis, which would result in the automatic conversion of its remaining multiple voting shares into subordinate voting shares. This concentrated control limits or precludes your ability to influence corporate matters for the foreseeable future, including the election of directors, amendments of our organizational documents and any merger, consolidation, sale of all or substantially all of our assets or other major corporate transaction requiring shareholder approval. The voting control may also prevent or discourage unsolicited acquisition proposals that you may feel are in your best interest as one of our shareholders. Future transfers by holders of multiple voting shares, other than permitted transfers to such holders’ respective affiliates or to other permitted transferees, will result in those shares automatically converting to subordinate voting shares, which will have the effect, over time, of increasing the relative voting power of those holders of multiple voting shares who retain their multiple voting shares. For additional information, see “Item 10B—Memorandum and Articles of Association”.
In addition, because of the ten to one voting ratio between our multiple voting shares and subordinate voting shares, the holders of our multiple voting shares will continue to control a majority of the combined voting power of our outstanding shares even where the multiple voting shares represent a substantially reduced percentage of our total outstanding shares. The concentrated voting control of holders of our multiple voting shares will limit the ability of our subordinate voting shareholders to influence corporate matters for the foreseeable future, including the election of directors as well as with respect to decisions regarding amending of our share capital, creating and issuing additional classes of shares, making significant acquisitions, selling significant assets or parts of our business, merging with other companies and undertaking other significant transactions. As a result, holders of multiple voting shares will have the ability to influence or control many matters affecting us and actions may be taken that our subordinate voting shareholders may not view as beneficial. The market price of our subordinate voting shares could be adversely affected due to the significant influence and voting power of the holders of multiple voting shares. Additionally, the significant voting interest of holders of multiple voting shares may discourage transactions involving a change of control, including transactions in which an investor, as a holder of the subordinate voting shares, might otherwise receive a premium for the subordinate voting shares over the then-current market price, or discourage competing proposals if a going private transaction is proposed by one or more holders of multiple voting shares.
Even if TELUS were to control less than a majority of the voting power of our outstanding shares, it may be able to influence the outcome of such corporate actions due to the director appointment rights and special shareholder rights we granted to TELUS in our shareholders’ agreement. See “—TELUS will, for the foreseeable future, control the direction of our business, and the concentrated ownership of our outstanding shares and our entry into a shareholders’ agreement with TELUS will prevent you and other shareholders from influencing significant decisions”.
TELUS will, for the foreseeable future, have the ability to control the direction of our business, and the concentrated ownership of our outstanding shares and our shareholders’ agreement with TELUS will prevent you and other shareholders from influencing significant decisions.
We entered into a shareholders’ agreement with TELUS and Baring providing for certain director nomination rights for TELUS and Baring and providing for a number of special shareholder rights for TELUS. Under the terms of the shareholders’ agreement, we agreed to nominate individuals designated by TELUS as directors representing a majority of the board for as long as TELUS continues to beneficially own at least 50% of the combined voting power of our outstanding multiple voting shares and subordinate voting shares. Should TELUS cease to own at least 50% of the combined voting power of our outstanding multiple voting shares and subordinate voting shares, we have agreed to nominate to our board such number of individuals designated by TELUS in proportion to its combined voting power, for so long as TELUS continues to beneficially own at least 5% of combined voting power of our outstanding multiple voting shares and subordinate voting shares, subject to a minimum of at least one director. The shareholders’ agreement also provides for appointment and observer rights for Baring. In addition, the shareholders’ agreement provides that: (1) for so long as TELUS continues to beneficially own at least 50% of the
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combined voting power of our multiple voting shares and subordinate voting shares, TELUS will be entitled, but not obligated, to select the chair of the board and the chairs of the human resources and governance and nominating committees; and (2) for so long as TELUS has the right to designate a nominee to our board of directors, it will also be entitled, but not obligated, to designate at least one nominee to the human resources and governance and nominating committees and one nominee for our appointment to our audit committee; provided that such audit committee nominee will be independent), subject to compliance with the independence requirements of applicable securities laws and listing requirements of the NYSE and the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX). The shareholders’ agreement also provides for committee appointment rights for Baring. For more information on these director nomination rights, see “Item 7B—Related Party Transactions—Our Relationship with TELUS and Baring—Shareholders’ Agreement”.
As of the date hereof, TELUS has approximately 70.9% of the combined voting power of our outstanding shares. Pursuant to the shareholders’ agreement, Baring has agreed not to, directly or indirectly, sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of any multiple voting shares or subordinate voting shares without first discussing in good faith any such sale transaction with TELUS and providing TELUS with a right to purchase such shares. Should such right of first offer be provided and exercised, the combined voting power of our outstanding shares held by TELUS may increase further. As long as TELUS controls at least 50% of the combined voting power of our outstanding shares, it will generally be able to determine the outcome of all corporate actions requiring shareholder approval, including the election and removal of directors. Even if TELUS were to control less than 50% of the combined voting power of our outstanding shares, it will be able to influence the outcome of such corporate actions due to the director appointment rights and special shareholder rights we have granted to TELUS as part of the shareholders’ agreement.
In addition, pursuant to the shareholders’ agreement, until TELUS ceases to hold at least 50% of the combined voting power of our outstanding shares, TELUS will have special shareholder rights related to certain matters including, among others, approving the selection, and the ability to direct the removal, of our CEO, approving the increase or decrease of the size of our board, approving the issuance of multiple voting shares and subordinate voting shares, approving amendments to our articles and authorizing entering into a change of control transaction, disposing of all or substantially all of our assets, and commencing liquidation, dissolution or voluntary bankruptcy or insolvency proceedings. As a result, certain actions that our board would customarily decide will require consideration and approval by TELUS and our ability to take such actions may be delayed or prevented, including actions that our other shareholders, including you, may consider favorable. We will not be able to terminate or amend the shareholders’ agreement, except in accordance with its terms. See “Item 7B—Related Party Transactions—Our Relationship with TELUS and Baring—Shareholders’ Agreement”. We also entered into a Collaboration and Financial Reporting Agreement with TELUS that, among other things, specifies that certain matters or actions we take require advance review and consultation with TELUS. The agreement also stipulates certain actions that require TELUS International board approval. See “Item 7B—Related Party Transactions—Collaboration and Financial Reporting Agreement”.
TELUS’ interests may not be the same as, or may conflict with, the interests of our other shareholders. Holders of our subordinate voting shares will not be able to affect the outcome of any shareholder vote while TELUS controls the majority of the combined voting power of our outstanding shares and TELUS will also be able to exert significant influence over our board through its director nomination rights.
As TELUS’ interests may differ from ours or from those of our other shareholders, actions that TELUS takes with respect to us, as our controlling shareholder and pursuant to its rights under the shareholders’ agreement, may not be favorable to us or our other shareholders. TELUS has indicated that it intends to remain our controlling shareholder for the foreseeable future.
Our dual-class structure may render our subordinate voting shares ineligible for inclusion in certain stock market indices, and thus adversely affect the trading price and liquidity of our subordinate voting shares.
We cannot predict whether our dual-class structure will result in a lower or more volatile market price of our subordinate voting shares, in negative publicity or other adverse consequences. Certain index providers have announced restrictions on including companies with multi-class share structures in certain of their indices. For example, S&P Dow Jones has changed its eligibility criteria for inclusion of shares of public companies on the S&P 500, S&P MidCap 400 and S&P SmallCap 600, which together make up the S&P Composite 1500, to exclude companies with multiple classes of shares. As a result, our dual-class structure may prevent the inclusion of our subordinate voting shares in such indices, and mutual funds, exchange-traded funds and other investment vehicles that attempt to passively track these indices will not be able to invest in our subordinate voting shares, each of which could adversely affect the trading price and liquidity of our subordinate voting shares. In addition, several shareholder advisory firms have announced their opposition to the use of multiple class structure and our dual-class structure may cause shareholder advisory firms to publish negative commentary about our corporate governance, in which case the market price and liquidity of the subordinate voting shares could be adversely affected.
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We are a controlled company within the meaning of the listing requirements of the NYSE and, as a result, we rely on exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements; you will not have the same protections afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to such requirements.
TELUS controls a majority of the combined voting power in our company, which means we qualify as a controlled company within the meaning of the corporate governance standards of the NYSE. We have elected to be treated as a controlled company. Under these rules, we have elected not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements, including the requirements that:
our board of directors is composed of a majority of independent directors, as defined under the NYSE listing requirements;
our human resources committee is composed entirely of independent directors; and
our nominating and governance committee is composed entirely of independent directors.
As a result, our board of directors is not composed of a majority of independent directors. Although our audit committee is composed entirely of independent directors, we do not expect that our human resources and governance and nominating committees will be composed entirely of independent directors for the foreseeable future.
If TELUS sells a controlling interest in us to a third party in a private transaction, we may become subject to the control of a presently unknown third party.
TELUS owns a controlling interest in our company. TELUS has the ability, should it choose to do so, to sell its controlling interest in us in a privately negotiated transaction, which, if sufficient in size, could result in a change of control of our company. Such a transaction could occur without triggering the rights under the Coattail Agreement (as defined in “Item 10B—Memorandum and Articles of Association—Certain Important Provisions of our Articles and the BCBCA—Take-Over Bid Protection”) and may occur even if the multiple voting shares are converted into subordinate voting shares.
If TELUS privately sells its controlling interest in our company, we may become subject to the control of a presently unknown third party. Such third party may have conflicts of interest with those of other shareholders. In addition, if TELUS sells a controlling interest in our Company to a third party, our future indebtedness may be subject to acceleration and our other commercial agreements and relationships could be impacted, all of which may adversely affect our ability to run our business as described herein and may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows.
As a foreign private issuer, we are not subject to certain U.S. securities law disclosure requirements that apply to a domestic U.S. issuer, which may limit the information publicly available to our shareholders.
As a foreign private issuer we are not required to comply with all of the periodic disclosure and current reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and therefore there may be less publicly available information about us than if we were a U.S. domestic issuer. For example, we are not subject to the proxy rules in the United States and disclosure with respect to our annual meetings is governed by Canadian requirements. In addition, our officers, directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and short-swing profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act and the rules thereunder. Therefore, our shareholders may not know on a timely basis when our officers, directors and principal shareholders purchase or sell our securities.
We are exempt from Regulation FD, which prohibits issuers from making selective disclosures of material non-public information. While we comply with the corresponding requirements relating to proxy statements and disclosure of material non-public information under Canadian securities laws, these requirements differ from those under the Exchange Act and Regulation FD, and holders of our subordinate voting shares should not expect to receive the same information at the same time as such information is provided by U.S. domestic companies. Additionally, we have four months after the end of each fiscal year to file our annual report with the SEC and are not required under the Exchange Act to file or furnish quarterly reports with the SEC as promptly as U.S. domestic companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act.
Additionally, as a foreign private issuer, we are not required to file or furnish quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and financial performance. We intend to continue to submit, on a quarterly basis, interim financial data to the SEC under cover of the SEC’s Form 6-K. Furthermore, as a foreign private issuer, we intend to continue to take advantage of
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certain provisions in the NYSE listing requirements that allow us to follow Canadian law for certain governance matters. See “Item 16G—Corporate Governance”.
Our operating results and share price may be volatile, and the market price of our subordinate voting shares may drop below the price you pay.
Our quarterly operating results are likely to fluctuate in the future in response to numerous factors, many of which are beyond our control, including each of the risks set forth in this section. In addition, securities markets worldwide have experienced, and are likely to continue to experience, significant price and volume fluctuations. This market volatility, as well as general natural, economic, market or political conditions, could subject the market price of our subordinate voting shares to price fluctuations regardless of our operating performance. Our operating results and the trading price of our subordinate voting shares may fluctuate in response to various factors, including the risks described above.
These and other factors, many of which are beyond our control, may cause our operating results and the market price and demand for our subordinate voting shares to fluctuate substantially. Fluctuations in our quarterly operating results could limit or prevent investors from readily selling their subordinate voting shares and may otherwise negatively affect the market price and liquidity of subordinate voting shares. In addition, in the past, when the market price of a stock has been volatile, holders of that stock have sometimes instituted securities class action litigation against the company that issued the shares. If any of our shareholders brought a lawsuit against us, we could incur substantial costs defending the lawsuit. Such a lawsuit could also divert the time and attention of our management from our business, which could significantly harm our profitability and reputation. We may also decide to settle lawsuits on unfavorable terms. Furthermore, during the course of litigation, there could be negative public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments, which could have a negative effect on the market price of our subordinate voting shares.
The market price of our subordinate voting shares may be affected by low trading volume.
The relatively low trading volume of our subordinate voting shares may limit your ability to sell your shares. Although our subordinate voting shares are listed for trading on the NYSE and the TSX, the trading volume has not been significant. Additionally, a large percentage of our share capital currently consists of multiple voting shares, which are not listed for trading on an exchange. Reported average daily trading volume in our subordinate voting shares in 2021 has been approximately 69,132 subordinate voting shares on the NYSE and 112,896 subordinate voting shares on the TSX. Limited trading volume subjects our subordinate voting shares to greater price volatility in response to news in the market and may make it difficult for you to sell your subordinate voting shares at a price that is attractive to you. Low volume can also reduce liquidity, which could adversely affect the market price of our subordinate voting shares. In addition, in the past, when the market price of a security has been volatile, holders of that security have instituted securities class action litigation against the company that issued the security. If our shareholders brought a lawsuit against us, we could incur substantial costs defending the lawsuit. Such a lawsuit could also divert the time and attention of our management from our business, which could adversely affect our profitability and reputation.
Future sales, or the perception of future sales, by us or our shareholders in the public market could cause the market price for our subordinate voting shares to decline.
Sales of a substantial number of our subordinate voting shares in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of subordinate voting shares, including TELUS or Baring as holders of our multiple voting shares that are convertible into subordinate voting shares, intend to sell, could reduce the market price of our subordinate voting shares.
We have no current plans to pay regular cash dividends on our shares and, as a result, you may not receive any return on investment unless you sell your shares for a price greater than that which you paid for it.
We do not anticipate paying any regular cash dividends on our shares for the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our financial performance, financial condition, cash requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. In addition, our ability to pay dividends is, and may be, limited by covenants of existing and any future outstanding indebtedness we or our subsidiaries incur. Therefore, any return on investment in our shares is solely dependent upon the appreciation of the price of our shares on the open market, which may not occur. See “Item 8A—Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Dividend Policy” for more detail.
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Our articles, and certain Canadian legislation contain provisions that may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control, limit attempts by our shareholders to replace or remove our current directors and affect the market price of our subordinate voting shares.
Certain provisions of our articles, together or separately, could discourage potential acquisition proposals, delay or prevent a change in control and limit the price that certain investors may be willing to pay for our subordinate voting shares. For instance, our articles contain provisions that establish certain advance notice procedures for nomination of candidates for election as directors at shareholders’ meetings. A non-Canadian must file an application for review with the minister responsible for the Investment Canada Act and obtain approval of the Minister prior to acquiring control of a “Canadian business” within the meaning of the Investment Canada Act, where prescribed financial thresholds are exceeded. Furthermore, limitations on the ability to acquire and hold our subordinate voting shares and multiple voting shares may be imposed by the Competition Act (Canada). This legislation permits the Commissioner of Competition to review any acquisition or establishment, directly or indirectly, including through the acquisition of shares, of control over or of a significant interest in us. Otherwise, there are no limitations either under the laws of Canada or British Columbia, or in our articles on the rights of non-Canadians to hold or vote our subordinate voting shares and multiple voting shares. Any of these provisions may discourage a potential acquirer from proposing or completing a transaction that may have otherwise presented a premium to our shareholders. See “Item 10B—Memorandum and Articles of Association—Certain Important Provisions of Our Articles and the BCBCA”.
Because we are a corporation incorporated in British Columbia and some of our directors and officers are residents of Canada, it may be difficult for investors in the United States to enforce civil liabilities against us based solely upon the federal securities laws of the United States. Similarly, it may be difficult for Canadian investors to enforce civil liabilities against our directors and officers residing outside of Canada.
We are a corporation incorporated under the laws of the Province of British Columbia with our principal place of business in Vancouver, Canada. Some of our directors and officers and the auditors named herein are residents of Canada and all or a substantial portion of our assets and those of such persons are located outside the United States. Consequently, it may be difficult for U.S. investors to effect service of process within the United States upon us or our directors or officers or such auditors who are not residents of the United States, or to realize in the United States upon judgments of courts of the United States predicated upon civil liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (Securities Act). Investors should not assume that Canadian courts: (1) would enforce judgments of U.S. courts obtained in actions against us or such persons predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the U.S. federal securities laws or the securities or blue sky laws of any state within the United States or (2) would enforce, in original actions, liabilities against us or such persons predicated upon the U.S. federal securities laws or any such state securities or blue sky laws.
Similarly, some of our directors and officers are residents of countries other than Canada and the assets of such persons may be located outside of Canada. As a result, it may be difficult for Canadian investors to initiate a lawsuit within Canada against these non-Canadian residents, and it may be difficult to realize upon or enforce in Canada any judgment of a court of Canada against these non-Canadian residents since a substantial portion of the assets of such persons may be located outside of Canada. In addition, it may not be possible for Canadian investors to collect from these non-Canadian residents on judgments obtained in courts in Canada predicated on the civil liability provisions of securities legislation of certain of the provinces and territories of Canada. It may also be difficult for Canadian investors to succeed in a lawsuit in the United States, based solely on violations of Canadian securities laws.
There could be adverse tax consequences for our shareholders in the United States if we are a passive foreign investment company.
Based on the Company’s income, assets and business activities, the Company does not believe that it was a “passive foreign investment company” (a “PFIC”) for its 2021 taxable year and the Company expects that it will not be classified as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes for its current taxable year or in the near future. The determination of PFIC status is made annually at the end of each taxable year and is dependent upon a number of factors, some of which are beyond the Company’s control, including the relative values of the Company’s assets and its subsidiaries, and the amount and type of their income. As a result, there can be no assurance that the Company will not be a PFIC in 2022 or any subsequent year or that the IRS will agree with the Company’s conclusion regarding its PFIC status and would not successfully challenge our position. If we are a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. person holds our subordinate voting shares, such U.S. person may suffer certain adverse federal income tax consequences, including the treatment of gains realized on the sale of subordinate voting shares as ordinary income, rather than as capital gain, the loss of the preferential rate applicable to dividends received on subordinate voting shares by individuals who are U.S. persons, the addition of interest charges to the tax on such gains and certain distributions and increased U.S. federal income tax reporting requirements. If, contrary to current expectations, we were a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes, certain elections (such as a mark-to-market election or qualified electing fund election)
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may be available to U.S. shareholders that may mitigate some of these adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences. United States purchasers of our subordinate voting shares are urged to consult their tax advisors concerning United States federal income tax consequences of holding our subordinate voting shares if we are considered to be a PFIC. See the discussion under “Item 10E—U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations for U.S. Persons—PFIC Rules”.
Our articles provide that any derivative actions, actions relating to breach of fiduciary duties and other matters relating to our internal affairs will be required to be litigated in Canada or the United States, as the case may be, which could limit your ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us
Our articles include a forum selection provision that provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Supreme Court of British Columbia, Canada and the appellate courts therefrom, will be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (ii) any action or proceeding asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, or other employees to us; (iii) any action or proceeding asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Business Corporations Act (British Columbia) (BCBCA) or our articles; or (iv) any action or proceeding asserting a claim otherwise related to the relationships among us, our affiliates and their respective shareholders, directors and/or officers, but excluding claims related to our business or such affiliates. The forum selection provision also provides that our security holders are deemed to have consented to personal jurisdiction in the Province of British Columbia and to service of process on their counsel in any foreign action initiated in violation of the foregoing provisions. This forum selection provision does not apply to any causes of action arising under the Securities Act, or the Exchange Act. The Securities Act provides that both federal and state courts have concurrent jurisdiction over suits brought to enforce any duty or liability under the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder, and the Exchange Act provides that federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction over suits brought to enforce any duty or liability under the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. Unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (or, if the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York lacks subject matter jurisdiction over a particular dispute, the state courts in New York County, New York) shall be the sole and exclusive forum for resolving any complaint filed in the United States asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act. Investors cannot waive, and accepting or consenting to this forum selection provision does not represent a waiver of compliance with U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. See “Item 10B—Memorandum and Articles of Association—Certain Important Provisions of our Articles and the BCBCA—Forum Selection”.
The enforceability of similar forum selection provisions in other companies’ organizational documents, however, has been challenged in legal proceedings in the United States, and it is possible that a court could find this type of provision to be inapplicable, unenforceable, or inconsistent with other documents that are relevant to the filing of such lawsuits. If a court were to find the forum selection provision in our articles to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions. If upheld, the forum selection provision may impose additional litigation costs on shareholders in pursuing any such claims. Additionally, the forum selection provision, if upheld, may limit our shareholders’ ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that they find favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees, which may discourage the filing of lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and employees, even though an action, if successful, might benefit our shareholders. The courts of the Province of British Columbia and the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York may also reach different judgments or results than would other courts, including courts where a shareholder considering an action may be located or would otherwise choose to bring the action, and such judgments may be more or less favorable to us than to our shareholders.
TELUS International (Cda) Inc. is a holding company and, as such, it depends on its subsidiaries for cash to fund its operations and expenses, including future dividend payments, if any.
As a holding company, our principal source of cash flow is distributions from our operating subsidiaries. Therefore, our ability to fund and conduct our business, service our debt and pay dividends, if any, in the future will principally depend on the ability of our subsidiaries to generate sufficient cash flow to make upstream cash distributions to us. Our subsidiaries are separate legal entities, and although they are wholly-owned and controlled by us, they have no obligation to make any funds available to us, whether in the form of loans, dividends or otherwise. Claims of any creditors of our subsidiaries generally will have priority as to the assets of such subsidiary over our claims and claims of our creditors and shareholders. To the extent the ability of our subsidiaries to distribute dividends or other payments to us is limited in any way, our ability to fund and conduct our business, service our debt and pay dividends, if any, could be harmed.

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If securities or industry analysts cease publishing research or reports about us, our business or our market, or if they change their recommendations regarding our subordinate voting shares, the price and trading volume of our subordinate voting shares could decline.
The trading market for our subordinate voting shares is influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us, our business, our market and our competitors. If any of the analysts who cover us or may cover us in the future change their recommendation regarding our subordinate voting shares adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, the price of our subordinate voting shares could decline. If any analyst who covers us or may cover us in the future were to cease coverage of our company, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause the price or trading volume of our subordinate voting shares to decline.
Our organizational documents permit us to issue an unlimited number of subordinate voting shares, multiple voting shares and preferred shares without seeking approval of the holders of subordinate voting shares.
Our articles permit us to issue an unlimited number of subordinate voting shares, multiple voting shares and preferred shares. We anticipate that we may, from time to time, issue additional subordinate voting shares in the future in connection with acquisitions or to raise capital for general corporate or other purposes.
We may, from time to time, issue subordinate voting shares in the future to fund acquisitions to grow our business. Subject to the requirements of the NYSE and the TSX, we are not required to obtain the approval of the holders of subordinate voting shares for the issuance of additional subordinate voting shares. Although the rules of the TSX generally prohibit us from issuing additional multiple voting shares, there may be, with the approval of TELUS, certain circumstances where additional multiple voting shares may be issued, including with applicable regulatory, stock exchange and shareholder approval. Any further issuances of subordinate voting shares or multiple voting shares will result in immediate dilution to existing shareholders and may have an adverse effect on the value of their shareholdings. Additionally, any further issuances of multiple voting shares will significantly lessen the combined voting power of our subordinate voting shares due to the ten-to-one (10-to-1) voting ratio between our multiple voting shares and subordinate voting shares. TELUS and Baring, as holders of our multiple voting shares, may also elect at any time or, in certain circumstances be required to convert their multiple voting shares into subordinate voting shares, which would increase the number of subordinate voting shares. See “Item 7B—Related Party Transactions”.
Our articles also permit us to issue an unlimited number of preferred shares, issuable in series and, subject to the requirements of the BCBCA, having such designations, rights, privileges, restrictions and conditions, including dividend and voting rights, as our board of directors may determine and which may be superior to those of the subordinate voting shares. The issuance of preferred shares could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of the Company and might adversely affect the market price of our subordinate shares. We have no current or immediate plans to issue any preferred shares. Subject to the provisions of the BCBCA and the applicable requirements of the NYSE and the TSX, we are not required to obtain the approval of the holders of subordinate voting shares for the issuance of preferred shares or to determine the maximum number of shares of each series, create an identifying name for each series and attach such special rights or restrictions as our board of directors may determine. See “Item 10B—Memorandum and Articles of Association”.
ITEM 4    INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY
A.History and Development of the Company
TELUS International (Cda) Inc. was incorporated under the BCBCA on January 2, 2016. We directly or indirectly own 100% of all of our operating subsidiaries. Our delivery locations, from where team members serve our clients, are operated from subsidiaries located in the relevant jurisdiction. Our subordinate voting shares began trading on the NYSE and the TSX on February 3, 2021, under the symbol “TIXT”.
Our headquarters and principal executive offices are located at Floor 7, 510 West Georgia Street, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6B 0M3 and our telephone number is (604) 695 3455. Our website address is www.telusinternational.com. The information on or accessible through our website is not part of and is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report, and the inclusion of our website address in this Annual Report is an inactive textual reference only.
We are subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act and are required to file or furnish, as applicable, reports and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding registrants that make electronic filings with the SEC using its EDGAR system.
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B.Business Overview
We are a leading customer experience innovator that designs, builds and delivers high-tech, high-touch next-generation solutions, including artificial intelligence (AI) and content moderation, for global and disruptive brands. Our services support the full lifecycle of our clients’ digital transformation journeys and enable them to more quickly embrace next-generation technologies to deliver better business outcomes. We work with our clients to shape their vision and strategies, design scalable processes and identify opportunities for innovation and growth. We bring to bear expertise in advanced technologies and processes, as well as a deep understanding of the challenges faced by all of our clients, including some of the largest global brands, when engaging with their customers. Our customer-centric approach underpins everything we do. We believe customer experience delivered by empathetic, highly skilled and engaged teams is key to providing a high-quality brand experience to customers. Over the last 17 years, we have built extensive, end-to-end capabilities with a mix of industry and technology expertise to support our clients in their customer experience and digital-enablement transformations.
Technology is rapidly transforming the way businesses interact with their customers. The proliferation of mobile devices, social media platforms and other methods of digital interaction has enabled customers to access information 24/7 and engage with companies through multiple channels. These technologies have simultaneously empowered customers and raised their expectations. To meet modern customer expectations, companies must provide an experience that is not only personalized and empathetic, but also consistent and integrated across omnichannel touchpoints. To quickly capture, evaluate and adapt to customer feedback on a global scale, companies need people with expertise in advanced analytics, artificial intelligence, machine learning and data analysis, together with leading technologies to deliver optimal omnichannel customer experiences. We believe few service providers have the combination of people, capabilities and technology to help companies address the entire spectrum of designing, building and delivering integrated end-to-end customer experience systems that we do.
Our solutions and services are relevant across multiple markets, including IT services for digital transformation of customer experience systems (DX), digital customer experience management (DCXM), AI data solutions and content moderation. We believe our extensive and integrated capabilities across DX, DCXM and AI data solutions position us to uniquely address our clients’ needs and objectives. We lead our clients through a consultative approach that accelerates their adoption of advanced technologies to deploy and deliver innovative solutions. We have the right combination of people, capabilities and technology to help companies address a broad spectrum of designing, building and delivering integrated end-to-end customer experience systems. Our service lines of customer experience management (CXM), content moderation, AI data solutions and digital IT services include services and solutions that span the design, build and deliver framework.
We have built an agile delivery model with global scale to support next-generation, digitally-led customer experiences. Substantially all of our delivery locations are connected through a carrier-grade infrastructure backed by cloud technologies, enabling globally distributed and virtualized teams. The interconnectedness of our teams and ability to seamlessly shift interactions between physical and digital channels enables us to tailor our delivery strategy to clients’ evolving needs. As at December 31, 2021, we have over 62,000 team members, located in 53 delivery locations across 28 countries. Our delivery locations are strategically selected based on a number of factors, including access to diverse, skilled talent, proximity to clients and ability to deliver our services over multiple time zones and in multiple languages. Through the COVID-19 pandemic, we enabled over 95% of our team members to work from home, while continuing to meet our clients’ quality and security expectations and providing even more flexibility to enable our customer needs. We have established a presence in key global markets, which supply us with qualified, cutting-edge technology talent and have been recognized as an employer of choice in many of these markets.
Our clients include companies that believe customer experience is critical to their success. We seek to work with disruptive companies and leaders in their respective sectors. We have built long-tenured relationships with these companies within our core targeted industry verticals, including Tech and Games, eCommerce and FinTech, Communications and Media, Healthcare and Travel and Hospitality.
Our relationship with TELUS, our second largest client and controlling shareholder, has been instrumental to our success. TELUS provides significant revenue visibility, stability and growth, as well as strategic partnership with respect to co-innovation within the communications vertical, customer service excellence focus and an internationally recognized social purpose impact. Our TELUS MSA provides for a term of ten years beginning in January 2021 and a minimum annual volume of service of $200 million, subject to adjustment in accordance with its terms. For more information, see “Item 7B—Related Party Transactions—Our Relationship with TELUS—Master Services Agreement”. In fiscal 2021, 2020, and 2019, revenue from TELUS represented approximately 16.1%, 19.6% and 26.2% of our revenue, respectively. Our largest client for the fiscal years 2021, a leading social media company, accounted for approximately 17.7% and 15.6% of our revenue for fiscal years 2021 and 2020, respectively. Our third largest client, Google, accounted for approximately 11.0%, 7.5% and 12.2% of our
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revenue for the fiscal years 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. In fiscal 2021, our top ten clients represented approximately 61% of our revenue, as compared to 62% in 2020 and 67% in 2019.
We have a unique and differentiated culture that places people and a shared set of values at the forefront of everything we do. We have carefully cultivated our caring culture over the last 17 years by ensuring full cultural alignment with the individuals we choose to join our team, the clients we choose to work with and the manner in which we have built and run our business. We have a unique approach to attracting, developing and retaining team members, which underpins a framework that we refer to as our Culture Value Chain (CVC). Our CVC establishes a direct link between a strong corporate culture and the ability to drive higher team member engagement and retention, ultimately leading to superior services and better outcomes for our clients and their customers. We are committed to diversity and inclusion across our entire organization, which supports our vision, values, culture and strategy.
For the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, our revenues were $2,194 million, $1,582 million and $1,020 million, respectively, reflecting a compound annual growth rate of 47% over this period; net income was $78 million, $103 million and $69 million, respectively; Adjusted Net Income was $267 million, $160 million and $82 million, respectively. and Adjusted EBITDA was $540 million, $391 million and $226 million. We believe we have a strong financial profile and execution track record. Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EBITDA are non-GAAP financial measures and are not standardized financial measures under GAAP and might not be comparable to similar financial measures disclosed by other issuers. See “Item 5—Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Non-GAAP Financial Measures and Non-GAAP Ratios” for a reconciliation of these measures to net income, the most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP.
Our Company
Our Unique Heritage. TELUS International was born out of an intense focus on customer service excellence, continuous improvement and a values-driven culture under the ownership of TELUS. TELUS is a leading communications and information technology company in Canada, with over 17 million customer connections spanning wireless, data, IP, voice, television, entertainment, video and security. They provide a wide range of products, healthcare and agriculture software and technology solutions and digitally-led customer experiences, as well as related equipment. TELUS’ long-standing commitment to putting customers first fuels every aspect of its business, including its focus on customer service excellence and customer loyalty as supported by TELUS International. This is evidenced by a postpaid wireless churn rate that was below 1% for the seventh consecutive year in 2020 and among the lowest compared to its global peers. Embedded in TELUS’ culture is a customer-first mindset, a world-class approach to corporate governance and operating discipline and a social purpose focused on leveraging technology to enable remarkable human outcomes. TELUS has been recognized for its excellence in customer satisfaction, workplace best practices and community volunteerism.
At the forefront of everything we do at TELUS International is, similarly, a customer-first commitment and a relentless pursuit of optimal business outcomes for our clients. We believe that better outcomes begin with the talented team members that are dedicated to supporting our clients. We make significant investments to attract, retain and develop talent across our service offerings. This is the cornerstone of what we refer to as our “caring culture”.
We care deeply about devoting the optimal mix of talent and capabilities to our clients and ensuring continuous performance improvement through data-driven decision-making. We have also cultivated process intelligence proficiencies across our organization, from human resources and talent management to our dedicated implementation and service delivery teams. We have developed our own methods of performance measurement for quality and efficiency that complement client-specific performance measures. Ultimately, we believe it is our differentiated caring culture, which drives an 80% (in 2021) team member engagement score that contributes to margin enhancement and fuels success in every aspect of our business.
Our History and Evolution. Since our founding, we have evolved and grown our business from an in-house customer care provider for TELUS to a CX innovator that designs, builds and delivers next-generation solutions, including AI and content moderation, for global and disruptive brands. Today, we believe we have a category-defining value proposition with a unique approach to combining both digital transformation and CX capabilities. In 2005, seeking a strategic in-house partner for CX solutions, TELUS acquired a controlling interest in Ambergris Solutions, a boutique CX provider in the Philippines catering to traditional U.S.-based enterprise clients. Ambergris was subsequently re-branded as TELUS International, and, from 2008 to 2014, we made a number of additional significant organic investments, as well as acquisitions, with the goal of better serving our growing portfolio of global clients. We expanded our delivery platform to access highly qualified talent in multiple geographies, including in Asia, Central America, Europe and North America, and developed a broader set of complex, digital-centric capabilities. It was clear to us that digital enablement would become increasingly vital for our clients, and as a result we
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focused our expansion strategy on developing this expertise organically and, in some cases, accelerating our growth through strategic acquisitions.
During this time, we also made a series of investments in our people and our culture predicated upon the core philosophy that our caring culture drives sustainable team member engagement, team member retention and customer satisfaction. We invested in our ability to attract and retain exceptional people across several competitive, global talent pools and built what we believe are inspiring, state-of-the-art, service delivery locations designed to optimize team member engagement, productivity and well-being. We invested in our global training and talent management teams to enhance our custom curricula and career-pathing opportunities. Additionally, over the last 14 years we built a robust corporate social responsibility program focused on community development, local philanthropic giving, education and social equality. For example, we have implemented community giving events in each of the countries in which we operate and, in the Philippines, Guatemala, El Salvador, Bulgaria and Romania, we have established “Community Boards”, which have distributed approximately $4.6 million to local charities since 2011. We have frequently been recognized by industry analysts, such as Frost & Sullivan, for our best practices with respect to corporate social responsibility. The following illustrates our journey from 2005 to present:
tixt-20211231_g1.jpg
Over time, we realized our service offerings and customer-first approach would appeal to clients beyond our early telecommunications-centric base. As a result, we expanded our focus across multiple industry verticals, targeting clients who, like TELUS, believe that exceptional customer experience is critical to their success. Higher growth technology companies, in particular, embraced our service offerings and approach and quickly became our largest and most important industry vertical.
In 2016, Baring Private Equity Asia, a leading global private equity investor, acquired a significant minority stake in TELUS International, which enabled us to amplify investment in our IT portfolio and further expand into Asia. We have since accelerated strategic acquisitions that have extended our geographic footprint, deepened our IT capabilities and broadened our client base of technology brands.
In 2017, we acquired Voxpro, a customer experience technical support and sales operations solutions provider, which increased our agile delivery platform with additional facilities in the United States, Europe and Asia. We have continued Voxpro’s support of several innovative and disruptive technology companies that change the way consumers interact with the marketplace.
In 2018, we acquired Xavient Digital, a next-generation IT consulting company with expertise in AI-powered digital transformation services, UI and UX design, open source platform services, cloud, IoT, big data and other IT lifecycle services. This acquisition significantly enhanced our IT expertise and expanded the breadth of our IT solutions and services.
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At the beginning of 2020, we acquired CCC, a leading provider of high-value-added business services with a focus on trust and safety, including content moderation. This transaction significantly increased the scale and diversity of our business, adding approximately 8,500 team members and delivery capabilities in 10 additional countries at the time of acquisition. It also expanded and diversified our client base in our Tech and Games industry vertical in Europe. In 2021, we rebranded substantially all of the assets of CCC as TI Northern Europe.
On December 31, 2020, we completed the acquisition of Lionbridge AI, the data annotation business of Lionbridge Technologies, Inc. On July 2, 2021, we built upon the company’s existing deep domain expertise and experience in data annotation with the acquisition of Bangalore, India-based Playment, a leader in data annotation and computer vision tools and services specialized in 2D and 3D image, video and LiDAR (light detection and ranging) - a remote sensing method that uses laser pulses to measure variable distances - uniquely positioning us to support technology and large enterprise clients developing AI-powered solutions across a variety of vertical markets, including in automotive, retail, Internet of Things (IoT), financial services, healthcare and agriculture. In 2021, we rebranded Lionbridge AI and Playment as TIAI.
Through the addition of Voxpro, Xavient Digital, CCC, Lionbridge AI and Playment, we significantly bolstered the digital offerings that we provide and grew our digital-focused team.
Today, we are a CX innovator that designs, builds and delivers next-generation solutions for global and disruptive brands. Our team members are supplemented by a crowdsourced community of more than one million data annotators using TIAI Data Solution’s proprietary data annotation solutions.
Our journey has been highly successful as evidenced by our 47% compound annual revenue growth rate from 2019 to 2021 and third-party recognition for business excellence and social purpose. We are proud to continue to be recognized by the Everest Group for our leadership in customer experience management services and have been ranked among the best employers in many of the markets in which we operate.
Industry Background
Technology, Innovation and Digital Enablement. Technology is transforming the way businesses interact with their customers at an accelerating pace and scale. Our clients and their customers have more information and more choices than ever before and their expectations surrounding brand experiences and the speed at which companies must process and respond to customer interactions are changing rapidly. The proliferation of mobile devices, social media platforms and other methods of digital interaction has enabled customers to access information 24/7 and engage with companies through multiple digital channels. The COVID-19 pandemic has further accelerated the use of digital channels as the first, and sometimes only, points of customer interaction. Customers value a consistent and personalized experience across channels when interacting with the companies that serve them. Businesses face pressure to engage with their customers across digital and human channels, and seek to do so by combining technology with authentic human experience that is capable of demonstrating a sincere commitment to customer satisfaction.
Across industries, customer experience has become a critically important competitive differentiator. Next-generation technologies such as advanced analytics, AI, robotic process automation (RPA), and augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR) allow digitally-native companies to streamline customer interactions, without removing the human element, through the entire customer journey from creation of product awareness through facilitating product research, purchase, fulfillment and then customer retention and advocacy of products. Adoption of these next-generation technologies like AI, in turn increases the demand for the high-quality data required to power product and analytics platforms, to make them relevant and contextual for consumers around the world. Businesses need highly discerning human operators, empowered by cutting-edge technology and processes, to deliver next-generation customer experiences.
Empowered and Engaged Customers. The pervasiveness of next-generation technologies, which enables always-on connections, access to information 24/7 and greater variety of choice, has encouraged customer empowerment and raised their expectations. Customers are choosing how and when to interact with businesses, very often dictating the terms and frequency of such interactions. Accordingly, customer-centric companies have shifted from products and solutions-first, to customer experience-first. Customer-centricity is no longer an option—it has become an absolute necessity.
Competition for differentiation is now focused on customer experience. Customers prefer simplicity, personalization and consistency across all channels and high levels of service. Customers are increasingly choosing experience over product and price, and are willing to pay more for positive customer service experiences. While positive experiences can help build customer loyalty, negative ones can severely undermine loyalty and retention. Customers today share their experiences through various digital channels with a rapid and global feedback loop. These immediate reactions are pressuring businesses to have in
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place the right customer experience systems and processes that get engagement right on the first try. Companies wishing to operate across digital channels need to be more cognizant of and responsive to how customers engage with them and make buying decisions. Customer experience has become a key competitive advantage, and it is critical for companies to manage it by partnering with customer service experts to represent their valued brands.
Evolution of Customer Experience. Customer experiences have evolved from single-point, voice-based, interactions to omnichannel points of engagement. Companies increasingly view these omnichannel points of engagement as opportunities to build customer loyalty and increase wallet share. Today, companies across all industries are focused on customer experience, which is in contrast to past decades, when handling customer service, sales generation and collections was primarily the domain of the technology, telecom, hospitality and banking and financial services industries. People were the primary touch points between companies and customers. Customer care has greatly evolved from agent-driven interactions to a more holistic approach of managing customer experience across both digital and human channels, with human channels used primarily for complex interactions and exception handling. Such exceptions typically include more complex issues that require a human interaction and/or culturally nuanced expertise as well as empathy. As humans are being used primarily for complex interactions and exception handling, the quality of these interactions matters even more today as companies need engaged, experienced, empathetic and technology-savvy employees representing their brands in their customer interactions.
Importance of Building Trust and Security. Companies and brands operating in the global marketplace need to engender trust in their online offerings in order to provide a feeling of safety that encourages customers to communicate and transact more. Accurate and rapid identification of content that violates the criteria of these offerings is of critical importance as user-generated content continues to grow. Social media platforms need to moderate content on their platforms not only to ensure the safety of users, but also to ensure the accuracy and reliability of information and, ultimately, to protect their brand and credibility in the marketplace. Increasingly, this need is driven by customers and regulators. Despite significant advances in technologies, such as AI and automation, expert human intervention is still needed to handle content and customer concerns with the highest complexity. Additional concerns regarding data privacy further drive the demand for a complete customer experience-oriented security solution at a time of significant scale and growth for these platforms. Companies across all industries are also faced with the challenge of knowing who they are interacting with in the global marketplace. Additionally, fraud, identity theft and asset appropriation have become more pervasive. Companies are also faced with increasingly onerous “know your customer” and anti-money laundering requirements that demand the collection of sensitive information. Companies are looking for solutions to assist in responding to these challenges with customer experience, confidentiality and compliance in mind.
Challenges for Companies. To meet modern customer expectations, companies must provide an experience that is not only personalized and empathetic, but consistent and integrated across omnichannel touchpoints, whether human or digital. Companies not only need a customer-centric mindset, but they also need to re-design and re-engineer their customer engagement processes. They need to invest in software platforms that will help them gather all available customer information, integrate with middle- and back-office systems and harness the data to provide a personalized experience. To enable this, companies need people with expertise in advanced analytics, AI and machine learning (ML) techniques capable of analyzing data to anticipate customer needs and use the results to empower customer interactions. We believe that such complex re-design and re-engineering of processes are best executed by experts in customer experience strategy and design consulting, IT services and process expertise, as such abilities are often not readily available in-house. Disruptive technology companies may be experts in the use of next-generation technologies but they often do not have expertise in overall customer experience or use of human channels. Other companies often lack digital channels and do not have integrated design, technology and operational talent to develop a strategy, re-engineer processes, deploy next-generation technologies and provide a personalized customer experience integrated across digital and human channels. This re-design and re-engineering process requires talent with expertise in both customer experience processes and related next-generation technologies.
Limitations of Incumbent Services Providers. Delivering best-in-class omnichannel customer experiences requires highly trained professionals working in concert with leading technologies. We believe few service providers have the people, capabilities and technology to help clients address the entire spectrum of designing, building and delivering integrated end-to-end customer experience systems. IT services providers can build and integrate next-generation technology platforms but often lack the ability to provide highly trained specialists to deliver the necessary complex human interactions. Customer care and BPO service providers generally lack specialized skilled labor, the ability to design solutions and the expertise in next-generation technologies, including AI and content moderation, to build customer experience platforms. Consulting service providers often can neither design nor build the solutions that they propose for their clients, let alone run them with the necessary talent to reliably deliver high-complexity, high-value service.
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Our Market Opportunity
Our solutions and services are relevant across multiple markets including IT services for DX and DCXM.
Digital Transformation (DX). Companies are increasingly partnering with third-party providers to meet their digital transformation challenges, which include designing solutions that facilitate an omnichannel experience, building scalable infrastructure and delivering new digital channels. To keep systems scalable, an increasing number of companies are opting for cloud-based solutions and seeking to automate processes where possible.
Digital Customer Experience Management (DCXM). DCXM represents the next evolution of customer experience management. In recent years, digital customer experience has become increasingly important to companies, as highly engaged users dictate the nature and frequency of interactions. Customers ascribe value to seamless interactions and are willing to reward positive experiences with loyalty and repeat business. As customers have shifted toward digital channels, leveraging next-generation technologies to deliver a unified and satisfying customer experience has become paramount.
We believe we are uniquely well-positioned to serve these markets and, as a result, we have a significant market opportunity due to the overall industry growth rate, low penetration to date and strong exposure to the comparatively higher-growth DCXM sector of the market.
New Economy Services. To complement our DCXM capabilities, we provide several adjacent new economy
services such as content moderation and data annotation, which are two markets that have experienced high growth in recent years. Content moderation includes review and compliance services of user-generated content on social media and other platforms. The necessity of moderating content on digital platforms has prompted enterprises to seek specialized services to accommodate changes in the uncertain, highly regulated environment. To support our clients’ development of AI-powered solutions, we offer fully-managed data annotation services that include AI strategy consulting, and the collection, annotation and validation of training data to support a broad range of use cases, ranging from computer vision and data categorization to search relevance for advanced AI applications such as facial recognition, autonomous vehicles, medical imaging and more. We anticipate continued growth in these services in the future. AI data solutions is another market we serve that is also experiencing high demand. Along with the volume of content continuing to increase, equally important is the need for constant dynamic changes and need for improvement.
Our Approach
We are a leading customer experience innovator with a unique team culture and deep expertise in next-generation technologies and processes. We serve clients at both ends of and throughout the maturity spectrum, each with different customer experience requirements, approaches and near-term and longer-term transformation objectives. We believe that our comprehensive capabilities and go-to-market strategy enable us to address our clients’ varied needs in a flexible way that aligns with their objectives.
Our focus on customer experience informs our approach to designing, building and delivering customer engagement and digital enablement solutions for our clients. We believe that customer experience delivered by empathetic, highly skilled and engaged teams is key to providing a high-quality brand experience to customers. Our team members work with our clients to identify obstacles and opportunities and to craft their visions, design scalable processes and build and deploy solutions to enable growth. We lead our clients through a consultative approach that accelerates their adoption of advanced technologies to deploy and deliver innovative solutions. By leading with digital enablement, we create the opportunity to service the entire customer experience journey and leverage the robust skill sets of our teams to build an effective set of solutions that powers exceptional outcomes. Our approach combines our highly skilled teams with next-generation technology capabilities to provide a packaged solution for our clients that is integrated, contextual and consistent across all channels.
Our Competitive Strengths
We have distinguished ourselves as a next-generation, leading customer experience innovator by leveraging the following competitive strengths:
Cultural Differentiation. We have a unique and differentiated culture that places people and a shared set of values at the forefront of everything we do. We have carefully cultivated our caring culture over the last 17 years by ensuring alignment with the individuals who choose to join our team, the clients we choose to work with and the manner in which we have built and run our business. We have a unique approach to attracting, developing and retaining team members, which underpins a framework that we refer to as our Culture Value Chain (CVC). Our CVC establishes a direct link between a strong culture and
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the ability to drive higher team member engagement and retention, ultimately leading to superior services and better outcomes for our clients and their customers.
We continuously invest in maintaining and improving our culture in a number of ways, including through our approach to attracting and retaining talent. For example, we identify highly skilled, enthusiastic and driven candidates who want to make a positive impact for our clients and the communities in which we live and work. We support our team members’ development with customized coaching and training resources in specific technologies and tools vital in today’s economy and our business. We reward our people for being dedicated brand ambassadors and thought leaders with deep industry acumen. Recognizing the importance of the workplace environment, we believe we have built inspiring, world-class physical workspaces. We seek out clients that share our corporate values. We apply a strict code of ethics toward client selection and have declined noteworthy projects for clients whose values are not aligned with ours.
Diverse Client Base Across Sectors. Our diverse client base differentiates us from peers and contributes to our growth. We partner with a diverse set of disruptive and established clients across our core industry verticals, including Tech and Games, Communications and Media, eCommerce and FinTech, Healthcare and Travel and Hospitality. Within some of these industry verticals, we serve clients across several sub-sectors. For example, within Tech and Games, we serve some of the leading social networks and search engines, as well as high-growth online games, ride sharing and real estate technology companies. Additionally, we partner with leading providers of digital assistants, search engines and advertising networks in the delivery of our TIAI solutions. Within eCommerce and FinTech we serve both traditional and next-generation payments and point of sale providers, business-to-business and business-to-consumer software-as-a-service companies, online marketplaces and large financial services institutions.
Our clients trust us to support their brands and reputations, which we believe to be among the most respected names in their industries. We are able to execute on emerging customer experience challenges leading to high client referenceability that strengthens our credibility with clients in existing and new verticals and helps drive growth.
Deep Domain Expertise. We have developed expertise serving clients in fast-growing industry verticals and sub-sectors, many of which are leading broader technology disruption. By serving clients in these sectors over the course of many years, we have built an understanding of their unique, industry-specific challenges and digital transformation journeys, as well as the solutions and services to address them. We leverage this domain expertise to inform how we continue to build out our capabilities and serve additional clients.
Within our Tech and Games industry vertical, we believe we have been at the forefront of helping social networks manage the rapidly expanding volume of user-generated content on their platforms. We use AI/ML-assisted solutions to help clients monitor content for compliance with local policies and regulations. With TIAI Data Solutions, we also provide data annotation services to generate the critical high-quality data required to support our clients as they refine the AI models used in their search engines, social media networks and other cutting-edge products, among other applications. Additionally, we have leveraged our deep understanding of “gamer culture” to partner with several leading Games clients to support the high player growth they have seen over the past several years by deploying player support solutions.
In our Communications and Media industry vertical, we partner with leading telecom, cable and satellite operators, including wireless/wireline, over-the-top and streaming providers. Our client engagements support the digital transformation initiatives of our clients, innovation across their digital stack, operations support system and business support system modernization and testing and engineering of 5G networks for services such as IoT. Our solutions help our clients save operating costs and improve overall customer loyalty and churn. We have invested in creating custom testing systems and leveraged our expertise to develop custom set-top box user interfaces.
In our eCommerce and FinTech industry vertical, we have supported leading global eCommerce platforms since 2007, deploying specialized teams who can quickly scale on vertical-specific tasks such as premium marketplace support, content moderation, dispute mediation and identity and fraud protection. We also design, build and deliver chargeback transactions solutions for global online payments providers looking to maximize cross-border selling. The solution centralizes infrastructure and accelerates processing, rapidly enabling customer service teams to support multiple new countries.
Comprehensive, Integrated Capabilities to Enable Digital-First Experiences. We have proactively built a set of integrated capabilities to deliver innovative customer experience solutions for our clients’ customers. Our services span design, build and deliver, so that we are able to offer clients a complete, transformative, digitally enabled solution, or a discrete solution to address or complement specific aspects of their existing customer experience strategy. Furthermore, our ability to design, build and deliver integrated solutions that combine both process and technology enables us to holistically address our clients’ most complex and pressing challenges and needs. For example, we combine expertise in IT lifecycle services, including
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applications development, cloud implementation and advanced analytics and automation with customer experience delivery capabilities around omnichannel customer support, Contact Center-as-a-Service (CCaaS), and work-from-anywhere solutions.
We believe that our end-to-end solutions address client needs at all stages of their digital journeys and position us best to address their evolving priorities while expanding wallet share with them over time. Many of our key client relationships began as programs with a single solution and have evolved over time into multi-solution, multi-program strategies. As we expand the scope of work with clients, we become more embedded in their businesses, and are thus better positioned to identify new opportunities for continued improvement.
Best-in-Class Technology and Processes. We rely on best-in-class technology to power everything we do. By virtue of our TELUS pedigree, we have built our business with a deep understanding of the importance of technological reliability and availability, fueling our “always-on” carrier-grade network infrastructure. This infrastructure is augmented by our next-generation private and public cloud-based architecture, which enables our complete suite of integrated services. We believe that, unlike most of our peers, we are not encumbered with legacy technology infrastructure. This enables us to be agile, efficient and scalable, which we believe is a competitive advantage. Additionally, the next-generation tools we deploy internally across our over 62,000 team members enable them to more efficiently and effectively carry out their roles on behalf of our clients. For example, our platform is capable of self-learning through advanced machine learning algorithms and employs natural language understanding (NLU) and natural language generation (NLG) to simulate complex human-like dialogue.
We leverage cloud-based data warehouse solutions that provide us with a flexible and scalable architecture. We use application programming interfaces (APIs) that connect into some of our clients’ enterprise resource planning, workforce management and other customer data sources that enable us to capture and analyze data and ultimately react more quickly to changing client needs. In addition, with data visualization tools we can look at data quickly from several perspectives. Finally, with our data in the cloud, we are able to run AI models across multiple data sources available to us to drive unique customer results.
Our deep technology expertise also enables us to leverage our proficiency in AI and automation for the benefit of our clients to help them manage their information, derive valuable insights and implement a comprehensive data strategy. At scale, we deliver end-to-end solutions and data engineering capabilities to drive vision and value for our clients. For example, our proprietary AI-powered chatbot platform that we call intelligent TELUS International Assistant (iTIA) not only supports all forms of customer interactions but also provides advanced features, such as sentiment analysis, to provide team members with critical contextual information. iTIA enables faster resolution of customer queries through automation, saving high-value human talent for high-complexity interactions. iTIA can be programmed to access data directly from our clients’ back-end systems and to execute authorized transactions on behalf of their customers, for example changing payment methods or account plans.
Globally Scaled and Agile Delivery Model. Over several years we have built a differentiated global delivery model enabled by next-generation technology with the scale and agility needed to best serve our clients. Our over 62,000 team members are strategically located in 53 delivery locations across Asia-Pacific, Central America, Europe and North America. Substantially all of our delivery locations are connected through a carrier-grade infrastructure with correspondingly high resiliency and security. Our fully virtualized, cloud-based infrastructure enables seamless collaboration and enhances our ability to pivot client solutions across multiple regions, time zones and channels.
The sophistication, agility and scale of our delivery capabilities enable us to tailor our delivery strategy in order to respond quickly to shifting client demand as well as idiosyncratic events. For example, during the COVID-19 pandemic, we were able to continuously serve our clients’ needs despite the mandatory closure of many facilities. We shifted work toward digital channels, re-deployed teams across different client accounts and geographies and enabled over 95% of our worldwide team members to work from home. Through our TIAI Data Solutions offering, we have a crowdsourced community of data annotation professionals forming a global community of contributors that also maximizes business availability and business resiliency. During the COVID-19 pandemic, TIAI Data Solutions’ crowdsourced community, which has already been working from home and on flexible schedules, enabled TIAI Data Solutions to continue to seamlessly support its clients.
Proven Leadership Team. We have a proven leadership team with a successful track record of executing our strategic vision, driving growth across our business, integrating acquisitions both operationally and culturally and maintaining our unique culture. Our leaders not only possess significant and diverse skills and experience, but are committed to leading by example and living our corporate values. Our senior leadership team has over 150 years of combined experience, including extensive industry experience within IT and customer experience management, as well as public company experience.
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Our Growth Strategy
We are dedicated to building on our current capabilities in digital transformation and customer experience management by deploying the following growth strategies:
Expand Our Current and Potential Services with Existing Clients. We seek to deepen existing client relationships by providing our clients with more of our existing services, as well as developing new adjacent services to address their evolving digital enablement and customer experience needs. We believe we have a significant opportunity to grow within our existing client base by deploying more of our existing solutions, such as cloud migration and content moderation. We have successfully expanded the number of services we offer our top ten clients and plan to similarly expand with the balance of our portfolio. For example, all of our top ten clients use multiple TELUS International services.
Furthermore, we believe that we have visibility into areas of fast-growing and high-value adjacent service offerings that are relevant to our clients by virtue of several factors, including our domain expertise, our strength in both customer experience, IT, AI data annotation services and our ability to understand and anticipate our clients’ challenges. We seek to continue to leverage these strengths to identify new opportunities and capitalize on emerging trends to deliver greater value and to further grow within our client base. For example, our relationship with a global eCommerce client started with the provision of customer care services and later expanded to IT services due to the high quality of our work and strength of our technology. Additionally, our ability to hire, onboard and manage a large community of qualified annotators, and further develop our proprietary crowdsourcing platform and tools, positions us to expand our existing relationships with technology and large enterprise clients.
Establish Relationships with New Clients. We believe there are significant untapped opportunities to win new clients across all of our targeted industry verticals. We target potential clients that value customer experience as a brand differentiator. Within this opportunity, we prioritize potential clients that are experiencing significant growth and require a partner capable of evolving with them. We have historically won new clients based upon the strength of our position in the marketplace as well as references from existing clients.
The capabilities and solutions we have developed can be adapted and easily used to meet the needs of clients in additional industry verticals and sub-sectors that are increasingly pressured to transform. We will continue to leverage current processes, services and solutions to design and build new offerings to address new clients’ needs for better customer experience management.
Leverage Technology and Process to Drive Continuous Improvement. We strive to continuously iterate and improve upon our operations to optimize the overall efficiency of our organization, enhance operating leverage and margins and better serve our clients. Our organization has over 6,300 “Six Sigma” certified team members that help us better leverage our technologies, processes, policies and practices to improve operational excellence and drive productivity at scale. These capabilities create the opportunity to reinvest in key initiatives and implement best-in-class technologies across functional areas, which we believe will further expand our competitive and operational advantages.
Our approach to innovation includes applying methodologies and technologies internally to evaluate viability and scalability before deploying our solutions to clients. We aim to continue growing both organically and inorganically, and we believe that the returns generated by our focus on technology-enabled efficiency across the organization will increase.
Enhance Core Capabilities with Strategic Acquisitions. We intend to continue to enhance our core capabilities and solutions through acquisitions that support our strategy to design, build and deliver exceptional customer experiences for our clients. We seek out acquisition opportunities that expand the breadth of our service offerings, enhance the depth of our IT capabilities and accelerate our presence in attractive client industry verticals. We seek to acquire companies that have the potential to enhance our capabilities and which we believe will contribute positively to our financial profile and that are culturally aligned with our values. For example, our recent acquisition of Playment further augments the data annotation capabilities forming part of TIAI Data Solutions with 2D and 3D image and video annotation, including for computer vision, powering innovations such as autonomous driving, expanding our total addressable market and the set of solutions we are able to offer to our key clients, particularly in our Tech and Games industry vertical.

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Solutions and Services
We have built comprehensive, end-to-end capabilities with a mix of industry and technology expertise to support our clients in their customer experience and digital enablement journey. Clients have different requirements, approaches and near- and long-term objectives that need to be balanced effectively to develop deep and enduring relationships. Our go-to-market strategy addresses our client’s needs, in the order of priority that best suits their objectives and with the flexibility to evolve with them as their needs develop.
Our highly skilled and empathetic team together with our deep expertise in customer experience processes, next-generation technologies and expertise within our industry verticals is core to our success. We combine these with our ability to discover, analyze and develop new technologies in our centers of excellence to continuously evolve and expand our solutions and services.
Our services support the full lifecycle of our clients’ digital transformation journeys and enable clients to more quickly embrace next-generation technologies to deliver better business outcomes. We fuel the various stages of our clients’ growth, from their strategic and innovative beginnings to their next-generation tech and IT service needs and to their realization of a vision for CX process and delivery.
Next-gen DX, CX, Digital Platform & Digital
Operations Solutions
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Strategy and Innovation—Understand and Define Client Needs to Innovate and Develop Plans
Customer experience is at the heart of any digital transformation; however, implementing a successful CX-centric digital transformation can be a complex undertaking for any organization. With our intuitive design approach, we help our clients design next-generation business practices based not only on transforming technology, but also on transforming processes and culture. We partner with our clients to define their needs, identify their ideal future state and develop strategies that are focused on enabling customer-centric experiences. We advise clients on the best way to re-engineer and re-architect technology systems and our teams of experts develop custom technology solutions to meet those objectives.
Next-Generation Digital Strategy. Our teams advise clients on crafting their long-term strategy roadmap and design scalable processes to help clients achieve their digital enablement goals. We strive for enhanced business outcomes for our clients by focusing on the needs of their end-customers while developing effective strategies together. We help our clients formulate actionable strategies to transform their business model by taking advantage of the new ecosystems, infusing product development with new technologies and building platforms that deliver high-quality customer experiences.
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Ideation on Innovation. We help our clients innovate their approach to interactions with customers by collaborating with them in the ideation process. Our approach to ideation leverages not only our strong process and technology expertise but also our experience of delivering empathetic and caring human experiences. Our experts use our centers of excellence and innovation labs to help our clients ideate and innovate. In addition, organic innovation by our team members is encouraged which has resulted in Global Innovation Centers (GIC). For example, our talent acquisition team established a GIC to focus on recruiting practices resulting in deployment of knowledge base bots for onboarding new team members.
UX/UI Design. As online and mobile environments have become increasingly important, our team of experts build human-centered, data-driven experiences that enhance customer loyalty for our clients. Leveraging our design thinking process and skills in visual and experience design, we create intuitive products to deliver meaningful customer experiences. We help clients in various industry verticals to build innovative products customized specifically to their industry and customer needs. We offer comparative and explorative usability tests along with usability evaluation to ensure that the experiences we design and ultimately build and support are both client-centric and technically effective.
CX Process Consulting—including Customer, Employee and System Journey Mapping. Our CX process experts help evaluate customer experience processes for our clients by leveraging their deep understanding of customer experience and related business processes as well as technologies within our clients’ particular industry verticals. We leverage our agile methodology to obtain relevant information, perform a value analysis to identify efficiencies and automation opportunities and facilitate process redesign. This creates a comprehensive picture of how our clients engage with their customers and how they can redesign the customer experience processes to deliver improvements in cost, revenue and customer satisfaction.
Next-Gen Tech and IT Services—Building Digital Customer Systems using Next-Gen Technologies
Our clients often need to re-engineer their customer experience systems to provide a seamless, contextual, consistent and personalized customer experience across all channels—digital or human. To do this, they need to modernize their core systems and applications, while at the same time build new solutions that leverage technologies like cloud, mobile, AI, automation, IoT, analytics and more. Combining our expertise in various industry verticals and our deep understanding of applications development, infrastructure and technologies like AI, automation, cloud, mobile and others, we strive to develop solutions that help our clients to deliver the best possible experience to their customers.
Our expertise in delivery of a range of next-generation technologies enables us to build, test, deploy and continually enhance custom applications and integrate and implement customer experience software-as-a-service solutions with other client applications. We help clients re-architect their systems to take advantage of cloud and mobile computing. We use our advanced analytics and AI/ML capabilities to analyze data from internal and external customer databases for our clients. We also work with our clients to improve the efficiency of their IT processes by automating testing and deployment of software. Our experts identify processes within the customer experience journey that could benefit from automation and, where appropriate, implement tools such as chatbots and RPA. We also deploy technologies and productivity tools, real-time natural language processing and data visualization to better equip our team members to run the customer experience processes that are outsourced and entrusted to us by our clients. The key services underlying our Next-Gen Tech and IT Services solution are:
Engineering, Application Development and Quality Assurance (QA). Our end-to-end application development services are designed to transform our clients’ customer experience-related application portfolios by supporting the entire application lifecycle. This includes application strategy, application development and modernization, testing, QA, deployment and continual updates or enhancements. We help our clients develop applications with a cloud and mobile-first approach. This allows clients to leverage cloud delivery for enhanced scalability and flexibility, a critical component for digital enablement. Mobile-first strategies allow clients to take advantage of the customer shift to mobile devices. In addition to supporting web and mobile interfaces, we empower customer engagement across all touchpoints such as progressive web apps, chatbots, voice apps, AR/VR experiences, wearables and others.
We use agile methodology, microservices and APIs to build custom applications. We have capabilities using a range of software engineering technologies and tools to build high-quality software for our clients. We also implement Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) customer applications and integrate them with customized customer experience-related applications or other business applications of clients. We continually enhance custom applications we have developed using DevOps practices and tools.
Our QA and software testing teams work collaboratively with agile development teams to make improvements to the software on an ongoing basis. While our testing teams identify and fix defects and vulnerabilities in software, our QA teams identify and fix software usability issues, such as end-user experience with software, slow load times, and poor navigation. Our QA teams serve as an integral part of clients’ software development teams and are embedded within their scrum teams. Test
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automation is a core component of our QA services which enables our clients to automate manual tasks to minimize dependency on manual testing while at the same time achieving process efficiency, improving software quality and lowering time and costs.
Data Annotation, AI/ML and Intelligent Automation—including RPA and Chatbots. We have expertise in AI technologies and ML to assist our clients to improve customer experience. We provide data annotation in domains such as search relevance, image/video labelling for smart cities, audio transcription and facial recognition to our clients who utilize AI technologies. We also use AI-based conversation bots in customer engagement situations to augment or simulate human interactions enabling 24/7 personalized responses to customers. We use a combination of internally developed and market-available tools to create advanced ML algorithms, as well as NLU and NLG to simulate complex human-like dialogues in our self-learning, enterprise-grade CX platform. We offer flexible deployment models for this technology through adaptive pricing models, and also provide managed services to maintain quality, moderate responses and deliver actionable insights through analytics. Through TIAI Data Solutions, we collect, annotate and validate data in text, images, videos and audio in more than 500 languages and dialects, including for computer vision, for technology companies in social media, search, retail and mobile. With these new capabilities, we can provide our clients with data annotation through various service offerings and the use of a proprietary annotation solutions used in the development of AI algorithms used to power machine learning. These services and solutions help improve functionality and deliver secure, compliant, scalable and high-quality solutions for our clients.
We also use advanced analytics and AI techniques to analyze structured and unstructured consumer datasets to provide a unified data view of end customers’ entire transaction history with the client, and derive real-time insights from it to provide a personalized customer experience.
iTIA is our proprietary bot platform, which helps with all forms of customer interactions, from simple to complex. For example, from automating frequently asked questions, routing conversations, collecting feedback, paying bills and booking appointments, our cognitive solution combines the best of innovative technology with enhanced customer experiences and business process intelligence to set the stage for meaningful conversations. Features include sentiment-based routing which recognizes customer sentiment and intuitively directs chats to human support if required, voice-enabled multilingual capabilities, and built-in language translation capabilities to enable users to converse with the bot in their own language.
Our intelligent platform works hand in hand with human agents to enhance the overall customer experience. Moreover, we understand the challenges businesses face in this regard, and as a developer and user of the platform, we can partner with clients to implement to improve business outcomes.
RPA Intelligent Insights is a diagnostic platform tool that aligns human and digital workforce to manage the end-to-end lifecycle of digital co-workers. It measures and tracks performance of each co-worker and enables businesses to make better strategic decisions. RPA Intelligent Insights is open source and can be integrated with market leading RPA platforms.
We work with our clients to identify processes that could benefit from automation. We create a roadmap and combine human and machine intelligence to automate these processes. Through RPA, we are able to leverage technology to efficiently handle the “low-hanging fruit” so that we can keep team members dedicated to the more complex “high-touch” areas of our clients’ business.
Managed Cloud Services. We provide migration, implementation and managed services for public cloud, private cloud and multi-cloud hybrid environments to help clients modernize their applications and move their workloads to the appropriate cloud for their business. We assess the current state of our client’s cloud computing strategies and create and implement a customized plan based on their unique business objectives. We integrate these strategies with legacy systems where needed and provide managed services to provide 24/7 support, monitoring, operations management and ensure information safety. We have expertise in all major hyperscale public cloud platforms, such as Google Cloud, Amazon Web Services and Microsoft Azure, and can provide multi-cloud services. We are also able to provide TELUS-hosted services for clients that may prefer private cloud or a hybrid cloud strategy. Leveraging our expertise in cloud-enabled and cloud-native technologies, we can help our clients accelerate their digital innovation and application delivery by rapidly adopting technologies like Containers, Microservices, Serverless and DevOps.
Workforce Transformation. Our clients need specialized, efficient, effective customer experience eco-systems that support their overall vision for their customer’s journey. The output of our CX process consulting creates an executable strategy for our clients to make a thorough and dramatic change to their customer experience teams and resource utilization. With our domain expertise, we build best practice workforce solutions using innovative people and digital solution combinations.
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CX Process and Delivery—Delivering exceptional customer experience
We use our customer experience process expertise as well as our highly skilled, empathetic and engaged teams to provide exceptional, integrated customer experiences. As the environments in which our clients operate are dynamic and constantly changing, we analyze customer behavior using advanced analytics techniques to understand what our client’s customers prioritize, and recommend the most appropriate service models. Our global delivery platform enables us to service clients across geographies and customize the delivery strategy according to their evolving needs.
Managed Solutions—including Learning Services, Workforce Management, Contact Center. We believe our managed solutions expertise is not easy to replicate and, as our clients experience the benefit of these solutions, they seek to leverage our solutions for their internal teams.
Learning Excellence Solutions. Working in partnership with our clients, we combine strategy, curriculum and learning technology to deliver an optimized customer experience. For quick and proven team member on-boarding, our “new hire toolkit” can be fully customized to support our client’s brand, culture and learning objectives. Likewise, our customized knowledge bases provide their team members with the tools and knowledge they need to support customers.
Workforce Management Services. A balance of people, processes and technology to continuously optimize supply and demand. When it comes to workforce management, also referred to as workforce optimization, constant optimization is a key priority. For our clients, our consultative approach and global standardization delivers workforce efficiencies across vendor and captive sites. From planning and forecasting, to scheduling and real-time analysis, to reporting and optimization, we focus on driving significant value in our clients’ operations.
Contact Center-as-a-Service. Our cloud-based CCaaS application platform delivers a wide array of customer engagement tools designed to empower team members with omnichannel capabilities, enhanced processes and data-backed, real-time intelligence. Our CCaaS technology is the foundation to our “work-at-home” or “work anywhere” solution. It also integrates with remote virtual desktops, as well as a full suite of customer service solutions including remote and digital talent acquisition, remote training and remote workforce management.
Omnichannel Customer Experience—including Care, Sales and Tech Support. We operate CX processes for our clients to provide a seamless, consistent, and personalized customer experience to customers across all channels and devices they use while engaging with our clients. We support customer experience processes, including customer care, sales growth and client retention, and technical support, using omnichannel capabilities across voice, email, chat, social media, and video.
We empower our clients to use every customer touchpoint as a brand-building opportunity and to create meaningful human connections with their customers. We support our clients in customer acquisition, customer onboarding, welcome and win-back programs, loyalty and retention programs, cross-sell and up-sell opportunities. We also provide tech support with a focus on not only automating it wherever relevant but also “humanizing” it. We provide services using self-serve options and employ team members for more complex issues or exception handling. For example, we are also increasingly using our expertise in CX processes to improve patient interactions and deliver better outcomes for healthcare providers, payers and pharmaceuticals service providers.
Content Moderation, Trust and Safety. Our approach to content moderation enables clients to keep their users safe and manage their online reputation. Our clients understand that using trusted platforms promotes improved user experiences, thereby driving user growth and revenue. We combine digital tools with human support to provide a robust trust and safety framework to monitor our clients’ businesses. Our customizable and scalable content management solutions can also help clients boost their social media presence, increase their user base and attract more customers through social and e-commerce channels. We offer dynamic hyper-localized moderation, covering client policies that incorporate local regulatory standards where applicable. Spanning 28 countries and covering over 50 languages, our global team is sensitive to, and understands the importance of, considering the cultural, regional and sociopolitical nuances of local markets in their reviews. In addition, our moderation services also extend to verifying advertisements for compliance and protecting online marketplaces, as well as peer-to-peer group monitoring that is prevalent in today’s gaming platforms.
We develop highly trained and well-supported resilient team members who we refer to as “digital first responders” and who are supported by advanced, automated AI and digital moderation tools specifically designed to help brands safeguard their user communities by actively screening and removing threatening, offensive, illegal or otherwise inappropriate content or actions that contravene our clients’ policies and community guidelines.
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Core to our solution is a specialized talent acquisition and hiring process. The short- and long-term well-being of our team members is considered from the beginning of the relationship. We remain keenly aware of the potential concerns that may arise as team members review raw user-generated content, which is why trying to hire team members with the right character, skills and experience contributes to creating a resilient team. In addition, we establish realistic expectations of our moderators. Beginning with the interview process and extending to the new hire training, we set very specific program expectations that outline the type of content to anticipate, including details of the types of extreme content they may be exposed to and how to handle the unexpected.
We believe our program is different because we focus on well-being management through a variety of programs, including workflow rotation that is based on volume and severity of content screened and mental health counselor input. We also conduct relevant training for different work options, tools and knowledge built in other industries to help manage stress and build resilience. We have developed and continue to evolve our psychosocial risk approach, which was developed by psychology experts.
Our digital first responders are typically direct team members. We are prudent in our use of part-time employees as this approach generally does not fit the objectives of our content moderation programs.
Adjacent to content moderation and part of our broader Trust and Safety program, fraud prevention has become more critical across all industries with businesses struggling to keep up. Our service offering is focused on promoting ethical conduct, identification verification, and profile validations combating asset misappropriation, managing fraudulent statements and preventing corruption or any other unlawful activity such as account takeovers. We provide effective trust and safety solutions tailored to the needs of our industry verticals, as further detailed in the chart below.
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360-Degree Customer Analytics. We offer customer journey analytics services that provide clients with a 360-degree view of the relationships and contacts their customers have across all points of interaction along their journey with the client. We integrate data from various points of interaction customers have with the client across multiple channels into an insightful timeline. We use advanced analytics techniques to analyze millions of events in order to produce predictive interactions for customers. This includes analysis such as journey mapping, speech analytics, automated quality management, predictive recommendations, user experience intelligence, and event-based notifications.
Our Delivery Model
We use an agile global delivery model to provide next-generation customer experiences to clients. Substantially all of our delivery locations are connected through a carrier-grade infrastructure backed by cloud technologies, enabling globally distributed and virtualized teams and high resiliency and security. We are unencumbered by legacy infrastructure, which we believe is a competitive advantage. Our agile delivery model enables us to augment or seamlessly redeploy teams across different geographic locations and client accounts. The interconnectedness of our teams and ability to seamlessly shift interactions between physical and digital channels enables us to tailor our delivery strategy to clients’ evolving needs. It also allows us to respond to changes in demand or adapt to idiosyncratic events with agility. We also deployed solutions like bots, web-chats and emails as customers of our clients migrated to digital channels. The speed and quality with which we are able to
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respond is in large part due to the agile nature of our global delivery model and the investments we have made in the technology infrastructure to run the delivery network.
Our delivery locations, from where our team members serve our clients, are strategically selected based on a number of factors, including access to diverse, skilled talent, proximity to clients and an ability to deliver our services over multiple time zones and in multiple languages. The global reach of our delivery locations enables us to deliver our full suite of solutions across geographies and customize the delivery strategy for our clients according to their evolving needs. We have established a presence in key global markets, which supply us with qualified, cutting-edge technology talent and have been recognized as an employer of choice in many of these markets. We believe that our global and diverse team members have the nuanced cultural knowledge and empathy to deliver all of our services.
Within TIAI Data Solutions, we use a crowdsourcing model, which allows us to access talent that is global, flexible and scales to meet the geographic, demographic or cultural data needs of our clients across different parts of the world. Annotators are provided with purpose-built educational materials and tools, and through our proprietary platform, we have the ability to track each annotators’ efficiency, virtually oversee quality management protocols, and process payments to our annotators across more than 88 countries. This AI community is organized through a framework that provides for annotator sourcing, education and management that is supported by team members around the world.
In Asia-Pacific, we have 12 delivery locations. Our talent acquisition in Asia-Pacific benefits from a local emphasis on education creating a highly qualified workforce with extensive language capabilities. In India and the Philippines, for example, we are able to attract skilled team members with expertise in next-generation technology with substantial language capabilities. Through our caring culture, we are able to engage and develop these team members which leads to higher tenure and proficiency.
In Central America, we have eight delivery locations in close proximity to our large North America client base. Our team members in Central America are drawn from a large population of fluent English and Spanish speakers. In our delivery locations in Central America, we benefit from developed telecom and energy infrastructure. In Guatemala, we benefit from an engaged workforce and regionally competitive labor costs. In El Salvador, we gain access to a young and educated population.
In Europe, we have 29 delivery locations, with a number of these locations being in close proximity to client locations. Our multi-lingual team members are selected from a skilled talent pool in a centrally located geographic location. For example, in Bulgaria, we are able to employ an educated and skilled team; in Romania, there is a large talent pool with technology skills; and in Ireland, talent converges from many global origination points, creating a diversified talent pool. We also have extensive coverage in Germany, where we can focus on meeting the high demand for German-language support but also benefit from the availability of many skilled workers, who are drawn to Germany as one of the largest global and European Union economies. In Turkey, as a transcontinental country that sits between Europe and Asia, we benefit from multilingual resources who speak Turkish, Kurdish and Arabic.
In North America, we have four delivery locations and recruit from a skilled talent pool with geographic proximity to many of our largest clients. Additionally, North America is where the majority of our sales, marketing, operational support and services team members work from a virtual office environment, which facilitates collaboration, and in some cases collocation, with our clients. A flexible work environment enables us to attract and retain talent, improve agility, operational efficiency and productivity of our organization, as well as enable robust business continuity planning.
The workspaces in our delivery locations are designed to inspire and promote productivity. We leverage virtual and in-person site visits to both prospective team members and clients to showcase the strength of our engaged workforce and modern delivery locations. We have technology partnerships with Appian, Automation Anywhere, Blue Prism, Cisco, Google Cloud, itopia, Salesforce, Thrio, UiPath, Upstreamworks, Verint and Workvivo to support our delivery model.
Clients
We work with global and disruptive brands across industry verticals in which exceptional customer experience is critical. Global industry leaders expect long-term partnerships and are focused on digital transformation, while disruptive brands seek agile and culturally aligned partners that can reliably scale operations to support their business and geographical expansion aspirations. We respond to their needs by delivering on our promise of globally scalable customer experience and innovation while demonstrating cultural affinity. By engaging them across the design-build-deliver lifecycle, we forge long-term relationships where we are regarded as the partner of choice for their digital transformation journey. As a customer-first
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organization, we focus on driving global service excellence and sustaining long-term relationships with our clients, often expanding our relationship through multiple lines of business and driving year-over-year revenue growth.
Today, our clients include companies across the following high-growth verticals: Tech and Games, Communications and Media, eCommerce and FinTech, Healthcare and Travel and Hospitality. In 2021, Tech and Games, Communications and Media, and eCommerce and FinTech represented approximately 46%, 24% and 12%, respectively, of our revenue. We have several key client relationships. Our relationship with TELUS, our second largest client, part of our Communications and Media vertical, and our controlling shareholder, in particular, has been instrumental to our success. TELUS provides significant revenue visibility, stability and growth. In fiscal 2021, 2020 and 2019, revenue from TELUS represented approximately 16.1%, 19.6% and 26.2% of our revenues, respectively. Our largest client for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, a leading social media company and part of our Tech and Games vertical, accounted for approximately 17.7% and 15.6% of our revenue for fiscal 2021 and 2020, respectively. Our third largest client, Google, also part of our Tech and Games vertical, accounted for approximately 11.0%, 7.5% and 12.2% of our revenue for the fiscal years ended 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. In fiscal 2021, our top ten clients represented approximately 61% of our revenue, as compared to 62% in 2020 and 67% in 2019.
Our clients include some of the leading social networks and search engines, as well as high 2017 to 2021-growth online games, ride sharing and real estate technology companies. These companies place a premium on high-quality brand experience and entrust us to represent their brands because of our quality, differentiated approach to delivering innovative, end-to-end CX solutions and carrier-grade technology infrastructure.
As evidenced by the length, size and diversity of programs from our top ten clients, our focus on service excellence consistently places us in a position to win new business. Our clients assess us against a variety of quality metrics that they define to evaluate the operational performance of their service providers, such as net promoter score, customer satisfaction, likelihood to recommend, and customer effort. We have often exceeded the targets that our clients set for us, which is part of our commitment to delivering superior customer experiences.
Sales
We have a robust sales strategy focused on profitably increasing revenues from existing clients and generating sales from new clients within our targeted verticals. Our holistic sales approach involves our “hunters”, “farmers” (also referred to as “client relationship managers”), sales engineers, digital experts, digital services solutions teams and senior leaders. We run a highly coordinated sales and marketing organization that comprises strategy, solution design and bid management, marketing, lead generation, sales and account teams. We organize and track our sales and marketing activity by our industry verticals: Tech and Games, Communications and Media, eCommerce and FinTech, Healthcare and Travel and Hospitality. Our industry vertical-focused approach enables us to scale at speed and provide comprehensive solutions. We currently have over 200 team members in our sales, sales support, customer relationship management, and marketing teams located across our four geographic regions. As a client-centric organization, every one of our over 62,000 team members is part of our sales effort by either directly leading our sales pursuits or by supporting sales activities. This mindset demonstrates our intense focus on exceptional service for our clients.
We have well-defined criteria for targeting sales opportunities with new and existing clients. Our target clients are companies that are looking to strengthen and maintain their brands based on innovation, quality and a customer-centric approach, companies whose values are similar to ours and companies that prioritize digital disruption and automation. Prospects are typically disruptive players in technology-focused sectors where buyer preference aligns with our core strengths. For new clients, this criteria includes: potential for significant scale; unique needs not easily solved by traditional outsourcing; accelerated decision making; the need for a provider to help lead it through its digital transformation; interesting and engaging opportunities for our team members; and targeted geographic clusters. For existing clients, we target additional growth opportunities by assigning dedicated senior relationship owners, investing in research and solutions and leveraging marketing support for our strategic and growth clients. We do this by developing deep relationships with several key decision makers at each of our clients, including customer experience officers and other senior members responsible for CX. These connections provide invaluable insight into our clients’ needs.
Our overall market and account-specific strategies help guide our lead generation efforts. We market our services to both existing and potential clients through our business development team and our customer relationship managers. Our sales governance process is established to provide thorough oversight over every deal by the core elements of our business, including operations, sales, finance, human relations and other relevant functions to achieve the right coordination across the business.
We actively and routinely evaluate the performance of our sales team against established quotas and by tracking total contract value and current in-year revenue of our “sales funnel”. These potential revenues are probability-weighted, organized
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by vertical and separated into four stages, each representing varying degrees of likelihood that potential service contracts will be converted to sales. We have rigorous management and reporting procedures focused on maintaining the accuracy, integrity and quality of our sales funnel. Our teams bring years of industry-specific expertise to sales engagements and they understand the unique requirements and challenges of our disruptive technology clients and how to build a relationship that can scale and adapt with their changing needs.
We have a disciplined proposal management process that has been designed to deliver an accurate assessment of the opportunities we identify. Throughout the process, we carefully evaluate opportunities not only for projected profitability, but also for cultural alignment. Once an opportunity has been identified, our proposal management process starts with opportunity evaluation by working closely with the sales and CRM teams. This is followed by solution design which includes design and pricing input from various teams, including senior leaders, strategists, human resources, workforce management and IT. After this stage, pricing is generated by thoroughly reviewing various pricing components, followed by a systematic and documented proposal governance process that includes credit approval and legal, regulatory and tax reviews. Finally, a proposal is drafted and the proposed solution and deal structure are reviewed by senior leaders. Once approved, the final step involves creation of sales contracts and other legal documents based on the approved proposal.
Existing Clients. We strive to deeply entrench ourselves with our clients, adding value and delivering exceptional performance over time, which enables us to grow with them into the future. In our initial engagement with a client, which usually relates to a program in one or two lines of business, we seek to achieve operational excellence, after which we aim to expand the scope of our engagement into multiple lines of business, service offerings and geographies, and become more embedded in our clients’ businesses. We then benefit from being better positioned to help our clients identify new partnership opportunities.
We are increasingly using a co-innovation model through which we seek to continuously improve and innovate our solutions together with our clients in a manner tailored to their requirements. We use the experience and knowledge we gain from each service we provide to a client to learn about its business and processes to identify additional opportunities for value creation and service delivery. We build strong relationships with our clients’ key senior executives involved in designing and implementing the customer experience and digital journey. We use these connections to ensure client service levels are maintained, share technology and industry developments, and to seek out new, high complexity, profitable opportunities with high-quality delivery.
New Clients. We seek to create relationships with new clients that see CX/DX as a brand differentiator and value our solutions and services. Our sales and engineering teams are trained to seek out deals and opportunities within their business divisions by continuously identifying trends. We use our delivery locations to refine our capabilities, discover and analyze the latest technology trends and leverage horizontal capabilities across industry verticals. Opportunities are identified in both traditional and digitally focused areas of the Company. Once potential clients are identified, we seek to engage with the management and IT personnel of the prospective client, by assigning a team of specialists, solutions and sales and engineering teams who work in a structured and disciplined way to design and propose offerings. Our framework enables us to gain a thorough understanding of the prospective client’s business model along with their technology architecture and infrastructure to arrive at bespoke and holistic solutions that span design, build and deliver.
We also acquire new clients outside of our traditional framework. We have gained, and expect to continue to gain, new clients through referenceable relationships and through acquisitions. Client lists and prospects gained through acquisitions are reviewed to identify revenue expansion opportunities due to our geographic coverage, language capabilities and cross-selling potential. In our experience, our existing clients often provide references based upon our track record of excellent performance, which has led to new sales. Furthermore, we gain new clients as the decision makers from existing clients move to new companies. We believe the deep and strong relationships we build with these decision makers are enduring and often lead to opportunities at their new companies.
Our approach to client engagement has enabled us to steadily grow our client base and build long-term relationships, which we have leveraged to expand revenue from our clients over time. We have experienced steady growth in our client base, consistently gaining new clients annually.
Marketing
We believe we have a unique brand appeal that is recognized and appreciated globally. We seek to be the provider of choice for global brands who value premium CX/DX and we are widely recognized for our caring culture. We focus on driving demand and brand awareness through a combination of thought leadership content on the overall industry and vertical and horizontal
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solutions, web marketing, industry recognition in the form of awards and rankings and customer events, which appeal to both clients and team members.
Thought Leadership. We leverage our content to enhance awareness of our brand and expertise and have partnered with industry experts, such as SuperData, and analyst research firms, such as IDC, Frost & Sullivan, and Everest Group, to create white papers. We continue to research emerging CX and DX trends, challenges, and focus areas in the industries we serve and periodically publish our findings through blog articles and brochures. We also use these findings to serve our clients with thought leadership to identify opportunities for growth and innovation.
Digital Marketing. Our strong media presence and engagement through our website and social media presence drive lead generation, brand awareness and sales each year. Through the launch of TELUS International Studios, a dedicated podcast channel, we share CX/DX success and insights by partnering with leading brands and industry experts. Our global marketing teams leverage state-of-the-art marketing automation tools to capture and nurture leads from across channels and integrate them with our global sales operations. Our ability to amplify our content through various search engine optimization and management initiatives, including ad campaigns, has helped drive an increase in web traffic, which enables prospective clients to more easily find us.
Recognition. We have earned numerous industry recognition and awards by participating in industry evaluation reports conducted by research firms such as Gartner, Everest Group, Frost & Sullivan, NelsonHall, IDC MarketScape and HfS Research. Recent awards include:
Everest Group’s CXM Services PEAK Matrix 2021—Leader, which we earned for the third consecutive year;
the IAOP Global Outsourcing 100, to which we were named for the fifth consecutive year;
the IDC’s Marketscape - Worldwide Digital Customer Care Services - Leader; and
HfS’s Top 10 Digital Contact Center Services, top 3 placement.
We are frequently recognized by various global and regional professional bodies as a desirable place to work among top employers globally for our engaging culture and our commitment to corporate social responsibility. We leverage this recognition to showcase the strength and success of our abilities to clients who seek industry-leading digital transformation partners.
Public Relations. Our marketing strategy includes brand positioning through targeted news coverage in business publications such as Forbes, Fast Company, Fortune, Inc. and CEO Today. We also manage a structured pipeline of upcoming press releases covering analyst relations, business updates, product launches and management and team member updates.
Competition
The sectors in which we compete are global, fragmented, and rapidly evolving. We face competition primarily from:
in-house technology and customer experience management teams;
digital transformation services providers such as Endava, EPAM and Globant;
globally diversified IT and BPO service providers such as Accenture, Cognizant, Genpact and WNS;
customer experience providers such as 24-7 Intouch, TaskUs, Teleperformance S.A. and Webhelp; and
single-threaded data annotation providers such as Appen.
We believe that the main competitive factors in our business include digital capabilities, comprehensiveness of offerings, vertical and process expertise, global delivery capabilities, team member engagement and retention, reputation, track record and financial stability. We believe that we compete favorably with respect to each of these factors.

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Oversight of ESG

Our board of directors and senior leaders believe that taking ESG matters into account in decision-making is important to the long-term sustainability and viability of the company. As we embark on launching our ESG program, our board applies an ESG lens to corporate strategy development and decision-making. In 2021, our board tasked the governance and nominating committee with overseeing our progress towards our ESG priorities. Our governance and nominating committee meets at least once each quarter and otherwise as necessary. This committee has identified our chief legal officer (CLO) as point-person on governance and the chief corporate officer (CCO) as point-person on all ESG-related matters. The CLO and CCO report directly to our president and CEO. Moving forward, the CCO and members of the management team will provide updates to the governance and nominating committee and to our board on goal-setting, challenges and progress related to our ESG priorities.
Our board-approved ESG priorities are:
hiring, motivating and promoting diverse and talented team members who exceed customer expectations, including through impact sourcing programs;
giving back to the communities where we live, work and serve by creating meaningful, lasting impact through the efforts of our team members;
supporting a sustainable planet for all by supporting the principles of refuse, reduce, reuse, recycle, repurpose; and
adhering to principles of strong corporate governance.

Corporate Social Responsibility
At TELUS International, corporate social responsibility (CSR) and giving back to the communities in which we operate is an integral part of our culture, and we believe a key factor in the success of our company. We believe that the focus of operating as a socially responsible company serves to motivate and deepen the engagement of our team members, builds stronger relationships with our clients and team members and positively impacts the communities in which we operate.
We understand the relationship between the success of our Company and the well-being of the communities in which we live, work and serve. Many of our team members and clients take great pride in bringing meaningful change to their own communities. Our “TELUS Days of Giving” are annual volunteer events that unite thousands of our global team members around a common cause. Since 2007, almost 225,000 TELUS International volunteers have impacted the lives of more than 250,000 people across the globe. These projects have helped support a wide range of causes such as education, healthcare, housing, the environment, children’s safety, community development, employment, entrepreneurship, diversity and inclusion in several countries, including Bulgaria, El Salvador, Guatemala, India, Ireland, the Philippines, Romania and the United States. TELUS Days of Giving events have entailed building schools in Central America, refurbishing centers for young children in Eastern Europe, constructing entire villages for the homeless in the Philippines and planting trees. In 2021, we also hosted virtual running challenges around the world to raise funds for a number of our charitable organizations, distributed hygiene kits and school supplies to students in need, delivered care packages to healthcare workers, among other initiatives. We are dedicated to creating ongoing, lasting partnerships with both our CSR partners and clients, who share our sense of social purpose. Some examples of our initiatives include:
Community Boards. We encourage our team members across the globe to stay active in their communities, including through our TELUS International Community Boards in the Philippines, Guatemala, El Salvador, Bulgaria and Romania. Since 2011, our Community Boards have distributed approximately $4.6 million to local charities impacting more than 1.2 million people. Community Boards bring together local community leaders, as well as our own local tenured team leaders, to support multiple grassroots charities in communities that may otherwise lack access to the resources they need to accomplish their social missions.
HOPE (Helping Our People through Education). HOPE is an eight- to ten-month program that teaches English and various job skills to students in Central America; upon completion, they are provided with an opportunity to secure long-term employment at TELUS International, with the goal of enabling them to support themselves and their families.
The “Give” After-School Program. For eleven years, our volunteers in El Salvador have been actively involved in improving the education of young children. In partnership with Glasswing International, our volunteers lead after-school programs, sharing their skills in arts, sports and academics.
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Team Member Resource Groups. We support affinity groups for our team members. Spectrum, our resource group for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, two-spirited, queer and allied team members, helps create a more diverse and inclusive work environment at TELUS International through social activism, education and community events. Connections is a women’s network at TELUS International that seeks to create an inclusive community and connect women in the Company through mentorship, speaker events, panels, workshops and other career development opportunities.
Our prioritization of CSR is intended to provide all of our stakeholders with a shared sense of social purpose. Many of our clients join us to take part in our TELUS Day of Giving events around the globe each year, enabling us to work hand-in-hand with them to make a difference in improving the lives of children, enhancing education and alleviating extreme poverty. It is this kind of partnership that we aspire to create and that we believe is important to our current and future success.
Intellectual Property
We rely on a combination of copyright, trademark, service mark and trade secret laws in North America, Europe, and various countries in Asia-Pacific and Central America, along with contractual restrictions, monitoring programs and service providers, to establish and protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights. We also license third-party software, open source software and other technologies that are used in the provision of or incorporated into some elements of our services. Many parts of our business are reliant on proprietary technology and/or licensed technology, including open source software. See “Item 3D—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—We rely upon third-party providers of “cloud” computing services to operate certain aspects of our services and any disruption of or interference with our use of these cloud providers or increase in cost of their services could adversely impact our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows”. We have also entered into a trademark licensing agreement with TELUS that allows us to use the “TELUS” brand in our business. See “Item 7B—Related Party Transactions—Our Relationship with TELUS—Trademark License Agreement” for a description of this agreement. Pursuant to the terms of that agreement we support TELUS in registering, monitoring, opposing and taking appropriate steps to protect TELUS and TELUS International’s right to use the TELUS brand wherever we operate.
We control access to and use of our proprietary technology and other confidential information through the use of internal and external controls, policies and contractual protections with team members, contractors and clients. We control and monitor access to our software, documentation, proprietary technology and other confidential information and confirm ownership of our intellectual property wherever appropriate. Our policy is to require all team members and independent contractors to assign to us any inventions, trade secrets, works of authorship, developments, processes and other intellectual property generated by them on our behalf. In the case of senior team members, we place these obligations in employment agreements. We also require all team members to agree to protect our confidential information and provide annual training reminding them of the importance of these obligations. In addition, the service agreements we enter into with our clients include protections of our intellectual property rights and include appropriate confidentiality provisions.
See “Item 3D—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—Our business could be materially and adversely affected if we do not protect our intellectual property or if our services are found to infringe on the intellectual property of others” for a more comprehensive description of risks related to our intellectual property, proprietary rights and agreements with third parties.
Regulation
We are subject to a number of national, state, provincial and local laws and regulations in Canada, the United States and in each of the countries where we provide our services and where we operate our delivery locations. These laws and regulations cover a wide range of areas including anti-corruption, internal and disclosure control obligations, data privacy and protection, wage-and-hour standards, employment and labor relations, trade protections and restrictions, import and export control, tariffs, taxation, sanctions, data and transaction processing security, payment card industry data security standards, records management, user-generated content hosted on websites we operate, privacy practices, data residency, corporate governance, anti-trust and competition, team member and third-party complaints, telemarketing regulations, telephone consumer regulations, government affairs and other regulatory requirements affecting trade and investment. Some of the laws and regulations to which we are subject, and the interpretations of those laws and regulations, are still evolving and being tested in courts and could be applied or interpreted in unanticipated ways that could harm our business. See “Item 3D—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—We and our clients are subject to laws and regulations globally, which increases the difficulty of compliance and may involve significant costs and risks. Any failure to comply with applicable legal and regulatory requirements could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance, financial condition and cash flows”.
The terms of our service contracts typically require that we comply with applicable laws and regulations in the jurisdictions in which we provide the services or in the jurisdictions where our clients are located. In certain cases, we are
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contractually required to comply with laws and regulations that apply to our clients, but not to us, and sometimes our clients require us to take specific steps intended to make it easier for them to comply with their applicable laws. In certain of our service contracts, our clients undertake to inform us about laws and regulations that may apply to us in jurisdictions in which they are located.
Labor and Employment. We are subject to laws and regulations governing our relationships with our team members in all countries where our team members reside. These laws and regulations include wage and hour requirements, work and safety conditions, benefits, citizenship requirements, work permits and travel restrictions, human and civil rights legislation and privacy laws.
Data Protection. We are typically required to process, and sometimes collect and/or store sensitive data of our clients and their customers, including, but not limited to, personal data regulated by the GDPR in the European Union, The Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and equivalent provincial statutes in Canada, the California Consumer Privacy Act and the California Invasion of Privacy Act in California, the Personal Data Protection Bill of 2018 in India, the Data Privacy Act of 2012 in the Philippines, and similar laws and regulations in each of the countries in which we operate and where we provide services. This data may include personally identifiable information such as names, addresses, social security numbers, personal health information, credit card accou