SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
|☐||REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) or (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
|ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 or 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
|TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 or 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
|SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 or 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
Date of event requiring this shell company report
For the transition period from to
Commission file number 1-12874
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Republic of The Marshall Islands
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)
4th Floor, Belvedere Building, 69 Pitts Bay Road, Hamilton, HM 08, Bermuda
Telephone: (441) 298-2530
(Address and telephone number of principal executive offices)
N. Angelique Burgess
4th Floor, Belvedere Building, 69 Pitts Bay Road, Hamilton, HM 08, Bermuda
Telephone: (441) 298-2530
Fax: (441) 292-3931
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
Securities registered, or to be registered, pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.
|Title of each class||Trading Symbol(s)||Name of each exchange on which registered|
|Common Stock, par value of $0.001 per share||TK||New York Stock Exchange|
Securities registered, or to be registered, pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
101,571,141 shares of Common Stock, par value of $0.001 per share.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ¨ No ý
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes ¨ No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has submitted electronically, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ý No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer", "accelerated filer,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Large Accelerated Filer ¨ Accelerated Filer ý Non-Accelerated Filer ¨ Emerging growth company ☐
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes ý No ¨
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
|U.S. GAAP||x||International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board||¨||Other||¨|
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow: Item 17 ¨ Item 18 ¨
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ý
Auditor Name: KPMG LLP Auditor Location: Vancouver BC, Canada Auditor Firm ID: 85
INDEX TO REPORT ON FORM 20-F
This annual report of Teekay Corporation on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2021 (or Annual Report) should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included in this Annual Report.
Unless otherwise indicated, references in this Annual Report to “Teekay,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” and similar terms refer to Teekay Corporation and its subsidiaries. References in this Annual Report to "Teekay Tankers" refer to Teekay Tankers Ltd. (NYSE: TNK). In addition, references in this Annual Report to "Altera" refer to Altera Infrastructure L.P., previously known as Teekay Offshore Partners L.P. (NYSE: TOO), which was a subsidiary of Teekay Corporation until September 2017, and an equity-accounted investment until May 2019, and to "Seapeak" refer to Seapeak LLC (NYSE: SEAL), previously known as Teekay LNG Partners L.P. (NYSE: TGP) (or Teekay LNG Partners), which was a subsidiary of Teekay Corporation until January 2022. References to the “Teekay Gas Business” refer to the following, prior to their sale by Teekay to Stonepeak Partners L.P. and Seapeak in January 2022: Teekay’s general partner interest in Teekay LNG Partners; all of Teekay LNG Partners’ common units held by Teekay; and certain subsidiaries of Teekay that collectively contained the shore-based management operations of Teekay LNG Partners and certain of its joint ventures.
The sale of the Teekay Gas Business by Teekay occurred on January 13, 2022. The presentation of certain information in the Company’s consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report reflect that the Teekay Gas Business is a discontinued operation of the Company. See "Item 18 – Financial Statements: Note 23 - Discontinued Operations” and "Item 18 – Financial Statements: Note 24 - Subsequent Events” for further information.
In addition to historical information, this Annual Report contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Such forward-looking statements relate to future events and our operations, objectives, expectations, performance, financial condition and intentions. When used in this Annual Report, the words “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “estimate” and variations of such words and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements in this Annual Report include, in particular, statements regarding:
•our future financial condition and results of operations and our future revenues, expenses and capital expenditures, and our expected financial flexibility and sources of liquidity to pursue capital expenditures, acquisitions and other expansion opportunities, including vessel acquisitions;
•our dividend policy and our ability to pay cash dividends on our shares of common stock or any increases in quarterly distributions, and the distribution and dividend policies of our publicly-listed subsidiary, Teekay Tankers, including any increases in distribution or dividend levels of Teekay Tankers;
•our liquidity needs and meeting our going concern requirements, including our working capital deficit, anticipated funds and sources of financing for liquidity needs and the sufficiency of cash flows, and our estimation that we will have sufficient liquidity for at least the next 12 months;
•our ability and plans to obtain financing for new projects and commitments, refinance existing debt obligations and fulfill our debt obligations;
•our plans for Teekay Parent, which excludes our interests in Teekay Tankers and includes Teekay Corporation and its remaining subsidiaries, to reduce or eliminate operational risk in any floating production, storage and offloading (or FPSO) units and to increase its intrinsic value per share;
•the expected scope, duration and effects of the novel coronavirus pandemic and the unfolding geopolitical crisis between Ukraine and Russia, including its impact on global supply and demand for crude oil and petroleum products and fleet utilization, and the consequences of any future epidemic or pandemic crises or geopolitical tensions;
•conditions and fundamentals of the markets in which we operate, including the balance of supply and demand in these markets and charter and spot rates, estimated growth in world fleets and vessel scrapping, and oil production, refinery capacity and competition for providing services;
•our expectations regarding tax liabilities, including whether applicable tax authorities may agree with our tax positions, including whether or not we qualify as a passive foreign investment company;
•our expectations regarding the effect of economic substance regulations in the Marshall Islands and Bermuda and their future status under those regulations;
•our expectations as to the useful lives of our vessels;
•our future growth prospects and competitive position;
•the impact of future changes in the demand for and price of oil;
•expected costs, capabilities, acquisitions and conversions, and the commencement of any related charters or other contracts;
•our ability to maximize the use of our vessels, including the re-deployment or disposition of vessels no longer under long-term time charter or on short-term charter contracts;
•our expectations regarding customer payments, including the ability of our customers to make charter payments to us;
•the status and outcome of any pending legal claims, actions or disputes;
•Teekay Tankers’ expected recovery of fuel price increases from the charterers of its vessels through higher rates for voyage charters;
•the future valuation or impairment of our assets, including goodwill;
•our expectations and estimates regarding future charter business, with respect to minimum charter hire payments, revenues and our vessels' ability to perform to specifications and maintain their hire rates in the future;
•our compliance with financing agreements and the expected effect of restrictive covenants in such agreements;
•operating expenses, availability of crew and crewing costs, number of off-hire days, drydocking requirements and durations and the adequacy and cost of insurance, and expectations as to cost-saving initiatives;
•the effectiveness of our risk management policies and procedures and the ability of the counterparties to our derivative and other contracts to fulfill their contractual obligations;
•the impact on us and the shipping industry of environmental liabilities and developments, including climate change;
•the impact of any sanctions on our operations and our ongoing compliance with such sanctions;
•the impact of the invasion of Ukraine by Russia on the economy, our industry and our business, including as the result of sanctions on Russian companies and individuals;
•the expected impact of the cessation of the London Inter-Bank Offered Rate (or LIBOR) or the adoption of the “Poseidon Principles” by financial institutions;
•the impact and expected cost of, and our ability to comply with, new and existing governmental regulations and maritime self-regulatory organization standards applicable to our business, including, among others, the expected cost to install ballast water treatment systems (or BWTS) on our vessels;
•the impact of increasing scrutiny and changing expectations from investors, lenders, customers and other stakeholders with respect to environmental, social and governance (or ESG) policies and practices, and the Company’s ability to meet its corporate ESG goals;
•our ability to obtain all permits, licenses and certificates with respect to the conduct of our operations;
•the expectations as to the chartering of unchartered vessels;
•our entering into joint ventures or partnerships with companies;
•our hedging activities relating to foreign exchange, interest rate and spot market risks, and the effects of fluctuations in foreign currency exchange, interest rate and spot market rates on our business and results of operations;
•the potential impact of new accounting guidance or the adoption of new accounting standards;
•our potential need to renew portions of our tanker fleet; and
•our business strategy and other plans and objectives for future operations, including, among others, our pursuit of investment opportunities in the shipping sector and potentially in new and adjacent markets.
Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks and are based upon a number of assumptions and estimates that are inherently subject to significant uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control. Actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially include, but are not limited to, those factors discussed below in “Item 3 – Key Information – Risk Factors” and other factors detailed from time to time in other reports we file with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (or the SEC).
We do not intend to revise any forward-looking statements in order to reflect any change in our expectations or events or circumstances that may subsequently arise. You should carefully review and consider the various disclosures included in this Annual Report and in our other filings made with the SEC that attempt to advise interested parties of the risks and factors that may affect our business, prospects and results of operations.
Item 1.Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisors
Item 2.Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Item 3.Key Information
Some of the risks summarized below and discussed in greater detail in the following pages relate principally to the industries in which we operate and to our business in general. Other risks relate principally to the securities market and to ownership of our common stock. The occurrence of any of the events described in this section could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and ability to pay dividends on, and the trading price of our public debt and common stock.
Risk Factor Summary
Risks Related to Our Industry
•Changes in the oil markets could result in decreased demand for our vessels and services.
•The cyclical nature of the tanker industry may lead to volatile changes in charter rates and significant fluctuations in the utilization of our vessels.
•High oil prices could negatively impact tanker freight rates.
•A decline in oil prices may adversely affect our growth prospects and results of operations.
•Marine transportation is inherently risky, and an incident involving loss or damage to a vessel, significant loss of product or environmental contamination by any of our vessels could harm our reputation and business.
•The novel coronavirus (or COVID-19) pandemic is dynamic. The continuation of this pandemic, and the emergence of other epidemic or pandemic crises, could have material adverse effects on our business, results of operations, or financial condition.
•Terrorist attacks, increased hostilities, political change, or war, including the unfolding war and geopolitical crisis between Ukraine and Russia, could lead to further economic instability, increased costs and business disruption.
•Acts of piracy on ocean-going vessels continue to be a risk, which could adversely affect our business.
Risks Related to Our Business
•Economic downturns, including disruptions in the global credit markets, could adversely affect our ability to grow.
•Economic downturns may affect our customers’ ability to charter our vessels and pay for our services and may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
•The intense competition in our markets may lead to reduced profitability or reduced expansion opportunities.
•The loss of any key customer or its inability to pay for our services could result in a significant loss of revenue in a given period.
•Our ability to repay or refinance debt obligations and to fund capital expenditures will depend on certain financial, business and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. We will need to obtain additional financing, which financing may limit our ability to make cash dividends and distributions, increase our financial leverage and result in dilution to our equityholders.
•Charter rates for conventional oil and product tankers may fluctuate substantially over time and may be lower when we are attempting to re-charter these vessels.
•Changes in market conditions may limit our access to capital and our growth.
•Declining market values of our vessels could adversely affect our liquidity and result in breaches of our financing agreements.
•Over time, the value of our vessels may decline, which could result in both write-downs and an adverse effect on our operating results.
•We have recognized asset impairments in the past and we may recognize additional impairments in the future.
•Teekay Tankers anticipates that it may need to accelerate its fleet renewal in coming years, the success of any such program will depend on newbuilding and second-hand vessel availability and prices, market conditions and available financing, and which it anticipates will require significant expenditures.
•Our insurance may be insufficient to cover losses that may occur to our property or result from our operations.
•We are green-recycling one FPSO unit and plan to decommission and/or green-recycle our remaining FPSO units, which are scheduled to generate limited additional revenue and for which we may be required to incur significant costs.
•Teekay Tankers has substantial debt levels and may incur additional debt.
•Exposure to interest rate fluctuations will result in fluctuations in our cash flows and operating results.
•Use of LIBOR is currently scheduled to cease, and interest rates on our LIBOR-based obligations may increase in the future.
•Financing agreements containing operating and financial restrictions may restrict our business and financing activities.
•Our and many of our customers’ substantial operations outside the United States expose us and them to political, governmental and economic instability.
•Maritime claimants could arrest, or port authorities could detain, our vessels, which could interrupt our cash flow.
•Many of our seafaring employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements and the failure to renew those agreements or any future labor agreements may disrupt operations and adversely affect our cash flows.
•We may be unable to attract and retain qualified, skilled employees or crew to operate our business.
•Exposure to currency exchange rate fluctuations results in fluctuations in our cash flows and operating results.
•Our operating results are subject to seasonal fluctuations.
•We may be unable to realize benefits from acquisitions and growth through acquisitions may harm our financial condition and performance.
•Teekay Tankers may expend substantial sums during the construction of future potential newbuildings or upgrades to their existing vessels, without earning revenue and without assurance that they will be completed.
•Teekay Tankers’ U.S. Gulf lightering business competes with alternative methods of delivering crude oil to ports, which may limit its earnings in this area of its operations.
•Teekay Tankers’ full service lightering operations are subject to specific risks that could lead to accidents, oil spills or property damage.
Legal and Regulatory Risks
•We are bound to adhere to sanctions from many jurisdictions, including the United States, United Kingdom, European Union and Canada, due to our domicile and location of offices.
•Past port calls by our vessels or third-party vessels participating in Revenue Sharing Agreements (or RSAs) to countries that are subject to sanctions imposed by the United States, European Union and the United Kingdom could harm our business.
•Failure to comply with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the UK Bribery Act, the UK Criminal Finances Act and similar laws in other jurisdictions could result in fines, criminal penalties, contract terminations and an adverse effect on our business.
•The shipping industry is subject to substantial environmental and other regulations, which may significantly limit operations and increase expenses.
•Climate change and greenhouse gas restrictions may adversely impact our operations and markets.
•Increasing scrutiny and changing expectations from investors, lenders, customers and other market participants with respect to ESG policies and practices may impose additional costs on us or expose us to additional risks.
•Regulations relating to ballast water discharge may adversely affect our operational results and financial condition.
•Our operations may be subject to economic substance requirements in the Marshall Islands and other offshore jurisdictions.
Information and Technology Risks
•A cyber-attack could materially disrupt our business.
•Our failure to comply with data privacy laws could damage our customer relationships and expose us to litigation risks and potential fines.
Risks Related to an Investment in Our Securities
•Because we are organized under the laws of the Marshall Islands, it may be difficult to serve us with legal process or enforce judgments against us, our directors or our management.
•U.S. tax authorities could treat us as a “passive foreign investment company,” which could have adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. shareholders.
•We are subject to taxes. The imposition of taxes, including as a result of a change in tax law or accounting requirements, may reduce our cash available for distribution to shareholders.
Risks Related to Our Industry
Changes in the oil markets could result in decreased demand for our vessels and services.
Demand for our vessels and services in transporting oil depends upon world and regional oil markets. Any decrease in shipments of crude oil in those markets could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Historically, those markets have been volatile as a result of the many conditions and events that affect the price, production and transport of oil, including competition from alternative energy sources. Past slowdowns of the U.S. and world economies have resulted in reduced consumption of oil products and decreased demand for our vessels and services, which reduced vessel earnings. Additional slowdowns could have similar effects on our operating results and may limit our ability to expand our fleet.
The cyclical nature of the tanker industry and inflation may adversely affect our earnings and profitability. The cyclical nature may also lead to volatile changes in charter rates and significant fluctuations in the utilization of our vessels.
Historically, the tanker industry has been cyclical, experiencing volatility in profitability due to changes in the supply of and demand for tanker capacity and changes in the supply of and demand for oil and oil products. The cyclical nature of the tanker industry, as well as inflation, may cause significant increases or decreases in our earnings and profitability we earn from our vessels. The cyclical nature of the tanker industry may also cause significant increases or decreases in the value of our vessels. If the tanker market is depressed, our earnings may decrease, particularly with respect to the conventional tanker vessels owned by Teekay Tankers, which accounted for approximately 79% and 77% of our consolidated revenues from continuing operations during 2021 and 2020, respectively. These vessels are primarily employed on the spot-charter market, which is highly volatile and fluctuates based upon tanker and oil supply and demand. Declining spot rates in a given period generally will result in corresponding declines in operating results for that period. The successful operation of our vessels in the spot-charter market depends upon, among other things, obtaining profitable spot charters and minimizing, to the extent possible, time spent waiting for charters and time spent traveling unladen to pick up cargo. Future spot rates may not be sufficient to enable our vessels trading in the spot tanker market to operate profitably or to provide sufficient cash flow to service our debt obligations. The factors affecting the supply of and demand for tankers are outside of our control, and the nature, timing and degree of changes in industry conditions are unpredictable.
Factors that influence demand for tanker capacity include:
•demand for oil and oil products;
•supply of oil and oil products;
•regional availability of refining capacity;
•global and regional economic and political conditions;
•the distance oil and oil products are to be moved by sea;
•demand for floating storage of oil; and
•changes in seaborne and other transportation patterns.
Factors that influence the supply of tanker capacity include:
•the number of newbuilding deliveries;
•the scrapping rate of older vessels;
•conversion of tankers to other uses;
•the number of vessels that are out of service; and
•environmental concerns and regulations.
Changes in demand for transportation of oil over longer distances and in the supply of tankers to carry that oil may materially affect our revenues, profitability and cash flows. Following our sale of the Teekay Gas Business, which operated primarily under long-term, fixed-rate charter contracts, our revenues will be more volatile and dependent on revenues generated by our tanker fleet.
High oil prices could negatively impact tanker freight rates.
Global crude oil prices increased through the course of 2021 and reached a seven-year high in January 2022. High oil prices could negatively impact tanker freight rates due to reduced oil demand, higher operating costs as a result of increased bunker prices, and weaker refining margins.
A decline in oil prices may adversely affect our growth prospects and results of operations.
Low oil prices may adversely affect energy and capital markets and available sources of financing for our capital expenditures and debt repayment obligations. A sustained low energy price environment may adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition and our ability to make cash distributions, as a result of a number of factors, some of which may be beyond our control, including:
•the termination of production of oil at the fields we service;
•lower demand for vessels of the types we own and operate, which may reduce available charter rates and revenue to us upon redeployment of our vessels following expiration or termination of existing contracts or upon the initial chartering of vessels, or which may result in extended periods of our vessels being idle between contracts;
•customers potentially seeking to renegotiate or terminate existing vessel contracts, failing to extend or renew contracts upon expiration, or seeking to negotiate cancelable contracts;
•the inability or refusal of customers to make charter payments to us due to financial constraints or otherwise; or
•declines in vessel values, which may result in losses to us upon vessel sales or impairment charges against our earnings.
Marine transportation is inherently risky, and an incident involving loss or damage to a vessel, significant loss of product or environmental contamination by any of our vessels could harm our reputation and business.
Our vessels, crew and cargoes are at risk of being damaged, injured or lost because of events such as:
•bad weather or natural disasters;
•mechanical or electrical failures;
•grounding, capsizing, fire, explosions and collisions;
•piracy (hijacking and kidnapping);
•acute-onset illness in connection with global or regional pandemics or similar public health crises;
•mental health of crew members;
•human error; and
•war and terrorism.
An accident involving any of our vessels could result in any of the following:
•significant litigation with our customers or other third parties;
•death or injury to persons, loss of property or damage to the environment and natural resources;
•delays in the delivery of cargo;
•liabilities or costs to recover any spilled oil and to restore the environment affected by the spill;
•loss of revenues from charters;
•governmental fines, penalties or restrictions on conducting business;
•higher insurance rates; and
•damage to our reputation and customer relationships generally.
Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. In addition, any damage to, or environmental contamination involving, oil production facilities serviced by our vessels could result in the suspension or curtailment of operations by our customers, which would in turn result in loss of revenues.
The COVID-19 pandemic is dynamic. The continuation of this pandemic, and the emergence of other epidemic or pandemic crises, could have material adverse effects on our business, results of operations, or financial condition.
The novel coronavirus pandemic is dynamic, including the development of variants of the virus, and its ultimate scope, duration and effects are uncertain. We expect that this pandemic, and any future epidemic or pandemic crises, will result in direct and indirect adverse effects on our industry and customers, which in turn may impact our business, results of operations and financial condition. The pandemic has resulted and may continue to result in a significant decline in global demand for crude oil and petroleum products. As our business includes the transportation of oil and petroleum products on behalf of our customers, any significant decrease in demand for the cargo we transport could adversely affect demand for our vessels and services. COVID-19 has been a contributing factor to the decline in spot tanker rates and short-term time charter rates since May 2020 and has also increased certain crewing-related costs, which has reduced our cash flows, and was a contributing factor to the non-cash write-down of certain tankers owned by Teekay Tankers and one FPSO unit, as described in "Item 18 – Financial Statements: Note 18 - (Write-down) and Gain (Loss) on Sale".
Other effects of the current pandemic include, or may include, among others:
•disruptions to our operations as a result of the potential health impact on our employees and crew, and on the workforces of our customers and business partners;
•disruptions to our business from, or additional costs related to, new regulations, directives or practices implemented in response to the pandemic, such as travel restrictions (including for any of our onshore personnel or any of our crew members to timely embark or disembark from our vessels), increased inspection regimes, hygiene measures (such as quarantining and physical distancing) or increased implementation of remote working arrangements;
•supply chain and other business disruptions from, or additional costs related to, a limited supply of labor, parts or goods;
•potential delays in the loading and discharging of cargo on or from our vessels, and any related off hire due to quarantine, worker health, or regulations, which in turn could disrupt our operations and result in a reduction of revenue;
•potential shortages or a lack of access to required spare parts for our vessels, or potential delays in any repairs to, scheduled or unscheduled maintenance or modifications, or dry docking of, our vessels (including the currently scheduled dry docks for 10 of Teekay Tankers' vessels in 2022), as a result of a lack of berths available by shipyards from a shortage in labor or due to other business disruptions;
•potential delays in vessel inspections and related certifications by class societies, customers or government agencies;
•potential reduced cash flows and financial condition, including potential liquidity constraints;
•reduced access to capital, including the ability to refinance any existing obligations, as a result of any credit tightening generally or due to declines in global financial markets, including to the prices of publicly-traded equity securities of us, our peers and of listed companies generally;
•a reduced ability to opportunistically sell any of our vessels on the second-hand market, either as a result of a lack of buyers or a general decline in the value of second-hand vessels;
•a decline in the market value of our vessels, which may cause us to (a) incur additional impairment charges or (b) breach certain covenants under our financing agreements (including our secured credit facility agreements and financial leases) relating to vessel-to-loan covenants; and
•potential deterioration in the financial condition and prospects of our customers or the third-party owners whose ships we commercially manage, or attempts by charterers, suppliers or receivers to invoke force majeure contractual clauses as a result of delays or other disruptions.
Although disruption and effects from the COVID-19 pandemic may be moderated by vaccines, given the dynamic nature of these circumstances and the worldwide nature of our business and operations, the duration of any potential business disruption and the related potential financial impact to us cannot be reasonably estimated at this time but could materially affect our business, results of operations and financial condition in the future.
Terrorist attacks, increased hostilities, political change, or war could lead to further economic instability, increased costs, and business disruption.
Terrorist attacks, and current or future conflicts in Ukraine, the Middle East, Libya, East Asia, South East Asia, West Africa and elsewhere, and political change, may adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition, and ability to raise capital and fund future growth. Recent hostilities in Ukraine, the Middle East - especially among Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Yemen (Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Area), or Iran - and elsewhere may lead to additional armed conflicts or to further acts of terrorism and civil disturbance in the United States or elsewhere,
which may contribute further to economic instability and disruption of oil production and distribution, which could result in reduced demand for our services and have an adverse impact on our operations and our ability to conduct business.
Furthermore, Russia’s recent invasion of Ukraine, in addition to sanctions announced in February and March 2022 by President Biden and several European and world leaders and nations against Russia and any further sanctions, may also adversely impact our business given Russia’s role as a major global exporter of crude oil. Our business could be harmed by trade tariffs, trade embargoes or other economic sanctions by the United States or other countries against Russia, companies with Russian connections or the Russian energy sector and harmed by any retaliatory measures by Russia or other countries in response. While much uncertainty remains regarding the global impact of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, it is possible that such tensions could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operation and cash flows. In addition, it is possible that third parties with which we have charter contracts may be impacted by events in Russia and Ukraine, which could adversely affect our operations and financial condition.
In addition, oil facilities, shipyards, vessels, pipelines, oil fields or other infrastructure could be targets of future terrorist attacks or warlike operations and our vessels could be targets of hijackers, terrorists, or warlike operations; the conflict in Ukraine has recently resulted in missile attacks on commercial vessels in the Black Sea. Any such attacks could lead to, among other things, bodily injury or loss of life, vessel or other property damage, increased vessel operational costs, including insurance costs, and the inability to transport oil to or from certain locations. Terrorist attacks, war, hijacking or other events beyond our control that adversely affect the distribution, production or transportation of oil to be shipped by us could entitle customers to terminate charters which would harm our cash flow and business.
Acts of piracy on ocean-going vessels continue to be a risk, which could adversely affect our business.
Acts of piracy have historically affected ocean-going vessels trading in regions of the world such as the South China Sea, Gulf of Guinea and the Indian Ocean off the coast of Somalia. While there continues to be a significant risk of piracy incidents in the Southern Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean, recently there have been increases in the frequency and severity of piracy incidents off the coast of West Africa and a resurgent risk of piracy and/or armed robbery in the Straits of Malacca, Sulu & Celebes Sea, Gulf of Mexico and surrounding waters. If these piracy attacks result in regions in which our vessels are deployed being named on the Joint War Committee Listed Areas, war risk insurance premiums payable for such coverage may increase significantly and such insurance coverage may be more difficult to obtain. In addition, crew costs, including costs which are incurred to the extent we employ on-board security guards and escort vessels, could increase in such circumstances. We may not be adequately insured to cover losses from these incidents, which could have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, hijacking as a result of an act of piracy against our vessels, or an increase in cost or unavailability of insurance for our vessels, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to Our Business
Economic downturns, including disruptions in the global credit markets, could adversely affect our ability to grow.
Economic downturns and financial crises in the global markets could produce illiquidity in the capital markets, market volatility, heightened exposure to interest rate and credit risks, and reduced access to capital markets. If global financial markets and economic conditions significantly deteriorate in the future, we may face restricted access to the capital markets or bank lending, which may make it more difficult and costly to fund future growth. Decreased access to such resources could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Economic downturns may affect our customers’ ability to charter our vessels and pay for our services and may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Economic downturns in the global financial markets or economy generally may lead to a decline in our customers’ operations or ability to pay for our services, which could result in decreased demand for our vessels and services. Our customers’ inability to pay could also result in their default on our current contracts and charters. A decline in the amount of services requested by our customers or their default on our contracts with them could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The intense competition in our markets may lead to reduced profitability or reduced expansion opportunities.
Our vessels operate in highly competitive markets. Competition arises primarily from other vessel owners, including major oil companies and independent companies. We also compete with owners of other size vessels. Our market share is insufficient to enforce any degree of pricing discipline in the markets in which we operate, and our competitive position may erode in the future. Any new markets that we enter could include participants that have greater financial strength and capital resources than we have. We may not be successful in entering new markets.
The loss of any key customer or its inability to pay for our services could result in a significant loss of revenue in a given period.
We have derived, and believe that we will continue to derive, a significant portion of our revenues from a limited number of customers. No customer accounted for over 10% of our consolidated revenues from continuing operations during 2021 and 2020 (2019 – one customer for 13% or $160 million). The loss of any significant customer or a substantial decline in the amount of services requested by a significant customer, or the inability of a significant customer to pay for our services, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We could lose a customer or the benefits of a contract if:
•the customer fails to make payments because of its financial inability, disagreements with us or otherwise;
•we agree to reduce the payments due to us under a contract because of the customer’s inability to continue making the original payments;
•upon our breach of the relevant contract, the customer exercises certain rights to terminate the contract;
•the customer terminates the contract because we fail to deliver the vessel within a fixed period of time, the vessel is lost or damaged beyond repair, there are serious deficiencies in the vessel or prolonged periods of off-hire, or we default under the contract;
•under some of our contracts, the customer terminates the contract because of the termination of the customer's sales agreement or a prolonged force majeure affecting the customer, including damage to or destruction of relevant facilities, war or political unrest preventing us from performing services for that customer; or
•the customer becomes subject to applicable sanctions laws which prohibit our ability to lawfully charter our vessel to such customer.
If we lose a key customer, we may be unable to obtain replacement long-term charters. If a customer exercises its right under some charters to purchase the vessel, or terminate the charter, we may be unable to acquire an adequate replacement vessel or charter. Any replacement newbuilding would not generate revenues during its construction and we may be unable to charter any replacement vessel on terms as favorable to us as those of the terminated charter.
The loss of any of our significant customers or a reduction in revenues from them could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition and our ability to pay dividends and service our debt.
Our ability to repay or refinance debt obligations and to fund capital expenditures will depend on certain financial, business and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. We will need to obtain additional financing, which financing may limit our ability to make cash dividends and distributions, increase our financial leverage and result in dilution to our equityholders.
To fund existing and future debt obligations and capital expenditures and to meet the minimum liquidity requirements under the financial covenants in our credit facilities, we may be required to obtain additional sources of financing, in addition to amounts generated from operations. These anticipated sources of financing include raising additional debt and capital, including equity issuances.
Our ability to obtain external financing may be limited by our financial condition at the time of any such financing as well as by adverse market conditions in general. Even if we are successful in obtaining necessary funds, the terms of such financings could limit our ability to pay cash dividends or distributions to security holders or operate our businesses as currently conducted. In addition, issuing additional equity securities may result in significant equityholder dilution and would increase the aggregate amount of cash required to maintain quarterly dividends and distributions. The sale of certain assets will reduce cash from operations and the cash available for distribution to equityholders. For more information on our liquidity requirements, please read “Item 18 – Financial Statements: Note 16a – Commitments and Contingencies – Liquidity".
Charter rates for conventional oil and product tankers may fluctuate substantially over time and may be lower when we are attempting to re-charter these vessels, which could adversely affect our operating results.
Our ability to re-charter our conventional oil and product tankers following expiration of existing time-charter contracts and the rates payable upon any renewal or replacement charters will depend upon, among other things, the state of the conventional tanker market. Conventional oil and product tanker trades are highly competitive and have experienced significant fluctuations in charter rates based on, among other things, oil, refined petroleum product and vessel demand. For example, an oversupply of conventional oil tankers can significantly reduce their charter rates.
Changes in market conditions may limit our access to capital and our growth.
We have relied primarily upon bank financing and debt and equity offerings to fund our growth. Changes in market conditions in the energy and shipping sectors may reduce our and Teekay Tankers' access to capital, particularly equity capital. Issuing additional common equity is more dilutive and costly than it has been in the past. Lack of access to debt or equity capital at reasonable rates would adversely affect our growth prospects and our ability to refinance debt and pay dividends to our equityholders.
Declining market values of our vessels could adversely affect our liquidity and result in breaches of our financing agreements.
Market values of vessels fluctuate depending upon general economic and market conditions affecting relevant markets and industries and competition from other shipping companies and other modes of transportation. In addition, as vessels become older, they generally decline in value. Declining vessel values could adversely affect our liquidity by limiting our ability to raise cash by refinancing vessels. Declining vessel values could also result in a breach of our loans and obligations under finance lease covenants and cause events of default under certain of our credit facilities that require us to maintain certain loan-to-value ratios. If we are unable to cure any such breach within the prescribed cure period in a particular financing facility, the lenders under these facilities could accelerate our debt or obligations under our finance leases and foreclose on our vessels pledged as collateral or require an early termination of the applicable credit facility or finance lease. In certain circumstances, such a breach could result in cross-defaults under our other financing agreements. As of December 31, 2021, the total outstanding debt credit facilities and obligations under finance leases with this type of loan-to-value covenant tied to conventional tanker values was $620.3 million. We have two credit facilities and 14 obligations related to finance leases that require us to maintain vessel value to outstanding loan and lease principal balance ratios ranging from 100% to 125%. As of December 31, 2021, we were in compliance with these required ratios.
Over time, the value of our vessels may decline, which could adversely affect our operating results.
Vessel values for oil and product tankers can fluctuate substantially over time due to a number of different factors, including:
•prevailing economic conditions in oil and energy markets;
•a substantial or extended decline in demand for oil;
•increases in the supply of vessel capacity;
•the age of the vessel relative to other alternative vessels that are available in the market;
•competition from more technologically advanced vessels; and
•the cost of retrofitting or modifying existing vessels, as a result of technological advances in vessel design or equipment, changes in applicable environmental or other regulations or standards, or otherwise.
Vessel values may decline from existing levels. If operation of a vessel is not profitable, or if we cannot redeploy a chartered vessel at attractive rates upon charter termination, rather than continue to incur costs to maintain and finance the vessel, we may seek to dispose of it. Our inability to dispose of the vessel at a fair market value or the disposal of the vessel at a fair market value that is lower than its book value could result in a loss on its sale and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Further, if we determine at any time that a vessel’s future useful life and earnings require us to impair its value on our financial statements, we may need to recognize a significant impairment charge against our earnings. Such a determination involves numerous assumptions and estimates, some of which require more discretion and are less predictable. We recognized asset impairment charges of $92.4 million, $149.2 million and $183.9 million in 2021, 2020, and 2019, respectively, in relation to continuing operations. The 2021 charge included impairments of $66.9 million, $18.4 million, and $6.4 million for four Suezmax tankers, three LR2 tankers and four Aframax tankers, respectively, of Teekay Tankers' vessels. The 2020 charge included impairments of $70.7 million for two of our FPSO units, the Petrojarl Banff and Sevan Hummingbird, and impairments of $67.0 million for nine of Teekay Tankers' Aframax tankers, and the 2019 charge included impairments of $178.3 million for three of our FPSO units, the Petrojarl Banff, Sevan Hummingbird and Petrojarl Foinaven.
We have recognized asset impairments in the past and we may recognize additional impairments in the future, which will reduce our earnings and net assets.
If we determine at any time that an asset has been impaired, we may need to recognize an impairment charge that will reduce our earnings and net assets. We review our vessels for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable, which occurs when an asset's carrying value is greater than the estimated undiscounted future cash flows the asset is expected to generate over its remaining useful life. We review our goodwill for impairment annually and if a reporting unit's goodwill carrying value is greater than the estimated fair value, the goodwill attributable to that reporting unit is impaired. We evaluate our investments in equity-accounted joint ventures for impairment when events or circumstances indicate that the carrying value of such investment may have experienced an other-than-temporary decline in value below its carrying value.
Teekay Tankers anticipates that it may need to accelerate its fleet renewal in coming years, the success of any such program will depend on newbuilding and second-hand vessel availability and prices, market conditions and available financing, and which it anticipates will require significant expenditures.
As approximately 30% of Teekay Tankers' fleet is currently aged 15 years and older, we anticipate Teekay Tankers may need to accelerate its fleet renewal in coming years. Teekay Tankers' ability to successfully execute a renewal program will depend on the availability and prices of newbuilding and second-hand vessels, market conditions and charter rates (primarily spot tanker rates), and access to sufficient financing at acceptable rates. The cost of newbuilding or second-hand vessels will be significant, which could affect our consolidated financial condition and results of operations.
Our insurance may be insufficient to cover losses that may occur to our property or result from our operations.
The operation of oil tankers, lightering support vessels, transfer of oil and FPSO units is inherently risky. Although we carry hull and machinery (marine and war risks) and protection and indemnity insurance, and other liability insurance, all risks may not be adequately insured against, and any particular claim may not be paid or paid in full. In addition, we do not carry insurance on our vessels covering the loss of revenues resulting from vessel off-hire time. Any significant unpaid claims or off-hire time of our vessels could harm our business, operating results and financial condition. Any claims covered by insurance would be subject to deductibles, and since it is possible that a large number of claims may be brought, the aggregate amount of these deductibles could be material. Certain of our insurance coverage is maintained through mutual protection and indemnity associations, and as a member of such associations, we may be required to make additional payments over and above budgeted premiums if member claims exceed association reserves. In addition, the cost of this protection and indemnity coverage has significantly increased and may continue to increase. Even if our insurance coverage is adequate to cover our losses, we may not be able to obtain a timely replacement vessel in the event of a total loss of a vessel.
We may be unable to procure adequate insurance coverage at commercially reasonable rates in the future. For example, more stringent environmental regulations have led to increased costs for, and in the future may result in the lack of availability of, insurance against risks of environmental damage or pollution. A catastrophic oil spill, marine disasters or natural disasters could exceed the insurance coverage, which could harm our business, financial condition and operating results. Any uninsured or underinsured loss could harm our business and financial condition. In addition, the insurance may be voidable by the insurers as a result of certain actions, such as vessels failing to maintain certification with applicable maritime regulatory organizations.
Changes in the insurance markets attributable to structural changes in insurance and reinsurance markets and risk appetite, economic factors, the impact of the COVID-19 global pandemic, outbreaks of other communicable diseases, war, terrorist attacks, environmental catastrophes or political changes may also make certain types of insurance more difficult to obtain. In addition, the insurance that may be available may be significantly more expensive than existing coverage or be available only with restrictive terms. With the recent sale of our Teekay Gas Business, we now own a smaller fleet, which may impact our buying power and could lead to us having increased insurance coverage costs.
We are green-recycling one FPSO unit and plan to decommission and/or green-recycle our remaining FPSO units, which are scheduled to generate limited additional revenue and for which we may be required to incur significant costs.
In February 2022, Spirit Energy, the charterer of the Sevan Hummingbird FPSO unit, provided a formal notice of termination of the FPSO charter contract, indicating an expected cessation of production on March 31, 2022 and a charter termination date of approximately May 16, 2022. In conjunction with Spirit Energy, Teekay is currently planning for the decommissioning of the unit from the Chestnut Field. Our estimates of decommissioning costs may change and differ from actual costs required to decommission and recycle the unit.
In April 2021, BP plc announced its decision to suspend production from the Foinaven oil fields and permanently remove the Petrojarl Foinaven FPSO unit from the site. In February 2022, BP plc provided formal redelivery notice to us, indicating an expected redelivery date of August 3, 2022, after which Teekay intends to recycle the unit in accordance with EU ship recycling regulations. Upon redelivery of the FPSO unit, we will receive a fixed lump sum payment of $11.6 million from BP, which we expect will cover the majority of the cost of green-recycling the FPSO unit.
In the first quarter of 2020, CNR International (U.K.) Limited (or CNRI) provided formal notice to us of its intention to decommission the Banff field and remove the Petrojarl Banff FPSO unit and the Apollo Spirit FSO from the field in June 2020. The oil production under the existing contract for the Petrojarl Banff FPSO unit ceased in June 2020, and Teekay commenced decommissioning activities during the second quarter of 2020 and into 2021. In May 2021, as a result of the Decommissioning Services Agreement (or DSA) with CNRI, Teekay was deemed to have fulfilled its prior decommissioning obligations associated with the Banff field. In May 2021, Teekay sold the Petrojarl Banff FPSO unit to an EU-approved shipyard for recycling and the unit is currently in the latter stages of green-recycling.
As a result of our strategy to wind down our FPSO business, we do not anticipate significant revenue to be generated from our FPSO units in the future and we will need to incur decommissioning and recycling costs, which may be significant.
Teekay Tankers has substantial debt levels and may incur additional debt.
As of December 31, 2021, our consolidated short-term debt, long-term debt and obligations related to finance leases totaled $991.0 million and we had the capacity to borrow an additional $73.8 million under our revolving credit facilities. These credit facilities may be used by us for general corporate purposes. In addition to our consolidated debt, our total proportionate interest in debt of a joint venture we do not control was $28.1 million as of December 31, 2021, of which Teekay Tankers has guaranteed 50%. Our consolidated debt, finance lease obligations and joint venture debt could increase substantially. We will continue to have the ability to incur additional debt, subject to limitations in our credit facilities. Our level of debt could have important consequences to us, including:
•our ability to obtain additional financing, if necessary, for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other purposes, and our ability to refinance our credit facilities may be impaired or such financing may not be available on favorable terms, if at all;
•we will need to use a substantial portion of our cash flow to make principal and interest payments on our debt, reducing the funds that would otherwise be available for operations, future business opportunities, repurchases of equity securities and dividends to shareholders;
•our debt level may make us more vulnerable than our competitors with less debt to competitive pressures or a downturn in our industry or the economy generally; and
•our debt level may limit our flexibility in obtaining additional financing, pursuing other business opportunities and responding to changing business and economic conditions.
Our ability to service our debt and obligations related to finance leases depends upon, among other things, our financial and operating performance, which is affected by prevailing economic conditions and financial, business, regulatory and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. If our operating results are not sufficient to service our current or future indebtedness and obligations related to finance leases, we will be forced to take actions such as reducing or delaying our business activities, acquisitions, investments or capital expenditures, selling assets, restructuring or refinancing our debt, or seeking additional equity capital or bankruptcy protection. We may not be able to effect any of these remedies on satisfactory terms, or at all.
Exposure to interest rate fluctuations will result in fluctuations in our cash flows and operating results.
We are exposed to the impact of interest rate changes primarily through certain of our borrowings that require us to make interest payments based on LIBOR or Secured Overnight Finance Rate (or SOFR). Significant increases in interest rates could adversely affect our profit margins, results of operations and our ability to service our debt. In accordance with our risk management policy, we use interest rate swaps on certain of our debt to reduce our exposure to market risk from changes in interest rates. The principal objective of these contracts is to minimize the risks and costs associated with our floating rate debt. However, any hedging activities entered into by us may not be effective in fully mitigating our interest rate risk from our variable rate indebtedness.
In addition, we are exposed to credit loss in the event of non-performance by the counterparties to the interest rate swap agreements. For further information about our financial instruments at December 31, 2021 that are sensitive to changes in interest rates, please read "Item 11 - Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk".
Use of LIBOR is currently scheduled to cease, and interest rates on our LIBOR-based obligations may increase in the future.
LIBOR is the subject of recent national, international and other regulatory guidance and proposals for reform. As of December 31, 2021, LIBOR is no longer published on a representative basis, with the exception of the most commonly used tenors of U.S. dollar LIBOR, which will no longer be published on a representative basis after June 30, 2023. The U.S. Federal Reserve, in conjunction with the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a steering committee comprised of large U.S. financial institutions has selected SOFR as an alternative, which is a new index calculated by short-term repurchase agreements backed by Treasury securities. SOFR is observed and backward-looking, which stands in contrast with LIBOR under the current methodology, which is an estimated forward-looking rate and relies, to some degree, on the expert judgment of submitting panel members. Whether or not SOFR attains market acceptance as a LIBOR replacement tool remains in question and there can be no assurance that the transition to a new benchmark rate or other financial metric will be an adequate alternative to LIBOR or produce the economic equivalent of LIBOR. As a result, it is not possible at this time to know the ultimate impact that the phase-out of LIBOR may have.
While some of the agreements governing our revolving credit facilities, term loan facilities, interest rate swaps and finance lease facilities provide for an alternate method of calculating interest rates in the event that a LIBOR rate is unavailable, if LIBOR ceases to exist or if the methods of calculating LIBOR change from their current form, there may be adverse impacts on the financial markets generally and interest rates on borrowings under our revolving credit facilities, term loan facilities, interest rate swaps and finance lease facilities may be materially adversely affected.
In addition, we may need to renegotiate certain LIBOR-based credit facilities or interest rate derivatives agreements, which could adversely impact our cost of debt. There can be no assurance that we will be able to modify existing documentation or renegotiate existing transactions before the discontinuation of LIBOR.
As at December 31, 2021, our revolving credit facilities, term loan facilities, interest rate swaps and finance lease facilities continued to use LIBOR. In January 2022, we amended one working capital loan facility to daily SOFR. We anticipate that new financings and interest rate swaps will require utilization of an alternative reference rate. Some of our existing facilities and interest rate swaps will likely be amended to SOFR or an alternative reference rate during 2022 prior to LIBOR ceasing on June 30, 2023.
Financing agreements containing operating and financial restrictions may restrict our business and financing activities.
The operating and financial restrictions and covenants in our revolving credit facilities, working capital loan facility, term loans, lease obligations, indentures and in any of our future financing agreements could adversely affect our ability to finance future operations or capital needs or to pursue and expand our business activities. For example, these financing arrangements may restrict our ability to:
•incur additional indebtedness and guarantee indebtedness;
•pay dividends or make other distributions or repurchase or redeem our capital stock;
•prepay, redeem or repurchase certain debt;
•issue certain preferred shares or similar equity securities;
•make loans and investments;
•enter into a new line of business;
•incur or permit certain liens to exist;
•enter into transactions with affiliates;
•create unrestricted subsidiaries;
•transfer, sell, convey or otherwise dispose of assets;
•make certain acquisitions and investments;
•enter into agreements restricting our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends; and
•consolidate, merge or sell all or substantially all of our assets.
In addition, certain of our debt agreements and lease obligations require us to comply with certain financial covenants. Our ability to comply with covenants and restrictions contained in debt instruments and finance lease obligations may be affected by events beyond our control, including prevailing economic, financial and industry conditions. If any such events were to occur, we may fail to comply with these covenants. If we breach any of the restrictions, covenants, ratios or tests in our financing agreements or indentures and we are unable to cure such breach within the prescribed cure period, our obligations may, at the election of the relevant lender, become immediately due and payable, and the lenders’ commitment under our credit facilities, if any, to make further loans available to us may terminate. In certain circumstances, this could lead to cross-defaults under our other financing agreements which in turn could result in obligations becoming due and commitments being terminated under such agreements. A default under our financing agreements could also result in foreclosure on any of our vessels and other assets securing related loans and finance leases or our need to sell assets or take other actions in order to meet our debt obligations.
Furthermore, the termination of any of our charter contracts by our customers could result in the repayment of the debt facilities to which the chartered vessels relate.
Our and many of our customers' substantial operations outside the United States expose us and them to political, governmental, and economic instability, which could harm our operations.
Because our operations and the operations of our customers are primarily conducted outside of the United States, they may be affected by economic, political and governmental conditions in the countries where we or our customers engage in business or where our vessels are registered. Any disruption caused by these factors could harm our business, including by reducing the levels of oil exploration, development, and production activities in these areas or restricting the pool of customers. We derive some of our revenues from shipping oil from politically unstable regions. Conflicts in these regions have included attacks on ships and other efforts to disrupt shipping. Hostilities or other political instability in regions where we operate or where we may operate could have a material adverse effect on the growth of our business, results of operations and financial condition and ability to pay dividends.
In addition, tariffs, trade embargoes and other economic sanctions by the United States or other countries against countries in which we operate, to which we trade, or to which we or any of our customers, joint venture partners or business partners become subject, may limit trading activities with those countries or with customers, which could also harm our business and ability to pay dividends. For example, the United States imposed sanctions on Russia starting in 2014 based on Russia’s involvement in divesting control by Ukraine of the Crimea region. Beginning in February 2022, the United States and numerous other nations imposed substantial additional sanctions on Russia for its invasion of Ukraine. In addition, general trade tensions between the United States and China escalated in 2018 and continued through much of 2019, with the United States imposing a series of tariffs on China and China responding by imposing tariffs on United States products; during the last quarter of 2019, the United States and China negotiated an agreement to reduce trade tensions which became effective in February 2020. Our business could be harmed by increasing trade protectionism or trade tensions between the United States and China, or trade embargoes or other economic sanctions by the United States or other countries against countries in the Middle East or Asia, Russia or elsewhere as a result of terrorist attacks, hostilities, or diplomatic or political pressures that limit trading activities with those countries.
In addition, a government could requisition one or more of our vessels, which is most likely during war or national emergency. Any such requisition would cause a loss of the vessel and could harm our cash flows and financial results.
Maritime claimants could arrest, or port authorities could detain, our vessels, which could interrupt our cash flow.
Crew members, suppliers of goods and services to a vessel, shippers of cargo and other parties may be entitled to a maritime lien against that vessel for unsatisfied debts, claims or damages. In many jurisdictions, a maritime lienholder may enforce its lien by arresting a vessel through foreclosure proceedings. The arrest or attachment of one or more of our vessels could interrupt our cash flow and require us to pay large sums of funds to have the arrest or attachment lifted. In addition, in some jurisdictions, such as South Africa, under the “sister ship” theory of liability, a claimant may arrest both the vessel that is subject to the claimant’s maritime lien and any “associated” vessel, which is any vessel owned or controlled by the same owner. Claimants could try to assert “sister ship” liability against one vessel in our fleet or the RSAs in which we operate for claims relating to another of our ships. Also, port authorities may seek to detain our vessels in port, which could adversely affect our operating results or relationships with customers.
Many of our seafaring employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements and the failure to renew those agreements or any future labor agreements may disrupt operations and adversely affect our cash flows.
A significant portion of our seafarers are employed under collective bargaining agreements. We may become subject to additional labor agreements in the future. We may suffer labor disruptions if relationships deteriorate with the seafarers or the unions that represent them. Our collective bargaining agreements may not prevent labor disruptions, particularly when the agreements are being renegotiated. Salaries are typically renegotiated annually or bi-annually for seafarers and annually for onshore operational staff and may increase our cost of operation. Any labor disruptions could harm our operations and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We may be unable to attract and retain qualified, skilled employees or crew necessary to operate our business.
Our success depends in large part on our ability to attract and retain highly skilled and qualified personnel. In crewing our vessels, we require technically skilled employees with specialized training who can perform physically demanding work. Any inability we experience in the future to hire, train and retain a sufficient number of qualified employees could impair our ability to manage, maintain and grow our business.
Exposure to currency exchange rate fluctuations results in fluctuations in our cash flows and operating results.
Substantially all of our revenues are earned in U.S. Dollars, although we are paid in Australian Dollars and British Pounds under some of our charters. A portion of our operating costs are incurred in currencies other than U.S. Dollars. This partial mismatch in operating revenues and expenses leads to fluctuations in net income due to changes in the value of the U.S. Dollar relative to other currencies, in particular the British Pound, the Euro, the Singapore Dollar, Australian Dollar, and Canadian Dollar.
Because we report our operating results in U.S. Dollars, changes in the value of the U.S. Dollar relative to other currencies also result in fluctuations of our reported revenues and earnings. Under U.S. accounting guidelines, all foreign currency-denominated monetary assets and liabilities, such as cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, restricted cash, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, advances from affiliates and long-term debt are revalued and reported based on the prevailing exchange rate at the end of the applicable period. This revaluation historically has caused us to report significant unrealized foreign currency exchange gains or losses each period.
Our operating results are subject to seasonal fluctuations.
Our tankers operate in markets that have historically exhibited seasonal variations in tanker demand and, therefore, in spot-charter rates. This seasonality may result in quarter-to-quarter volatility in our results of operations. Tanker markets are typically stronger in the winter months as a result of increased oil consumption in the northern hemisphere but weaker in the summer months as a result of lower oil consumption in the northern hemisphere and refinery maintenance. In addition, unpredictable weather patterns during the winter months tend to disrupt vessel scheduling, which historically has increased oil price volatility and oil trading activities in the winter months. As a result, revenues generated by the tankers in our fleet have historically been weaker during our fiscal quarters ended June 30 and September 30, and stronger in our fiscal quarters ended December 31 and March 31.
We may be unable to make or realize expected benefits from acquisitions and growth through acquisitions may harm our financial condition and performance.
A principal component of our long-term strategy is to continue to grow by expanding our business both in the geographic areas and markets where we have historically focused as well as into new geographic areas, market segments and services. We may not be successful in expanding our operations and any expansion may not be profitable. In order to achieve growth, we may acquire new companies or businesses which transactions may involve business risks commonly encountered in acquisitions of companies, including:
•interruption of, or loss of momentum in, the activities of one or more of an acquired company’s businesses and our businesses;
•additional demands on members of our senior management while integrating acquired businesses, which would decrease the time they have to manage our existing business, service existing customers and attract new customers;
•difficulties identifying suitable acquisition candidates;
•difficulties integrating the operations, personnel and business culture of acquired companies;
•difficulties coordinating and managing geographically separate organizations;
•adverse effects on relationships with our existing suppliers and customers, and those of the companies acquired;
•difficulties entering geographic markets or new market segments in which we have no or limited experience; and
•loss of key officers and employees of acquired companies.
Acquisitions may not be profitable to us at the time of their completion and may not generate revenues sufficient to justify our investment. In addition, our acquisition growth strategy exposes us to risks that may harm our results of operations and financial condition, including the risks that we may: fail to realize anticipated benefits, such as cost-savings, revenue and cash flow enhancements and earnings accretion; decrease our liquidity by using a significant portion of our available cash or borrowing capacity to finance acquisitions; incur additional indebtedness, which may result in significantly increased interest expense or financial leverage, or issue additional equity securities to finance acquisitions, which may result in significant shareholder dilution; incur or assume unanticipated liabilities, losses or costs associated with the business acquired; or incur other significant charges, such as impairment of goodwill or other intangible assets, asset devaluation or restructuring charges.
Unlike newbuildings, existing vessels typically do not carry warranties as to their condition. While we generally inspect existing vessels prior to purchase, such an inspection would normally not provide us with as much knowledge of a vessel’s condition as we would possess if it had been built for us and operated by us during its life. Repairs and maintenance costs for existing vessels are difficult to predict and may be substantially higher than for vessels we have operated since they were built. These costs could decrease our cash flow and reduce our liquidity.
Teekay Tankers may expend substantial sums during the construction of potential future newbuildings or upgrades to their existing vessels, without earning revenue and without assurance that they will be completed.
We may be required to expend substantial sums as progress payments during the construction of any potential future newbuildings or any vessel upgrades, but we may not derive any revenue from the vessel until after its delivery or completion of such upgrades. In addition, under some of our time charters if our delivery of a vessel to a customer is delayed, we may be required to pay liquidated damages in amounts equal to or, under some charters, almost double the hire rate during the delay. For prolonged delays, the customer may terminate the time charter and, in addition to the resulting loss of revenues, we may be responsible for additional substantial liquidated charges.
Our newbuilding financing commitments typically have been pre-arranged. However, if we are unable to obtain financing required to complete payments on any potential future newbuilding orders, we could effectively forfeit all or a portion of the progress payments previously made.
Teekay Tankers’ U.S. Gulf lightering business competes with alternative methods of delivering crude oil to ports, which may limit its earnings in this area of its operations.
Teekay Tankers’ U.S. Gulf lightering business faces competition from alternative methods of delivering crude oil shipments to port, including offshore offloading facilities. While we believe that lightering offers advantages over alternative methods of delivering crude oil to U.S. Gulf ports, Teekay Tankers’ lightering revenues may be limited due to the availability of alternative methods.
Teekay Tankers’ full service lightering operations are subject to specific risks that could lead to accidents, oil spills or property damage.
Lightering is subject to specific risks arising from the process of safely bringing two large moving tankers next to each other and mooring them for lightering operations. These operations require a high degree of expertise and present a higher risk of collision compared to when docking a vessel or transferring cargo at port. Lightering operations, similar to marine transportation in general, are also subject to risks due to events such as mechanical failures, human error, and weather conditions.
Legal and Regulatory Risks
We are bound to adhere to sanctions from many jurisdictions, including the United States, United Kingdom, European Union and Canada, due to our domicile and location of offices.
The United States has imposed sanctions on several countries or regions such as Cuba, North Korea, Syria, Sudan, Iran, Yemen, Venezuela and Russia. The European Union (which at the time included the United Kingdom, which now operates independently) lifted its previously enacted sanctions on Iran in January 2016. At that time, the United States lifted its secondary sanctions on Iran, which applied to foreign persons but the Trump administration reintroduced these and retained its primary sanctions which apply to U.S. entities and their foreign subsidiaries.
Beginning in February 2022, the United States and numerous other nations, notably including the European Union and United Kingdom, imposed substantial additional sanctions on Russia regarding its invasion of Ukraine, and these have been increasing. These Russian sanctions, together with the global reaction to the Russian invasion of Ukraine, may reduce our revenues.
Past port calls by our vessels or third-party vessels participating in RSAs to countries that are subject to sanctions imposed by the United States, European Union and the United Kingdom could harm our business.
In the past, oil tankers owned or chartered-in by us, or third-party vessels participating in RSAs from which we derive revenue, have made port calls in certain countries that are currently subject to sanctions imposed by the U.S., European Union and United Kingdom, for the loading and discharging of oil products. Those port calls did not violate U.S., European Union or United Kingdom sanctions at the time, and we intend to maintain our compliance with all U.S., European Union and United Kingdom sanctions.
We believe these historical port calls will not adversely impact our business, because they were legal at the time and we are able to demonstrate our compliance. However, some charterers may choose not to utilize a vessel that had previously called at a port in a now sanctioned country. Some investors might decide not to invest in us simply because we have previously called on, or through our participation in RSAs have previously received revenue from calls on, ports in these sanctioned countries. Any such investor reaction could adversely affect the market for our common shares.
Failure to comply with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the UK Bribery Act, the UK Criminal Finances Act and similar laws in other jurisdictions could result in fines, criminal penalties, contract terminations and an adverse effect on our business.
We operate our vessels worldwide, which may require our vessels to trade in countries known to have a reputation for corruption. We are committed to doing business in accordance with applicable anti-corruption laws and have adopted a code of business conduct and ethics which is consistent and in full compliance with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (the FCPA), the Bribery Act 2010 of the United Kingdom (or the UK Bribery Act) and the Criminal Finances Act 2017 of the United Kingdom (the CFA). We are subject, however, to the risk that we, our affiliated entities or our or their respective officers, directors, employees and agents may take actions determined to be in violation of such anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws, including the FCPA, the UK Bribery Act and the CFA. Any such violation could result in substantial fines, sanctions, civil and/or criminal penalties, or curtailment of operations in certain jurisdictions, and might adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition. In addition, actual or alleged violations could damage our reputation and ability to do business. Furthermore, detecting, investigating, and resolving actual or alleged violations is expensive and can consume significant time and attention of our senior management.
The shipping industry is subject to substantial environmental and other regulations, which may significantly limit operations and increase expenses.
Our operations are affected by extensive and changing international, national and local environmental protection laws, regulations, treaties and conventions which are in force in international waters, the jurisdictional waters of the countries in which our vessels operate, as well as the countries of our vessels’ registration, including those governing oil spills, discharges to air and water, and the handling and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes. Many of these requirements are designed to reduce the risk of oil spills and other pollution. In addition, we believe that the heightened environmental, quality and security concerns of insurance underwriters, regulators and charterers will lead to additional regulatory requirements, including enhanced risk assessment and security requirements and greater inspection and safety requirements on vessels. For example, new or amended legislation relating to ship recycling, sewage systems, emission control (including emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants) as well as ballast water treatment and ballast water handling may be adopted. The International Maritime Organization (the IMO), the United Nations agency for maritime safety and the prevention of pollution by vessels, has also established progressive standards limiting emissions from ships starting from 2023 towards 2030 and 2050 goals. These and other laws or regulations may require significant additional capital expenditures or operating expenses in order for us to comply with the laws and regulations and maintain our vessels in compliance with international and national regulations.
The environmental and other laws and regulations applicable to us may affect the resale value or useful lives of our vessels, require a reduction in cargo capacity, ship modifications or operational changes or restrictions, lead to decreased availability of insurance coverage for environmental matters or result in the denial of access to certain jurisdictional waters or ports, or detention in, certain ports. Under local, national, and foreign laws, as well as international treaties and conventions, we could incur material liabilities, including cleanup obligations, if there is a release of petroleum or other hazardous substances from our vessels or otherwise in connection with our operations. We could also become subject to personal injury or property damage claims relating to the release of or exposure to hazardous materials associated with our operations. In addition, failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations may result in administrative and civil penalties, criminal sanctions or the suspension or termination of our operations, including, in certain instances, seizure or detention of our vessels. For further information about regulations affecting our business and the related requirements imposed on us, please read "Item 4 – Information on the Company: B. Business Overview – Regulations".
Climate change and greenhouse gas restrictions may adversely impact our operations and markets.
An increasing concern for, and focus on climate change has promoted extensive existing and proposed international, national and local regulations intended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (including from various jurisdictions and the IMO). These regulatory measures may include the adoption of cap and trade regimes, carbon taxes, increased efficiency standards and incentives or mandates for renewable energy. Compliance with these or other regulations and our efforts to participate in reducing greenhouse gas emissions could increase our compliance costs, require additional capital expenditures to reduce vessel emissions and may require changes to our business.
Our business includes transporting oil and oil products. Regulatory changes and growing public concern about the environmental impact of climate change may lead to reduced demand for our assets and decreased demand for our services, while increasing or creating greater incentives for use of alternative energy sources. We expect regulatory and consumer efforts aimed at combating climate change to intensify and accelerate. Although we do not expect demand for oil to decline dramatically over the short-term, in the long-term, climate change initiatives will likely significantly affect demand for oil and for alternatives. Any such change could adversely affect our ability to compete in a changing market and our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Increasing scrutiny and changing expectations from investors, lenders, customers and other market participants with respect to ESG policies and practices may impose additional costs on us or expose us to additional risks.
Companies across all industries are facing increasing scrutiny relating to their ESG policies and disclosures. Investor advocacy groups, certain institutional investors, investment funds, lenders and other market participants are increasingly focused on ESG practices and, in recent years, have placed increasing importance on the implications and social cost of their investments. The increased focus and activism related to ESG and similar matters may hinder access to capital, as investors and lenders may decide to reallocate capital or to not commit capital as a result of their assessment of a company’s ESG practices. Companies that do not adapt to or comply with investor, lender or other industry stakeholder expectations and standards, which are evolving, or which are perceived to have not responded appropriately to the growing concern for ESG issues, regardless of whether there is a legal requirement to do so, may suffer from reputational damage and their business, financial condition and stock price may be adversely affected.
We may face increasing pressures from investors, lenders, customers and other market participants, which are increasingly focused on climate change, to prioritize sustainable energy practices, reduce our carbon footprint and promote sustainability. As a result, we may be required to implement more stringent ESG procedures or standards so that our existing and future investors and lenders remain invested in us and make further investments in us, or in order for customers to consider conducting future business with us, especially given our business of transporting oil and oil products. In addition, it is likely we will incur additional costs and require additional resources to monitor, report and comply with wide-
ranging ESG requirements. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Regulations relating to ballast water discharge may adversely affect our operational results and financial condition.
The IMO has imposed updated guidelines for ballast water management systems specifying the maximum amount of viable organisms allowed to be discharged from a vessel’s ballast water. Depending on the date of the International Oil Pollution Prevention renewal survey, existing vessels are required to comply with updated applicable standards before September 8, 2024. Compliance with the applicable standard will involve installing on-board systems to treat ballast water and eliminate unwanted organisms. We are currently implementing ballast water management system upgrades on our vessels in accordance with the required timelines imposed by the IMO and also in line with our asset management requirements. The cost of compliance with these regulations, primarily from installing such systems, may be substantial and may adversely affect our results of operation and financial condition.
In addition to the requirements under the IMO, the United States Coast Guard (the USCG) has imposed mandatory ballast water management practices for all vessels equipped with ballast water tanks and entering U.S. waters. These USCG regulations may have the effect of restricting our vessels from entering U.S. waters, unless we equip our vessels with pre-approved BWTS management systems or receive authorization by a duly-issued permit or exemption.
As a Marshall Islands corporation with our headquarters in Bermuda and with a majority of our subsidiaries being Marshall Islands entities and also having subsidiaries in other offshore jurisdictions, our operations may be subject to economic substance requirements, which could impact our business.
Finance ministers of the EU rate jurisdictions for tax transparency, governance, real economic activity and corporate tax rate. Countries that do not adequately cooperate with the finance ministers are put on a “grey list” or a “blacklist”. Bermuda and the Marshall Islands were removed from the blacklist in May and October 2019, respectively. Subsequently, in February 2020, Bermuda and the Marshall Islands were "white-listed" by the EU and the Marshall Islands continue to remain on such list. On February 24, 2022, Bermuda was placed on the "grey list" but is expected to be moved back to the “white list” in October of 2022, subject to review by the EU Council. While being on the “grey list”, it is expected that Bermuda will not suffer any direct penalties or sanctions from the EU states.
EU member states have agreed upon a set of measures, which they can choose to apply against the listed countries, including increased monitoring and audits, withholding taxes, special documentation requirements and anti-abuse provisions. The European Commission has stated it will continue to support member states' efforts to develop a more coordinated approach to sanctions for the listed countries. EU legislation prohibits EU funds from being channeled or transited through entities in countries on the blacklist. Jurisdictions in which we operate could be put on the blacklist in the future.
We are a Marshall Islands corporation with our headquarters in Bermuda. A majority of our subsidiaries are Marshall Islands entities and a number of our subsidiaries are either organized or registered in Bermuda. These jurisdictions have enacted economic substance laws and regulations with which we are obligated to comply. We believe that we and our subsidiaries are compliant with the Bermuda and the Marshall Islands economic substance requirements. However, if there were a change in the requirements or interpretation thereof, or if there were an unexpected change to our operations, any such change could result in non-compliance with the economic substance legislation and related fines or other penalties, increased monitoring and audits, and dissolution of the non-compliant entity, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or operating results.
Information and Technology Risks
A cyber-attack could materially disrupt our business.
We rely on information technology systems and networks in our operations and the administration of our business. Cyber-attacks have increased in number and sophistication in recent years. Our operations could be targeted by individuals or groups seeking to sabotage or disrupt our information technology systems and networks, or to steal data. A successful cyber-attack could materially disrupt our operations, including the safety of our operations, or lead to the unauthorized release of information or alteration of information on our systems. Any such attack or other breaches of our information technology systems could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Most recently, Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has been accompanied by cyber-attacks against the Ukrainian government and other countries in the region. It is possible that these attacks could have collateral effects on additional critical infrastructure and financial institutions globally or may be initiated against the United States or European Union or other countries, which could adversely affect our operations. It is difficult to assess the likelihood of such a threat and any potential impact at this time.
Our failure to comply with data privacy laws could damage our customer relationships and expose us to litigation risks and potential fines.
Data privacy is subject to frequently changing rules and regulations, which sometimes conflict among the various jurisdictions and countries in which we provide services and continue to develop in ways which we cannot predict, including with respect to evolving technologies such as cloud computing. The EU has adopted the General Data Privacy Regulation (or GDPR), a comprehensive legal framework to govern data collection, use and sharing and related consumer privacy rights, which took effect in May 2018. The GDPR includes significant penalties for non-compliance. Our failure to adhere to or successfully implement processes in response to changing regulatory requirements in this area could result in legal liability or impairment to our reputation in the marketplace, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to an Investment in Our Securities
Because we are organized under the laws of the Marshall Islands, it may be difficult to serve us with legal process or enforce judgments against us, our directors or our management.
We are organized under the laws of the Marshall Islands, and all of our assets are located outside of the United States. In addition, a majority of our directors and officers are non-residents of the United States, and all or a substantial portion of the assets of these non-residents are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the United States. Even if successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Marshall Islands and of other jurisdictions may prevent or restrict the enforcement of a judgment against us or our assets or our directors and officers.
In addition to the following risk factors, you should read "Item 4E – Taxation of the Company", "Item 10 – Additional Information – Material United States Federal Income Tax Considerations" and "Item 10 – Additional Information – Non-United States Tax Considerations" for a more complete discussion of the expected material U.S. federal and non-U.S. income tax considerations relating to us and the ownership and disposition of our common stock.
Although we presently do not expect to be a "passive foreign investment company" (or PFIC) for the 2022 tax year, the increase in our cash assets from our sale of all our interests in Seapeak to Stonepeak in January 2022 has increased our risk that U.S. tax authorities could treat us as a PFIC, which could have adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to our U.S. shareholders and other adverse consequences to us and all our shareholders.
A non-U.S. entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes will be treated as a PFIC for such purposes in any taxable year in which, after taking into account the income and assets of the corporation and, pursuant to a “look-through” rule, any other corporation or partnership in which the corporation directly or indirectly owns at least 25% of the stock or equity interests (by value) and any partnership in which the corporation directly or indirectly owns less than 25% of the equity interests (by value) to the extent the corporation satisfies an "active partner" test and does not elect out of "look through" treatment, either (i) at least 75% of its gross income consists of “passive income” (or the PFIC income test) or (ii) at least 50% of the average value of the entity’s assets is attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of “passive income” (or the PFIC asset test). For purposes of these tests, “passive income” includes dividends, interest, gains from the sale or exchange of investment property and rents and royalties other than rents and royalties that are received from unrelated parties in connection with the active conduct of a trade or business. By contrast, income derived from the performance of services does not constitute “passive income.”
For purposes of the PFIC asset test, cash and cash equivalents (or cash assets) are considered to be assets that produce passive income. We have experienced a significant change in the composition of our assets as a result of our receipt of substantial cash assets in connection with the sale of all of our interests in Seapeak to Stonepeak in January 2022. Please read “Item 5 – Operating and Financial Review and Prospects – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Overview”. At the present time, we do not expect to be treated as a PFIC for the 2022 taxable year under the PFIC asset test. However, if current estimates or assumptions relating to our current PFIC asset test modeling, including our assumptions on the tanker market and the value of our fleet, were to prove to be inaccurate or contrary to future results, or if any other factors that would negatively affect PFIC asset outcomes were to occur, we could be a PFIC for the 2022 taxable year and for future taxable years. If any such case were to occur, our PFIC status for the 2022 taxable year and future taxable years may also depend on how, and how quickly, if at all, we use our existing cash assets. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that we will not be a PFIC for the 2022 taxable year or any future taxable year under the PFIC asset test.
Additionally, with respect to the PFIC income test, there are legal uncertainties involved in determining whether the income derived from our and our look-through subsidiaries' time-chartering activities constitutes rental income or income derived from the performance of services, including the decision in Tidewater Inc. v. United States, 565 F.3d 299 (5th Cir. 2009), which held that income derived from certain time-chartering activities should be treated as rental income rather than services income for purposes of a foreign sales corporation provision of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (or the Code). However, the Internal Revenue Service (or the IRS) stated in an Action on Decision (AOD 2010-01) that it disagrees with, and will not acquiesce to, the way that the rental versus services framework was applied to the facts in the Tidewater decision, and in its discussion stated that the time charters at issue in Tidewater would be treated as producing services income for PFIC purposes. The IRS’s statement with respect to Tidewater cannot be relied upon or otherwise cited as precedent by taxpayers. Consequently, in the absence of any binding legal authority specifically relating to the statutory provisions governing PFICs, there can be no assurance that the IRS or a court would not follow the Tidewater decision in interpreting the PFIC provisions of the Code. Nevertheless, based on our and our look-through subsidiaries’ current assets and operations, we intend to take the position that we are not now and have never been a PFIC by reason of the PFIC income test. No assurance can be given, however, that this position would be sustained by a court if contested by the IRS or that we would not constitute a PFIC by reason of the PFIC income test (or, alternatively, as described above, the PFIC asset test) for the 2022 taxable year or any future taxable year if there were to be changes in our and our look-through subsidiaries' assets, income or operations.
If we or the IRS were to determine that we are or have been a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. Holder (as defined below under "Item 10 – Additional Information – Material United States Federal Income Tax Considerations") held our common stock, such U.S. Holder would face adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences. For a more comprehensive discussion regarding the tax consequences to U.S. Holders if we are treated as a PFIC, please read "Item 10 – Additional Information – Material United States Federal Income Tax Considerations – United States Federal Income Taxation of U.S. Holders – Consequences of Possible PFIC Classification".
In addition, if we or the IRS were to determine that we are or have been a PFIC, the price of our shares of common stock may decline and our ability to raise capital on acceptable terms may be materially and adversely affected.
We are subject to taxes, which reduces our cash available for distribution to shareholders.
We or our subsidiaries are subject to tax in certain jurisdictions in which we or our subsidiaries are organized, own assets or have operations, which reduces the amount of our cash available for distribution. In computing our tax obligations in these jurisdictions, we are required to take various tax accounting and reporting positions, including in certain cases estimates, on matters that are not entirely free from doubt and for which we may not have received rulings from the governing authorities. We cannot assure you that upon review of these positions, the applicable authorities will agree with our positions. A successful challenge by a tax authority could result in additional tax imposed on us or our subsidiaries, further reducing the cash available for distribution. We have established reserves in our financial statements that we believe are adequate to cover our liability for any such additional taxes. We cannot assure you, however, that such reserves will be sufficient to cover any additional tax liability that may be imposed on our subsidiaries. In addition, changes in our operations or ownership could result in additional tax being imposed on us or on our subsidiaries in jurisdictions in which operations are conducted. For example, changes in the ownership of our stock may cause us to be unable to claim an exemption from U.S. federal income tax under Section 883 of the Code. If we were not exempt from tax under Section 883 of the Code, we would be subject to U.S. federal income tax on income we earn from voyages into or out of the United States, the amount of which is not within our complete control. In addition, we may rely on an exemption to be deemed non-resident in Canada for Canadian tax purposes under subsection 250(6) of the Canada Income Tax Act for (i) corporations whose principal business is international shipping and that derive all or substantially all of their revenue from international shipping, and (ii) corporations that are holding companies that have over half of the cost base of their investments in eligible international shipping subsidiaries and receive substantially all of their revenue as dividends from those eligible international shipping subsidiaries exempt under subsection 250(6). If we were to cease to qualify for the subsection 250(6) exemption, we could be subject to Canadian income tax and also Canadian withholding tax on outbound distributions, which could have an adverse effect on our operating results. In addition, to the extent Teekay Corporation were to distribute dividends as a corporation determined to be resident in Canada, stockholders who are not resident in Canada for purposes of the Canada Income Tax Act would generally be subject to Canadian withholding tax in respect of such dividends paid by Teekay Corporation.
Typically, most of our and our subsidiaries' time-charter and spot-voyage charter contracts require the charterer to reimburse us for a certain period of time in respect of taxes incurred as a consequence of the voyage activities of our vessels, while performing under the relevant charter. However, our rights to reimbursement under charter contracts may not survive for as long as the applicable tax statutes of limitations in the jurisdictions in which we operate. As such, we may not be able to obtain reimbursement from our charterers where any applicable taxes that are not paid before the contractual claim period has expired.
Item 4.Information on the Company
A.Overview, History and Development
Teekay Corporation is a leading provider of international crude oil and other marine transportation services. Teekay currently provides these services directly and through its controlling ownership interest in Teekay Tankers Ltd. (NYSE: TNK) (or Teekay Tankers), one of the world’s largest owners and operators of mid-sized crude tankers.
The consolidated Teekay entities manage and operate total assets under management of approximately $2 billion, comprised of approximately 55 conventional tankers and other marine assets. With offices in eight countries and approximately 2,500 seagoing and shore-based employees, Teekay provides a comprehensive set of marine services to the world’s leading energy companies.
Our business strategy focuses on:
•Generating attractive risk-adjusted returns, utilizing our strong operating franchise and capabilities, global footprint and operational excellence;
•Offering a wide breadth of marine solutions to meet our customers’ needs;
•Providing superior customer service by maintaining high reliability, safety, environmental and quality standards; and
•Leveraging Teekay Parent’s deep expertise and experience in our industry to pursue suitable investment opportunities in both the broader shipping sector and, potentially, in new and adjacent markets, which we expect to be dynamic as the world pushes towards greater energy diversification.
Our organizational structure can be divided into (a) our controlling interest in Teekay Tankers and (b) Teekay and its remaining subsidiaries (or Teekay Parent).
We currently have an economic ownership interest of 31.3% in Teekay Tankers and hold 55.6% of the voting power of Teekay Tankers, through our ownership of shares of Class A and Class B common stock. Teekay Tankers includes all of our conventional crude oil and product tankers. Teekay Tankers' conventional tankers primarily operate in the spot tanker market or are subject to time charters or contracts of affreightment that are priced on a spot market basis or are short-term, fixed-rate contracts. Teekay Tankers considers contracts that have an original term of less than one year in duration to be short-term. Certain of its tankers are on fixed-rate time-charter contracts with an initial duration of at least one year. Teekay Tankers also owns a ship-to-ship transfer business that performs full service lightering and lightering support operations in the U.S. Gulf and Caribbean. Please read “– B. Operations – Our Fleet” and “– C. Organizational Structure”.
Following the sale of the Teekay Gas Business in January 2022, Teekay Parent repaid nearly all of its debt and is now net debt free. As a result, in addition to our interests in Teekay Tankers highlighted above, Teekay Parent currently has a net cash position of over $300 million as well as direct business operations in Australia through the provision of operational and maintenance marine services to third parties, and provides marine and corporate services to Teekay Tankers through its various management services companies. Teekay Parent also currently owns two FPSO units, one of which is expected to be green-recycled following its scheduled redelivery in August 2022. The remaining FPSO unit's contract is scheduled to terminate in May 2022, after which the unit may be green-recycled absent entering into an acceptable replacement charter contract or outright sale. Please read “– B. Operations – Teekay Parent”.
Teekay Parent has developed extensive industry experience and industry-leading capabilities over its nearly 50-year history, and has significant financial strength and liquidity following the sale of the Teekay Gas Business in January 2022. As the world pushes for greater energy diversification and a lower environmental footprint, we expect to see investment opportunities in both the broader shipping sectors and potentially new and adjacent markets. Our primary financial objective for Teekay Parent is to increase Teekay’s intrinsic value per share, which includes, among other things, increasing the intrinsic value of Teekay Tankers.
In addition to Teekay Tankers, we also formed and developed industry-leading public companies Teekay LNG Partners L.P. (now Seapeak) and Teekay Offshore Partners L.P. (now Altera) related to our expansion into the liquefied gas shipping sector and offshore production, storage and transportation sector, respectively. We sold our entire interests in Seapeak and related assets to affiliates of Stonepeak pursuant to the sale of the Teekay Gas Business in January 2022; we sold a significant portion of our interests in Teekay Offshore Partners L.P. to affiliates of Brookfield Business Partners L.P. in a strategic transaction in 2017, and our remaining interests to Brookfield in May 2019 (or the 2019 Brookfield Transaction). Please read “Item 5 – Operating and Financial Review and Prospects – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Overview” for more information about the sale of the Teekay Gas Business.
The Teekay organization was founded in 1973. We are a Marshall Islands corporation and maintain our principal executive office at 4th Floor, Belvedere Building, 69 Pitts Bay Road, Hamilton, HM 08, Bermuda. Our telephone number at such address is (441) 298-2530.
The SEC maintains an Internet site at www.sec.gov, that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. Our website is www.teekay.com. The information contained on our website is not part of this annual report.
Seasonality of our operations
Our tankers operate in markets that have historically exhibited seasonal variations in tanker demand and, therefore, in spot-charter rates. This seasonality may result in quarter-to-quarter volatility in our results of operations. Tanker markets are typically stronger in the winter months as a result of increased oil consumption in the northern hemisphere but weaker in the summer months as a result of lower oil consumption in the northern hemisphere and refinery maintenance. In addition, unpredictable weather patterns during the winter months tend to disrupt vessel scheduling, which historically has increased oil price volatility and oil trading activities in the winter months. As a result, revenues generated by the tankers in our fleet have historically been weaker during our fiscal quarters ended June 30 and September 30, and stronger in our fiscal quarters ended December 31 and March 31.
Subsequent to the sale of the Teekay Gas Business, we currently have three primary lines of business: conventional tankers, operational and maintenance marine services, and offshore production (FPSO units). We manage these businesses for the benefit of all stakeholders. We allocate capital and assess performance from the separate perspectives Teekay Tankers and Teekay Parent, as well as from the perspective of the lines of business (the Line of Business approach). The primary focus of our organizational structure, internal reporting and allocation of resources by the chief operating decision maker, is on Teekay Tankers and Teekay Parent (the Legal Entity approach). However, we continue to incorporate the Line of Business approach as in certain cases there is more than one line of business in each of Teekay Tankers and Teekay Parent, and we believe this information allows a better understanding of our performance and prospects for future net cash flows.
Teekay Tankers owns all of our conventional crude oil tankers and product carriers. Our conventional crude oil tankers and product tankers primarily operate in the spot tanker market or are subject to time charters or contracts of affreightment that are priced on a spot market basis or are short-term, fixed-rate contracts. We consider contracts that have an original term of less than one year in duration to be short-term. Certain of our conventional crude oil tankers and product tankers are on fixed-rate time-charter contracts with an initial duration of at least one year.
Most of Teekay Tankers’ conventional tankers operate pursuant to revenue sharing agreements (or RSAs). The RSAs, which are managed by Teekay Tankers, are designed to spread the costs and risks associated with operation of vessels and to share the net revenues (revenues less voyage expenses and other applicable expenses) earned by all of the vessels in the RSA, based on the actual earning days each vessel is available and the relative performance capabilities, including speed and bunker consumption of each vessel. The performance capabilities of each vessel are adjusted on standard intervals based on current data. In addition, Teekay Tankers' share of the net revenues includes additional amounts, consisting of a per vessel per day fee and a percentage of the gross revenues related to the vessels of third-party vessel owners, based on their responsibilities in employing the vessels subject to the RSAs on voyage charters or time-charters. As of December 31, 2021, a total of 45 of Teekay Tankers' owned and leased vessels and three of Teekay Tankers' time-chartered in vessels operated in the spot market through employment on spot voyage charters. As of December 31, 2021, a total of 26 of Teekay Tankers' Suezmax tankers, seven of the Aframax tankers and nine of the LR2 product tankers in its fleet, as well as 13 vessels owned by third parties, were subject to RSAs. The vessels subject to the RSAs are employed and operated in the spot market or pursuant to time charters of less than one year.
Teekay Tankers’ vessels compete primarily in the Aframax and Suezmax tanker markets. In these markets, international seaborne oil and other petroleum products transportation services are provided by two main types of operators: captive fleets of major oil companies (both private and state-owned) and independent ship-owner fleets. Many major oil companies and other oil trading companies, the primary charterers of our vessels, also operate their own vessels and transport their own oil and oil for third-party charterers in direct competition with independent owners and operators. Competition for charters in the Aframax and Suezmax spot charter market is intense and is based upon price, location, the size, age, condition and acceptability of the vessel, and the reputation of the vessel’s manager.
Teekay Tankers competes principally with other owners in the spot-charter market through the global tanker charter market. This market is comprised of tanker broker companies that represent both charterers and ship-owners in chartering transactions. Within this market, some transactions, referred to as “market cargoes,” are offered by charterers through two or more brokers simultaneously and shown to the widest possible range of owners; other transactions, referred to as “private cargoes,” are given by the charterer to only one broker and shown selectively to a limited number of owners whose tankers are most likely to be acceptable to the charterer and are in position to undertake the voyage.
Teekay Tankers’ competition in the Aframax (85,000 to 124,999 dwt) market is also affected by the availability of other size vessels that compete in that market. Suezmax (125,000 to 199,999 dwt) vessels and Panamax (55,000 to 84,999 dwt) vessels can compete for many of the same charters for which our Aframax tankers compete; Aframax size vessels and VLCCs (200,000 to 319,999 dwt) can compete for many of the same charters for which our Suezmax tankers may compete. Because of their large size, Very Large Crude Carriers (or VLCCs) and Ultra Large Crude Carriers (or ULCCs) (320,000+ dwt) rarely compete directly with Aframax tankers, and ULCCs rarely compete with Suezmax tankers for specific charters. However, because VLCCs and ULCCs comprise a substantial portion of the total capacity of the market, movements by such vessels into Suezmax trades and of Suezmax vessels into Aframax trades would heighten the already intense competition.
Teekay Tankers also competes in the Long Range 2 (or LR2) (85,000 to 109,999 dwt) product tanker market. Competition in the LR2 product tanker market is affected by the availability of other size vessels that compete in the market. Long Range 1 (or LR1) (55,000-84,999 dwt) size vessels can compete for many of the same charters for which Teekay Tankers' LR2 tankers compete.
The operation of tanker vessels, as well as the seaborne transportation of crude oil and refined petroleum products, is a competitive market. There are several large operators of Aframax, Suezmax, and LR2 tonnage that provide these services globally.
Teekay Tankers believes that it has competitive advantages in the Aframax and Suezmax tanker market as a result of the quality, type and dimensions of its vessels and its market share in the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic Basins. As of December 31, 2021, its Aframax/LR2 tanker fleet had an average age of approximately 12.8 years and its Suezmax tanker fleet had an average age of approximately 12.0 years. This compares to an average age for the world oil tanker fleet of approximately 11.6 years, for the world Aframax/LR2 tanker fleet of approximately 11.3 years and for the world Suezmax tanker fleet of approximately 10.7 years.
Teekay Tankers acquired a ship-to-ship transfer business (now known as Teekay Marine Solutions or TMS) in July 2015 from a company jointly owned by Teekay and I.M. Skaugen SE. TMS provided a full suite of ship-to-ship transfer services in the oil, gas and dry bulk industries. In addition to full service lightering and lightering support, it also provided consultancy, terminal management and project development services. In April 2020, Teekay Tankers sold off its non-U.S. portion of the TMS business, as well as its liquefied natural gas (or LNG) terminal management business.
Teekay Parent currently owns two FPSO units and directly conducts business in Australia through the provision of operational and maintenance marine services to third parties, and provides marine and corporate services to Teekay Tankers through its various management services companies. Our business strategy contemplates leveraging Teekay Parent’s deep expertise and experience in our industry to pursue suitable investment opportunities in both the shipping sector and, potentially, in new and adjacent markets, which we expect to be dynamic as the world pushes towards greater energy diversification.
FPSO units are offshore production facilities that are ship-shaped or cylindrical-shaped and store processed crude oil in tanks located in the hull of the vessel. FPSO units are typically used as production facilities to develop marginal oil fields or deepwater areas remote from existing pipeline infrastructure. An FPSO unit carries on board all the necessary production and processing facilities normally associated with a fixed production platform.
Traditionally for large field developments, the major oil companies have owned and operated new, custom-built FPSO units. FPSO units for smaller fields have generally been provided by independent FPSO contractors under life-of-field production contracts, where the contract’s duration is for the useful life of the oil field. Most independent FPSO contractors have backgrounds in marine energy transportation, oil field services or oil field engineering and construction.
Our Sevan Hummingbird FPSO unit is on a charter contract with Spirit Energy Ltd. (or Spirit Energy) in the North Sea. The contract is based on a fixed charter rate and is subject to early termination options. In February 2022, Spirit Energy provided to us a formal notice of termination of the FPSO charter contract, indicating an expected cessation of production on March 31, 2022 and a charter termination date of approximately May 16, 2022. In conjunction with Spirit Energy, Teekay is currently planning for the decommissioning of the unit from the Chestnut Field.
In March 2020, Teekay Parent entered into a new bareboat charter contract with the existing charterer of the Petrojarl Foinaven FPSO unit. Under the terms of the new contract, Teekay Parent received a cash payment of $67 million in April 2020 and will receive a nominal per day rate over the life of the contract and a lump sum payment at the end of the contract period. In February 2022, BP plc provided to us formal redelivery notice, indicating an expected redelivery date of August 3, 2022, after which Teekay intends to recycle the unit in accordance with EU ship recycling regulations. Upon redelivery of the FPSO unit, we will receive a fixed lump sum payment of $11.6 million from BP which we expect will cover the majority of the cost of green-recycling the FPSO unit.
In the first quarter of 2020, CNR International (U.K.) Limited (or CNRI) provided formal notice to Teekay of its intention to decommission the Banff field and remove the Petrojarl Banff FPSO unit and the related Apollo Spirit floating storage and offtake (or FSO) unit from the field in June 2020. The oil production under the existing contract for the Petrojarl Banff FPSO unit ceased in June 2020, and Teekay commenced decommissioning activities during the second quarter of 2020 and into 2021. In May 2021, Teekay was deemed to have fulfilled its prior decommissioning obligations associated with the Banff field. In May 2021, Teekay sold the Petrojarl Banff FPSO unit to an EU-approved shipyard for recycling and the unit is currently in the latter stages of green-recycling.
Our Consolidated Fleet under Management
As at March 1, 2022, Teekay Parent and Teekay Tankers operated under management a fleet of approximately 55 vessels (excluding vessels managed for third parties), including chartered-in vessels but excluding an Aframax tanker newbuilding that is scheduled to be delivered in the fourth quarter of 2022 under a seven-year time charter-in contract. The following table summarizes our fleet under management as at March 1, 2022:
Owned and Leased
|Aframax Tankers||13 ||2 ||15 |
|Suezmax Tankers||25 ||— ||25 |
|VLCC Tanker||1 |
|— ||1 |
|Product Tankers||9 || ||1 ||10 |
|STS Support Vessels||— || ||2 ||2 |
|48 || ||5 ||53 |
|FPSO Units||2 || ||— ||2 |
|2 || ||— ||2 |
|Total||50 || ||5 ||55 |
(1)VLCC is 50%-owned by Teekay Tankers.
Our vessels are of Bahamian, Hong Kong, and Marshall Islands registry.
Many of our Aframax and Suezmax vessels have been designed and constructed as substantially identical sister ships. These vessels can, in many situations, be interchanged, providing scheduling flexibility and greater capacity utilization. In addition, spare parts and technical knowledge can be applied to all the vessels in the particular series, thereby generating operating efficiencies.
Please read “Item 18 – Financial Statements: Note 8 – Long-Term Debt” for information with respect to major encumbrances against our vessels.
Safety, Management of Ship Operations and Administration
Safety and Environmental Compliance are our top operational priorities. We operate our vessels in a manner intended to protect the safety and health of our employees, and to minimize the impact on the environment and society. We seek to effectively manage risk in the organization using a three-tiered approach at an operational, management and corporate level, designed to provide a clear line of sight throughout the organization. All of our operational employees receive training in the use of risk tools and the management system. We also have an approved competency management system in place to ensure our seafarers continue their professional development and are competent before being promoted to more senior roles.
We believe in continuous improvement, which has seen our safety and environmental culture develop over a significant time period. Health, Safety and Environmental Program milestones include the roll-out of the Environmental Leadership Program (2005), Safety in Action (2007), Quality Assurance and Training Officer Program (2008), Operational Leadership - The Journey (2010), E-Colours (2014), Significant Incident Potential (2015), Navigation Handbook (2016), Risk Tool Handbook (2017), Safety Management System upgrade (2018) and Fleet Training Officer (FTO) Program (2021).
In addition, the Operational Leadership - The Journey booklet was revised and relaunched in 2020. The booklet sets out our operational expectations and responsibilities and contains our safety, environmental, and leadership commitments and our Health, Safety, Security and Environmental & Quality Assurance Policy, which is signed by all employees and empowers them to work safely, to live Teekay’s vision, and to look after one another.
We, through certain of our subsidiaries, assist our operating subsidiaries in managing their ship operations. All vessels are operated under our comprehensive and integrated Safety Management System that complies with the International Safety Management Code (or ISM Code), the International Standards Organization’s (or ISO) 9001 for Quality Assurance, ISO 14001 for Environment Management Systems, ISO 45001 for Occupational Health and Safety Management System and the Maritime Labour Convention 2006 (MLC 2006) that became effective in 2013. The management system is certified by Det Norske Veritas (or DNV), the Norwegian classification society. It has also been separately approved by the Australian and Spanish flag administrations. Although certification is valid for five years, compliance with the above-mentioned standards is confirmed on a yearly basis by a rigorous auditing procedure that includes both internal audits as well as external verification audits by DNV and certain flag states.
Since 2010, we have produced a publicly available sustainability report that reflects the efforts, achievements, results and challenges faced by us and our affiliates relating to several key related matters, including emissions, climate change, corporate social responsibility, diversity and health, safety environment and quality. We recognize the significance of ESG considerations and in 2020, set an ESG strategy foundation which is intended to direct our efforts and performance in the years ahead. Our ESG strategy is focused on three broad area: allocating capital to support the global energy transition, operating our existing fleets as safely and efficiently as possible, and further strengthening our ESG profile. Annual targets are set for the organization and are closely monitored. Our sustainability report is available on our website, www.teekay.com. The information contained in our sustainability report and on our website is not part of this annual report.
We provide expertise in various functions critical to the operations of our operating subsidiaries. We believe this arrangement affords a safe, efficient and cost-effective operation. Our subsidiaries also provide to us access to human resources, financial and other administrative functions pursuant to administrative services agreements.
Critical ship management functions undertaken by us are:
•vessel maintenance (including repairs and dry docking) and certification;
•crewing by competent seafarers;
•procurement of stores, bunkers and spare parts;
•management of emergencies and incidents;
•supervision of shipyard and projects during new-building, conversions, lay up and recycling;
•financial management services.
These functions are supported by onboard and onshore systems for maintenance, inventory, purchasing and budget management.
Our day-to-day focus on cost efficiencies is applied to all aspects of our operations. In 2003, Teekay Corporation and two other shipping companies established a purchasing cooperation agreement called the TBW Alliance, which leverages the purchasing power of the combined fleets, mainly in such commodity areas as marine lubricants, coatings and chemicals and gases.
Risk of Loss and Insurance
The operation of any ocean-going vessel or facility carries an inherent risk of catastrophic marine disasters, death or injury of persons and property losses caused by adverse weather conditions, mechanical failures, human error, war, terrorism, piracy and other circumstances or events. In addition, the transportation and transfer/lightering of crude oil and petroleum products is subject to the risk of spills and to business interruptions due to political circumstances in foreign countries, hostilities, labor strikes, sanctions and boycotts, whether relating to us or any of our joint venture partners, suppliers or customers. The occurrence of any of these events may result in loss of revenues or increased costs.
We carry hull and machinery (marine and war risks) and protection and indemnity insurance coverage, and other liability insurance, to protect against most of the accident-related risks involved in the conduct of our business. Hull and machinery insurance covers loss of or damage to a vessel due to marine perils such as collision, grounding and weather. Protection and indemnity insurance indemnifies us against liabilities incurred while operating vessels, including injury to our crew or third parties, cargo loss and pollution. The current maximum amount of our coverage for pollution is $1 billion per vessel per incident. We also carry insurance policies covering war risks (including piracy and terrorism).
We believe that our current insurance coverage is adequate to protect against most of the accident-related risks involved in the conduct of our business and that we maintain appropriate levels of environmental damage and pollution insurance coverage. However, we cannot guarantee that all covered risks are adequately insured against, that any particular claim will be paid or that we will be able to procure adequate insurance coverage at commercially reasonable rates in the future. More stringent environmental regulations have resulted in increased costs for, and may result in the lack of availability of, insurance against risks of environmental damage or pollution. In addition, the cost of protection and indemnity insurance significantly increased since 2021.
In our operations, we use a thorough risk management program that includes, among other things, risk analysis tools, maintenance and assessment programs, a seafarers' competence training program, seafarers' workshops and membership in emergency response organizations.
We have achieved certification under the standards reflected in ISO 9001 for quality assurance, ISO 14001 for environment management systems, ISO 45001:2018, and the IMO’s International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and Pollution Prevention on a fully integrated basis.
Operations Outside of the United States
Because our operations are primarily conducted outside of the United States, we are affected by currency fluctuations, to the extent we do not contract in U.S. dollars, and by changing economic, political and governmental conditions in the countries where we engage in business or where our vessels are registered. Past political conflicts in those regions, particularly in the Arabian Gulf, have included attacks on tankers, mining of waterways and other efforts to disrupt shipping in the area. Vessels trading in certain regions have also been subject to acts of piracy. In addition to tankers, targets of terrorist attacks could include oil pipelines, and offshore oil fields. The escalation of existing or the outbreak of future, hostilities or other political instability in regions where we operate could affect our trade patterns, increase insurance costs, increase tanker operational costs and otherwise adversely affect our operations and performance. In addition, tariffs, trade embargoes, and other economic sanctions by the United States or other countries against countries in the Indo-Pacific Basin, Russia or elsewhere as a result of terrorist attacks or other actions may limit trading activities with those countries, which could also adversely affect our operations and performance.
We have derived, and believe that we will continue to derive, a significant portion of our revenues from a limited number of customers. Our customers include major energy and utility companies, major oil traders, large oil consumers and petroleum product producers, government agencies, and various other entities that depend upon marine transportation. No customer accounted for over 10% of our consolidated revenues from continuing operations during 2021 or 2020 (2019 – one customer for 13% or $160 million). The loss of any significant customer or a substantial decline in the amount of services requested by a significant customer, or the inability of a significant customer to pay for our services, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Flag, Classification, Audits and Inspections
Our vessels are registered with reputable flag states, and the hull and machinery of all of our vessels have been “Classed” by one of the major classification societies and members of International Association of Classification Societies ltd (or IACS): Bureau Veritas (or BV), Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, the American Bureau of Shipping or DNV.
The applicable classification society certifies that the vessel’s design and build conform to the applicable Class rules and meets the requirements of the applicable rules and regulations of the country of registry of the vessel and the international conventions to which that country is a signatory. The classification society also verifies throughout the vessel’s life that it continues to be maintained in accordance with those rules. In order to validate this, the vessels are surveyed by the classification society, in accordance with the classification society rules, which in the case of our vessels follows a comprehensive five-year special survey cycle, renewed every fifth year. During each five-year period, the vessel undergoes annual and intermediate surveys, the scrutiny and intensity of which is primarily dictated by the age of the vessel.
In addition to class surveys, the vessel’s flag state also verifies the condition of the vessel during annual flag state inspections, either independently or by additional authorization to class. Also, port state authorities of a vessel’s port of call are authorized under international conventions to undertake regular and spot checks of vessels visiting their jurisdiction.
Processes followed onboard are audited by either the flag state or the classification society acting on behalf of the flag state to ensure that they meet the requirements of the ISM Code. DNV typically carries out this task. We also follow an internal process of internal audits undertaken annually at each office and vessel.
We follow a comprehensive inspections scheme supported by our sea staff, shore-based operational and technical specialists and members of our Fleet Training Officer program. We typically carry out a minimum of two such inspections annually, which helps ensure that:
•our vessels and operations adhere to our operating standards;
•the structural integrity of the vessel is being maintained;
•machinery and equipment are being maintained to give reliable service;
•we are optimizing performance in terms of speed and fuel consumption; and
•our vessels’ appearance supports our brand and meets customer expectations.
Our customers also often carry out vetting inspections under the Ship Inspection Report Program, which is a significant safety initiative introduced by the Oil Companies International Marine Forum to specifically address concerns about sub-standard vessels. The inspection results permit charterers to screen a vessel to ensure that it meets their general and specific risk-based shipping requirements.
We believe that the heightened environmental and quality concerns of insurance underwriters, regulators and charterers will generally lead to greater scrutiny, inspection and safety requirements on all vessels in the oil tanker market and will accelerate the scrapping or phasing out of older vessels throughout the market.
Overall, we believe that our well-maintained and high-quality vessels provide us with a competitive advantage in the current environment of increasing regulation and customer emphasis on quality of service.
Our business and the operation of our vessels are significantly affected by international conventions and national, state and local laws and regulations in the jurisdictions in which our vessels operate, as well as in the country or countries of their registration. Because these conventions, laws and regulations change frequently, we cannot predict the ultimate cost of compliance or their impact on the resale price or useful life of our vessels. Additional conventions, laws, and regulations may be adopted that could limit our ability to do business or increase the cost of our doing business, and that may materially affect our operations. We are required by various governmental and quasi-governmental agencies to obtain permits, licenses, and certificates with respect to our operations. Subject to the discussion below and to the fact that the kinds of permits, licenses and certificates required for the operations of the vessels we own will depend on a number of factors, we believe that we will be able to continue to obtain all permits, licenses and certificates material to the conduct of our operations.
International Maritime Organization
The IMO is the United Nations’ agency for maritime safety and prevention of pollution. IMO regulations relating to pollution prevention for oil tankers have been adopted by many of the jurisdictions in which our tanker fleet operates. Under IMO regulations and subject to limited exceptions, a tanker must be of double-hull construction in accordance with the requirements set out in these regulations or be of another approved design ensuring the same level of protection against oil pollution. All of our tankers are double-hulled.
Many countries, but not the United States, have ratified and follow the liability regime adopted by the IMO and set out in the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1969, as amended (or CLC). Under this convention, a vessel’s registered owner is strictly liable for pollution damage caused in the territorial waters of a contracting state by discharge of persistent oil (e.g., crude oil, fuel oil, heavy diesel oil or lubricating oil), subject to certain defenses. The right to limit liability to specified amounts that are periodically revised is forfeited under the CLC when the spill is caused by the owner’s actual fault or when the spill is caused by the owner’s intentional or reckless conduct. Vessels trading to contracting states must provide evidence of insurance covering the limited liability of the owner. In jurisdictions where the CLC has not been adopted, various legislative regimes or common law governs, and liability is imposed either on the basis of fault or in a manner similar to the CLC.
IMO regulations also include the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea (or SOLAS), including amendments to SOLAS implementing the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (or ISPS), the ISM Code and the International Convention on Load Lines of 1966. SOLAS provides rules for the construction of and the equipment required for commercial vessels and includes regulations for their safe operation. Flag states which have ratified the convention and the treaty generally employ the classification societies, which have incorporated SOLAS requirements into their class rules, to undertake surveys to confirm compliance.
SOLAS and other IMO regulations concerning safety, including those relating to treaties on the training of shipboard personnel, lifesaving appliances, navigation, radio equipment and the global maritime distress and safety system, are applicable to our operations. Non-compliance with IMO regulations, including SOLAS, the ISM Code and ISPS Code may subject us to increased liability or penalties, may lead to decreases in available insurance coverage for affected vessels and may result in the denial of access to or detention in some ports. For example, the United States Coast Guard (or USCG) and European Union authorities have indicated that vessels not in compliance with the ISM Code will be prohibited from trading in the United States and European Union ports. The ISM Code requires vessel operators to obtain a safety management certification for each vessel they manage, evidencing the shipowner’s development and maintenance of an extensive safety management system. Each of the existing vessels in our fleet is currently ISM Code-certified, and we obtain, a safety management certificate for each newbuilding on delivery.
Annex VI to the IMO’s International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (or MARPOL) (or Annex VI) sets limits on sulfur oxide (or SOx) and nitrogen oxide (or NOx) emissions from ship exhausts and prohibits emissions of ozone depleting substances, emissions of volatile compounds from cargo tanks and the incineration of specific substances. Annex VI also includes a world-wide cap on the sulfur content of fuel oil and allows for special “emission control areas” (or ECAs) to be established with more stringent controls on sulfur emissions. Annex VI provides for a three-tier reduction in NOx emissions from marine diesel engines, with the final tier (or Tier III) to apply to engines installed on vessels constructed on or after January 1, 2016, and which operate in the North American ECA or the U.S. Caribbean Sea ECA as well as ECAs designated in the future by the IMO. Tier III limits are 80% below Tier I and these cannot be achieved without additional means such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (or SCR). In October 2016, the IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee (or MEPC) approved the designation of the North Sea (including the English Channel) and the Baltic Sea as ECAs for NOx emissions; these ECAs and the related amendments to Annex VI of MARPOL (with some exceptions) entered into effect on January 1, 2019. This requirement will be applicable for new ships constructed on or after January 1, 2021 if they visit the Baltic or North Sea (including the English Channel) and requires the future trading area of a ship to be assessed at the contract stage. There are exemption provisions to allow ships with only Tier II engines, to navigate in a NOx Tier III ECA if the ship is departing from a shipyard where the ship is newly built or visiting a shipyard for conversion/repair/maintenance without loading/unloading cargoes.
Effective January 1, 2020, Annex VI imposes a global limit for sulfur in fuel oil used on board ships of 0.50% m/m (mass by mass), regardless of whether a ship is operating outside a designated ECA. The ECA limit of 0.10% will still apply, as will any applicable local regulations. Effective March 1, 2020, the carriage of non-compliant fuel is prohibited. To comply with the 2020 global sulfur limit for fuel, ships must utilize different fuels containing low or very low sulfur (e.g., low sulfur fuel oil (or LSFO), very low sulfur fuel oil (or VLSFO), low sulfur marine gas oil (or LSMGO), biofuels or other compliant fuels such as LNG), or utilize exhaust gas cleaning systems, known as “scrubbers”. Amendments to the information to be included in bunker delivery notes relating to the supply of marine fuel oil to ships fitted with alternative mechanisms to address sulfur emission requirements (e.g., scrubbers) became effective January 1, 2019.
We have implemented procedures to comply with the Annex VI sulfur limit in our conventional tanker fleet and switched to burning compliant low sulfur fuel before the January 1, 2020 implementation date. We have not installed any scrubbers on our conventional tanker fleet. At present, neither the IMO nor the International Organization for Standardization has implemented globally accepted quality standards for 0.50% m/m fuel oil. We intend, and where applicable, expect our charterers to procure 0.50% m/m fuel oil from top tier suppliers. However, until such time that a globally accepted quality standard is issued, the quality of 0.50% m/m fuel oil that is supplied to the entire industry (including in respect of our vessels) is inherently uncertain. Low quality or a lack of access to high-quality low sulfur fuel may lead to a disruption in our operations (including mechanical damage to our vessels), which could impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
As of March 1, 2018, amendments to Annex VI impose requirements for ships of 5,000 gross tonnage and above to collect fuel oil consumption data for ships, as well as certain other data including proxies for transport work. Amendments to MARPOL Annex VI that make the data collection system for fuel oil consumption of ships mandatory were adopted at the 70th session of the MEPC held in October 2016 and entered into force on March 1, 2018. The amendments require operators to update the vessels' Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (or SEEMP) to include a part II describing the ship-specific methodology that will be used for collecting and measuring data for fuel oil consumption, distance travelled, hours underway, ensuring data quality is maintained and the processes that will be used to report the data to the Flag State Administration. This has been verified as compliant on all ships for calendar year 2019 and 2020. A confirmation of Compliance has been provided by the Ship's Flag State Administration / Recognized Organization on behalf of Flag State and is kept on board. Data collection for 2021 has been completed, and the verification of the data is ongoing by DNV who are the authorized verifiers. The process is expected to be completed by end of April 2022.
IMO regulations required that as of January 1, 2015, all vessels operating within ECAs worldwide recognized under MARPOL Annex VI must comply with 0.1% sulfur requirements. Certain modifications were necessary in order to optimize operation on LSMGO of equipment originally designed to operate on Heavy Fuel Oil (or HFO), and to ensure our compliance with the EU Directive. In addition, LSMGO is more expensive than HFO, and this impacts the costs of operations. We are primarily exposed to increased fuel costs through in our spot trading vessels, although our competitors bear a similar cost increase as this is a regulatory item applicable to all vessels. All required vessels in our fleet trading to and within regulated low sulfur areas are able to comply with fuel requirements.
The IMO has issued guidance regarding protecting against acts of piracy off the coast of Somalia. We comply with these guidelines.
IMO Guidance for countering acts of piracy and armed robbery is published by the IMO’s Maritime Safety Committee (or MSC). MSC.1/Circ.1339 (Piracy and armed robbery against ships in waters off the coast of Somalia) outlines Best Management Practices for protection against Somalia based Piracy. Specifically, MSC.1/Circ.1339 provides guidance to shipowners and ship operators, shipmasters, and crews on preventing and suppressing acts of piracy and armed robbery and was adopted by the IMO through Resolution MSC.324(89). The Best Management Practices (or BMP) is a joint industry publication by BIMCO, ICS, IGP&I Clubs, INTERTANKO and OCIMF VIQ Version 7 as the latest. Our fleet follows the guidance within BMP 5 when transiting in other regions with recognized threat levels for piracy and armed robbery, including West Africa.
The IMO's Ballast Water Management Convention entered into force on September 8, 2017. The convention stipulates two standards for discharged ballast water. The D-1 standard covers ballast water exchange while the D-2 standard covers ballast water treatment. The convention requires the implementation of either the D-1 or D-2 standard. There will be a transitional period from the entry into force to the International Oil Pollution Prevention (or IOPP) renewal survey in which ballast water exchange (reg. D-1) can be employed. The IMO’s MEPC agreed to a compromise on the implementation dates for the D-2 discharge standard: ships constructed on or after September 8, 2017 must comply with the D-2 standard upon delivery. Existing ships should be D-2 compliant on the first IOPP renewal following entry into force if the survey is completed on or after September 8, 2019, or a renewal IOPP survey was completed on or after September 8, 2014 but prior to September 8, 2017. Ships should be D-2 compliant on the second IOPP renewal survey after September 8, 2017 if the first renewal survey after that date was completed prior to September 8, 2019 and if the previous two conditions are not met. Vessels will be required to meet the discharge standard D-2 by installing an approved BWTS.
Besides the IMO convention, ships sailing in U.S. waters are required to deploy a type approved BWTS which is compliant with USCG regulations. The USCG has approved a number of BWTSs both nationally and internationally, out of which Alfa Laval (Sweden), Ocean Saver (Norway), Techcross, and De Nora are under Teekay’s approved list for retrofit. We estimate that the installation of approved BWTS will cost approximately $1.5 million per vessel between the years 2022 and 2023.
MARPOL Annex I also state that oil residue may be discharged directly from the sludge tank to the shore reception facility through standard discharge connections. They may also be discharged to the incinerator or to an auxiliary boiler suitable for burning the oil by means of a dedicated discharge pump. Amendments to Annex I expand on the requirements for discharge connections and piping to ensure residues are properly disposed of. Annex I is applicable for existing vessels with a first renewal survey beginning on or after January 1, 2017.
Amendments to MARPOL Annex V were adopted at the 70th session of the MEPC held in October 2016 and entered into force on March 1, 2018. The changes include criteria for determining whether cargo residues are harmful to the marine environment and a new Garbage Record Book (or GRB) format with a new garbage category for e-waste. Solid bulk cargo as per regulation VI/1-1.2 of SOLAS, other than grain, shall now be classified as per the criteria in the new Appendix I of MARPOL Annex V, and the shipper shall then declare whether or not the cargo is harmful to the marine environment. A new form of the GRB has been included in Appendix II to MAROL Annex V. The GRB is now divided into two parts: Part I - for all garbage other than cargo residues, applicable to all ships. PART II - for cargo residues only applicable to ships carrying solid bulk cargo. These changes are reflected in the vessels latest revised GRB.
The IMO has also adopted an International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (or Polar Code) which deals with matters regarding the design, construction, equipment, operation, search and rescue and environmental protection in relation to ships operating in waters surrounding the two poles. The Polar Code includes both safety and environmental provisions. The Polar Code and related amendments entered into force in January 2017. The Polar Code is mandatory for new vessels built after January 1, 2017. For existing ships, this code will be applicable from the first intermediate or renewal survey, whichever occurs first, beginning on or after January 1, 2018. All of our vessels trading in this area are fully compliant with the Polar Code.
MSC 91 adopted amendments to SOLAS Regulation II-2/10 to clarify that a minimum of two-way portable radiotelephone apparatus for each fire party for firefighters' communication shall be carried on board. These radio devices shall be of explosion proof type or intrinsically safe type. All existing ships built before July 1, 2014 should comply with this requirement by the first safety equipment survey after July 1, 2018. All new vessels constructed (keel laid) on or after July 1, 2014 must comply with this requirement at the time of delivery. Amendments to SOLAS Regulation II-1/3/-12 on protection against noise, Regulation II-2/1 and II 2/10 on firefighting came into force on July 1, 2014. Existing ships built before July 1, 2014 were required to comply by July 1, 2019.
As per MSC. 338(91), requirements have been highlighted for audio and visual indicators for breathing apparatus which will alert the user before the volume of the air in the cylinder has been reduced to no less than 200 liters. This applies to ships constructed on or after July 1, 2014. Ships constructed before July 1, 2014 were required to comply no later than July 1, 2019. As of December 31, 2021, all of our vessels are in compliance with these requirements.
Cyber-related risks are operational risks that are appropriately assessed and managed in accordance with the safety management requirements of the ISM Code. Cyber risks are required to be appropriately addressed in our safety management system no later than the first annual verification of our Document of Compliance after January 1, 2021. As of July 2021, verification audits of our Document of Compliance have been completed.
The Maritime Labour Convention (MLC) 2006 was adopted by the International Labour Conference at its 94th (Maritime) Session (2006), establishing minimum working and living conditions for seafarers. The convention entered into force August 20, 2013, with further amendments approved by the International Labour Conference at its 103rd Session (2014). The MLC establishes a single, coherent instrument embodying all up-to-date standards of existing international maritime labour conventions and recommendations, as well as the fundamental principles to be found in other international labour conventions. All of our maritime labour contracts comply with the MLC.
The IMO continues to review and introduce new regulations and as such, it is difficult to predict what additional requirements, if any, may be adopted by the IMO and what effect, if any, such regulations might have on our operations.
European Union (or EU)
The EU has adopted legislation that: bans from European waters manifestly sub-standard vessels (defined as vessels that have been detained twice by EU port authorities in the preceding two years); creates obligations on the part of EU member port states to inspect minimum percentages of vessels using these ports annually; provides for increased surveillance of vessels posing a high risk to maritime safety or the marine environment; and provides the EU with greater authority and control over classification societies, including the ability to seek to suspend or revoke the authority of negligent societies.
Two regulations that are part of the implementation of the Port State Control Directive, came into force on January 1, 2011 and introduced a ranking system (published on a public website and updated daily) displaying shipping companies operating in the EU with the worst safety records. The ranking is judged upon the results of the technical inspections carried out on the vessels owned by a particular shipping company. Those shipping companies that have the most positive safety records are rewarded by subjecting them to fewer inspections, while those with the most safety shortcomings or technical failings recorded upon inspection will in turn be subject to a greater frequency of official inspections to their vessels.
The EU has, by way of Directive 2005/35/EC, as amended by Directive 2009/123/EC, created a legal framework for imposing criminal penalties in the event of discharges of oil and other noxious substances from ships sailing in its waters, irrespective of their flag. This relates to discharges of oil or other noxious substances from vessels. Minor discharges shall not automatically be considered as offenses, except where repetition leads to deterioration in the quality of the water. The persons responsible may be subject to criminal penalties if they have acted with intent, recklessly or with serious negligence and the act of inciting, aiding and abetting a person to discharge a polluting substance may also lead to criminal penalties.
The EU adopted a Directive requiring the use of low sulfur fuel. Since January 1, 2015, vessels have been required to burn fuel with sulfur content not exceeding 0.1% while within EU member states’ territorial seas, exclusive economic zones and pollution control zones that are included in SOX Emission Control Areas. Other jurisdictions have also adopted similar regulations.
All ships above 5,000 gross tonnage calling EU waters are required to comply with EU-MRV regulations. These regulations came into force on July 1, 2015 and aim to reduce greenhouse gas (or GHG) emissions within the EU. It requires ships carrying out maritime transport activities to or from European Economic Area (or EEA) ports to monitor and report information including verified data on their CO2 emissions from January 1, 2018 onwards. Data collection takes place on a per voyage basis and started from January 1, 2018. The reported CO2 emissions, together with additional data (e.g., cargo, energy efficiency parameters), are to be verified by independent verifiers and sent to a central database, managed by the European Maritime Safety Agency (or EMSA). We entered into an agreement with DNV for monitoring, verification and reporting as required by this regulation. The reporting period for the 2021 calendar year has been completed and emission reports for the vessels which have carried out EU voyages have been submitted in the THETIS Database. Based on emission reports submitted in THETIS, a document of compliance has been issued and is placed on board.
The EU Ship Recycling Regulation was adopted in 2013. This regulation aims to prevent, reduce and minimize accidents, injuries and other negative effects on human health and the environment when ships are recycled and the hazardous waste they contain is removed. The legislation applies to all ships flying the flag of an EU country and to vessels with non-EU flags that call at an EU port or anchorage. It sets out responsibilities for ship owners and for recycling facilities both in the EU and in other countries. Each new ship is required to have on board an inventory of the hazardous materials (such as asbestos, lead or mercury) it contains in either its structure or equipment. The use of certain hazardous materials is forbidden. Before a ship is recycled, its owner must provide the company carrying out the work with specific information about the vessel and prepare a ship recycling plan. Recycling may only take place at facilities listed on the EU ‘List of facilities’.
The EU Ship Recycling Regulation generally entered into force on December 31, 2018, with certain provisions applicable from December 31, 2020. Compliance timelines are as follows: EU-flagged newbuildings were required to have onboard a verified Inventory of Hazardous Materials (or IHM) with a Statement of Compliance by December 31, 2018, existing EU-flagged vessels are required to have onboard a verified IHM with a Statement of Compliance by December 31, 2020, and non-EU-flagged vessels calling at EU ports are also required to have onboard a verified IHM with a Statement of Compliance latest by December 31, 2020. Teekay Tankers contracted with a class-approved HazMat expert company to assist in the preparation of Inventory of Hazardous Materials and obtaining Statements of Compliance for its vessels. The EU Commission also adopted a European List of approved ship recycling facilities, as well as four further decisions dealing with certification and other administrative requirements set out in the EU Ship Recycling Regulation. In 2014, the Council Decision 2014/241/EU authorized EU countries having ships flying their flag or registered under their flag to ratify or to accede to the Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships. The Hong Kong Convention is not yet ratified.
Our FPSO units operate in the North Sea.
There is no international regime in force which deals with compensation for oil pollution from offshore craft such as FPSOs. Whether the CLC and the International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage 1971, as amended by the 1992 Protocol (or the Fund Convention), which deal with liability and compensation for oil pollution and the Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims 1976, as amended by the 1996 Protocol (or the 1976 Limitation of Liability Convention), which deals with limitation of liability for maritime claims, apply to FPSOs is neither straightforward nor certain. This is due to the definition of “ship” under these conventions and the requirement that oil is “carried” onboard the relevant vessel. Nevertheless, the wording of the 1992 Protocol to the CLC leaves room for arguing that FPSOs and oil pollution caused by them can come under the ambit of these conventions for the purposes of liability and compensation. However, the application of these conventions also depends on their implementation by the relevant domestic laws of the countries which are parties to them.
The UK’s Merchant Shipping Act 1995, as amended (or MSA), implements the CLC but uses a wider definition of a “ship” than the one used in the CLC and in its 1992 Protocol but still refers to the criteria used by the CLC. It is therefore doubtful that FPSOs fall within its wording. However, the MSA also includes separate provisions for liability for oil pollution. These apply to vessels which fall within a much wider definition and include non-seagoing vessels. It is arguable that the wording of these MSA provisions is wide enough to cover oil pollution caused by offshore crafts such as FPSOs. The liability regime under these MSA provisions is similar to that imposed under the CLC but limitation of liability is subject to the 1976 Limitation of Liability Convention regime (as implemented in the MSA).
With regard to the 1976 Limitation of Liability Convention, it is, again, doubtful whether it applies to FPSOs, as it contains certain exceptions in relation to vessels constructed for or adapted to and engaged in drilling and in relation to floating platforms constructed for the purpose of exploring or exploiting natural resources of the seabed or its subsoil. However, these exceptions are not included in the legislation implementing the 1976 Limitation of Liability Convention in the UK, which is also to be found in the MSA. In addition, the MSA sets out a very wide definition of “ship” in relation to which the 1976 Limitation of Liability Convention is to apply and there is room for argument that if FPSOs fall within that definition of “ship”, they are subject in the UK to the limitation provisions of the 1976 Limitation of Liability Convention.
In the absence of an international regime regulating liability and compensation for oil pollution caused by offshore oil and gas facilities, the Offshore Pollution Liability Agreement 1974 was entered into by a number of oil companies and became effective in 1975. This is a voluntary industry oil pollution compensation scheme which is funded by the parties to it. These are operators or intending operators of offshore facilities used in the exploration for and production of oil and gas located within the jurisdictions of a number of “Designated States” which include the UK, Denmark, Norway, Germany, France, Greenland, Ireland, the Netherlands, the Isle of Man and the Faroe Islands. The scheme provides for strict liability of the relevant operator for pollution damage and remedial costs, subject to a limit, and the operators must provide evidence of financial responsibility in the form of insurance or other security to meet the liability under the scheme.
With regard to FPSOs, Chapter 7 of Annex I of MARPOL (which contains regulations for the prevention of oil pollution) sets out special requirements for fixed and floating platforms, including, amongst others, FPSOs and floating storage units (or FSU). The IMO’s MEPC has issued guidelines for the application of MARPOL Annex I requirements to FPSOs and FSUs.
The EU’s Directive 2004/35/CE on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage (or the Environmental Liability Directive) deals with liability for environmental damage on the basis of the “polluter pays” principle. Environmental damage includes damage to protected species and natural habitats and damage to water and land. Under this Directive, operators whose activities caused environmental damage or the imminent threat of such damage are to be held liable for the damage (subject to certain exceptions). With regard to environmental damage caused by specific activities listed in the Directive, operators are strictly liable. This is without prejudice to their right to limit their liability in accordance with national legislation implementing the 1976 Limitation of Liability Convention. The Directive applies both to damage which has already occurred and where there is an imminent threat of damage. It also requires the relevant operator to take preventive action, to report an imminent threat and any environmental damage to the regulators and to perform remedial measures, such as clean-up. The Environmental Liability Directive is implemented in the UK by the Environmental Damage (Prevention and Remediation) Regulations 2015.
In June 2013, the EU adopted Directive 2013/30/EU on safety of offshore oil and gas operations and amending Directive 2004/35/EC (or the Offshore Safety Directive). This Directive lays down minimum requirements for member states and the European Maritime Safety Agency for the purposes of reducing the occurrence of major accidents related to offshore oil and gas operations, thus increasing protection of the marine environment and coastal economies against pollution, establishing minimum conditions for safe offshore exploration and exploitation of oil and gas, and limiting disruptions to the EU’s energy production and improving responses to accidents. The Offshore Safety Directive sets out extensive requirements, such as preparation of a major hazard report with risk assessment, emergency response plan and safety and environmental management system applicable to the relevant oil and gas installation before the planned commencement of the operations, independent verification of safety and environmental critical elements identified in the risk assessment for the relevant oil and gas installation, and ensuring that factors such as the applicant’s safety and environmental performance and its financial capabilities or security to meet potential liabilities arising from the oil and gas operations are taken into account when considering granting a license.
Under the Offshore Safety Directive, Member States are to ensure that the relevant licensee is financially liable for the prevention and remediation of environmental damage (as defined in the Environmental Liability Directive) caused by offshore oil and gas operations carried out by or on behalf of the licensee or the operator. Member States must lay down rules on penalties applicable to infringements of the legislation adopted pursuant to this Directive. Member States were required to bring into force laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this Directive by July 19, 2015. The Offshore Safety Directive has been implemented in the UK by a number of different UK Regulations, including the Environmental Damage (Prevention and Remediation) (England) Regulations 2015, as amended, (which revoked and replaced the Environmental Damage (Prevention and Remediation) Regulations 2015) and the Offshore Installations (Offshore Safety Directive) (Safety Case etc.) Regulations 2015, as amended, both of which entered into force on July 19, 2015.
In addition to the regulations imposed by the IMO and EU, countries having jurisdiction over North Sea areas impose regulatory requirements in connection with operations in those areas, including HSE in the United Kingdom and NPD in Norway. These regulatory requirements, together with additional requirements imposed by operators in North Sea oil fields, require that we make further expenditures for sophisticated equipment, reporting and redundancy systems on FPSOs and for the training of seagoing staff. Additional regulations and requirements may be adopted or imposed that could further increase the cost of doing business in the North Sea.
The United States has enacted an extensive regulatory and liability regime for the protection and clean-up of the environment from oil spills, including discharges of oil cargoes, bunker fuels or lubricants, primarily through the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (or OPA 90) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (or CERCLA). OPA 90 affects all owners, bareboat charterers, and operators whose vessels trade to the United States or its territories or possessions or whose vessels operate in United States waters, which include the U.S. territorial sea and 200-mile exclusive economic zone around the United States. CERCLA applies to the discharge of “hazardous substances” rather than “oil” and imposes strict joint and several liability upon the owners, operators or bareboat charterers of vessels for clean-up costs and damages arising from discharges of hazardous substances. We believe that petroleum products should not be considered hazardous substances under CERCLA, but additives to oil or lubricants used on other vessels might fall within its scope.
Under OPA 90, vessel owners, operators and bareboat charterers are “responsible parties” and are jointly, severally, and strictly liable (unless the oil spill results solely from the act or omission of a third party, an act of God or an act of war and the responsible party reports the incident and reasonably cooperates with the appropriate authorities) for all containment and clean-up costs and other damages arising from discharges or threatened discharges of oil from their vessels. These other damages are defined broadly to include: natural resources damages and the related assessment costs; real and personal property damages; net loss of taxes, royalties, rents, fees and other lost revenues; lost profits or impairment of earning capacity due to property or natural resources damage; net cost of public services necessitated by a spill response, such as protection from fire, safety or health hazards; and loss of subsistence use of natural resources.
OPA 90 limits the liability of responsible parties in an amount it periodically updates. The liability limits do not apply if the incident was proximately caused by violation of applicable U.S. federal safety, construction or operating regulations, including IMO conventions to which the United States is a signatory, or by the responsible party’s gross negligence or willful misconduct, or if the responsible party fails or refuses to report the incident or to cooperate and assist in connection with the oil removal activities. Liability under CERCLA is also subject to limits unless the incident is caused by gross negligence, willful misconduct, or a violation of certain regulations. We currently maintain for each of our vessels pollution liability coverage in the maximum coverage amount of $1 billion per incident. A catastrophic spill could exceed the coverage available, which could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Under OPA 90, with limited exceptions, all newly built or converted tankers delivered after January 1, 1994 and operating in U.S. waters must be double-hulled. All our tankers are double-hulled.
OPA 90 also requires owners and operators of vessels to establish and maintain with the USCG evidence of financial responsibility in an amount at least equal to the relevant limitation amount for such vessels under the statute. The USCG has implemented regulations requiring that an owner or operator of a fleet of vessels must demonstrate evidence of financial responsibility in an amount sufficient to cover the vessel in the fleet having the greatest maximum limited liability under OPA 90 and CERCLA. Evidence of financial responsibility may be demonstrated by insurance, surety bond, self-insurance, guaranty or an alternate method subject to approval by the USCG. Under the self-insurance provisions, the ship owners or operators must have a net worth and working capital, measured in assets located in the United States against liabilities located anywhere in the world, that exceeds the applicable amount of financial responsibility. We have complied with the USCG regulations by using self-insurance for certain vessels and obtaining financial guaranties from a third party for the remaining vessels. If other vessels in our fleet trade into the United States in the future, we expect to obtain guaranties from third-party insurers.
OPA 90 and CERCLA permit individual U.S. states to impose their own liability regimes with regard to oil or hazardous substance pollution incidents occurring within their boundaries, and some states have enacted legislation providing for unlimited strict liability for spills. Several coastal states, such as California, Washington and Alaska require state-specific evidence of financial responsibility and vessel response plans. We comply with all applicable state regulations in the ports where our vessels call.
Owners or operators of vessels, including tankers operating in U.S. waters, are required to file vessel response plans with the USCG, and their tankers are required to operate in compliance with USCG approved plans. Such response plans must, among other things: address a “worst case” scenario and identify and ensure, through contract or other approved means, the availability of necessary private response resources to respond to a “worst case discharge”; describe crew training and drills; and identify a qualified individual with full authority to implement removal actions.
All our vessels have USCG approved vessel response plans. In addition, we conduct regular oil spill response drills in accordance with the guidelines set out in OPA 90. The USCG has announced it intends to propose similar regulations requiring certain vessels to prepare response plans for the release of hazardous substances. Similarly, we also have California Vessel Contingency Plans on board vessels which are likely to call ports in State of California.
OPA 90 and CERCLA do not preclude claimants from seeking damages resulting from the discharge of oil and hazardous substances under other applicable law, including maritime tort law. The application of this doctrine varies by jurisdiction.
The U.S. Clean Water Act (or the Clean Water Act) also prohibits the discharge of oil or hazardous substances in U.S. navigable waters and imposes strict liability in the form of penalties for unauthorized discharges. The Clean Water Act imposes substantial liability for the costs of removal, remediation and damages and complements the remedies available under OPA 90 and CERCLA discussed above.
Our vessels that discharge certain effluents, including ballast water, in U.S. waters must obtain a Clean Water Act permit from the Environmental Protection Agency (or EPA) titled the “Vessel General Permit” (or VGP) and comply with a range of effluent limitations, best management practices, reporting, inspections and other requirements. The Vessel General Permit incorporated USCG requirements for ballast water exchange and includes specific technology-based requirements for vessels, as well as an implementation schedule to require vessels to meet the ballast water effluent limitations by the first dry docking after January 1, 2016, depending on the vessel size. The Vessel Incidental Discharge Act (or VIDA) was signed into law on December 4, 2018 and establishes a new framework for the regulation of vessel incidental discharges under the CWA. VIDA requires the EPA to develop performance standards for approximately 30 discharges by December 2020 (similar to the discharges in the EPA 2013 VGP). In most cases, the future standards will be at least as stringent as the existing EPA 2013 VGP requirements and will be technology-based. Two years thereafter, the USCG is required to develop corresponding implementation, compliance, and enforcement regulations. These may include requirements governing the design, construction, testing, approval, installation and use of devices to achieve the EPA national standards of performance (or NSPs). Under VIDA, all provisions of the VGP remain in force and effect as currently written until the USCG regulations are finalized. Vessels that are constructed after December 1, 2013 are subject to the ballast water numeric effluent limitations. Several U.S. states have added specific requirements to the Vessel General Permit and, in some cases, may require vessels to install ballast water treatment technology to meet biological performance standards. Every five years the Vessel General Permit gets reissued, however the provisions of the 2013 VGP, as currently written, will apply beyond 2018, until the EPA publishes new NSPs and the USCG develops implementing regulations for those NSPs which could take up to four years.
Since January 1, 2014, the California Air Resources Board has required that vessels that burn fuel within 24 nautical miles of California burn fuel with 0.1% sulfur content or less.
Various states in the United States, including California, have implemented additional regulations relating to the environment and operation of vessels. The California Biofouling Management Plan requires: developing and maintaining a Biofouling Management Plan, developing and maintaining a Biofouling Record Book, mandatory biofouling management of the vessel’s wetted surfaces, mandatory biofouling management for vessels that undergo an extended residency period (e.g. remain in the same location for 45 or more days). All vessels calling in California waters were required to submit the "Annual Marine Invasive Reporting Form" by October 1, 2017 and should have a CA-Biofouling management plan after a vessel’s first regularly scheduled dry dock after January 1, 2018, or upon delivery on or after January 1, 2018.
China previously established ECAs in the Pearl River Delta, Yangtze River Delta and Bohai Sea, which took effect on January 1, 2016. The Hainan ECA took effect on January 1, 2019. From January 1, 2019, all the ECAs have merged, and the scope of Domestic Emission Controls Areas (or DECAs) were extended to 12 nautical miles from the coastline, covering the Chinese mainland territorial coastal areas as well as the Hainan Island territorial coastal waters. From January 1, 2019, all vessels navigating within the Chinese mainland territorial coastal DECAs and at berths are required to use marine fuel with sulfur content of maximum 0.50% m/m. As per the new regulation, ships can also use alternative methods such as an Exhaust Gas Scrubber, LNG or other clean fuel that reduces the SOx to the same level or lower than the maximum required limits of sulfur when using fossil fuel in the DECA areas or when at berth. All the vessels without an exhaust gas cleaning system entering the emission control area are only permitted to carry and use the compliant fuel oil specified by the new regulation.
From July 1, 2019, vessels engaged on international voyages (except tankers) that are equipped to connect to shore power must use shore power if they berth for more than three hours (or for more than two hours for inland river control area) in berths with shore supply capacity in the coastal control areas.
From January 1, 2020, all vessels navigating within the Chinese mainland territorial coastal DECAs should use marine fuel with a maximum 0.5% m/m sulfur cap. All the vessels entering China inland waterway emission control area are to use the fuel oil with sulfur content not exceeding 0.1% m/m. Any vessel using or carrying non-compliant fuel oil due to the non-availability of compliant fuel oil is to submit a fuel oil non-availability report to the China Maritime Safety Administration (or CMSA) of the next arrival port before entering waters under the jurisdiction of China.
From March 1, 2020, all vessels entering waters under the jurisdiction of the People’s Republic of China are prohibited to carry fuel oil of sulfur content exceeding 0.50% m/m on board ships. Any vessel carrying non-compliant fuel oil in the waters under the jurisdiction of China is to:
•discharge the non-compliant fuel oil; or
•as permitted by the CMSA of calling port, to retain the non-compliant fuel oil on board with a commitment letter stating it will not be used in waters under the jurisdiction of China.
New Zealand's Craft Risk Management Standard (or CRMS) requirements are based on the IMO's guidelines for the control and management of ships' biofouling to minimize the transfer of invasive aquatic species.
Marine pests and diseases brought in on vessel hulls (or biofouling) are a threat to New Zealand's marine resources. From May 15, 2018, all vessels arriving in New Zealand will need to have a clean hull. Vessels staying up to 20 days and only visiting designated ports (places of first arrival) will be allowed a slight amount of biofouling. Vessels staying longer and visiting other places will only be allowed a slime layer and goose barnacles.
Republic of Korea
The Korean Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries announced an air quality control program that defines selected South Korean ports and areas as ECAs. The ECAs cover Korea’s five major port areas: Incheon, Pyeongtaek & Dangjin, Yeosu & Gwangyang, Busan and Ulsan. From September 1, 2020, ships at berth or at anchor in the new Korean ECAs must burn fuel with a maximum sulfur content of 0.10%. Ships must switch to compliant fuel within one hour of mooring/anchoring and burn compliant fuel until not more than one hour before departure. From January 1, 2022, the requirements have been expanded, and the 0.10% sulfur limit will apply at all times while operating within the ECAs.
A Vessel Speed Reduction Program has also been introduced as a part of an air quality control program on a voluntary compliance basis to certain types of ships (Crude, Chemical and LNG carriers) calling at ports Busan, Ulsan, Yeosu, Gwangyang and Incheon.
On October 2, 2019, the Government of India urged its citizens and government agencies to take steps towards phasing out single-use plastics (or SUP). As a result, all shipping participants operating in Indian waters are required to contribute to the Indian government’s goal of phasing out SUPs.
The Directorate General of Shipping, India (or DGS) has mandated certain policies as a result, and in order to comply with these required policies, all cargo vessels are required as of January 31, 2020 to prepare a vessel-specific Ship Execution Plan (or SEP) detailing the inventory of all SUP used on board the vessel and which has not been exempted by DGS. This SEP will be reviewed to determine the prohibition of SUP on the subject vessel.
Vessels will be allowed to use an additional 10% of SUP items in the SEP that have not been prohibited. Amendments to the finalized SEP are discouraged save for material corrections.
Foreign vessels visiting Indian ports are not allowed to use prohibited items while at a place or port in India. However, these items are allowed to be on board provided they are stored at identified locations. SEPs are also required to detail the prevention steps that will be implemented during a vessel’s call at an Indian port to prevent unsanctioned usage of SUPs. This includes the preparation and use of a deck and official log entry identifying all SUP items on board the vessel.
Greenhouse Gas Regulation
In February 2005, the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (or the Kyoto Protocol) took effect. Pursuant to the Kyoto Protocol, adopting countries are required to implement national programs to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. In December 2009, more than 27 nations, including the United States, entered into the Copenhagen Accord. The Copenhagen Accord is non-binding but is intended to pave the way for a comprehensive, international treaty on climate change. In December 2015, the Paris Agreement was adopted by a large number of countries at the 21st Session of the Conference of Parties (commonly known as COP 21, a conference of the countries which are parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; the COP is the highest decision-making authority of this organization). The Paris Agreement, which entered into force on November 4, 2016, deals with greenhouse gas emission reduction measures and targets from 2020 in order to limit the global temperature increases to well below 2˚ Celsius above pre-industrial levels. Although shipping was ultimately not included in the Paris Agreement, it is expected that the adoption of the Paris Agreement may lead to regulatory changes in relation to curbing greenhouse gas emissions from shipping.
In July 2011, the IMO adopted regulations imposing technical and operational measures for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. These new regulations formed a new chapter in MARPOL Annex VI and became effective on January 1, 2013. The new technical and operational measures include the “Energy Efficiency Design Index” (or the EEDI), which is mandatory for newbuilding vessels, and the “Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan,” which is mandatory for all vessels. In October 2016, the IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee (or MEPC) adopted updated guidelines for the calculation of the EEDI. In October 2014, the IMO’s MEPC agreed in principle to develop a system of data collection regarding fuel consumption of ships. In October 2016, the IMO adopted a mandatory data collection system under which vessels of 5,000 gross tonnages and above are to collect fuel consumption and other data and to report the aggregated data so collected to their flag state at the end of each calendar year. The new requirements entered into force on March 1, 2018.
All vessels are required to submit fuel consumption data to their respective administration/registered organizations for onward submission to the IMO for analysis and to help with decision making on future measures. The amendments require operators to update the vessel's SEEMP to include descriptions of the ship-specific methodology that will be used for collecting and measuring data for fuel oil consumption, distance travelled, hours underway and processes that will be used to report the data to the Flag State Administration, in order to ensure data quality is maintained.
All of our vessels were verified as being compliant before December 31, 2018, with the first data collection period being for the 2019 calendar year. A Confirmation of Compliance was issued by the administration/registered organization, which must be kept on board the ship. The IMO also approved a roadmap for the development of a comprehensive IMO strategy on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from ships with an initial strategy adopted on April 13, 2018 and a revised strategy to be adopted in 2023. Further, the MEPC adopted two other sets of amendments to MARPOL Annex VI related to carbon intensity regulations. The MEPC agreed on combining the technical and operational measures with an entry into force date on January 1, 2023. The Energy Efficiency Existing Ships Index (or EEXI) will be implemented for existing ships as a technical measure to reduce CO2 emissions. The Carbon Intensity Index (or CII) will be implemented as an operational carbon intensity measure to benchmark and improve efficiency. Regulations and frameworks are expected to be fully defined at the next MEPC meeting in June 2022. For Teekay vessels, we have calculated the EEXI and Engine Power Limiter (or EPL) values for our vessels. Further, we are looking at different ways to optimize the emissions either through the use of low friction paints during docking or installing energy saving devices on board our vessels, such as Mewis ducts.
The EU has also proposed an expansion of an existing EU emissions trading regime to include emissions of greenhouse gases from vessels, and individual countries in the EU may impose additional requirements. The EU has adopted Regulation (EU) 2015/757 on the monitoring, reporting and verification (or MRV) of CO2 emissions from vessels (or the MRV Regulation), which entered into force on July 1, 2015. The MRV Regulation aims to quantify and reduce CO2 emissions from shipping. It lists the requirements on the MRV of carbon dioxide emissions and requires ship owners and operators to annually monitor, report and verify CO2 emissions for vessels larger than 5,000 gross tonnage calling at any EU and EFTA (Norway and Iceland) port (with a few exceptions, such as fish-catching or fish-processing vessels). Data collection takes place on a per voyage basis and started on January 1, 2018. The reported CO2 emissions, together with additional data, such as cargo and energy efficiency parameters, are to be verified by independent verifiers and sent to a central inspection database hosted by the European Maritime Safety Agency to collate all the data applicable to the EU region. Companies responsible for the operation of large ships using EU ports are required to report their CO2 emissions. While the EU was considering a proposal for the inclusion of shipping in the EU Emissions Trading System as from 2022 (in the absence of a comparable system operating under the IMO), it appears that the decision to include shipping may be deferred until 2023.
In the United States, the EPA issued an “endangerment finding” regarding greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act. While this finding in itself does not impose any requirements on our industry, it authorizes the EPA to regulate GHG emissions directly through a rule-making process. In addition, climate change initiatives are being considered in the United States Congress and by individual states. Any passage of new climate control legislation or other regulatory initiatives by the IMO, EU, the United States or other countries or states where we operate that restrict emissions of greenhouse gases could have a significant financial and operational impact on our business that we cannot predict with certainty at this time.
Many financial institutions that lend to the maritime industry have adopted the Poseidon Principles, which establish a framework for assessing and disclosing the climate alignment of ship finance portfolios. The Poseidon Principles set a benchmark for the banks who fund for the maritime sector, which is based on the IMO GHG strategy. The IMO approved an initial GHG strategy in April 2018 to reduce GHG emissions generated from shipping activity, which represents a significant shift in climate ambition for a sector that currently accounts for 2%-3% of global carbon dioxide emissions. As a result, the Poseidon Principles are expected to enable financial institutions to align their ship finance portfolios with responsible environmental behavior and incentivize international shipping's decarbonization.
The ISPS was adopted by the IMO in December 2002 in the wake of heightened concern over worldwide terrorism and became effective on July 1, 2004. The objective of ISPS is to enhance maritime security by detecting security threats to ships and ports and by requiring the development of security plans and other measures designed to prevent such threats. Each of the existing vessels in our fleet currently complies with the requirements of ISPS and Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 (U.S. specific requirements). Procedures are in place to inform the relevant reporting regimes such as Maritime Security Council Horn of Africa, the Maritime Domain Awareness for Trade - Gulf of Guinea, the Information Fusion Center whenever our vessels are calling in the Indian Ocean Region, or West Coast of Africa or Southeast Asia high-risk areas respectively. In order to mitigate the security risk, security arrangements are required for vessels which travel through these high-risk areas.
Our organizational structure includes, among others, our interest in Teekay Tankers, which is our publicly-traded subsidiary.
The following chart provides an overview of our organizational structure as at March 1, 2022. Please read Exhibit 8.1 to this Annual Report for a list of our subsidiaries as at March 1, 2022.
(1)Teekay Tankers has two classes of shares: Class A common stock and Class B common stock. Teekay Corporation indirectly owns 100% of the Class B shares which have up to five votes each but aggregate voting power capped at 49%. As a result of Teekay Corporation’s ownership of Class A and Class B shares, it holds aggregate voting power of 55.6% as of March 1, 2022.
(2)Teekay Corporation owns 31.3% of Class A and Class B common stock through Teekay Holdings Limited (Bermuda)'s ownership of 28.6% and Teekay Corporation's direct ownership of 2.7%.
In December 2007, we added Teekay Tankers to our structure. Teekay Tankers is a Marshall Islands corporation formed by us to own our conventional tanker business. As of December 31, 2021, Teekay Tankers’ fleet included 15 double-hull Aframax tankers (including two chartered-in vessels), 26 double-hull Suezmax tankers, 10 product tankers (including one chartered-in vessel), and one VLCC, all of which trade either in the spot tanker market or under short- or medium-term, fixed-rate time-charter contracts. Teekay Tankers owns 100% of its fleet, other than a 50% interest in the VLCC and the in-chartered vessels. Prior to October 1, 2018, we provided Teekay Tankers with certain commercial, technical, administrative, and strategic services under a long-term management agreement through a wholly-owned subsidiary. As of October 1, 2018, Teekay Tankers elected to receive commercial and technical management services directly from its wholly-owned subsidiaries, who receive various services from us and our affiliates.
We are party to an omnibus agreement with Seapeak, Altera and related parties governing, among other things, when we, Seapeak and Altera may compete with each other and certain rights of first offer on LNG carriers, oil tankers, shuttle tankers, FSO units and FPSO units.
We are also a party to an agreement with an affiliate of Stonepeak that provides, among other things and subject to certain exceptions, that (i) for two years after the merger of Seapeak with affiliates of Stonepeak, we and our affiliates will not engage in, acquire or invest in any business that owns, operates or charters any liquefied gas carriers and related time charters, and (ii) for three years after the merger of Seapeak with affiliates of Stonepeak, we and our affiliates will not engage in, acquire or invest in any business that owns, operates or charters LNG carriers and related time charters.
Teekay Parent owns two FPSO units, in addition to its interests in its subsidiaries. For additional information about Teekay Tankers please read "Item 4B – Information on the Company – Operations". Please also read “Item 5 – Operating and Financial Review and Prospects – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Structure”.
D.Property, Plant and Equipment
Other than our vessels, we do not have any material property. Please read “Item 18 – Financial Statements: Note 8 – Long-Term Debt" for information about major encumbrances against our vessels.
E.Taxation of the Company
United States Taxation
The following is a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to us. This discussion is based upon provisions of the Code, legislative history, applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations (or Treasury Regulations), judicial authority and administrative interpretations, all as in effect on the date of this Annual Report, and which are subject to change, possibly with retroactive effect, or are subject to different interpretations. Changes in these authorities may cause the tax consequences to vary substantially from the consequences described below.
Taxation of Operating Income. A significant portion of our gross income will be attributable to the transportation of crude oil and related products. For this purpose, gross income attributable to transportation (or Transportation Income) includes income derived from, or in connection with, the use (or hiring or leasing for use) of a vessel to transport cargo, or the performance of services directly related to the use of any vessel to transport cargo, and thus includes income from time charters, contracts of affreightment, bareboat charters, and voyage charters.
Fifty percent (50%) of Transportation Income that either begins or ends, but that does not both begin and end, in the United States (or U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income) is considered to be derived from sources within the United States. Transportation Income that both begins and ends in the United States (or U.S. Source Domestic Transportation Gross Income) is considered to be 100% derived from sources within the United States. Transportation Income exclusively between non-U.S. destinations is considered to be 100% derived from sources outside the United States. Transportation Income derived from sources outside the United States generally is not subject to U.S. federal income tax.
Based on our current operations, and the operations of our subsidiaries, a substantial portion of our Transportation Income is from sources outside the United States and not subject to U.S. federal income tax. Unless the exemption from U.S. taxation under Section 883 of the Code (or the Section 883 Exemption) applies, our U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income generally is subject to U.S. federal income taxation under either the net basis and branch profits taxes or the 4% gross basis tax, each of which is discussed below. Furthermore, certain of our subsidiaries engaged in activities which could give rise to U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income rely on our ability to claim the Section 883 Exemption.
The Section 883 Exemption. In general, the Section 883 Exemption provides that if a non-U.S. corporation satisfies the requirements of Section 883 of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder (or the Section 883 Regulations), it will not be subject to the net basis and branch profits taxes or the 4% gross basis tax described below on its U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income. As discussed below, we believe the Section 883 Exemption will apply and we will not be taxed on our U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income. The Section 883 Exemption does not apply to U.S. Source Domestic Transportation Gross Income.
A non-U.S. corporation will qualify for the Section 883 Exemption if, among other things, it (i) is organized in a jurisdiction outside the United States that grants an exemption from tax to U.S. corporations on international Transportation Gross Income (or an Equivalent Exemption), (ii) meets one of three ownership tests (or Ownership Tests) described in the Section 883 Regulations, and (iii) meets certain substantiation, reporting and other requirements (or the Substantiation Requirements).
We are organized under the laws of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The U.S. Treasury Department has recognized the Republic of the Marshall Islands as a jurisdiction that grants an Equivalent Exemption. We also believe that we will be able to satisfy the Substantiation Requirements necessary to qualify for the Section 883 Exemption. Consequently, our U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income (including for this purpose, our share of any such income earned by our subsidiaries that have properly elected to be treated as partnerships or disregarded as entities separate from us for U.S. federal income tax purposes) will be exempt from U.S. federal income taxation provided we satisfy one of the Ownership Tests. We believe that we should satisfy one of the Ownership Tests because our stock is primarily and regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States within the meaning of Section 883 of the Code and the Section 883 Regulations. We can give no assurance, however, that changes in the ownership of our stock subsequent to the date of this report will permit us to continue to qualify for the Section 883 exemption.
Net Basis Tax and Branch Profits Tax. If the Section 883 Exemption does not apply, our U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income may be treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States (or Effectively Connected Income) if we have a fixed place of business in the United States and substantially all of our U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income is attributable to regularly scheduled transportation or, in the case of income derived from bareboat charters, is attributable to a fixed place of business in the United States. Based on our current operations, none of our potential U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income is attributable to regularly scheduled transportation or is derived from bareboat charters attributable to a fixed place of business in the United States. As a result, we do not anticipate that any of our U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income will be treated as Effectively Connected Income. However, there is no assurance that we will not earn income pursuant to regularly scheduled transportation or bareboat charters attributable to a fixed place of business in the United States in the future, which will result in such income being treated as Effectively Connected Income. U.S. Source Domestic Transportation Gross Income generally will be treated as Effectively Connected Income.
Any income we earn that is treated as Effectively Connected Income would be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax (which statutory rate as of the end of 2021 was 21%) and a 30% branch profits tax imposed under Section 884 of the Code. In addition, a branch interest tax could be imposed on certain interest paid, or deemed paid, by us.
On the sale of a vessel that has produced Effectively Connected Income, we generally would be subject to the net basis and branch profits taxes with respect to our gain recognized up to the amount of certain prior deductions for depreciation that reduced Effectively Connected Income. Otherwise, we would not be subject to U.S. federal income tax with respect to gain realized on the sale of a vessel, provided the sale is considered to occur outside of the United States under U.S. federal income tax principles.
The 4% Gross Basis Tax. If the Section 883 Exemption does not apply and we are not subject to the net basis and branch profits taxes described above, we will be subject to a 4% U.S. federal income tax on our subsidiaries' U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income, without benefit of deductions. For 2021, we estimate that, if the Section 883 Exemption and the net basis tax did not apply, the U.S. federal income tax on such U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income would have been approximately $5.6 million. In addition, with respect to our taxable year ending in 2021, we estimate that our former subsidiary Teekay LNG Partners L.P. (now known as Seapeak LLC) was unable to claim the Section 883 Exemption and was subject to approximately $2.4 million in U.S. federal income tax on the U.S. source portion of its U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income for 2021. If the Section 883 Exemption does not apply, the amount of such tax for which we or our subsidiaries may be liable in any year will depend upon the amount of income we earn from voyages into or out of the United States in such year, however, which is not within our complete control.
Marshall Islands Taxation
We believe that neither we nor our subsidiaries will be subject to taxation under the laws of the Marshall Islands, nor that distributions by our subsidiaries to us will be subject to any taxes under the laws of the Marshall Islands, other than taxes, fines, or fees due to (i) the incorporation, dissolution, continued existence, merger, domestication (or similar concepts) of legal entities registered in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, (ii) filing certificates (such as certificates of incumbency, merger, or re-domiciliation) with the Marshall Islands registrar, (iii) obtaining certificates of good standing from, or certified copies of documents filed with, the Marshall Islands registrar, (iv) compliance with Marshall Islands law concerning vessel ownership, such as tonnage tax, or (v) non-compliance with economic substance regulations or with requests made by the Marshall Islands Registrar of Corporations relating to our books and records and the books and records of our subsidiaries.
We and our subsidiaries are subject to taxation in certain non-U.S. jurisdictions because we or our subsidiaries are either organized, or conduct business or operations in such jurisdictions. In other non-U.S. jurisdictions, we and our subsidiaries rely on statutory exemptions from tax. However, we cannot assure that any statutory exemptions from tax on which we or our subsidiaries rely will continue to be available as tax laws in those jurisdictions may change or we or our subsidiaries may enter into new business transactions relating to such jurisdictions, which could affect our and our subsidiaries' tax liability. Please read “Item 18 – Financial Statements: Note 21 – Income Tax Recovery (Expense)".
Item 4A.Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 5.Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto appearing elsewhere in this report.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
On October 4, 2021, Teekay LNG Partners L.P. (or Teekay LNG Partners) (now known as Seapeak LLC (or Seapeak)), Teekay LNG Partners' general partner, Teekay GP L.L.C. (or Teekay GP), an investment vehicle (or Acquiror) managed by Stonepeak Partners L.P., and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Acquiror (or Merger Sub) entered into an agreement and plan of merger (or the Merger Agreement). On January 13, 2022, Teekay announced the closing of the merger (or the Merger) pursuant to the Merger Agreement and related transactions. As part of the Merger and other transactions, Teekay sold all of its ownership interest in Teekay LNG Partners, including approximately 36.0 million Teekay LNG Partners common units, and Teekay GP (equivalent to approximately 1.6 million Teekay LNG Partners common units), for $17.00 per common unit or common unit equivalent in cash. As consideration, Teekay received total gross cash proceeds of approximately $641 million. Furthermore, on January 13, 2022, Teekay transferred certain management services companies to Teekay LNG Partners that provide, through existing services agreements, comprehensive managerial, operational and administrative services to Teekay LNG Partners, its subsidiaries and certain of its joint ventures. Due to negative working capital in these subsidiaries on the date of purchase, Teekay paid Teekay LNG Partners $4.9 million to assume ownership of them. Concurrent with closing of the transaction, Teekay and Teekay LNG Partners entered into a transition services agreement whereby each party will provide certain services, consisting primarily of corporate services that were previously shared by the entire Teekay organization, to the other party for a period of months following closing to allow for the orderly separation of these functions into two standalone operations.
Following completion of these transactions, Teekay Parent repaid nearly all of its debt and is now net debt free with our remaining balance sheet consisting of our controlling interest in publicly-listed Teekay Tankers Ltd. (or Teekay Tankers), our direct ownership in two floating production storage and offloading (or FPSO) units, our marine services business in Australia, and a net cash position of over $300 million. Teekay and its current subsidiaries, other than Teekay Tankers, are referred to herein as "Teekay Parent".
Effective on February 25, 2022, Teekay LNG Partners L.P. converted from a limited partnership formed under the laws of the Republic of the Marshall Islands into a limited liability company formed under the laws of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and changed its name from “Teekay LNG Partners L.P.” to “Seapeak LLC”.
To understand our financial condition and results of operations, a general understanding of our organizational structure is required. Our organizational structure can be divided into (a) our controlling interests in Teekay Tankers and (b) Teekay Parent. Since we control the voting interests of Teekay Tankers through our ownership of Class A and Class B common shares of Teekay Tankers, we consolidate the results of this subsidiary, and prior to the closing of the sale of the Teekay Gas Business, we controlled the voting interests of Teekay LNG Partners through our 100% ownership of the sole general partner interest of Teekay LNG Partners.
As of December 31, 2021, we had economic interests in Teekay LNG Partners and Teekay Tankers of 42.4% and 29.8%, respectively. As of the date of this report, we no longer have an economic interest in Seapeak and we have an economic interest in Teekay Tankers of 31.3%.
In 2007, we formed Teekay Tankers to expand our oil tanker business. Teekay Tankers holds all of our oil tanker assets and engages in a mix of short to medium term fixed-rate charter contracts and spot tanker market trading. Teekay Tankers also owns a ship-to-ship transfer business that performs full service lightering and lightering support operations in the U.S. Gulf and Caribbean. In addition to Teekay Parent’s investment in Teekay Tankers, Teekay Parent continues to own two FPSO units, conducts business in Australia through the provision of operational and maintenance marine services, and provides marine and corporate services to Teekay Tankers.
Teekay has developed extensive industry experience and industry-leading capabilities over its nearly 50-year history, and has significant financial strength and liquidity following the sale of the Teekay Gas Business in January 2022. As the world pushes for greater energy diversification and a lower environmental footprint, we expect to see investment opportunities in both the broader shipping sectors and potentially new and adjacent markets. Our primary financial objective for Teekay Parent is to increase Teekay’s intrinsic value per share, which includes, among other things, increasing the intrinsic value of Teekay Tankers.
IMPORTANT FINANCIAL AND OPERATIONAL TERMS AND CONCEPTS
We use a variety of financial and operational terms and concepts when analyzing our performance. These include the following:
Revenues. Revenues primarily include revenues from voyage charters, time charters accounted for under operating and sales-type leases, and FPSO contracts. Revenues are affected by hire rates and the number of days a vessel operates. Revenues are also affected by the mix of business between time charters and voyage charters and to a lesser extent whether our vessels are subject to an RSA. Hire rates for voyage charters are more volatile, as they are typically tied to prevailing market rates at the time of a voyage.
Voyage Expenses. Voyage expenses are all expenses unique to a particular voyage, including any fuel expenses, port fees, cargo loading and unloading expenses, canal tolls, agency fees and commissions. Voyage expenses are typically paid by the customer under time charters and FPSO contracts and by us under voyage charters.
Net Revenues. Net revenues represents (loss) income from vessel operations before vessel operating expenses, time-charter hire expenses, depreciation and amortization, general and administrative expenses, write-down and gain (loss) on sale of assets and restructuring charges. This is a non-GAAP financial measure; for more information about this measure, please read "Item 5 - Operating and Financial Review and Prospects - Non-GAAP Financial Measures".
Vessel Operating Expenses. Under all types of charters and contracts for our vessels, except for bareboat charters, we are responsible for vessel operating expenses, which include crewing, repairs and maintenance, insurance, stores, lube oils and communication expenses. The two largest components of our vessel operating expenses are crew costs and repairs and maintenance. We expect these expenses to increase as our fleet matures and to the extent that it expands. We are taking steps to maintain these expenses at a stable level but expect an increase in line with inflation in respect of crew, material, and maintenance costs. The strengthening or weakening of the U.S. Dollar relative to foreign currencies may result in significant decreases or increases, respectively, in our vessel operating expenses, depending on the currencies in which such expenses are incurred.
(Loss) Income from Vessel Operations. To assist us in evaluating our operations by segment, we analyze our loss or income from vessel operations for each segment, which represents the loss or income we receive from the segment after deducting operating expenses, but prior to the deduction of interest expense, realized and unrealized gains (losses) on non-designated derivative instruments, income taxes, foreign currency and other income and losses.
Dry docking. We must periodically dry dock each of our vessels for inspection, repairs and maintenance and any modifications to comply with industry certification or governmental requirements. Generally, we dry dock each of our vessels every two and a half to five years, depending upon the type of vessel and its age. We capitalize a substantial portion of the costs incurred during dry docking and amortize those costs on a straight-line basis from the completion of a dry docking over the estimated useful life of the dry dock. We expense as incurred costs for routine repairs and maintenance performed during dry dockings that do not improve or extend the useful lives of the assets. and annual class survey costs for our FPSO units. The number of dry dockings undertaken in a given period and the nature of the work performed determine the level of dry-docking expenditures.
Depreciation and Amortization. Our depreciation and amortization expense typically consists of:
•charges related to the depreciation and amortization of the historical cost of our fleet (less an estimated residual value) over the estimated useful lives of our vessels;
•charges related to the amortization of dry-docking expenditures over the useful life of the dry dock; and
•charges related to the amortization of intangible assets, including the fair value of time charters and customer relationships where amounts have been attributed to those items in acquisitions; these amounts are amortized over the period in which the asset is expected to contribute to our future cash flows.
Time-Charter Equivalent (TCE) Rates. Bulk shipping industry freight rates are commonly measured in the shipping industry in terms of “time-charter equivalent” (or TCE) rates, which represent net revenues divided by revenue days.
Revenue Days. Revenue days are the total number of calendar days our vessels were in our possession during a period, less the total number of off-hire days during the period associated with major repairs, dry dockings or special or intermediate surveys. Consequently, revenue days represent the total number of days available for the vessel to earn revenue. Idle days, which are days when the vessel is available for the vessel to earn revenue, yet is not employed, are included in revenue days. We use revenue days to explain changes in our revenues between periods.
Calendar-Ship-Days. Calendar-ship-days are equal to the total number of calendar days that our vessels were in our possession during a period. As a result, we use calendar-ship-days primarily in explaining changes in vessel operating expenses, time-charter hire expenses and depreciation and amortization expense.
ITEMS YOU SHOULD CONSIDER WHEN EVALUATING OUR RESULTS
You should consider the following factors when evaluating our historical financial performance and assessing our future prospects:
•Our voyage revenues are affected by cyclicality in the tanker markets. The cyclical nature of the tanker industry causes significant increases or decreases in the revenue we earn from our vessels, particularly those we trade in the spot market. Following the sale of the Teekay Gas Business, which operated primarily under long-term, fixed-rate time-charter contracts, our revenues will be more volatile.
•Tanker rates also fluctuate based on seasonal variations in demand. Tanker markets are typically stronger in the winter months as a result of increased oil consumption in the northern hemisphere but weaker in the summer months as a result of lower oil consumption in the northern hemisphere and increased refinery maintenance. In addition, unpredictable weather patterns during the winter months tend to disrupt vessel scheduling, which historically has increased oil price volatility and oil trading activities in the winter months. As a result, revenues generated by our vessels have historically been weaker during the quarters ended June 30 and September 30, and stronger in the quarters ended December 31 and March 31.
•We have retroactively adjusted the presentation of our results of the Teekay Gas Business. On October 4, 2021, we entered into agreements to sell our general partner interest in Teekay LNG Partners (now known as Seapeak LLC), all of our common units in Teekay LNG Partners, and certain subsidiaries which collectively contain the shore-based management operations of the Teekay Gas Business - see "Overview" section above. These transactions closed on January 13, 2022. All revenues and expenses of the Teekay Gas Business prior to the sale and for the periods covered by the consolidated statements of (loss) income in these consolidated financial statements have been aggregated and presented separately from the continuing operations of Teekay. As such, the following sections consisting of Operating Results – Teekay Tankers, Operating Results – Teekay Parent and Other Consolidated Operating Results exclude the results of the Teekay Gas Business.
•The COVID-19 pandemic is dynamic and could have material adverse effects on our business, results of operations or financial conditions.
The COVID-19 global pandemic has had a significant impact on global demand for crude oil and global supply chains. As our business includes the transportation of oil and oil products on behalf of our customers, any significant decrease in demand for or production of the cargo we transport could adversely affect demand for our vessels and services.
To date, we have not experienced any material business interruptions as a result of the COVID-19 global pandemic. However, COVID-19 has been a contributing factor to the decline in spot and short-term time charter rates in our oil tanker business since mid-May 2020 and has also increased certain crewing-related costs, which has had an impact on our cash flows. During the year ended December 31, 2021, COVID-19 was a contributing factor to the write-down of certain tankers of Teekay Tankers (2020 - certain tankers of Teekay Tankers and one FPSO unit of Teekay Parent), as described in "Item 18 – Financial Statements: Note 18 - (Write-down) and Gain (Loss) on Sale of Assets". COVID-19 was also a contributing factor to the reduction in certain tax accruals during the year ended December 31, 2020, as described in "Item 18 – Financial Statements: Note 21 - Income Tax Recovery (Expense)". We continue to monitor the potential impact of the COVID-19 global pandemic on us and our industry, including counterparty risk associated with our vessels under contract and monitoring the impact on potential vessel impairments. We have also introduced a number of measures to protect the health and safety of the crews on our vessels and our onshore staff.
Effects of the COVID-19 global pandemic may include, among others: deterioration of worldwide, regional or national economic conditions and activity and of demand for oil; operational disruptions to us or our customers due to worker health risks and the effects of new regulations, directives or practices implemented in response to the pandemic (such as travel restrictions for individuals and vessels and quarantining and physical distancing); potential delays in (a) the loading and discharging of cargo on or from our vessels, (b) vessel inspections and related certifications by class societies, customers or government agencies, (c) maintenance, modifications or repairs to, or drydocking of, our existing vessels due to worker health or other business disruptions, and (d) the timing of crew changes; supply chain disruptions; reduced cash flow and financial condition, including potential liquidity constraints; potential reduced access to capital as a result of any credit tightening generally or due to continued declines in global financial markets; potential reduced ability to opportunistically sell any of our vessels on the second-hand market, either as a result of a lack of buyers or a general decline in the value of second-hand vessels; potential decreases in the market values of our vessels and any related impairment charges or breaches relating to vessel-to-loan financial covenants; and potential deterioration in the financial condition and prospects of our customers or business partners.
Given the dynamic nature of the pandemic, including the development of variants of the virus, and the levels of effectiveness and delivery of vaccines and other actions to contain or treat its impact of the virus, the duration of any potential business disruption and the related financial impact, and the effects on us and our suppliers, customers and industry, cannot be reasonably estimated at this time and could materially affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. Please read “Item 3 – Key Information - Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2021 for additional information about the potential risks of COVID-19 on our business.
•Vessel operating and other costs are facing industry-wide cost pressures. We continue to maintain our operating expense increases at near inflationary levels; however, regulatory compliance has increased cost pressures on operators in recent years which may lead to increased operational expenses in the future. In 2021, COVID-19 contributed to some logistical challenges, causing us to defer the scheduled maintenance for certain of our vessels from 2021 to 2022. Additionally, due to increased length of stay for seafarers on board the vessels, we have had an increase in crewing costs.
•The amount and timing of dry dockings and major modifications of our vessels can affect our revenues between periods. Our vessels are off-hire at various times due to scheduled and unscheduled maintenance. During 2021 and 2020, on a consolidated basis, excluding amounts related to the Teekay Gas Business and excluding the vessel in our equity-accounted joint venture, we incurred 611 and 520 off-hire days relating to dry docking and ballast water treatment systems (or BWTS) installations, respectively. The financial impact from these periods of off-hire, if material, is explained in further detail below in "– Results of Operations”. During 2022, 10 of our owned and leased vessels are scheduled for dry docking (excluding the vessel in our equity-accounted joint venture and three owned and leased vessels that are scheduled for BWTS installation without drydocking), compared to 10 vessels which dry docked during 2021 (excluding four vessels that were off hire while installing BWTS).
•Our financial results are affected by fluctuations in currency exchange rates. Under GAAP, all foreign currency-denominated monetary assets and liabilities (including cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, advances from affiliates, and long-term debt) are revalued and reported based on the prevailing exchange rate at the end of the period. These foreign currency translations fluctuate based on the strength of the U.S. Dollar relative mainly to the Euro and GBP are included in our results of operations. The translation of all foreign currency-denominated monetary assets and liabilities at each reporting date results in unrealized foreign currency exchange gains or losses but do not currently impact our cash flows.
•The charterer of the Sevan Hummingbird FPSO unit exercised its option for early termination of the FPSO contract with a scheduled termination date in May 2022. We need to seek to redeploy, sell or recycle the unit. Teekay is currently planning for the decommissioning of the Sevan Hummingbird FPSO unit from the Chestnut Field. Our estimates of decommissioning costs may change and differ from actual costs required to decommission and recycle the unit.
•We do not control access to cash flow generated by our investment in our equity-accounted joint venture. We do not have control over the operations of, nor do we have any legal claim to the revenue and expenses of our investment in, our equity-accounted joint venture. Consequently, the cash flow generated by our investment in equity-accounted joint venture may not be available for use by us in the period that such cash flows are generated.
•Russia’s invasion of Ukraine could have material adverse effects on our business, results of operations, or financial condition. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, in addition to sanctions announced in February and March 2022 by President Biden and several European and world leaders and nations against Russia and any further sanctions, may adversely impact our business given Russia’s role as a major global exporter of crude oil and natural gas. Our business could be harmed by trade tariffs, trade embargoes or other economic sanctions by the United States or other countries against Russia, Russian companies or the Russian energy sector and harmed by any retaliatory measures by Russia in response. While much uncertainty remains regarding the global impact of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, it is possible that the hostilities could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operation and cash flows. Furthermore, it is possible that third parties with whom we have charter contracts or business arrangements may be impacted by events in Russia and Ukraine, which could adversely affect our operations and financial condition.
SUMMARY FINANCIAL DATA
Set forth below is summary consolidated financial and other data of Teekay Corporation and its subsidiaries for fiscal years 2019 through 2021, which have been derived from our consolidated financial statements. The following table should be read together with, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, the consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes and the Reports of the Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm therein with respect to the three years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 (which are included herein).
|(in thousands of U.S. Dollars, except per share data)||Years Ended December 31,|
|GAAP Financial Comparison:|
|Income Statement Data: |
|Revenues||$||682,508 ||$||1,146,255 ||$||1,275,045 |
|(Loss) income from vessel operations, continuing operations||(185,353)||70,197 ||(109,177)|
|Loss from continuing operations||(277,463)||(24,304)||(324,707)|
|Income from discontinued operations||274,095 ||115,286 ||175,721 |
|Net (loss) income||(3,368)||90,982 ||(148,986)|
|Per common share data:|
Basic and diluted loss from continuing operations attributable to shareholders of
Basic and diluted income from discontinued operations attributable to shareholders of
|1.08 ||0.46 ||0.62 |
|Basic and diluted income (loss) ||0.08 ||(0.82)||(3.08)|
|Balance Sheet Data (at end of year):|
Cash and cash equivalents (1)
|210,167 ||348,785 ||353,241 |
Vessels and equipment (1)(2)
|4,182,785 ||4,483,430 ||5,033,130 |
Total assets (1)
|6,531,982 ||6,945,912 ||8,072,864 |
Total debt (1)(3)
|3,639,593 ||3,766,072 ||4,702,844 |
Total equity (1)
|2,432,483 ||2,471,291 ||2,571,593 |
|Other Financial Data: |
|$||420,178 ||$||578,406 ||$||438,423 |
Adjusted EBITDA (4)(5)
|721,260 ||1,086,126 ||951,913 |
Total debt to total capitalization (1)(6)
|59.9 ||%||60.4 ||%||64.6 ||%|
Net debt to total net capitalization (1)(7)
|58.1 ||%||57.6 ||%||62.3 ||%|
(1) Includes balances from both discontinued operations and continuing operations on the consolidated balance sheets.
(2) Vessels and equipment consist of (a) our vessels, at cost less accumulated depreciation, (b) vessels related to finance leases, at cost less accumulated depreciation, (c) operating lease right-of-use assets and (d) advances on newbuilding contracts.
(3) Total debt represents short-term debt, the current portion of long-term debt and long-term debt, and the current and long-term portion of obligations related to finance leases.
(4) Includes balances from both (loss) from continuing operations and income from discontinued operations on the consolidated statements of (loss) income.
(5) EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are non-GAAP financial measures. An explanation of the usefulness and purpose of each measure as well as a reconciliation to the most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP are contained with the section “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” at the end of this Item 5 - Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.
(6) Total capitalization represents total debt and total equity.
(7) Net debt is a non-GAAP financial measure. Net debt represents total debt less cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash. Total net capitalization represents net debt and total equity.
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The results of operations that follow have first been divided into (a) our controlling interests in our publicly-traded subsidiary Teekay Tankers and (b) Teekay Parent. Within these groups, we have further subdivided the results into their respective lines of business. The following table (a) presents revenues and income (loss) from vessel operations for each of Teekay Tankers and for Teekay Parent, and (b) reconciles these amounts to our consolidated financial statements. Revenue and income from the Teekay Gas Business are not included in the following table and have been presented separately in “Operating Results – Teekay Gas Business”.
(Loss) income from vessel operations (1)
|(in thousands of U.S. dollars)||2021||2020||2021||2020|
|Teekay Tankers||542,367 ||886,434 ||(194,095)||141,572 |
|Teekay Parent||140,141 ||259,821 ||8,742 ||(71,375)|
|Teekay Corporation Consolidated||682,508 ||1,146,255 ||(185,353)||70,197 |
(1) Excluding results pertaining to the Teekay Gas Business. See "Item 18 – Financial Statements: Note 23 – Discontinued Operations" for further details.
Our consolidated loss from vessels operations, which excludes the Teekay Gas Business, decreased to ($185.4) million for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to income from vessel operations of $70.2 million in the prior year. The primary reasons for this decrease are as follows:
•a net decrease of $213.3 million as a result of lower overall average realized spot TCE rates earned by Teekay Tankers' Suezmax tankers, Aframax tankers and LR2 product tankers, as well as lower earnings from its full service lightering (or FSL) dedicated vessels;
•a net decrease of $91.0 million due to various Teekay Tankers' vessels on time-charter out contracts earning lower fixed rates during the first half of 2021 compared to the spot rates realized during the first half of 2020 and various vessels returning from time-charter out contracts earning lower spot rates during 2021 compared to previous fixed rates;
•a decrease of $44.9 million due to a gain recognized on the commencement of the <