Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
Thermo Fisher Scientific
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$266.83 400 $106,720
10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-09-29 Quarter: 2018-09-29
10-Q 2018-06-30 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-09-30 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-07-01 Quarter: 2017-07-01
10-Q 2017-04-01 Quarter: 2017-04-01
10-K 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-10-01 Quarter: 2016-10-01
10-Q 2016-07-02 Quarter: 2016-07-02
10-Q 2016-04-02 Quarter: 2016-04-02
10-K 2015-12-31 Annual: 2015-12-31
10-Q 2015-09-26 Quarter: 2015-09-26
10-Q 2015-06-27 Quarter: 2015-06-27
10-Q 2015-03-28 Quarter: 2015-03-28
10-K 2014-12-31 Annual: 2014-12-31
10-Q 2014-09-27 Quarter: 2014-09-27
10-Q 2014-06-28 Quarter: 2014-06-28
10-Q 2014-03-29 Quarter: 2014-03-29
10-K 2013-12-31 Annual: 2013-12-31
8-K 2019-01-30 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-24 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-09-06 Officers
8-K 2018-08-08 Enter Agreement, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-06 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-25 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-23 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2018-04-25 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-27 Officers
8-K 2018-01-31 Earnings, Exhibits
ABBV AbbVie 118,560
SNA Snap-On 8,720
GEF Greif 2,320
MBIN Merchants Bancorp 663
BRID Bridgford Foods 224
GDP Goodrich Petroleum 177
KOPN Kopin 112
NURO Neurometrix 8
RGUS REGI 0
DFBG Differential Brands Group 0
TMO 2018-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for The Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16. Form 10-K Summary
Note 1. Nature of Operations and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2. Acquisitions and Dispositions
Note 3. Revenue
Note 4. Business Segment and Geographical Information
Note 5. Other Expense, Net
Note 6. Stock-Based Compensation Expense
Note 7. Pension and Other Postretirement Benefit Plans
Note 8. Income Taxes
Note 9. Earnings per Share
Note 10. Debt and Other Financing Arrangements
Note 11. Commitments and Contingencies
Note 12. Comprehensive Income and Shareholders' Equity
Note 13. Fair Value Measurements and Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Note 14. Supplemental Cash Flow Information
Note 15. Restructuring and Other Costs, Net
Note 16. Unaudited Quarterly Information
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Thermo Fisher Scientific Earnings 2018-12-31

TMO 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

10-K 1 a201810k.htm THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC., FORM 10-K, DATED DECEMBER 31, 2018 Document

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ý Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the fiscal year ended
December 31, 2018 or
¨ Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Commission file number 1-8002
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
04-2209186
(State of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
168 Third Avenue
 
Waltham, Massachusetts
02451
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (781) 622-1000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
 
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $1.00 par value
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
2.000% Notes due 2025
 
New York Stock Exchange
Floating Rate Notes due 2019
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
1.400% Notes due 2026
 
New York Stock Exchange
Floating Rate Notes due 2020
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
1.450% Notes due 2027
 
New York Stock Exchange
1.500% Notes due 2020
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
1.375% Notes due 2028
 
New York Stock Exchange
2.150% Notes due 2022
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
1.950% Notes due 2029
 
New York Stock Exchange
0.750% Notes due 2024
 
New York Stock Exchange
 
2.875% Notes due 2037
 
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ý  No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes o  No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months, and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý  No o
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ý  No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ý
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one)      Large accelerated filer ý Accelerated filer o        Non-accelerated filer o        Smaller reporting company o        Emerging growth company o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o  No ý
As of June 29, 2018, the aggregate market value of the voting stock held by nonaffiliates of the Registrant was approximately $83,322,432,000 (based on the last reported sale of common stock on the New York Stock Exchange Composite Tape reporting system on June 29, 2018).
As of February 2, 2019, the Registrant had 399,003,681 shares of Common Stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Sections of Thermo Fisher’s definitive Proxy Statement for the 2019 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference into Parts II and III of this report.




THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2018
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
Page
 
PART I
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.

PART I
Item 1.
Business
General Development of Business
Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. (also referred to in this document as "Thermo Fisher," "we," the "company," or the "registrant") is the world leader in serving science. Our mission is to enable our customers to make the world healthier, cleaner and safer. We help our customers accelerate life sciences research, solve complex analytical challenges, improve patient diagnostics, deliver medicines to market and increase laboratory productivity.
Thermo Fisher has approximately 70,000 employees and serves more than 400,000 customers within pharmaceutical and biotech companies, hospitals and clinical diagnostic labs, universities, research institutions and government agencies, as well as environmental, industrial quality and process control settings.
We serve our customers through our premier brands, Thermo Scientific, Applied Biosystems, Invitrogen, Fisher Scientific and Unity Lab Services:
The Thermo Scientific brand offers customers in research, diagnostics, industrial, and applied markets a complete range of high-end analytical instruments as well as laboratory equipment, software, services, consumables and reagents. Our portfolio of products includes innovative technologies for mass spectrometry, chromatography, elemental analysis, electron microscopy, molecular spectroscopy, sample preparation, informatics, chemical research and analysis, cell culture, bioprocess production, cellular, protein and molecular biology research, allergy testing, drugs-of-abuse testing, therapeutic drug monitoring testing, microbiology, anatomical pathology, as well as environmental monitoring and process control.
The Applied Biosystems brand offers customers in research, clinical and applied markets integrated instrument systems, reagents, and software for genetic analysis. Our portfolio includes innovative technologies for genetic sequencing and real-time, digital and end point polymerase chain reaction (PCR), that are used to determine meaningful genetic information in applications such as cancer diagnostics, human identification testing, and animal health, as well as inherited and infectious disease.
The Invitrogen brand offers life science customers a broad range of consumables and instruments that accelerate research and ensure consistency of results. Our portfolio of products includes innovative solutions for cellular analysis and biology, flow cytometry, cell culture, protein expression, synthetic biology, molecular biology and protein biology.
Fisher Scientific is our channels brand, offering customers a complete portfolio of laboratory equipment and consumables, chemicals, supplies and services used in scientific research, healthcare, safety, and education markets. These products are offered through an extensive network of direct sales professionals, segment-relevant printed collateral and digital content, a state-of-the-art website, and supply-chain management services. We also offer a range of biopharma services for clinical trials management and biospecimen storage.
Unity Lab Services is our instrument and equipment services brand, offering a complete portfolio of services from enterprise level engagements to individual instruments and laboratory equipment, regardless of the original manufacturer. Through our network of world-class service and support personnel, we provide services that are designed to help our customers improve productivity, reduce costs, and drive decisions with better data.
We continuously increase our depth of capabilities in technologies, software and services, and leverage our extensive global channels to address our customers’ emerging needs. For example, in October 2018, we acquired, within the Life Sciences Solutions segment, Becton Dickinson and Company's Advanced Bioprocessing business, expanding our bioproduction offerings. Our goal is to make our customers more productive in an increasingly competitive business environment, and to allow them to solve their challenges, from complex research to improved patient care, environmental and process monitoring, and consumer safety.
Thermo Fisher is a Delaware corporation and was incorporated in 1956. The company completed its initial public offering in 1967 and was listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1980.
Forward-looking Statements
Forward-looking statements, within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Exchange Act), are made throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Any statements contained herein that are not statements of historical fact may be deemed to be forward-looking statements, including without limitation statements regarding: projections of revenue, expenses, earnings, margins, tax rates, tax provisions, cash flows, pension and benefit obligations and funding

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THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
Business (continued)

requirements, our liquidity position; cost reductions, restructuring activities, new product and service developments, competitive strengths or market position, acquisitions or divestitures; growth, declines and other trends in markets we sell into; new or modified laws, regulations and accounting pronouncements; outstanding claims, legal proceedings, tax audits and assessments and other contingent liabilities; foreign currency exchange rates and fluctuations in those rates; general economic and capital markets conditions; the timing of any of the foregoing; assumptions underlying any of the foregoing; and any other statements that address events or developments that Thermo Fisher intends or believes will or may occur in the future.  Without limiting the foregoing, the words "believes," "anticipates," "plans," "expects," "seeks," "estimates," and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements are accompanied by such words. While the company may elect to update forward-looking statements in the future, it specifically disclaims any obligation to do so, even if the company’s estimates change, and readers should not rely on those forward-looking statements as representing the company’s views as of any date subsequent to the date of the filing of this report.
A number of important factors could cause the results of the company to differ materially from those indicated by such forward-looking statements, including those detailed under the heading, "Risk Factors" in Part I, Item 1A.
Business Segments and Products
We report our business in four segments – Life Sciences Solutions, Analytical Instruments, Specialty Diagnostics, and Laboratory Products and Services.
Life Sciences Solutions Segment
Through our Life Sciences Solutions segment, we provide an extensive portfolio of reagents, instruments and consumables used in biological and medical research, discovery and production of new drugs and vaccines as well as diagnosis of disease. These products and services are used by customers in pharmaceutical, biotechnology, agricultural, clinical, academic, and government markets. Life Sciences Solutions includes four primary businesses – Biosciences, Genetic Sciences, Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing, and BioProduction.
Biosciences
Our biosciences business includes reagents, instruments and consumables that help our customers conduct biological and medical research, discover new drugs and vaccines, and, in the case of some specific products, the diagnosis of disease.
Our biosciences offerings include:
Reagents, instruments, and consumables used for protein biology, molecular biology, sample preparation and cell imaging and analysis. The portfolio includes antibodies and products for protein purification, detection, modification, and analysis; and sequencing, detection and purification products used for high content analysis of nucleic acids. Many of these products are also used in applied markets, including agriculture, forensics, diagnostics product development, and toxicology research.
Tools used for genetic engineering, amplification, quantification and analysis as well as RNA isolation, including stem cell reprogramming kits, transfection reagents, RNA interference reagents, along with gene editing tools and gene synthesis products.
Cell culture media, reagents, and plastics for preserving and growing mammalian cells which are used in many life science research applications.
Fluorescence-based technologies, which facilitate the labeling of molecules for biological research and drug discovery. These technologies include a wide range of cell analysis instruments, including flow cytometers and imaging platforms that enable fluorescence microscopy.
Protein analysis products, including pre-cast electrophoresis gels for separating nucleic acids and proteins, and western blotting and staining tools.
Genetic Sciences
Our genetic sciences business combines a wide variety of instruments and related reagents used to provide high-value genomic solutions to assist customer decisions in the research, clinical and applied markets.
Our offerings include real-time PCR technology used to identify changes in gene expression, genotyping or proteins on an individual gene-by-gene basis; capillary electrophoresis (CE) sequencing, a core technology used in DNA sequencing and fragment analysis and forensic analysis applications; and microarray technology, used in gene expression, genotyping and reproductive health. 

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THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
Business (continued)

Our genetic analyzers served as the foundational platform used to sequence the first human genome.  These systems are used in a variety of basic, commercial and clinical research applications.
Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing
Our clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS) business focuses on delivering simple, fast and cost-effective NGS technology for a range of applications. The business is focused on targeted sequencing solutions for research use; the application of NGS in oncology; and is an enabling technology for other businesses within Thermo Fisher.
BioProduction
Our bioproduction business supports developers and manufacturers of biological-based therapeutics and vaccines with a portfolio of premium solutions and services focused on upstream cell culture, downstream purification, analytics for detection and quantitation of process/product impurities, and a suite of single-use solutions spanning the biologics workflow.
Our bioproduction offerings include:
Single-use bioproduction solutions that provide our customers with faster turnaround and set-up times, minimal validation requirements, reduced investment and running costs, and increased flexibility of manufacturing capacity.
Production cell culture media solutions, which are used by leading biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies to grow cells in controlled conditions and enable large scale cGMP (Current Good Manufacturing Practices) manufacturing of drugs and vaccines. We also provide our customers with the associated services to optimize the productivity of these production platforms.
Chromatography products, which deliver superior capacity and resolution for process-scale bioseparations, and offer a broad set of scalable options for the purification of antibodies, antibody fragments and proteins.
Rapid molecular products that deliver accurate results in less than four hours for contaminant detection, identification and quantitation.
Scalable solutions for the manufacture of cell therapy based drugs.
Our Doe & Ingalls offerings include chemical distribution and supply chain services that provide primarily life science manufacturers with reliable, secure supply chains for their chemical raw material.
Analytical Instruments Segment
Through our Analytical Instruments segment, we provide a broad offering of instruments, consumables, software and services that are used for a range of applications in the laboratory, on the production line and in the field. These products and services are used by customers in pharmaceutical, biotechnology, academic, government, environmental and other research and industrial markets, as well as the clinical laboratory. This segment includes three primary businesses – Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry, Chemical Analysis, and Materials and Structural Analysis.
Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry
Our chromatography and mass spectrometry (MS) business provides analytical instrumentation for organic and inorganic sample analysis across both applied technologies and life science research. These products are complemented by laboratory information management systems (LIMS); chromatography data systems (CDS); database analytical tools; automation systems; a range of consumables, such as a full line of chromatography columns; and a range of sample preparation and separation products including auto-samplers and multiplexing systems.
Chromatography is a technique for separating, identifying and quantifying individual chemical components of substances based on their specific physical and chemical characteristics. Our chromatography product line includes high performance liquid chromatography, ion chromatography and gas chromatography systems, all of which are supported by our Chromeleon chromatography data system software.
Liquid Chromatography (LC) Systems analyze complex sample matrices in liquids. Our high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) systems offer high throughput and sensitivity and are sold either as stand-alone systems or integrated with our mass spectrometers (LC/MS and LC/MS/MS). These systems are used for a range of applications, from complex proteomic analyses to routine industrial quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC).
Ion Chromatography (IC) Systems separate ionic (charged) or highly polar molecules (e.g., sugars and carbohydrates), usually found in water-based solutions, and typically detect them based on their electrical conductivity. Our IC

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THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
Business (continued)

products are used in a wide range of applications, including scientific research, and environmental testing, as well as quality control in pharmaceutical, food and beverage, and other industrial processes.
Gas Chromatography (GC) Systems analyze complex sample matrices in gases, comprising both separation and detection technology. Separation technology is common to all gas chromatography analyzers, and is paired with either a conventional detector (GC) or with different types of mass spectrometers (GC/MS). Our GC/MS offering includes a triple stage quadrupole, a single stage quadrupole, an Orbitrap, and an ion trap, for a range of applications, including food safety testing, quantitative screening of environmental samples, and complex molecular analyses.
Elemental Analysis Spectrometers use atomic spectroscopy techniques to identify trace concentrations of elements in liquid and solid samples primarily in environmental, petrochemical, food safety, metallurgical, geochemical and clinical/toxicology research applications. These products are widely used in growth markets such as China, India and Latin America to support compliance with increasingly stringent international environmental and consumer safety regulations.
Mass spectrometry is a technique for analyzing chemical compounds, individually or in complex mixtures, by forming charged ions that are then analyzed according to their mass-to-charge ratios. In addition to molecular information, each discrete chemical compound generates a pattern that provides structurally identifiable information. Our comprehensive offering includes life sciences mass spectrometry systems; and inorganic mass spectrometry systems; as well as a range of sample preparation and separation products including auto-samplers and multiplexing systems.
Life Sciences Mass Spectrometers include triple quadrupole and Orbitrap technologies. Our triple quadrupole systems provide high performance quantitative analysis of chemicals in biological fluids, environmental samples and food matrices. They are also used by the pharmaceutical industry for targeted quantitation during drug discovery. Our Orbitrap technologies provide high resolution and accurate mass capabilities for both research and applied markets and are well suited for drug metabolism, proteomics, environmental analysis, food safety, toxicology and clinical research applications. We also offer a comprehensive portfolio of instrument control and data analysis software to help customers simplify their workflows and obtain knowledge from often complex data.
Inorganic Mass Spectrometers include four product lines: isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS); multi-collector isotope ratio mass spectrometry (MC/IRMS); inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS); and high resolution trace mass spectrometry (HR Trace/MS). These products are primarily used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of inorganic matter in a range of applications, including environmental analysis, materials science and earth sciences.
Chemical Analysis
Our chemical analysis products fall into four main categories: materials and minerals; portable analytical instruments; radiation measurement and security instruments; and environmental and process instruments. Customers use these products to quickly and accurately analyze the composition of materials to optimize workflows primarily in industrial applications or to help them comply with governmental regulations and industry safety standards. Our product lines range from those used on production lines to improve quality and efficiency, to portable systems for rapid and real-time chemical identification in the field or to analyze, measure or respond to hazardous situations.
Materials and Minerals Instruments include production line process monitoring, and control systems for a range of industrial applications. For example, we offer on-line instruments that analyze bulk materials non-invasively and in real time to improve quality control and ensure safe operation in a mine or cement manufacturing plant, as well as systems that enable high-speed weighing during bulk materials handling. We also offer gauging systems that employ ionizing and non-ionizing technologies to measure the total thickness, basis weight and coating thickness of flat-sheet materials, such as steel, plastics, foil, rubber and glass. We also offer on line analyzers based on a variety of technologies such as X-ray imaging and ultra-trace chemical detection, to inspect packaged goods for physical contaminants, validate fill quantities, or check for missing or broken parts on line and at high speeds in the food and beverage, pharmaceutical production and packaging industries to maintain safety and quality standards.
Portable Analytical Instruments are rugged handheld products that provide rapid, precise, real-time analysis at the point of need. Our two main product categories are elemental and optical analyzers. Our portable elemental analyzers use X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technology for identifying metal alloys in scrap metal recycling; QA/QC; precious metals analysis; environmental analysis; and lead screening in a range of consumer products. Our portable optical analyzers utilize Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and near-infrared (NIR) technologies for use in the field by first responders, and law enforcement and military personnel who need to quickly and accurately identify

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THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
Business (continued)

chemicals and explosives in critical safety and security situations. Other applications include QA/QC in pharmaceutical production and identification of counterfeit drugs.
Radiation Measurement and Security Products are used to monitor, detect and identify specific forms of radiation in nuclear power, environmental, industrial, medical, and security applications. Our primary customers include national, regional, and local government agencies responsible for monitoring cargo, vehicles and people traveling across borders. These products are also used by first-responders in safety and security situations, and for worker safety in the nuclear power and other industrial markets.
Environmental and Process Instruments include fixed and portable instrumentation that help our customers protect people and the environment as well as comply with government regulations and industry safety standards. Our products are used by environmental regulatory agencies and power plant operators to measure ambient air, and stack gas emissions for compliance with regulated emissions standards for criteria pollutant gases. Our products are also used in ambient particulate monitoring applications by customers in mining environments to provide continuous measurements and logging of real-time concentrations and median particle sizes of airborne dust, smoke, mist and fumes to improve efficiency and increase worker safety.
In addition to our broad product offerings, we offer a variety of specialized services to our customers, including equipment servicing, instrument calibration services, asset management and training.
Materials and Structural Analysis
Our materials and structural analysis business includes electron microscopy, molecular spectroscopy and laboratory elemental analysis instruments that are used by customers in life sciences, materials sciences and industrial markets to accelerate breakthrough discoveries.
Electron Microscopy Instruments include transmission electron microscopes which provide imaging and characterization at the atomic scale, with applications in semiconductor development, materials science research and the characterization of protein structure and function. We also offer scanning electron microscopes which resolve features from the optical regime down to the nanometer length scale and are used for a wide variety of applications from materials characterization in science and engineering to applications in natural resources, manufacturing, and biological systems. Our DualBeam focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope systems are used for sample preparation, 3D characterization, nanoprototyping, and industrial failure analysis. Our focused ion beam microscopes are used in a range of process control, failure analysis, and materials research applications. We also offer electrical failure analysis instruments which are used in root cause failure analysis and quality control, microCT instruments which are micro-computed tomography solutions for quantitative analysis of a broad range of materials, providing 3D visualization of large volumes non-destructively and 3D visualization software that turns the data and images generated by a broad range of instruments into 3D visualizations of the microscopic sample, allowing quantitative analysis of material properties.
Molecular Spectroscopy Instruments are divided into four primary techniques: FTIR, Raman, NIR and ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy. These technologies are typically used in the laboratory to provide information on the structure of molecules to identify, verify and quantify organic materials in pharmaceutical, biotechnology, polymer, chemical, and forensic sciences. Our material characterization instruments include rheometers and extruders that measure viscosity, elasticity, processability, and temperature-related mechanical changes of various materials. We also provide a range of surface analysis instruments commonly used in the semiconductor, metals, coatings, and polymer industries as a product development and failure analysis tool.
Laboratory Elemental Analysis Instruments and analyzers use X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and arc spark optical emission (OES) techniques for accurate and precise analysis of bulk materials in the metals, cement, minerals, and petrochemicals industries.
The company has entered into an agreement to acquire Gatan, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Roper Technologies, Inc., for approximately $925 million in cash. Gatan is a leading manufacturer of instrumentation and software used to enhance and extend the operation and performance of electron microscopes. The transaction is subject to customary closing conditions, including regulatory approvals.
Specialty Diagnostics Segment
Our Specialty Diagnostics segment offers a wide range of diagnostic test kits, reagents, culture media, instruments and associated products in order to serve customers in healthcare, clinical, pharmaceutical, industrial, and food safety laboratories. Our healthcare products are used to increase the speed and accuracy of diagnoses, which improves patient care in a more cost

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THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
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efficient manner. This segment has six primary businesses – Clinical Diagnostics, ImmunoDiagnostics, Microbiology, Anatomical Pathology, Transplant Diagnostics and our Healthcare Market Channel.
Clinical Diagnostics
Our clinical diagnostics products include a broad offering of liquid, ready-to-use and lyophilized immunodiagnostic reagent kits, calibrators, controls and calibration verification fluids. In particular, we provide products used for drugs-of-abuse testing; therapeutic drug monitoring, including immunosuppressant drug testing; thyroid hormone testing; serum toxicology; clinical chemistry; immunology; hematology; coagulation; glucose tolerance testing; first trimester screening; tumor markers testing; and biomarkers testing for sepsis, acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. We also private label many of our reagents and controls for major in vitro diagnostics companies through OEM arrangements. In many instances, we will work with customers or partners to develop new products and applications for their instrument platforms.
We have developed one of the broadest menus for drugs-of-abuse immunoassays. We also provide a broad offering of immunosuppressant drug immunoassays that can be used on a variety of clinical chemistry analyzers.
Our clinical chemistry systems include analyzers and reagents to analyze and measure routine blood and urine chemistry, such as glucose and cholesterol; and advanced testing for specific proteins, therapeutic drug monitoring and drugs-of-abuse. Our diagnostic test range currently covers approximately 80 different validated methods. We also provide pre- and post-analytical automation for preparation of blood specimens before and after analysis, and specialty diagnostic tests based on patented biomarkers for sepsis, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, as well as intensive care treatments and prenatal screening.
ImmunoDiagnostics
Our immunodiagnostics offerings include developing, manufacturing and marketing complete blood-test systems to support the clinical diagnosis and monitoring of allergy, asthma and autoimmune diseases. In addition, we offer antibody tests for approximately 20 indications to help diagnose autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, lupus and scleroderma. Our products include ImmunoCAP for allergy and asthma tests and EliA for autoimmunity tests.
Microbiology
Our microbiology offerings include dehydrated and prepared culture media, collection and transport systems, instrumentation and consumables to detect pathogens in blood, diagnostic and rapid direct specimen tests, quality-control products and associated products for the microbiology laboratory. Our products help customers worldwide to diagnose infectious disease; determine appropriate antimicrobial therapy; implement effective infection control programs; and detect microbial contamination of their products or manufacturing facilities.
Within the food and pharmaceutical industries, our products are used to assure the safety and quality of consumer products by monitoring production environments; raw materials and end products for bacterial contamination; and animal health in the dairy industry.
Anatomical Pathology
Our anatomical pathology offerings include a broad portfolio of products primarily for cancer diagnosis and medical research in histology, cytology and hematology applications. These products include a wide range of instruments, consumables and reagents for specimen collection and transport, tissue preparation, staining and immunohistochemistry assays and controls. Reagent and consumable products include sample collection and preservation products used to ensure specimen integrity; tissue cassettes and reagents necessary for same-day, high-quality specimen processing; blades and paraffin used to section tissue; and a wide range of leading stains. Also included are a full line of immunohistochemistry antibodies, detection systems, ancillaries and controls.
We also provide a complete range of anatomical pathology instruments including cassette and slide labeling systems, which enable on-demand slide and cassette printing; tissue processors for same-day tissue-processing; embedding stations, microtomes and cryostats used to section tissue; and automated staining and cover slip systems used for primary and immunohistochemistry staining. In cytology, we offer low-speed centrifugation technology coupled with patented EZ cytofunnels to deposit a thin layer of cells onto a microscope slide to ensure better cell capture and better preservation of cell morphology. We manufacture high-quality flat-sheet glass to produce medical disposable products such as microscope slides, plates, cover glass, and microarray substrates serving the medical, diagnostics, and scientific communities. We also offer specialized hydrophobic, adhesive, and fluorescent slides through proprietary coating techniques.

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THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
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On January 28, 2019, the company entered into an agreement to sell its Anatomical Pathology business to PHC Holdings Corporation for approximately $1.14 billion. The sale is subject to customary closing conditions and applicable regulatory approvals.
Transplant Diagnostics
Our transplant diagnostics products include human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing and testing for the organ transplant market. Our diagnostic tests are used by transplant centers for tissue typing, primarily to determine the compatibility of donors and recipients pre-transplant, and to detect the presence of antibodies post-transplant that can lead to transplant rejection. These transplant diagnostic tests are widely used across the transplant-testing workflow to improve patient outcomes. Our transplant diagnostic offerings include several lines of HLA typing and antibody detection assays utilizing serological, molecular, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), flow, and multiplexing technologies.
Healthcare Market Channel
Our healthcare market channel offerings include a broad array of consumables, diagnostic kits and reagents, equipment, instruments, solutions and services for hospitals, clinical laboratories, reference laboratories, physicians’ offices and other clinical testing facilities. These products are manufactured by Thermo Fisher and third parties and are primarily used in clinical diagnosis.
Laboratory Products and Services Segment
Our Laboratory Products and Services segment offers virtually everything needed for the laboratory. Our unique combination of self-manufactured and sourced products and extensive service offering, enables our customers to focus on their core activities and helps them to be more efficient, productive and cost effective. The segment also includes a comprehensive offering of outsourced services used by the pharmaceutical and biotech industries for drug development, clinical trials logistics and commercial drug manufacturing. We serve the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, academic, government and other research and industrial markets, as well as the clinical laboratory through four key businesses: Laboratory Products, Laboratory Chemicals, Research and Safety Market Channel, and Pharma Services.
Laboratory Products
Our laboratory products are used primarily by pharmaceutical companies for drug discovery and development and by biotechnology companies and universities for life science research to advance the prevention and cure of diseases and enhance quality of life. This offering consists of equipment, accessories, and services for sample preparation, storage and protection, and analysis:
Laboratory Equipment Technologies includes our leading laboratory refrigerators and freezers, ultralow-temperature freezers and cryopreservation storage tanks for maintaining samples in a cold environment to protect them from degradation. We also offer temperature control products such as heated bath circulators, immersion coolers, recirculating chillers, water baths, and dry baths in a range of sizes, temperatures and configurations for life science, analytical chemistry, manufacturing and quality-control applications. In addition, we offer sample preparation and preservation equipment, which protects our customers’ chemical and biological samples and supports the growth of cells and organisms in optimal conditions such as temperature, carbon dioxide and humidity as well as incubators and related products. We also offer centrifugation products, which are used to separate biological matrices and inorganic materials, including microcentrifuges, general use bench-top centrifuges and floor models. Additionally, we offer biological safety cabinets, which enable technicians to handle samples without risk to themselves or their environment and without risk of cross-contamination of samples.
Water and Laboratory Products include water analysis instruments such as meters, electrodes and solutions for the measurement of pH, ions, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and other key parameters in the lab and production line. We also offer other laboratory equipment such as water purification systems, shakers, vacuum concentrators, microbiological incubators, ovens, furnaces, hotplates, stirrers, stirring hotplates, and other related products.
Laboratory Plastics Essentials include a leading offering of laboratory pipette tips and a complementary range of handheld and automated pipetting systems, supporting low-through high-throughput activity. These products optimize productivity and ergonomics, and ensure accurate results. We also offer sample preparation and storage products such as centrifugation consumables as well as vials and organization systems for ultralow temperature and cryogenic storage, with specific products designed for low protein binding and low DNA binding and containers for packaging life science and diagnostic reagents as well for the storage and transport of bulk intermediates and active pharmaceutical ingredients. Additionally, our offerings include a complete selection of clinical specimen collection products, drug-of-abuse collection kits and environmental and food-safety glass and plastic vials, bottles and

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Business (continued)

containers, plastic transfer pipettes, general purpose clinical laboratory consumables and containers for breast milk collection, storage and feeding primarily used in neo-natal units and by lactation specialists. We also provide OEM and custom kit assembly services for clinical and drugs-of-abuse test kits.
Laboratory Chemicals
Our laboratory chemicals offering comprises a broad range of chemicals, solvents and reagents supporting virtually every laboratory application – from research to drug discovery and development and manufacturing. This portfolio includes organic chemicals used to synthesize new materials; essential laboratory chemicals used by scientists to purify, extract, separate, identify and manufacture products; high-purity analytical reagents, bioreagents used in many different applications, from cell growth to detailed protein analysis; novel chemical building blocks, reactive intermediates and screening libraries used to accelerate drug discovery; and precious metals, salts and solutions used in a broad range of applications where highly specific reactions are desired. We provide bulk volumes of many products for scale-up from research to development and customized services for chemical procurement, processing, production, testing, and packaging.
Research and Safety Market Channel
Our research and safety market channel serves academic, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, government and industrial customers. We go to market through our expert sales force, segment-relevant printed collateral and digital content in five languages, a state-of-the-art website, www.fishersci.com, containing full product content for more than 1.5 million products, and our global network of resellers and distributors.
We have an international network of warehouses in our primary markets through which we maintain inventory and coordinate product delivery. With specialized product vaults and warehouse management systems, we are able to handle the complete range of products we offer to our customers. Our transportation capabilities include our dedicated fleet of delivery vehicles as well as parcel shipping capabilities that are closely integrated with our third-party parcel carriers. Throughout the product delivery process, we provide our customers with convenient access to comprehensive electronic systems that offer automated catalog search, product order and invoicing, and payment capabilities.
Our channel offers a mix of products that are manufactured by Thermo Fisher, by third parties for us on a private-label basis, and by third parties under their brand but offered for sale exclusively through us. We also offer a broad range of third-party products representing leading industry brand names on a non-exclusive basis.
Our research products include a complete offering of laboratory products, ranging from capital equipment and instruments to chemicals to consumable products. Our safety products include clean-room and controlled-environment supplies, personal protective equipment, firefighting, military, and first responder equipment and supplies, and environmental monitoring and sampling equipment. Our education products include science-related and laboratory products for the K-12 and secondary education market.
In addition to our broad product offerings, we offer a variety of specialized services to our customers through our Unity Lab Services team, including training, equipment servicing and asset management, and dedicated supply management personnel. We also offer scientific support services including desktop delivery, coordination of instrument calibration and service, and on-site customer service.
Pharma Services
We provide the entire spectrum of development, manufacturing and clinical trials services for both small-molecule and large-molecule pharmaceuticals. This includes i) development of a suitable formulation and manufacturing process for the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) or biologic; ii) technology transfer to scale up the manufacturing; iii) labeling, packaging, distribution and logistics for clinical trials; and iv) commercial scale manufacturing and packaging.
Drug Substance Services - Our service offerings address small molecules, produced through chemical synthesis, and large molecules such as antibodies and proteins produced through mammalian cell culture. We provide development and manufacturing services for small molecule APIs and the biologically active component of pharmaceutical products under current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) conditions from early development through commercial production.
Drug Product Services - We manufacture both small-molecule and large-molecule products for customers in conventional and specialized dosage forms. We differentiate ourselves by our breadth of dosage forms and specialized capabilities in both oral solid and sterile dosage forms. We provide a wide spectrum of advanced formulation, production and technical services and scientific expertise and solutions, from the early stages of a product’s development to regulatory approval and commercial scale production.

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Clinical Trials Services - we provide global services for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies engaged in clinical trials, including comparator sourcing; specialized packaging; over-encapsulation; multi-lingual and specialized labeling and distribution for phase I through phase IV clinical trials; biological-specimen management and biobanking services; specialty pharmaceutical logistics; and clinical supply-chain planning and management.
Sales and Marketing
We market and sell our products and services through a direct sales force, customer-service professionals, electronic commerce, third-party distributors and various catalogs.
We have approximately 12,000 sales personnel including highly trained technical specialists who enable us to better meet the needs of our more technical end-users. We also provide customers with product standardization and other supply-chain-management services to reduce procurement costs.
New Products and Research and Development
Our business includes the development and introduction of new products and may include entry into new business segments. We anticipate that we will continue to make significant expenditures for research and development as we seek to provide a continuing flow of innovative products to maintain and improve our competitive position.
Raw Materials
Our management team believes that we have a readily available supply of raw materials for all of our significant products from various sources. We do not anticipate any difficulties obtaining the raw materials essential to our business.
Raw material and fuel prices are subject to fluctuations due to market conditions. We employ many strategies, including the use of alternative materials, to mitigate the effect of these fluctuations on our results.
Patents, Licenses and Trademarks
Patents are important in many aspects of our business. No particular patent, or related group of patents, is so important, however, that its loss would significantly affect our operations as a whole. Where appropriate, we seek patent protection for inventions and developments made by our personnel that are incorporated into our products or otherwise fall within our fields of interest. Patent rights resulting from work sponsored by outside parties do not always accrue exclusively to the company and may be limited by agreements or contracts.
We protect some of our technology as trade secrets and, where appropriate, we use trademarks or register trademarks used in connection with products. We also enter into license agreements with others to grant and/or receive rights to patents and know-how.
Seasonal Influences
Revenues in the fourth quarter are historically stronger than in other quarters due to the capital spending patterns of industrial, pharmaceutical and government customers. Sales of flu tests and related diagnostic products vary quarter to quarter and year to year based on the severity and duration of each period’s flu season. Sales of allergy tests vary quarter to quarter and year to year based on the severity and duration of each period’s airborne pollen allergens.
Working Capital Requirements
There are no special inventory requirements or credit terms extended to customers that would have a material adverse effect on our working capital.
Dependency on a Single Customer
There is no single customer the loss of which would have a material adverse effect on our business. No customer accounted for more than 5% of our total revenues in any of the past three years.

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Backlog
Our backlog of firm orders at year-end 2018 and 2017 was as follows:
(In millions)
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
 
 
 
Life Sciences Solutions
 
$
647

 
$
581

Analytical Instruments
 
2,243

 
2,050

Specialty Diagnostics
 
187

 
158

Laboratory Products and Services
 
2,055

 
1,679

Eliminations
 
(45
)
 
(20
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
5,087

 
$
4,448

We believe that approximately 90% of our backlog at the end of 2018 will be filled during 2019.
Government Contracts
Although the company transacts business with various government agencies, no government contract is of such magnitude that a renegotiation of profits or termination of the contract at the election of the government agency would have a material adverse effect on the company’s financial results.
Competition
The company encounters aggressive and able competition in virtually all of the markets we serve. Because of the diversity of our products and services, we face many different types of competitors and competition. Our competitors include a broad range of manufacturers and third-party distributors. Competitive climates in many of the markets we serve are characterized by changing technology and customer demands that require continuing research and development. Our success primarily depends on the following factors:
technical performance and advances in technology that result in new products and improved price/performance ratios;
product differentiation, availability and reliability;
the depth of our capabilities;
our reputation among customers as a quality provider of products and services;
customer service and support;
active research and application-development programs; and
relative prices of our products and services.
Environmental Matters
We are subject to various laws and governmental regulations concerning environmental matters and employee safety and health in the United States and other countries. U.S. federal environmental legislation that affects us includes the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). We are also subject to regulation by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) concerning employee safety and health matters. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), OSHA, and other federal agencies have the authority to promulgate regulations that have an effect on our operations.
In addition to these federal activities, various states have been delegated certain authority under the aforementioned federal statutes as well as having authority over these matters under state laws. Many state and local governments have adopted environmental and employee safety and health laws and regulations, some of which are similar to federal requirements.
A number of our operations involve the handling, manufacturing, use or sale of substances that are or could be classified as toxic or hazardous materials within the meaning of applicable laws. Consequently, some risk of environmental harm is inherent in our operations and products, as it is with other companies engaged in similar businesses.
Our expenses for environmental requirements are incurred generally for ongoing compliance and historical remediation matters. Based on current information, we believe that these compliance costs are not material. For historical remediation obligations, our expenditures relate primarily to the cost of permitting, installing, and operating and maintaining groundwater-treatment systems and other remedial measures.

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Our Fair Lawn and Somerville, New Jersey facilities entered into administrative consent orders with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection in 1984 to maintain groundwater-remediation activities at these sites, and are currently under the State’s Licensed Site Remediation Professional Program. As the owner of the Fair Lawn facility, we are listed as a potentially responsible party for remediation within an area called the Fair Lawn Wellfields Superfund Site, and, in 2008, the company and certain other parties entered into a consent order with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to complete a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study. In 2018, the USEPA issued a Record of Decision, including the scope of required remediation work based on findings of this study. The company has indicated its willingness to finance and perform the required remediation work together with the other responsible parties. In 2011, our Life Technologies subsidiary entered into a consent decree with the USEPA and other responsible parties to implement a groundwater remedy at the former Davis Landfill Superfund site in Smithfield, Rhode Island.
We record accruals for environmental liabilities based on current interpretations of environmental laws and regulations when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of such liability can be reasonably estimated. We calculate estimates based upon several factors, including reports prepared by environmental specialists and management’s knowledge and experience with these environmental matters. We include in these estimates potential costs for investigation, remediation and operation and maintenance of cleanup sites. Accrued liabilities for environmental matters totaled $69 million at December 31, 2018.
These environmental liabilities do not include third-party recoveries to which we may be entitled. We believe that our accrual is adequate for the environmental liabilities we currently expect to incur. As a result we believe that our ultimate liability with respect to environmental matters will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows. However, we may be subject to remedial or compliance costs due to future events, such as changes in existing laws and regulations, changes in agency direction or enforcement policies, developments in remediation technologies, changes in the conduct of our operations, and the effect of changes in accounting rules, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Regulatory Affairs
Our operations, and some of the products we offer, are subject to a number of complex and stringent laws and regulations governing the production, handling, transportation and distribution of chemicals, drugs and other similar products, including the operating and security standards of the Food and Drug Administration, the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, and various state boards of pharmacy as well as comparable state and foreign agencies. As Thermo Fisher’s businesses also include export and import activities, we are subject to pertinent laws enforced by the U.S. Departments of Commerce, State and Treasury. In addition, our logistics activities must comply with the rules and regulations of the Department of Transportation, the Federal Aviation Administration and similar foreign agencies. While we believe we are in compliance in all material respects with such laws and regulations, any noncompliance could result in substantial fines or otherwise restrict our ability to provide competitive distribution services and thereby have an adverse effect on our financial condition. To date, none has had a material impact on our operations.
We are subject to laws and regulations governing government contracts, and failure to address these laws and regulations or comply with government contracts could harm our business by leading to a reduction in revenue associated with these customers. We have agreements relating to the sale of our products to government entities and, as a result, we are subject to various statutes and regulations that apply to companies doing business with the government. We are also subject to investigation for compliance with the regulations governing government contracts. A failure to comply with these regulations could result in suspension of these contracts, criminal, civil and administrative penalties or debarment.
Number of Employees
We have approximately 70,000 employees.
Available Information
The company files annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other documents with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under the Exchange Act. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information that issuers, including the company, file electronically with the SEC. The public can obtain any documents that we file with the SEC at www.sec.gov. We also make available free of charge on or through our own website at www.thermofisher.com our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and, if applicable, amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. In addition, paper copies of these documents may be obtained free of charge by writing to the company care of its Investor Relations Department at our principal executive office located at 168 Third Avenue, Waltham, Massachusetts 02451.

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Executive Officers of the Registrant
Name
 
Age
 
Present Title
(Fiscal Year First Became Executive Officer)
Other Positions Held
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marc N. Casper
 
50
 
President and Chief Executive Officer (2001)
Chief Operating Officer (2008-2009)
Executive Vice President (2006-2009)
Senior Vice President (2003-2006)
Mark P. Stevenson
 
56
 
Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer (2014)
Executive Vice President and President, Life Sciences Solutions (2014-2017)
President and Chief Operating Officer, Life Technologies Corporation (2008-2014)
Michael A. Boxer
 
57
 
Senior Vice President and General Counsel (2018)
Executive Vice President and Group General Counsel, Luxottica Group S.p.A. (2011-2017)
Patrick M. Durbin
 
52
 
Senior Vice President and President, Specialty Diagnostics (2015)
President, BioPharma Services (2010-2015)
Gregory J. Herrema
 
53
 
Senior Vice President and President, Customer Channels (2017)
President, Biosciences (2012-2014)
Michel Lagarde
 
45
 
Senior Vice President and President, Pharma Services (2017)
President and Chief Operating Officer, Patheon N.V. (2016-2017)
Managing Director, JLL Partners* (2008-2016)
Stephen Williamson
 
52
 
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (2015)
Vice President, Financial Operations (2008-2015)
Peter E. Hornstra
 
59
 
Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer (2001)
Corporate Controller (1996-2007)
*JLL Partners is a private equity firm focused on healthcare.

Item 1A.
Risk Factors
Set forth below are the risks that we believe are material to our investors. This section contains forward-looking statements. You should refer to the explanation of the qualifications and limitations on forward-looking statements in Item 1. Business under the caption "Forward-looking Statements".
We must develop new products, adapt to rapid and significant technological change and respond to introductions of new products by competitors to remain competitive. Our growth strategy includes significant investment in and expenditures for product development. We sell our products in several industries that are characterized by rapid and significant technological changes, frequent new product and service introductions and enhancements and evolving industry standards. Competitive factors include technological innovation, price, service and delivery, breadth of product line, customer support, e-business capabilities and the ability to meet the special requirements of customers. Our competitors may adapt more quickly to new technologies and changes in customers’ requirements than we can. Without the timely introduction of new products, services and enhancements, our products and services will likely become technologically obsolete over time, in which case our revenue and operating results would suffer.
Many of our existing products and those under development are technologically innovative and require significant planning, design, development and testing at the technological, product and manufacturing-process levels. Our customers use many of our products to develop, test and manufacture their own products. As a result, we must anticipate industry trends and develop products in advance of the commercialization of our customers’ products. If we fail to adequately predict our customers’ needs and future activities, we may invest heavily in research and development of products and services that do not lead to significant revenue.
It may be difficult for us to implement our strategies for improving internal growth. Our growth depends in part on the growth of the markets which we serve. Any decline or lower than expected growth in our served markets could diminish demand for our products and services, which would adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. To address this issue, we are pursuing a number of strategies to improve our internal growth, including:
strengthening our presence in selected geographic markets;
allocating research and development funding to products with higher growth prospects;

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Risk Factors (continued)


developing new applications for our technologies;
expanding our service offerings;
continuing key customer initiatives;
combining sales and marketing operations in appropriate markets to compete more effectively;
finding new markets for our products; and
continuing the development of commercial tools and infrastructure to increase and support cross-selling opportunities of products and services to take advantage of our depth in product offerings.
We may not be able to successfully implement these strategies, and these strategies may not result in the expected growth of our business.
Our business is affected by general economic conditions and related uncertainties affecting markets in which we operate. Our business is affected by general economic conditions, both inside and outside the U.S. If the global economy and financial markets, or economic conditions in Europe, the U.S. or other key markets, are unstable, it could adversely affect the business, results of operations and financial condition of the company and its customers, distributors, and suppliers, having the effect of
reducing demand for some of our products;
increasing the rate of order cancellations or delays;
increasing the risk of excess and obsolete inventories;
increasing pressure on the prices for our products and services;
causing supply interruptions which could disrupt our ability to produce our products; and
creating longer sales cycles and greater difficulty in collecting sales proceeds.
Demand for some of our products depends on capital spending policies of our customers and on government funding policies. Our customers include pharmaceutical and chemical companies, laboratories, universities, healthcare providers, government agencies and public and private research institutions. Many factors, including public policy spending priorities, available resources and product and economic cycles, have a significant effect on the capital spending policies of these entities.
Spending by some of these customers fluctuates based on budget allocations and the timely passage of the annual federal budget. An impasse in federal government budget decisions could lead to substantial delays or reductions in federal spending.
Economic, political, foreign currency and other risks associated with international sales and operations could adversely affect our results of operations. International markets contribute a substantial portion of our revenues, and we intend to continue expanding our presence in these regions. The exposure to fluctuations in currency exchange rates takes on different forms. International revenues and costs are subject to the risk that fluctuations in exchange rates could adversely affect our reported revenues and profitability when translated into U.S. dollars for financial reporting purposes. These fluctuations could also adversely affect the demand for products and services provided by us. As a multinational corporation, our businesses occasionally invoice third-party customers in currencies other than the one in which they primarily do business (the "functional currency"). Movements in the invoiced currency relative to the functional currency could adversely impact our cash flows and our results of operations. As our international sales grow, exposure to fluctuations in currency exchange rates could have a larger effect on our financial results. In 2018, currency translation had a favorable effect of $173 million on revenues due to the weakening of the U.S. dollar relative to other currencies in which the company sells products and services.
In addition, many of our employees, contract manufacturers, suppliers, job functions, outsourcing activities and manufacturing facilities are located outside the United States. Accordingly, our future results could be harmed by a variety of factors, including:
interruption to transportation flows for delivery of parts to us and finished goods to our customers;
changes in a specific country's or region's political, economic or other conditions;
changes in diplomatic and trade relationships, including new tariffs, trade protection measures, import or export licensing requirements, trade embargoes and sanctions and other trade barriers;

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THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
Risk Factors (continued)


tariffs imposed by the U.S. on goods from other countries and tariffs imposed by other countries on U.S. goods, including the tariffs recently adopted by the U.S. government on various imports from China and by the Chinese government on certain U.S. goods;
negative consequences from changes in tax laws;
difficulty in staffing and managing widespread operations;
differing labor regulations;
differing protection of intellectual property;
unexpected changes in regulatory requirements; and
geopolitical uncertainty or turmoil, including terrorism and war.
Significant developments stemming from the U.S. administration or the U.K.’s referendum on membership in the EU could have an adverse effect on us. The U.S. administration has called for substantial changes to trade agreements and is imposing significant increases on tariffs on goods imported into the United States. The administration has also indicated an intention to request Congress to make significant changes, replacement or elimination of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, and government negotiation/regulation of drug prices paid by government programs. Changes in U.S. social, political, regulatory and economic conditions or laws and policies governing the health care system and drug prices, foreign trade, manufacturing, and development and investment in the territories and countries where we or our customers operate could adversely affect our operating results and our business.
Additionally, on June 23, 2016, the United Kingdom held a referendum and voted in favor of leaving the European Union, or EU. This referendum has created political and economic uncertainty, particularly in the United Kingdom and the EU, and this uncertainty may last for years. Our business could be affected during this period of uncertainty, and perhaps longer, by the impact of the United Kingdom’s referendum. In addition, our business could be negatively affected by new trade agreements between the United Kingdom and other countries, including the United States, and by the possible imposition of trade or other regulatory barriers in the United Kingdom. These possible negative impacts, and others resulting from the United Kingdom’s actual or threatened withdrawal from the EU, may adversely affect our operating results and our customers’ businesses.
Our inability to protect our intellectual property could have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, third parties may claim that we infringe their intellectual property, and we could suffer significant litigation or licensing expense as a result. We place considerable emphasis on obtaining patent and trade secret protection for significant new technologies, products and processes because of the length of time and expense associated with bringing new products through the development process and into the marketplace. Our success depends in part on our ability to develop patentable products and obtain and enforce patent protection for our products both in the United States and in other countries. We own numerous U.S. and foreign patents, and we intend to file additional applications, as appropriate, for patents covering our products. Patents may not be issued for any pending or future patent applications owned by or licensed to us, and the claims allowed under any issued patents may not be sufficiently broad to protect our technology. Any issued patents owned by or licensed to us may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, and the rights under these patents may not provide us with competitive advantages. In addition, competitors may design around our technology or develop competing technologies. Intellectual property rights may also be unavailable or limited in some foreign countries, which could make it easier for competitors to capture increased market position. We could incur substantial costs to defend ourselves in suits brought against us or in suits in which we may assert our patent rights against others. An unfavorable outcome of any such litigation could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations.
We also rely on trade secrets and proprietary know-how with which we seek to protect our products, in part, by confidentiality agreements with our collaborators, employees and consultants. These agreements may be breached and we may not have adequate remedies for any breach. In addition, our trade secrets may otherwise become known or be independently developed by our competitors.
Third parties may assert claims against us to the effect that we are infringing on their intellectual property rights. In the event that a claim relating to intellectual property is asserted against us, or third parties not affiliated with us hold pending or issued patents that relate to our products or technology, we may seek licenses to such intellectual property or challenge those patents. However, we may be unable to obtain these licenses on commercially reasonable terms, if at all, and our challenge of the patents may be unsuccessful. Our failure to obtain the necessary licenses or other rights could prevent the sale, manufacture, or distribution of our products and, therefore, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
Risk Factors (continued)


Changes in governmental regulations may reduce demand for our products or increase our expenses. We compete in many markets in which we and our customers must comply with federal, state, local and international regulations, such as environmental, health and safety and food and drug regulations. We develop, configure and market our products to meet customer needs created by those regulations. Any significant change in regulations could reduce demand for our products or increase our expenses. For example, many of our instruments are marketed to the pharmaceutical industry for use in discovering and developing drugs. Changes in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s regulation of the drug discovery and development process could have an adverse effect on the demand for these products.
Our pharma services offerings are highly complex, and if we are unable to provide quality and timely offerings to our customers, our business could suffer. Our pharma services offerings are highly exacting and complex, due in part to strict quality and regulatory requirements. Our operating results in this business depend on our ability to execute and, when necessary, improve our quality management strategy and systems, and our ability to effectively train and maintain our employee base with respect to quality management. A failure of our quality control systems could result in problems with facility operations or preparation or provision of products. In each case, such problems could arise for a variety of reasons, including equipment malfunction, failure to follow specific protocols and procedures, problems with raw materials or environmental factors and damage to, or loss of, manufacturing operations. Such problems could affect production of a particular batch or series of batches of products, requiring the destruction of such products or a halt of facility production altogether.
In addition, our failure to meet required quality standards may result in our failure to timely deliver products to our customers, which in turn could damage our reputation for quality and service. Any such failure could, among other things, lead to increased costs, lost revenue, reimbursement to customers for lost drug product, registered intermediates, registered starting materials, and active pharmaceutical ingredients, other customer claims, damage to and possibly termination of existing customer relationships, time and expense spent investigating the cause and, depending on the cause, similar losses with respect to other batches or products. Production problems in our drug and biologic manufacturing operations could be particularly significant because the cost of raw materials for such manufacturing is often high. If problems in preparation or manufacture of a product or failures to meet required quality standards for that product are not discovered before such product is released to the market, we may be subject to adverse regulatory actions, including product recalls, product seizures, injunctions to halt manufacture and distribution, restrictions on our operations, civil sanctions, including monetary sanctions, and criminal actions. In addition, such problems or failures could subject us to litigation claims, including claims from our customers for reimbursement for the cost of lost or damaged active pharmaceutical ingredients, the cost of which could be significant.
We are subject to product and other liability risks for which we may not have adequate insurance coverage. We may be named as a defendant in product liability lawsuits, which may allege that products or services we have provided from our pharma services offerings have resulted or could result in an unsafe condition or injury to consumers. Additionally, products currently or previously sold by our environmental and process instruments and radiation measurement and security instruments businesses include fixed and portable instruments used for chemical, radiation and trace explosives detection. These products are used in airports, embassies, cargo facilities, border crossings and other high-threat facilities for the detection and prevention of terrorist acts. If any of these products were to malfunction, it is possible that explosive or radioactive material could fail to be detected by our product, which could lead to product liability claims. There are also many other factors beyond our control that could lead to liability claims, such as the reliability and competence of the customers’ operators and the training of such operators.
Any such product liability claims brought against us could be significant and any adverse determination may result in liabilities in excess of our insurance coverage. Although we carry product liability insurance, we cannot be certain that our current insurance will be sufficient to cover these claims or that it can be maintained on acceptable terms, if at all.
Our inability to complete any pending acquisitions or to successfully integrate any new or previous acquisitions could have a material adverse effect on our business. Our business strategy includes the acquisition of technologies and businesses that complement or augment our existing products and services. Certain acquisitions may be difficult to complete for a number of reasons, including the need for antitrust and/or other regulatory approvals. Any acquisition we may complete may be made at a substantial premium over the fair value of the net identifiable assets of the acquired company. Further, we may not be able to integrate acquired businesses successfully into our existing businesses, make such businesses profitable, or realize anticipated cost savings or synergies, if any, from these acquisitions, which could adversely affect our business.
Moreover, we have acquired many companies and businesses. As a result of these acquisitions, we recorded significant goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets (primarily tradenames) on our balance sheet, which amount to approximately $25.35 billion and $1.27 billion, respectively, as of December 31, 2018. In addition, we have definite-lived intangible assets totaling $13.71 billion as of December 31, 2018. We assess the realizability of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets annually as well as whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that these assets may be impaired. We assess the

17



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
Risk Factors (continued)


realizability of definite-lived intangible assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that these assets may be impaired. These events or circumstances would generally include operating losses or a significant decline in earnings associated with the acquired business or asset. Our ability to realize the value of the goodwill and intangible assets will depend on the future cash flows of these businesses. These cash flows in turn depend in part on how well we have integrated these businesses. If we are not able to realize the value of the goodwill and intangible assets, we may be required to incur material charges relating to the impairment of those assets.
We are subject to laws and regulations governing government contracts, and failure to address these laws and regulations or comply with government contracts could harm our business by leading to a reduction in revenue associated with these customers. We have agreements relating to the sale of our products to government entities and, as a result, we are subject to various statutes and regulations that apply to companies doing business with the government. The laws governing government contracts differ from the laws governing private contracts and government contracts may contain pricing terms and conditions that are not applicable to private contracts. We are also subject to investigation for compliance with the regulations governing government contracts. A failure to comply with these regulations could result in suspension of these contracts, criminal, civil and administrative penalties or debarment.
Because we compete directly with certain of our larger customers and product suppliers, our results of operations could be adversely affected in the short term if these customers or suppliers abruptly discontinue or significantly modify their relationship with us. Our largest customer in the laboratory products business is also a significant competitor. Our business may be harmed in the short term if our competitive relationship in the marketplace with certain of our large customers results in a discontinuation of their purchases from us. In addition, we manufacture products that compete directly with products that we source from third-party suppliers. We also source competitive products from multiple suppliers. Our business could be adversely affected in the short term if any of our large third-party suppliers abruptly discontinues selling products to us.
Because we rely heavily on third-party package-delivery services, a significant disruption in these services or significant increases in prices may disrupt our ability to ship products, increase our costs and lower our profitability. We ship a significant portion of our products to our customers through independent package delivery companies, such as Federal Express in the U.S. and DHL in Europe. We also maintain a small fleet of vehicles dedicated to the delivery of our products and ship our products through other carriers, including national and regional trucking firms, overnight carrier services and the U.S. Postal Service. If one or more of these third-party package-delivery providers were to experience a major work stoppage, preventing our products from being delivered in a timely fashion or causing us to incur additional shipping costs we could not pass on to our customers, our costs could increase and our relationships with certain of our customers could be adversely affected. In addition, if one or more of these third-party package-delivery providers were to increase prices, and we were not able to find comparable alternatives or make adjustments in our delivery network, our profitability could be adversely affected.
We are required to comply with a wide variety of laws and regulations, and are subject to regulation by various federal, state and foreign agencies. We are subject to various local, state, federal, foreign and transnational laws and regulations, which include the operating and security standards of the U.S. Federal Drug Administration (the FDA), the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (the DEA), various state boards of pharmacy, state health departments, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (the DHHS), the European Medicines Agency (the EMA), in Europe, the EU member states and other comparable agencies and, in the future, any changes to such laws and regulations could adversely affect us. In particular, we are subject to laws and regulations concerning current good manufacturing practices and drug safety. Our subsidiaries may be required to register for permits and/or licenses with, and may be required to comply with the laws and regulations of the DEA, the FDA, the DHHS, foreign agencies including the EMA, and other various state boards of pharmacy, state health departments and/or comparable state agencies as well as certain accrediting bodies depending upon the type of operations and location of product distribution, manufacturing and sale.
The manufacture, distribution and marketing of many of our products and services, including medical devices and pharma services, are subject to extensive ongoing regulation by the FDA, the DEA, the EMA, and other equivalent local, state, federal and non-U.S. regulatory authorities. In addition, we are subject to inspections by these regulatory authorities. Failure by us or by our customers to comply with the requirements of these regulatory authorities, including without limitation, remediating any inspectional observations to the satisfaction of these regulatory authorities, could result in warning letters, product recalls or seizures, monetary sanctions, injunctions to halt manufacture and distribution, restrictions on our operations, civil or criminal sanctions, or withdrawal of existing or denial of pending approvals, including those relating to products or facilities. In addition, such a failure could expose us to contractual or product liability claims, contractual claims from our customers, including claims for reimbursement for lost or damaged active pharmaceutical ingredients, as well as ongoing remediation and increased compliance costs, any or all of which could be significant. We are the sole manufacturer of a number of

18



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
Risk Factors (continued)


pharmaceuticals for many of our customers and a negative regulatory event could impact our customers' ability to provide products to their customers.
We are also subject to a variety of federal, state, local and international laws and regulations that govern, among other things, the importation and exportation of products, the handling, transportation and manufacture of substances that could be classified as hazardous, and our business practices in the U.S. and abroad such as anti-corruption, anti-competition and privacy and data protection laws. Any noncompliance by us with applicable laws and regulations or the failure to maintain, renew or obtain necessary permits and licenses could result in criminal, civil and administrative penalties and could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
Our business could be adversely affected by disruptions at our sites. We rely upon our manufacturing operations to produce many of the products we sell and our warehouse facilities to store products, pending sale. Any significant disruption of those operations for any reason, such as strikes or other labor unrest, power interruptions, fire, hurricanes or other events beyond our control could adversely affect our sales and customer relationships and therefore adversely affect our business. We have significant operations in California, near major earthquake faults, which make us susceptible to earthquake risk. Although most of our raw materials are available from a number of potential suppliers, our operations also depend upon our ability to obtain raw materials at reasonable prices. If we are unable to obtain the materials we need at a reasonable price, we may not be able to produce certain of our products or we may not be able to produce certain of these products at a marketable price, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
Fluctuations in our effective tax rate may adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows. As a global company, we are subject to taxation in numerous countries, states and other jurisdictions. In preparing our financial statements, we record the amount of tax that is payable in each of the countries, states and other jurisdictions in which we operate. Our future effective tax rate, however, may be lower or higher than experienced in the past due to numerous factors, including a change in the mix of our profitability from country to country, changes in accounting for income taxes and recently enacted and future changes in tax laws in jurisdictions in which we operate. Any of these factors could cause us to experience an effective tax rate significantly different from previous periods or our current expectations, which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and cash flows.
We may incur unexpected costs from increases in fuel and raw material prices, which could reduce our earnings and cash flow. Our primary commodity exposures are for fuel, petroleum-based resins and steel. While we may seek to minimize the impact of price increases through higher prices to customers and various cost-saving measures, our earnings and cash flows could be adversely affected in the event these measures are insufficient to cover our costs.
A significant disruption in, or breach in security of, our information technology systems or violation of data privacy laws could adversely affect our business. As a part of our ongoing effort to upgrade our current information systems, we periodically implement new enterprise resource planning software and other software applications to manage certain of our business operations. As we implement and add functionality, problems could arise that we have not foreseen. Such problems could disrupt our ability to provide quotes, take customer orders and otherwise run our business in a timely manner. When we upgrade or change systems, we may suffer interruptions in service, loss of data or reduced functionality. In addition, if our new systems fail to provide accurate pricing and cost data our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.
We also rely on our information technology systems to process, transmit and store electronic information (including sensitive data such as confidential business information and personally identifiable data relating to employees, customers and other business partners) and to manage or support a variety of critical business processes and activities (such as interacting with suppliers, selling our products and services, fulfilling orders and billing, collecting and making payments, shipping products, providing services and support to customers, tracking customer activity, fulfilling contractual obligations and otherwise conducting business). Our systems may be vulnerable to damage or interruption from natural disasters, power loss, telecommunication failures, terrorist attacks, computer hackers, computer viruses, ransomware, phishing, computer denial-of-service attacks, unauthorized access to customer or employee data or company trade secrets, and other attempts to harm our systems. Certain of our systems are not redundant, and our disaster recovery planning is not sufficient for every eventuality. Despite any precautions we may take, such problems could result in, among other consequences, interruptions in our services, which could harm our reputation and financial results. Any of the cyber-attacks, breaches or other disruptions or damage described above, if significant, could materially interrupt our operations, delay production and shipments, result in theft of our and our customers’ intellectual property and trade secrets, damage customer, business partner and employee relationships and our reputation or result in defective products or services, legal claims and proceedings, liability and penalties under privacy laws and increased cost for security and remediation, each of which could adversely affect our business and financial results.
If we are unable to maintain reliable information technology systems and appropriate controls with respect to global data privacy and security requirements and prevent data breaches, we may suffer regulatory consequences in addition to business

19



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
Risk Factors (continued)


consequences. As a global organization, we are subject to data privacy and security laws, regulations, and customer-imposed controls in numerous jurisdictions as a result of having access to and processing confidential, personal and/or sensitive data in the course of our business. For example, in the United States, individual states regulate data breach and security requirements and multiple governmental bodies assert authority over aspects of the protection of personal privacy. European laws require us to have an approved legal mechanism to transfer personal data out of Europe, and the recently-enacted EU General Data Protection Regulation, which took effect in May 2018, imposes significantly stricter requirements in how we collect and process personal data. Several countries, such as China and Russia, have passed laws that require personal data relating to their citizens to be maintained on local servers and impose additional data transfer restrictions. Government enforcement actions can be costly and interrupt the regular operation of our business, and data breaches or violations of data privacy laws can result in fines, reputational damage and civil lawsuits, any of which may adversely affect our business, reputation and financial statements.
Our debt may restrict our investment opportunities or limit our activities. As of December 31, 2018, we had approximately $18.99 billion in outstanding indebtedness. In addition, we have availability to borrow under a revolving credit facility that provides for up to $2.50 billion of unsecured multi-currency revolving credit. We may also obtain additional long-term debt and lines of credit to meet future financing needs, which would have the effect of increasing our total leverage.
Our leverage could have negative consequences, including increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions, limiting our ability to obtain additional financing and limiting our ability to acquire new products and technologies through strategic acquisitions.
Our ability to make scheduled payments, refinance our obligations or obtain additional financing will depend on our future operating performance and on economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not generate sufficient cash flow to meet our obligations. If we are unable to service our debt, refinance our existing debt or obtain additional financing, we may be forced to delay strategic acquisitions, capital expenditures or research and development expenditures.
Additionally, the agreements governing our debt require that we maintain certain financial ratios, and contain affirmative and negative covenants that restrict our activities by, among other limitations, limiting our ability to incur additional indebtedness, merge or consolidate with other entities, make investments, create liens, sell assets and enter into transactions with affiliates. The covenants in our revolving credit facility (the Facility) include a Consolidated Leverage Ratio (total debt-to-Consolidated EBITDA) and a Consolidated Interest Coverage Ratio (Consolidated EBITDA to Consolidated Interest Expense), as such terms are defined in the Facility. Specifically, the company has agreed that, so long as any lender has any commitment under the Facility, any letter of credit is outstanding under the Facility, or any loan or other obligation is outstanding under the Facility, it will maintain a maximum Consolidated Leverage Ratio of 3.5:1.0. The company has also agreed that so long as any lender has any commitment under the Facility or any letter of credit is outstanding under the Facility, or any loan or other obligation is outstanding under the Facility, it will maintain a minimum Consolidated Interest Coverage Ratio of 3.0:1.0 as of the last day of any fiscal quarter.
Our ability to comply with these financial restrictions and covenants is dependent on our future performance, which is subject to prevailing economic conditions and other factors, including factors that are beyond our control such as foreign exchange rates and interest rates. Our failure to comply with any of these restrictions or covenants may result in an event of default under the applicable debt instrument, which could permit acceleration of the debt under that instrument and require us to prepay that debt before its scheduled due date. Also, an acceleration of the debt under certain of our debt instruments would trigger an event of default under other of our debt instruments.

Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
Not applicable.


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THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.

Item 2.
Properties
The location and general character of our principal properties by segment are as follows:
Life Sciences Solutions
We own approximately 2.9 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory and production space, principally in California, New York, Florida, Michigan, Maryland, Illinois, Oregon, Wisconsin and Pennsylvania, within the U.S., and in Lithuania, the U.K. and New Zealand. We lease approximately 3.1 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory and production space, principally in California, Maryland, Utah, Massachusetts and Texas, within the U.S., and in Singapore, China, Netherlands, Germany, India, South Korea, Norway, Japan and Brazil under various leases that expire between 2019 and 2033.
Analytical Instruments
We own approximately 2.2 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory and production space, principally in California, Massachusetts, Wisconsin, Oregon and Minnesota, within the U.S., and in Germany, Netherlands and Italy. We lease approximately 2.5 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory and production space, principally in California, Texas, Tennessee, Illinois, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Colorado and Florida, within the U.S., and in Czech Republic, China, Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands, the U.K., Japan, Australia and India, under various leases that expire between 2019 and 2034.
Specialty Diagnostics
We own approximately 2.0 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory and production space, principally in Virginia, Kansas, New Hampshire and California, within the U.S., and in Sweden, Germany, the U.K. and Switzerland. We lease approximately 1.6 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory and production space, principally in California, Kansas and Michigan, within the U.S., and in Finland, China, the U.K., France, Canada and Japan under various leases that expire between 2019 and 2034.
Laboratory Products and Services
We own approximately 12.8 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory, warehouse and production space, principally in North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Puerto Rico, New York, New Jersey, South Carolina, Illinois and California, within the U.S., and in the U.K., Austria, Italy, Canada, France, Germany and China. We lease approximately 4.7 million square feet of office, engineering, laboratory, warehouse and production space, principally in California, Pennsylvania, New York, Maryland, Ohio, North Carolina, Massachusetts, Tennessee and Texas, within the U.S., and in Australia, Germany, China, the U.K., Mexico, India, Singapore, New Zealand and Sweden under various leases that expire between 2019 and 2038.
Corporate Headquarters
We own approximately 127,000 square feet of office space in Massachusetts.
We believe that all of the facilities that we are currently using are in good condition and are suitable and adequate to meet our current needs. If we are unable to renew any of the leases that are due to expire in 2019 or 2020, we believe that suitable replacement properties are available on commercially reasonable terms.

Item 3.
Legal Proceedings
There are various lawsuits and claims against the company involving product liability, intellectual property, employment and commercial issues. See "Note 11 to our Consolidated Financial Statements – Commitments and Contingencies."

Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.


21



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.

PART II
Item 5.
Market for the Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Price of Common Stock
Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol TMO.
Holders of Common Stock
As of February 2, 2019, the company had 3,344 holders of record of its common stock. This does not include holdings in street or nominee names.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
A summary of the share repurchase activity for the company's fourth quarter of 2018 follows:
Period
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased

 
Average Price Paid per Share

 
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs (1)

 
Maximum Dollar Amount of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (1)
(in millions)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fiscal October (Sep. 30 - Nov. 3)
 
1,008,466

 
$
247.90

 
1,008,466

 
$
2,000.0

Fiscal November (Nov. 4 - Dec. 1)
 

 

 

 
2,000.0

Fiscal December (Dec. 2 - Dec. 31)
 

 

 

 
2,000.0

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total Fourth Quarter
 
1,008,466

 
$
247.90

 
1,008,466

 
$
2,000.0

(1)
On July 7, 2016, the Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $1.50 billion of the company’s common stock. All of the shares of common stock repurchased by the company during the fourth quarter of 2018 were purchased under this program. On September 7, 2018, the Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $2.00 billion of the company’s common stock. In January 2019, the company repurchased $750 million of the company's common stock under the 2018 authorization.

22



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.

Item 6.
Selected Financial Data
(In millions except per share amounts)
 
2018 (a)

 
2017 (b)

 
2016 (c)

 
2015 (d)

 
2014 (e)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Statement of Income Data
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
$
24,358

 
$
20,918

 
$
18,274

 
$
16,965

 
$
16,890

Income from Continuing Operations
 
2,938

 
2,228

 
2,025

 
1,980

 
1,895

Net Income
 
2,938

 
2,225

 
2,022

 
1,975

 
1,894

Earnings per Share from Continuing Operations:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
7.31

 
5.65

 
5.13

 
4.97

 
4.76

Diluted
 
7.24

 
5.60

 
5.10

 
4.93

 
4.71

Earnings per Share:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Basic
 
7.31

 
5.64

 
5.12

 
4.96

 
4.76

Diluted
 
7.24

 
5.59

 
5.09

 
4.92

 
4.71

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balance Sheet Data
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Total Assets
 
56,232

 
56,669

 
45,908

 
40,834

 
42,852

Long-term Obligations
 
17,719

 
18,873

 
15,372

 
11,420

 
12,352

The caption "restructuring and other costs/income" in the notes below includes amounts charged to cost of revenues, primarily for the sale of inventories revalued at the date of acquisition, and charges/credits to selling, general and administrative expense primarily for significant acquisition transaction costs.
(a)
Reflects $91 million of pre-tax charges for restructuring and other costs.
(b)
Reflects $298 million of pre-tax charges for restructuring and other costs. Also reflects the acquisition of Patheon N.V. in August 2017.
(c)
Reflects $395 million of pre-tax charges for restructuring and other costs. Also reflects the acquisitions of Affymetrix, Inc. in March 2016 and FEI Company in September 2016.
(d)
Reflects $171 million of pre-tax charges for restructuring and other costs.
(e)
Reflects $140 million of pre-tax income from gains on sale of businesses, net of restructuring and other costs. Also reflects the acquisition of Life Technologies Corporation in February 2014.

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THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.

Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Reference is made throughout this Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations to Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, which begin on page F-1 of this report.
Overview
The company develops, manufactures and sells a broad range of products that are sold worldwide. The company expands the product lines and services it offers by developing and commercializing its own technologies and by making strategic acquisitions of complementary businesses. The company’s continuing operations fall into four business segments (see Note 4): Life Sciences Solutions, Analytical Instruments, Specialty Diagnostics and Laboratory Products and Services.
Recent Acquisitions
The company’s strategy is to augment internal growth at existing businesses with complementary acquisitions. The company’s principal recent acquisitions are described below.
On March 31, 2016, the company acquired, primarily within the Life Sciences Solutions segment, Affymetrix, Inc., a North America-based provider of cellular and genetic analysis products, for a total purchase price of $1.34 billion, net of cash acquired, including the assumption of $254 million of debt. The acquisition expanded the company's existing portfolio of antibodies and assays for flow cytometry and single-cell biology applications. Additionally, the acquisition expanded the company's genetic analysis portfolio through the addition of microarrays. Revenues of Affymetrix were $360 million in 2015.
On September 19, 2016, the company acquired, within the Analytical Instruments segment, FEI Company, a North America-based provider of high-performance electron microscopy, for a total purchase price of $4.08 billion, net of cash acquired. The acquisition strengthened the company's analytical instrument portfolio with the addition of high-end electron microscopes. Revenues of FEI were $930 million in 2015.
On February 14, 2017, the company acquired, within the Life Sciences Solutions segment, Finesse Solutions, Inc., a North America-based developer of scalable control automation systems and software for bioproduction, for a total purchase price of $221 million, net of cash acquired. The acquisition expanded the company's bioproduction offerings. Revenues of Finesse Solutions were approximately $50 million in 2016.
On March 2, 2017, the company acquired, within the Analytical Instruments segment, Core Informatics, a North America-based provider of cloud-based platforms supporting scientific data management, for a total purchase price of $94 million, net of cash acquired. The acquisition enhanced the company's existing informatics solutions. Revenues of Core Informatics were approximately $10 million in 2016.
On August 29, 2017, the company acquired, within the Laboratory Products and Services segment, Patheon N.V., a leading global provider of high-quality drug development and delivery solutions to the pharmaceutical and biopharma sectors, for $35.00 per share in cash, or $7.36 billion, including the assumption of net debt. The company financed the purchase price, including the repayment of indebtedness of Patheon, with issuances of debt and equity.
Patheon provides comprehensive, integrated and highly customizable solutions as well as the expertise to help biopharmaceutical companies of all sizes satisfy complex development and manufacturing needs. The acquisition provided entry into the pharmaceutical contract development and manufacturing organization market and added a complementary service to the company's existing pharmaceutical services portfolio. Patheon's revenues totaled $1.87 billion for the year ended October 31, 2016.
On October 25, 2018, the company acquired, within the Life Sciences Solutions segment, Becton Dickinson and Company's Advanced Bioprocessing business for $477 million in cash. This North America-based business adds complementary cell culture products that expand the segment's bioproduction offerings to help customers increase yield during production of biologic drugs. Revenues of the Advanced Bioprocessing business were $100 million in 2017.

24



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Overview of Results of Operations and Liquidity
(Dollars in millions)
 
2018
 
2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Life Sciences Solutions
 
$
6,269

 
25.7
 %
 
$
5,728

 
27.4
 %
Analytical Instruments
 
5,469

 
22.5
 %
 
4,821

 
23.0
 %
Specialty Diagnostics
 
3,724

 
15.3
 %
 
3,486

 
16.7
 %
Laboratory Products and Services
 
10,035

 
41.2
 %
 
7,825

 
37.4
 %
Eliminations
 
(1,139
)
 
(4.7
)%
 
(942
)
 
(4.5
)%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
24,358

 
100
 %
 
$
20,918

 
100
 %
Sales in 2018 were $24.36 billion, an increase of $3.44 billion from 2017. Sales increased $1.53 billion due to acquisitions. The favorable effects of currency translation resulted in an increase in revenues of $173 million in 2018. Aside from the effects of acquisitions and currency translation, revenues increased $1.74 billion (8%) primarily due to increased demand. Sales to customers in each of the company's primary end markets grew. Sales growth was strong in each of the company's primary geographic areas, particularly Asia.
In 2018, total company operating income and operating income margin were $3.78 billion and 15.5%, respectively, compared with $2.96 billion and 14.2%, respectively, in 2017. The increase in operating income was primarily due to profit on higher sales and, to a lesser extent, the effects of acquisitions and productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases, offset in part by an increase in strategic growth investments, unfavorable sales mix and amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets, due to recent acquisitions. The company’s references to strategic growth investments generally refer to targeted spending for enhancing commercial capabilities, including expansion of geographic sales reach and e-commerce platforms, marketing initiatives, expanded service and operational infrastructure, focused research projects and other expenditures to enhance the customer experience. The company’s references throughout this discussion to productivity improvements generally refer to improved cost efficiencies from its Practical Process Improvement (PPI) business system, reduced costs resulting from global sourcing initiatives, a lower cost structure following restructuring actions, including headcount reductions and consolidation of facilities, and low cost region manufacturing.
The company recorded a provision for income taxes in 2018 including a net provision of $68 million to adjust the estimated initial effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (the Tax Act) recorded in 2017, consisting of an incremental provision of $117 million offset in part by a $49 million reduction of related unrecognized tax benefits established in 2017. These adjustments were required based on new U.S. Treasury guidance and further analysis of available tax accounting methods and elections, legislative updates, regulations, earnings and profit computations and foreign taxes. In 2018, the provision for income taxes also included a $71 million charge to establish a valuation allowance against net operating losses that will not be utilized as a result of the planned sale of the Anatomical Pathology business (Note 2).
The company recorded a provision for income taxes in 2017 principally due to a net provision of $204 million from the effects of the Tax Act consisting primarily of a one-time transition tax on deemed repatriated earnings and profits of foreign subsidiaries, net of a benefit from adjusting the deferred tax balances for the U.S. statutory tax rate reduction. In 2017, the company refinanced certain long term inter-company debt which resulted in an income tax benefit of $237 million related to a foreign exchange loss recognized for income tax purposes. In addition, in 2017 the company recorded a $65 million favorable adjustment to deferred tax balances due to extension of a tax holiday agreement in Singapore. The company continued to implement tax planning initiatives related to non-U.S. subsidiaries in 2017. These non-U.S. subsidiaries incurred foreign tax obligations, and made cash and deemed distributions to the company’s U.S. operations which resulted in no net tax cost. As a result of these distributions, the company benefitted from U.S. foreign tax credits of $86 million, offset in part by additional U.S. income taxes of $53 million on the related foreign income (which reduced the benefit from the foreign rate differential in 2017) for a net benefit of $33 million. The foreign tax credits are the result of foreign earnings and profits remitted or deemed remitted to the U.S. during the reporting year and the U.S. treatment of taxes paid in the foreign jurisdictions in the years those profits were originally earned. The company also implemented foreign tax credit planning in Sweden which resulted in $20 million of foreign tax credits, with no related incremental U.S. income tax expense.,
The effective tax rate in both 2018 and 2017 was also affected by relatively significant earnings in lower tax jurisdictions. Due primarily to the non-deductibility of intangible asset amortization for tax purposes, the company’s cash payments for

25



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Overview of Results of Operations and Liquidity (continued)

income taxes were higher than its income tax expense for financial reporting purposes and totaled $591 million and $479 million in 2018 and 2017, respectively.
The company expects its effective tax rate in 2019 will be between 7% and 10% based on currently forecasted rates of profitability in the countries in which the company conducts business and expected generation of foreign tax credits. The effective tax rate can vary significantly from period to period as a result of discrete income tax factors and events.
Income from continuing operations increased to $2.94 billion in 2018, from $2.23 billion in 2017 principally due to increase in operating income in 2018 (discussed above).
During 2018, the company’s cash flow from operations totaled $4.54 billion compared with $4.01 billion for 2017. The increase primarily resulted from higher income before amortization and depreciation in the 2018 period, offset in part by higher investment in working capital to support sales growth.
As of December 31, 2018, the company’s short-term debt totaled $1.27 billion, including $693 million of commercial paper obligations and $573 million of senior notes due within the next twelve months. The company has a revolving credit facility with a bank group that provides up to $2.50 billion of unsecured multi-currency revolving credit. If the company borrows under this facility, it intends to leave undrawn an amount equivalent to outstanding commercial paper to provide a source of funds in the event that commercial paper markets are not available. As of December 31, 2018, no borrowings were outstanding under the company’s revolving credit facility, although available capacity was reduced by approximately $82 million as a result of outstanding letters of credit.
The company expects to fund the acquisition of Gatan Inc. with a combination of existing cash balances and short-term borrowings. The company believes that its existing cash and cash equivalents of $2.10 billion as of December 31, 2018 and its future cash flow from operations together with available borrowing capacity under its revolving credit agreement will be sufficient to meet the cash requirements of its existing businesses for the foreseeable future, including at least the next 24 months.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The company’s discussion and analysis of its financial condition and results of operations is based upon its financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses and related disclosure of contingent liabilities. On an on-going basis, management evaluates its estimates, including those related to intangible assets and goodwill, income taxes, contingencies and litigation, and pension costs. Management believes the most complex and sensitive judgments, because of their significance to the consolidated financial statements, result primarily from the need to make estimates about the effects of matters that are inherently uncertain. Management bases its estimates on historical experience, current market and economic conditions and other assumptions that management believes are reasonable. The results of these estimates form the basis for judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities where the values are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
The company believes the following represent its critical accounting policies and estimates used in the preparation of its financial statements:
(a)
Intangible Assets and Goodwill
The company uses assumptions and estimates in determining the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination. The determination of the fair value of intangible assets, which represent a significant portion of the purchase price in many of the company’s acquisitions, requires the use of significant judgment with regard to (i) the fair value; and (ii) whether such intangibles are amortizable or non-amortizable and, if the former, the period and the method by which the intangible asset will be amortized. The company estimates the fair value of acquisition-related intangible assets principally based on projections of cash flows that will arise from identifiable intangible assets of acquired businesses. The projected cash flows are discounted to determine the present value of the assets at the dates of acquisition. Definite-lived intangible assets totaled $13.71 billion at December 31, 2018. The company reviews definite-lived intangible assets for impairment when indication of potential impairment exists, such as a significant reduction in cash flows associated with the assets. Actual cash flows arising from a particular intangible asset could vary from projected cash flows which could imply different carrying values from those established at the dates of acquisition and which could result in impairment of such asset.

26



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates (continued)

The company evaluates goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment annually and when events occur or circumstances change that would more-likely-than-not reduce the fair value of the asset below its carrying amount. Events or circumstances that might require an interim evaluation include unexpected adverse business conditions, economic factors, unanticipated technological changes or competitive activities, loss of key personnel and acts by governments and courts. Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets totaled $25.35 billion and $1.27 billion, respectively, at December 31, 2018. Estimates of discounted future cash flows require assumptions related to revenue and operating income growth, discount rates and other factors. For the goodwill impairment tests, the company considers peer revenues and earnings trading multiples from companies that have operational and financial characteristics that are similar to the respective reporting units and estimated weighted average costs of capital. Different assumptions from those made in the company’s analysis could materially affect projected cash flows and the company’s evaluation of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment.
For reporting units where the company performed the quantitative goodwill impairment test, indications of fair value based on projections of profitability for 2019 and thereafter and on peer revenues and earnings trading multiples were sufficient to conclude that no impairment of goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets existed at the end of the tenth fiscal month of 2018, the date of the company’s impairment testing. There can be no assurance, however, that an economic downturn will not materially adversely affect peer trading multiples and the company’s businesses such that they do not achieve their forecasted profitability and these assets become impaired. Should the fair value of the company’s goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets decline because of reduced operating performance, market declines, or other indicators of impairment, or as a result of changes in the discount rate, charges for impairment may be necessary.
With the completion of the Patheon acquisition in August 2017, the company established a new reporting unit, called Pharma Services, which solely consists of the legacy Patheon business, the book carrying value of which equaled its fair value as of the acquisition date. During its annual 2018 goodwill impairment assessment, the company determined that the Pharma Services reporting unit's cushion of fair value over book value had increased to 5%. Despite this favorable increase, given that the fair value of the reporting unit was not substantially in excess of its carrying value, relatively small decreases in future cash flows from anticipated results could result in impairment of goodwill. The key variables that drive the valuation of the reporting unit are revenue and operating income growth rate assumptions, peer revenue and earnings trading multiples, as well as the weighted average cost of capital rate applied. The estimates used for these assumptions represent management's best estimates, which the company believes are reasonable. These assumptions, however are subject to variability and uncertainty, including the degree to which the reporting unit will grow revenue and profitability levels. The Pharma Services reporting unit had $3.37 billion of goodwill, and an overall carrying value of $7.70 billion as of December 31, 2018.
(b)
Income Taxes
In the ordinary course of business there is inherent uncertainty in quantifying the company’s income tax positions. The company assesses income tax positions and records tax benefits for all years subject to examination based upon management’s evaluation of the facts, circumstances and information available at the reporting date. For those tax positions where it is more likely than not that a tax benefit will be sustained, the company has recorded the largest amount of tax benefit with a greater than 50 percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with a taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information. For those income tax positions where it is not more likely than not that a tax benefit will be sustained, no tax benefit has been recognized in the financial statements. Should tax return positions that the company expects are sustainable not be sustained upon audit, the company could be required to record an incremental tax provision for such taxes. The company’s liability for these unrecognized tax benefits totaled $1.44 billion at December 31, 2018.
The company operates in numerous countries under many legal forms and, as a result, is subject to the jurisdiction of numerous domestic and non-U.S. tax authorities, as well as to tax agreements and treaties among these governments. Determination of taxable income in any jurisdiction requires the interpretation of the related tax laws and regulations and the use of estimates and assumptions regarding significant future events, such as the amount, timing and character of deductions, permissible revenue recognition methods under the tax law and the sources and character of income and tax credits. Changes in tax laws, regulations, agreements and treaties, currency exchange restrictions or the company’s level of operations or profitability in each taxing jurisdiction could have an impact upon the amount of current and deferred tax balances and hence the company’s net income.

27



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates (continued)

The company estimates the degree to which tax assets and loss carryforwards will result in a benefit, after consideration of all positive and negative evidence, and provides a valuation allowance for tax assets and loss carryforwards that it believes will more likely than not go unused. In situations in which the company has been able to conclude that its deferred tax assets will be realized, it has generally relied on future reversals of taxable temporary differences, expected future taxable income where such estimates have historically been reliable, and other factors. If it becomes more likely than not that a tax asset or loss carryforward will be used, the company reverses the related valuation allowance. Any such reversals are recorded as a reduction of the company’s tax provision. The company’s tax valuation allowance totaled $471 million at December 31, 2018. Should the company’s actual future taxable income by tax jurisdiction vary from estimates, additional allowances or reversals thereof may be necessary.
The company has not provided state income or foreign withholding taxes on certain of its non-U.S. subsidiaries’ undistributed earnings, as such amounts are intended to be reinvested outside the United States indefinitely in the respective jurisdictions based on specific business plans and tax strategies. These business plans and tax strategies consider: short-term and long-term forecasts and budgets of the U.S. parent and non-U.S. subsidiaries; working capital and other needs in locations where earnings are generated; the company’s past practices regarding non-U.S. subsidiary dividends; sources of financing by the U.S. parent, such as issuing debt or equity; and uses of cash by the U.S. parent that are more discretionary in nature, such as business combinations and share repurchase programs. However, should the company change its business plans and tax strategies in the future and decide to repatriate a portion of these earnings to one of its U.S. subsidiaries, including cash maintained by these non-U.S. subsidiaries, the company would recognize additional tax liabilities. It is not practicable to estimate the amount of additional state and foreign withholding tax liabilities that the company would incur. The company’s intent is to only make distributions from non-U.S. subsidiaries in the future when they can be made at no net tax costs.  
(c)
Contingencies and Litigation
The company records accruals for various contingencies, including legal proceedings, environmental, workers’ compensation, product, general and auto liabilities, and other claims that arise in the normal course of business. The accruals are based on management’s judgment, historical claims experience, the probability of losses and, where applicable, the consideration of opinions of internal and or external legal counsel and actuarial estimates. Accruals of acquired businesses, including product liability and environmental accruals, were initially recorded at fair value and discounted to their net present value. Additionally, the company records receivables from third-party insurers when recovery has been determined to be probable.
(d)
Pension and Other Retiree Benefits
Several of the company’s U.S. and non-U.S. subsidiaries sponsor defined benefit pension and other retiree benefit plans. The cost and obligations of these arrangements are calculated using many assumptions to estimate the benefits that the employee earns while working, the amount of which cannot be completely determined until the benefit payments cease. Major assumptions used in the accounting for these employee benefit plans include the discount rate, expected return on plan assets and rate of increase in employee compensation levels. Assumptions are determined based on company data and appropriate market indicators in consultation with third-party actuaries, and are evaluated each year as of the plans’ measurement date. Net periodic pension costs for the company’s pension and other postretirement benefit plans totaled $22 million in 2018. The company’s unfunded benefit obligation totaled $391 million at year-end 2018 compared with $486 million at year-end 2017. Should any of these assumptions change, they would have an effect on net periodic pension costs and the unfunded benefit obligation. For example, a 10% decrease in the discount rate would result in an annual increase in pension and other postretirement benefit expense of approximately $2 million and an increase in the benefit obligation of approximately $93 million.


28



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Results of Operations
2018 Compared With 2017
(In millions)
 
2018

 
2017

 
Total
Change

 
Currency
Translation

 
Acquisitions

 
Operations

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Life Sciences Solutions
 
$
6,269

 
$
5,728

 
$
541

 
$
49

 
$
28

 
$
464

Analytical Instruments
 
5,469

 
4,821

 
648

 
41

 
45

 
562

Specialty Diagnostics
 
3,724

 
3,486

 
238

 
41

 
8

 
189

Laboratory Products and Services
 
10,035

 
7,825

 
2,210

 
50

 
1,466

 
694

Eliminations
 
(1,139
)
 
(942
)
 
(197
)
 
(8
)
 
(18
)
 
(171
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Revenues
 
$
24,358

 
$
20,918

 
$
3,440

 
$
173

 
$
1,529

 
$
1,738

Sales in 2018 were $24.36 billion, an increase of $3.44 billion from 2017. Sales increased $1.53 billion due to acquisitions. The favorable effects of currency translation resulted in an increase in revenues of $173 million in 2018. Aside from the effects of acquisitions and currency translation, revenues increased $1.74 billion (8%) primarily due to increased demand. Sales to customers in each of the company's primary end markets grew. Sales growth was strong in each of the company's primary geographic areas, particularly Asia.
In 2018, total company operating income and operating income margin were $3.78 billion and 15.5%, respectively, compared with $2.96 billion and 14.2%, respectively, in 2017. The increase in operating income was primarily due to profit on higher sales and, to a lesser extent, the effects of acquisitions and productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases, offset in part by an increase in strategic growth investments, unfavorable sales mix and amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets, due to recent acquisitions.
In 2018, the company recorded restructuring and other costs, net, of $91 million, including $12 million of charges to cost of revenues primarily for the sale of inventories revalued at the date of acquisition. The company recorded $29 million of net charges to selling, general and administrative expenses, principally third-party transaction and integration costs associated with recent and pending acquisitions, offset in part by income from the favorable results of product liability litigation. In addition, the company recorded $88 million of cash restructuring costs in its continuing effort to streamline operations, including severance at several businesses and abandoned facility expenses at businesses that have been or are being consolidated in the U.S. and Europe. The company also recorded $38 million of other income, net, principally for resolution of a litigation matter (see Note 15).
In 2017, the company recorded restructuring and other costs, net, of $298 million, including $123 million of charges to cost of revenues primarily for the sale of inventories revalued at the date of acquisition and, to a lesser extent, to conform the accounting policies of Patheon to the company's accounting policies; $78 million of charges to selling, general and administrative expenses primarily for third-party transaction and integration costs associated with recent acquisitions and changes in estimates of acquisition contingent consideration. In addition, the company recorded $97 million of cash restructuring costs, primarily to achieve acquisition synergies, including severance and abandoned facilities costs associated with the closure and consolidation of facilities in the U.S. and Europe. The company’s other businesses incurred costs for continued headcount reductions and facility consolidations in an effort to streamline operations, including severance at several businesses and abandoned facility expenses at businesses that have been or are being consolidated in the U.S., Europe and Asia. The company also recorded $27 million of net credits for litigation-related matters, which were mostly offset by compensation due at Patheon on the date of acquisition, hurricane response/impairment costs, and net charges for the settlement/curtailment of retirement plans.
As of February 27, 2019, the company has identified restructuring actions that will result in additional charges of approximately $65 million, primarily in 2019, and expects to identify additional actions during 2019 which will be recorded when specified criteria are met, such as communication of benefit arrangements and abandonment of leased facilities. Approximately 40% of the additional charges will be incurred in the Life Sciences Solutions segment, 25% in the Analytical Instruments segment, 30% in the Laboratory Products and Services segment, and 5% in the Specialty Diagnostics segment. The restructuring projects for which charges were incurred in 2018 are expected to result in annual cost savings of approximately

29



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Results of Operations (continued)

$65 million beginning in part in 2018 and, to a greater extent, in 2019, including $20 million in the Life Sciences Solutions segment, $10 million in the Analytical Instruments segment, $5 million in the Specialty Diagnostics segment and $30 million in the Laboratory Products and Services segment. The restructuring actions for which charges were incurred in 2017 resulted in annual cost savings of approximately $90 million beginning in part in 2017 and to a greater extent in 2018, including $50 million in the Life Sciences Solutions segment, $20 million in the Analytical Instruments segment, $10 million in the Specialty Diagnostics segment and $10 million in the Laboratory Products and Services segment.
Segment Results
The company’s management evaluates segment operating performance using operating income before certain charges/credits to cost of revenues and selling, general and administrative expenses, principally associated with acquisition-related activities; restructuring and other costs/income including costs arising from facility consolidations such as severance and abandoned lease expense and gains and losses from the sale of real estate and product lines; and amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets. The company uses this measure because it helps management understand and evaluate the segments’ core operating results and facilitate comparison of performance for determining compensation (Note 4). Accordingly, the following segment data is reported on this basis.
(Dollars in millions)
 
2018

 
2017

 
Change

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
Life Sciences Solutions
 
$
6,269

 
$
5,728

 
9
%
Analytical Instruments
 
5,469

 
4,821

 
13
%
Specialty Diagnostics
 
3,724

 
3,486

 
7
%
Laboratory Products and Services
 
10,035

 
7,825

 
28
%
Eliminations
 
(1,139
)
 
(942
)
 
21
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Revenues
 
$
24,358

 
$
20,918

 
16
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Segment Income
 
 
 
 
 
 
Life Sciences Solutions
 
$
2,158

 
$
1,894

 
14
%
Analytical Instruments
 
1,247

 
1,027

 
21
%
Specialty Diagnostics
 
952

 
927

 
3
%
Laboratory Products and Services
 
1,258

 
1,004

 
25
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Subtotal Reportable Segments
 
5,615

 
4,852

 
16
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of Revenues Charges
 
(12
)
 
(123
)
 
 
Selling, General and Administrative Charges, Net
 
(29
)
 
(78
)
 
 
Restructuring and Other (Costs) Income, Net
 
(50
)
 
(97
)
 
 
Amortization of Acquisition-related Intangible Assets
 
(1,741
)
 
(1,594
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Operating Income
 
$
3,783

 
$
2,960

 
28
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reportable Segments Operating Income Margin
 
23.1
%
 
23.2
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Operating Income Margin
 
15.5
%
 
14.2
%
 
 
Income from the company’s reportable segments increased 16% to $5.62 billion in 2018 due primarily to profit on higher sales and, to a lesser extent, the effects of acquisitions, and productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases, offset in part by strategic growth investments and unfavorable sales mix.

30



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Results of Operations (continued)

Life Sciences Solutions
(Dollars in millions)
 
2018

 
2017

 
Change

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
$
6,269

 
$
5,728

 
9
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Income Margin
 
34.4
%
 
33.1
%
 
1.3 pt

Sales in the Life Sciences Solutions segment increased $541 million to $6.27 billion in 2018. Sales increased $464 million (8%) due to higher revenues at existing businesses, $49 million due to the favorable effects of currency translation and $28 million due to acquisitions. The increase in revenue at existing businesses was primarily due to increased demand at each of the segment's primary businesses, with particular strength from sales of biosciences products and bioprocess production products.
Operating income margin was 34.4% in 2018 compared to 33.1% in 2017. The increase in operating margin resulted primarily from profit on higher sales and productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases. These increases were offset in part by unfavorable sales mix, and strategic growth investments.
Analytical Instruments
(Dollars in millions)
 
2018

 
2017

 
Change

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
$
5,469

 
$
4,821

 
13
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Income Margin
 
22.8
%
 
21.3
%
 
1.5 pt

Sales in the Analytical Instruments segment increased $648 million to $5.47 billion in 2018. Sales increased $562 million (12%) due to higher revenues at existing businesses, $45 million due to acquisitions and $41 million due to the favorable effects of currency translation. The increase in revenue at existing businesses was primarily due to increased demand at each of the segment's primary businesses.
Operating income margin was 22.8% in 2018 compared to 21.3% in 2017. The increase resulted primarily from profit on higher sales and, to a lesser extent, productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases, offset in part by strategic growth investments.
Specialty Diagnostics
(Dollars in millions)
 
2018

 
2017

 
Change

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
$
3,724

 
$
3,486

 
7
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Income Margin
 
25.6
%
 
26.6
%
 
-1.0 pt

Sales in the Specialty Diagnostics segment increased $238 million to $3.72 billion in 2018. Sales increased $189 million (5%) due to higher revenues at existing businesses, $41 million due to the favorable effects of currency translation and $8 million due to an acquisition. The increase in revenue at existing businesses was due to broad based higher demand in each of the segment's primary businesses with particular strength in sales of products sold through the segment’s healthcare market channel.
Operating income margin was 25.6% in 2018 and 26.6% in 2017. The decrease resulted primarily from strategic growth investments and, to a lesser extent, unfavorable sales mix, offset in part by profit on higher sales and, to a lesser extent, favorable foreign currency exchange.

31



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Results of Operations (continued)

Laboratory Products and Services
(Dollars in millions)
 
2018

 
2017

 
Change

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
$
10,035

 
$
7,825

 
28
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Income Margin
 
12.5
%
 
12.8
%
 
-0.3 pt

Sales in the Laboratory Products and Services segment increased $2.21 billion to $10.04 billion in 2018. Sales increased $1.47 billion due to an acquisition, $694 million (9%) due to higher revenues at existing businesses and $50 million due to the favorable effects of currency translation. The increase in revenue at existing businesses was primarily due to increased demand in each of the segment's principal businesses with particular strength in its research and safety market channel business and its clinical trials business.
Operating income margin was 12.5% in 2018 compared to 12.8% in 2017. The decrease was primarily due to unfavorable sales mix and, to a lesser extent, strategic growth investments, offset in part by profit on higher sales.
Other Expense, Net
The company reported other expense, net, of $521 million and $531 million in 2018 and 2017, respectively (Note 5). An increase in interest expense of $75 million was offset in part by an increase in interest income of $56 million in 2018. In 2017, other expense, net included $32 million of charges related to the amortization of fees paid to obtain bridge financing commitments related to the acquisition of Patheon.
Provision for Income Taxes
The company recorded a provision for income taxes in 2018 including a net provision of $68 million to adjust the estimated initial effects of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 recorded in 2017, consisting of an incremental provision of $117 million offset in part by a $49 million reduction of related unrecognized tax benefits established in 2017. These adjustments were required based on new U.S. Treasury guidance and further analysis of available tax accounting methods and elections, legislative updates, regulations, earnings and profit computations and foreign taxes. In 2018, the provision for income taxes also included a $71 million charge to establish a valuation allowance against net operating losses that will not be utilized as a result of the planned sale of the Anatomical Pathology business (Note 2).
The company recorded a provision for income taxes in 2017 principally due to a net provision of $204 million from the effects of the Tax Act consisting primarily of a one-time transition tax on deemed repatriated earnings and profits of foreign subsidiaries, net of a benefit from adjusting the deferred tax balances for the U.S. statutory tax rate reduction. In 2017, the company refinanced certain long term inter-company debt which resulted in an income tax benefit of $237 million related to a foreign exchange loss recognized for income tax purposes. In addition, in 2017 the company recorded a $65 million favorable adjustment to deferred tax balances due to extension of a tax holiday agreement in Singapore. The company continued to implement tax planning initiatives related to non-U.S. subsidiaries in 2017. These non-U.S. subsidiaries incurred foreign tax obligations, and made cash and deemed distributions to the company’s U.S. operations which resulted in no net tax cost. As a result of these distributions, the company benefitted from U.S. foreign tax credits of $86 million, offset in part by additional U.S. income taxes of $53 million on the related foreign income (which reduced the benefit from the foreign rate differential in 2017) for a net benefit of $33 million. The foreign tax credits are the result of foreign earnings and profits remitted or deemed remitted to the U.S. during the reporting year and the U.S. treatment of taxes paid in the foreign jurisdictions in the years those profits were originally earned. The company also implemented foreign tax credit planning in Sweden which resulted in $20 million of foreign tax credits, with no related incremental U.S. income tax expense.
The effective tax rate in both 2018 and 2017 was also affected by relatively significant earnings in lower tax jurisdictions. Due primarily to the non-deductibility of intangible asset amortization for tax purposes, the company’s cash payments for income taxes were higher than its income tax expense for financial reporting purposes and totaled $591 million and $479 million in 2018 and 2017, respectively.
The company expects its effective tax rate in 2019 will be between 7% and 10% based on currently forecasted rates of profitability in the countries in which the company conducts business and expected generation of foreign tax credits. The effective tax rate can vary significantly from period to period as a result of discrete income tax factors and events.

32



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Results of Operations (continued)

The company has operations and a taxable presence in approximately 50 countries outside the U.S. Some of these countries have lower tax rates than the U.S. The company’s ability to obtain a benefit from lower tax rates outside the U.S. is dependent on its relative levels of income in countries outside the U.S. and on the statutory tax rates in those countries. Based on the dispersion of the company’s non-U.S. income tax provision among many countries, the company believes that a change in the statutory tax rate in any individual country is not likely to materially affect the company’s income tax provision or net income, aside from any resulting one-time adjustment to the company’s deferred tax balances to reflect a new rate.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
A description of recently issued accounting standards is included under the heading "Recent Accounting Pronouncements" in Note 1.
Contingent Liabilities
The company is contingently liable with respect to certain legal proceedings and related matters. An unfavorable outcome that differs materially from current accrual estimates, if any, for one or more of the matters described under the headings "Product Liability, Workers Compensation and Other Personal Injury Matters," and "Intellectual Property Matters" in Note 11 could have a material adverse effect on the company’s financial position as well as its results of operations and cash flows.
2017 Compared With 2016
(In millions)
 
2017

 
2016

 
Total
Change

 
Currency
Translation

 
Acquisitions

 
Operations

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Life Sciences Solutions
 
$
5,728

 
$
5,317

 
$
411

 
$
12

 
$
99

 
$
300

Analytical Instruments
 
4,821

 
3,668

 
1,153

 
29

 
794

 
330

Specialty Diagnostics
 
3,486

 
3,339

 
147

 
12

 
9

 
126

Laboratory Products and Services
 
7,825

 
6,724

 
1,101

 
13

 
727

 
361

Eliminations
 
(942
)
 
(774
)
 
(168
)
 
4

 
(4
)
 
(168
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Revenues
 
$
20,918

 
$
18,274

 
$
2,644

 
$
70

 
$
1,625

 
$
949

Sales in 2017 were $20.92 billion, an increase of $2.64 billion from 2016. Sales increased $1.63 billion due to acquisitions. The favorable effects of currency translation resulted in an increase in revenues of $70 million in 2017. Aside from the effects of acquisitions and currency translation, revenues increased $949 million (5%) primarily due to increased demand. Sales to customers in each of the company's primary end markets grew. Sales growth was moderate in North America and Europe and particularly strong in Asia.
In 2017, total company operating income and operating income margin were $2.96 billion and 14.2%, respectively, compared with $2.46 billion and 13.5%, respectively, in 2016. The increase in operating income was primarily due to profit on higher sales in local currencies, the effects of acquisitions and productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases, offset in part by an increase in amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets, due to recent acquisitions, and strategic growth investments.
In 2017, the company recorded restructuring and other costs, net, of $298 million, including $123 million of charges to cost of revenues primarily for the sale of inventories revalued at the date of acquisition, and, to a lesser extent, to conform the accounting policies of Patheon to the company's accounting policies. The company recorded $78 million of charges to selling, general and administrative expenses, primarily for third-party transaction and integration costs associated with recent acquisitions and changes in estimates of acquisition contingent consideration. In addition, the company recorded $97 million of cash restructuring costs, primarily to achieve acquisition synergies, including severance and abandoned facilities costs associated with the closure and consolidation of facilities in the U.S and Europe. The company’s other businesses incurred costs for continued headcount reductions and facility consolidations in an effort to streamline operations including severance at several businesses and abandoned facility expenses at businesses that have been or are being consolidated in the U.S., Europe and Asia. The company also recorded $27 million of net credits for litigation-related matters, which were mostly offset by compensation due at Patheon on the date of the acquisition, hurricane response/impairment costs, and net charges for the settlement/curtailment of retirement plans (see Note 15).

33



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Results of Operations (continued)

In 2016, the company recorded restructuring and other costs, net, of $395 million, including $102 million of charges to cost of revenues for the sale of inventories revalued at the date of acquisition and to conform the accounting policies of FEI and Affymetrix to the company's accounting policies; $104 million of charges to selling, general and administrative expenses primarily for third-party transaction and integration costs related to the acquisitions of FEI and Affymetrix. In addition, the company recorded $164 million of cash restructuring costs, primarily to achieve acquisition synergies, including severance and abandoned facilities costs associated with the closure and consolidation of facilities in the U.S. The company’s other businesses incurred costs for continued headcount reductions and facility consolidations in an effort to streamline operations, including severance at several businesses and abandoned facility expenses at businesses that have been or are being consolidated in the U.S., Europe and Asia. The company also recorded charges for litigation and environmental remediation matters. These costs were partially offset by gains on the sales of real estate.
The restructuring actions for which charges were incurred in 2016 resulted in annual cost savings of approximately $100 million beginning in part in 2016 and to a greater extent in 2017, including $60 million in the Life Sciences Solutions segment, $25 million in the Analytical Instruments segment, $5 million in the Specialty Diagnostics segment and $10 million in the Laboratory Products and Services segment.
Segment Results
(Dollars in millions)
 
2017

 
2016

 
Change

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
 
 
 
 
 
Life Sciences Solutions
 
$
5,728

 
$
5,317

 
8
%
Analytical Instruments
 
4,821

 
3,668

 
31
%
Specialty Diagnostics
 
3,486

 
3,339

 
4
%
Laboratory Products and Services
 
7,825

 
6,724

 
16
%
Eliminations
 
(942
)
 
(774
)
 
22
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Revenues
 
$
20,918

 
$
18,274

 
14
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Segment Income
 
 

 
 

 
 

Life Sciences Solutions
 
$
1,894

 
$
1,598

 
19
%
Analytical Instruments
 
1,027

 
749

 
37
%
Specialty Diagnostics
 
927

 
910

 
2
%
Laboratory Products and Services
 
1,004

 
974

 
3
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Subtotal Reportable Segments
 
4,852

 
4,231

 
15
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of Revenues Charges
 
(123
)
 
(102
)
 
 

Selling, General and Administrative Costs, Net
 
(78
)
 
(104
)
 
 

Restructuring and Other Income (Costs), Net
 
(97
)
 
(189
)
 
 

Amortization of Acquisition-related Intangible Assets
 
(1,594
)
 
(1,378
)
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Operating Income
 
$
2,960

 
$
2,458

 
20
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reportable Segments Operating Income Margin
 
23.2
%
 
23.2
%
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Operating Income Margin
 
14.2
%
 
13.5
%
 
 

Income from the company’s reportable segments increased 15% to $4.85 billion in 2017 due primarily to profit on higher sales in local currencies, the effects of acquisitions and productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases, offset in part by strategic growth investments.

34



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Results of Operations (continued)

Life Sciences Solutions
(Dollars in millions)
 
2017

 
2016

 
Change

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
$
5,728

 
$
5,317

 
8
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Income Margin
 
33.1
%
 
30.1
%
 
3.0 pt

Sales in the Life Sciences Solutions segment increased $411 million to $5.73 billion in 2017. Sales increased $300 million (6%) due to higher revenues at existing businesses, $99 million due to acquisitions and $12 million due to the favorable effects of currency translation. The increase in revenue at existing businesses was primarily due to increased demand for biosciences products and, to a lesser extent, bioprocess production products as well as genetic sciences products.
Operating income margin was 33.1% in 2017 compared to 30.1% in 2016. The increase in operating margin resulted primarily from productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases, and, to a lesser extent, profit on higher sales in local currencies and price increases. These increases were offset in part by strategic growth investments and acquisition dilution.
Analytical Instruments
(Dollars in millions)
 
2017

 
2016

 
Change

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
$
4,821

 
$
3,668

 
31
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Income Margin
 
21.3
%
 
20.4
%
 
0.9 pt

Sales in the Analytical Instruments segment increased $1.15 billion to $4.82 billion in 2017. Sales increased $794 million due to acquisitions, $330 million (9%) due to higher revenues at existing businesses and $29 million due to the favorable effects of currency translation. The increase in revenue at existing businesses was primarily due to increased demand in each of the segment's primary businesses particularly products sold by the segment's chromatography and mass spectrometry business and materials and structural analysis business.
Operating income margin was 21.3% in 2017 compared to 20.4% in 2016. The increase resulted primarily from profit on higher sales in local currencies, productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases and, to a lesser extent, the effect of acquisitions, offset in part by strategic growth investments and, to a lesser extent, unfavorable foreign currency exchange and unfavorable sales mix.
Specialty Diagnostics
(Dollars in millions)
 
2017

 
2016

 
Change

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
$
3,486

 
$
3,339

 
4
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Income Margin
 
26.6
%
 
27.3
%
 
-0.7 pt

Sales in the Specialty Diagnostics segment increased $147 million to $3.49 billion in 2017. Sales increased $126 million (4%) due to higher revenues at existing businesses, $12 million due to the favorable effects of currency translation and $9 million due to acquisitions. The increase in revenue at existing businesses was primarily due to higher demand for products sold through the segment's healthcare market channel as well as clinical diagnostics products and immunodiagnostics products.
Operating income margin was 26.6% in 2017 and 27.3% in 2016. The decrease resulted primarily from strategic growth investments and, to a lesser extent, unfavorable sales mix, offset in part by profit on higher sales in local currencies and productivity improvements, net of inflationary cost increases.

35



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Results of Operations (continued)

Laboratory Products and Services
(Dollars in millions)
 
2017

 
2016

 
Change

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenues
 
$
7,825

 
$
6,724

 
16
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Income Margin
 
12.8
%
 
14.5
%
 
-1.7 pt

Sales in the Laboratory Products and Services segment increased $1.10 billion to $7.83 billion in 2017. Sales increased $727 million due to acquisitions, $361 million (5%) due to higher revenues at existing businesses and $13 million due to the favorable effects of currency translation. The increase in revenue at existing businesses was primarily due to increased demand for products sold through the segment's channel business and, to a lesser extent, laboratory equipment and consumables.
Operating income margin was 12.8% in 2017 compared to 14.5% in 2016. The decrease was primarily due to unfavorable sales mix and strategic growth investments offset in part by profit on higher sales in local currencies and, to a lesser extent, the effect of acquisitions.
Other Expense, Net
The company reported other expense, net, of $531 million and $434 million in 2017 and 2016, respectively (Note 5). Interest expense increased $123 million, primarily due to an increase in outstanding debt.
Provision for Income Taxes
The company recorded a provision for income taxes in 2017 principally due to a net provision of $204 million from the effects of the Tax Act consisting primarily of a one-time transition tax on deemed repatriated earnings and profits of foreign subsidiaries, net of a benefit from adjusting the deferred tax balances for the U.S. statutory tax rate reduction. In 2017, the company refinanced certain long term inter-company debt which resulted in an income tax benefit of $237 million related to a foreign exchange loss recognized for income tax purposes. In addition, in 2017 the company recorded a $65 million favorable adjustment to deferred tax balances due to extension of a tax holiday agreement in Singapore. The company continued to implement tax planning initiatives related to non-U.S. subsidiaries in 2017. These non-U.S. subsidiaries incurred foreign tax obligations, and made cash and deemed distributions to the company’s U.S. operations which resulted in no net tax cost. As a result of these distributions, the company benefitted from U.S. foreign tax credits of $86 million, offset in part by additional U.S. income taxes of $53 million on the related foreign income (which reduced the benefit from the foreign rate differential in 2017) for a net benefit of $33 million. The foreign tax credits are the result of foreign earnings and profits remitted or deemed remitted to the U.S. during the reporting year and the U.S. treatment of taxes paid in the foreign jurisdictions in the years those profits were originally earned. The company also implemented foreign tax credit planning in Sweden which resulted in $20 million of foreign tax credits, with no related incremental U.S. income tax expense.
The company recorded a benefit from income taxes in 2016. In 2016, the company continued to implement tax planning initiatives related to non-U.S. subsidiaries. These non-U.S. subsidiaries incurred foreign tax obligations, and made cash and deemed distributions to the company’s U.S. operations which resulted in no net tax cost. As a result of these distributions, the company benefitted from U.S. foreign tax credits of $91 million, offset in part by additional U.S. taxes of $37 million on the related foreign income (which reduced the benefit from the foreign rate differential in 2016) for a net benefit of $54 million. The company also implemented foreign tax credit planning in Sweden which resulted in $100 million of foreign tax credits, with no related incremental U.S. income tax expense. In addition, the company recorded discrete benefits in 2016 totaling $39 million related to prior year tax filings and net charges of $12 million related to tax audits.
The effective tax rate in both 2017 and 2016 was also affected by relatively significant earnings in lower tax jurisdictions. Due primarily to the non-deductibility of intangible asset amortization for tax purposes, the company’s cash payments for income taxes were higher than its income tax expense for financial reporting purposes and totaled $479 million and $663 million in 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Consolidated working capital was $4.48 billion at December 31, 2018, compared with $2.37 billion at December 31, 2017, primarily due to higher cash and lower short-term debt. Included in working capital were cash and cash equivalents of $2.10 billion at December 31, 2018 and $1.34 billion at December 31, 2017.

36



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Liquidity and Capital Resources (continued)

2018
Cash provided by operating activities was $4.54 billion during 2018. Cash provided by income was offset in part by investments in working capital. Increases in accounts receivable and inventories used cash of $366 million and $324 million, respectively, primarily to support growth in sales. Cash payments for income taxes increased to $591 million during 2018, compared with $479 million in 2017. The company made cash contributions to its pension and postretirement benefit plans totaling $93 million during 2018. Payments for restructuring actions, principally severance costs and lease and other expenses of real estate consolidation, used cash of $83 million during 2018.
During 2018, the company’s investing activities used $1.25 billion of cash. Acquisitions used cash of $536 million. The company’s investing activities also included the purchase of $758 million of property, plant and equipment. On January 28, 2019, the company entered into an agreement to sell its Anatomical Pathology business to PHC Holdings Corporation for approximately $1.14 billion. The sale is subject to customary closing conditions and applicable regulatory approvals.
The company’s financing activities used $2.24 billion of cash during 2018. Repayment of senior notes used cash of $2.05 billion. New long-term borrowings provided cash of $690 million. A net decrease in commercial paper obligations used cash of $194 million. The company’s financing activities also included the repurchase of $500 million of the company’s common stock and the payment of $266 million in cash dividends, offset in part by $136 million of net proceeds from employee stock option exercises. On July 7, 2016, the Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $1.50 billion of the company’s common stock. In 2018, the company repurchased $500 million of the company's common stock, depleting the 2016 authorization. On September 7, 2018, the Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $2.00 billion of the company’s common stock. In January 2019, the company repurchased $750 million of the company's common stock. At February 27, 2019, authorization remained for $1.25 billion of future repurchases of the company’s common stock.
As of December 31, 2018, the company’s short-term debt totaled $1.27 billion, including $693 million of commercial paper obligations and $573 million of senior notes due within the next twelve months. The company has a revolving credit facility with a bank group that provides up to $2.50 billion of unsecured multi-currency revolving credit. If the company borrows under this facility, it intends to leave undrawn an amount equivalent to outstanding commercial paper to provide a source of funds in the event that commercial paper markets are not available. As of December 31, 2018, no borrowings were outstanding under the company’s revolving credit facility, although available capacity was reduced by approximately $82 million as a result of outstanding letters of credit.
Approximately half of the company’s cash balances and cash flows from operations are from outside the U.S. The company uses its non-U.S. cash for needs outside of the U.S. including acquisitions and repayment of acquisition-related intercompany debt to the U.S. In addition, the company also transfers cash to the U.S. using non-taxable returns of capital as well as dividends where the related U.S. dividend received deduction or foreign tax credit equals any tax cost arising from the dividends. As a result of using such means of transferring cash to the U.S., the company does not expect any material adverse liquidity effects from its significant non-U.S. cash balances for the foreseeable future.
The company expects to fund the acquisition of Gatan Inc. with a combination of existing cash balances and short-term borrowings. The company believes that its existing cash and cash equivalents of $2.10 billion as of December 31, 2018 and its future cash flow from operations together with available borrowing capacity under its revolving credit agreement will be sufficient to meet the cash requirements of its existing businesses for the foreseeable future, including at least the next 24 months.
2017
Cash provided by operating activities was $4.01 billion during 2017. An increase in other liabilities provided cash of $1.02 billion primarily due to the Tax Act's one-time transition tax on deemed repatriated earnings and profits of foreign subsidiaries. Given the availability of foreign tax credits, the company does not expect the transition tax to result in significant cash requirements. An increase in accounts payable provided cash of $274 million due to the timing of payments. Increases in accounts receivable and inventories used cash of $362 million and $81 million, respectively, primarily to support growth in sales in local currencies. An increase in other assets used cash of $153 million primarily due to the timing of income tax refunds. Cash payments for income taxes decreased to $479 million during 2017, compared with $663 million in 2016. The company made cash contributions to its pension and postretirement benefit plans totaling $200 million during 2017. Payments for restructuring actions, principally severance costs and lease and other expenses of real estate consolidation, used cash of $93 million during 2017.

37



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Liquidity and Capital Resources (continued)

During 2017, the company’s investing activities used $7.73 billion of cash. Acquisitions used cash of $7.23 billion. The company’s investing activities also included the purchase of $508 million of property, plant and equipment.
The company’s financing activities provided $3.85 billion of cash during 2017. Issuance of senior notes and borrowings under a term loan provided cash of $6.46 billion. The company also issued 10 million shares of its common stock for net proceeds of $1.69 billion. Repayment of senior notes and term loans used cash of $3.30 billion and a net decrease in commercial paper obligations used cash of $134 million. The company’s financing activities also included the repurchase of $750 million of the company’s common stock and the payment of $237 million in cash dividends, offset in part by $128 million of net proceeds from employee stock option exercises.
2016
Cash provided by operating activities was $3.26 billion during 2016. An increase in accounts receivable used cash of $352 million primarily to support growth in sales in local currencies and due to the mid-month timing of the acquisition of FEI when receivables are commonly lower than at quarter-end. Inventories provided cash of $98 million due to a reduction associated with fourth quarter 2016 sales. An increase in other assets used cash of $153 million primarily due to the timing of payments. An increase in other liabilities provided cash of $216 million primarily due to the timing of payments for income taxes and incentive compensation. Cash payments for income taxes increased to $663 million during 2016, compared with $477 million in 2015. The company made cash contributions to its pension and postretirement benefit plans totaling $43 million during 2016. Payments for restructuring actions, principally severance costs and lease and other expenses of real estate consolidation, used cash of $122 million during 2016.
During 2016, the company’s investing activities used $5.52 billion of cash. Acquisitions used cash of $5.18 billion. The company’s investing activities also included the purchase of $444 million of property, plant and equipment.
The company’s financing activities provided $2.76 billion of cash during 2016. Issuance of senior notes and borrowings under term loans provided cash of $7.60 billion and an increase in commercial paper obligations provided cash of $904 million. Repayment of senior notes, the 364-day term loan and acquired debt used cash of $4.33 billion. The company’s financing activities also included the repurchase of $1.25 billion of the company’s common stock and the payment of $238 million in cash dividends, offset in part by $87 million of proceeds from employee stock option exercises.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
The company did not use special purpose entities or other off-balance-sheet financing arrangements in 2016, 2017 or 2018, except for letters of credit, bank guarantees, residual value guarantees under three lease agreements, surety bonds and other guarantees disclosed in the table or discussed below. The amounts disclosed in the table below for letters of credit, bank guarantees, surety bonds and other guarantees relate to guarantees of the company’s performance, primarily in the ordinary course of business.

38



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Liquidity and Capital Resources (continued)

Contractual Obligations and Other Commercial Commitments
The table below summarizes, by period due or expiration of commitment, the company’s contractual obligations and other commercial commitments as of December 31, 2018.
 
 
Payments due by Period or Expiration of Commitment
(In millions)
 
2019

 
2020 and 2021

 
2022 and 2023

 
2024 and Thereafter

 
Total

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Contractual Obligations and Other Commercial Commitments
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Debt principal, including short-term debt (a)
 
$
1,268

 
$
4,727

 
$
3,175

 
$
10,004

 
$
19,174

Interest
 
522

 
915

 
621

 
1,990

 
4,048

Capital lease obligations
 
3

 
6

 
3

 

 
12

Operating lease obligations
 
192

 
276

 
144

 
177

 
789

Unconditional purchase obligations (b)
 
673

 
46

 
21

 
5

 
745

Letters of credit and bank guarantees
 
183

 
19

 
13

 
3

 
218

Surety bonds and other guarantees
 
27

 
1

 

 

 
28

Pension obligations on balance sheet
 
43

 
91

 
97

 
274

 
505

Asset retirement obligations accrued on balance sheet
 
6

 
15

 
11

 
13

 
45

Acquisition-related contingent consideration accrued on balance sheet
 
3

 
13

 
5

 
16

 
37

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
$
2,920

 
$
6,109

 
$
4,090

 
$
12,482

 
$
25,601

(a)
Amounts represent the expected cash payments for debt and do not include any deferred issuance costs.
(b)
Unconditional purchase obligations include agreements to purchase goods, services or fixed assets that are enforceable and legally binding and that specify all significant terms, including: fixed or minimum quantities to be purchased; fixed, minimum or variable price provisions; and the approximate timing of the transaction. Purchase obligations exclude agreements that are cancelable at any time without penalty.
The contractual obligation at December 31, 2018 to acquire Gatan Inc. for approximately $925 million has been omitted from the above table. The transaction is subject to customary closing conditions, including regulatory approvals.
Reserves for unrecognized tax benefits of $1.44 billion have not been included in the above table due to the inability to predict the timing of tax audit resolutions.
The company has no material commitments for purchases of property, plant and equipment, other than those included in the above table, but expects that for 2019, such expenditures will be between $800 and $850 million.
Guarantees of residual value under lease arrangements for three facilities have not been included in the above table due to the inability to predict if and when the guarantees may require payment (see Note 11). The residual value guarantees become operative at the end of the leases for up to a maximum of $147 million. The initial terms of these leases end in 2019, 2020 and 2023, although renewal options exist for each.
A guarantee of pension plan obligations of a divested business has not been included in the preceding table due to the inability to predict if and when the guarantee may require payment. The purchaser of the divested business has agreed to pay for the pension benefits, however the company was required to guarantee payment of these pension benefits should the purchaser fail to do so. The amount of the guarantee at December 31, 2018 was $38 million.
In disposing of assets or businesses, the company often provides representations, warranties and/or indemnities to cover various risks including, for example, unknown damage to the assets, environmental risks involved in the sale of real estate, liability to investigate and remediate environmental contamination at waste facilities, and unidentified tax liabilities and related legal fees. The company does not have the ability to estimate the potential liability from such indemnities because they relate to unknown conditions. However, the company has no reason to believe that these uncertainties would have a material adverse effect on its financial position, annual results of operations or cash flows.

39



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Liquidity and Capital Resources (continued)

The company has recorded liabilities for known indemnifications included as part of environmental liabilities. See Item 1. Business – Environmental Matters for a discussion of these liabilities.

Item 7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
The company is exposed to market risk from changes in interest rates and currency exchange rates, which could affect its future results of operations and financial condition. The company manages its exposure to these risks through its regular operating and financing activities. The company has periodically hedged interest rate risks of fixed-rate instruments with offsetting interest rate swaps. Additionally, the company uses short-term forward and option contracts primarily to hedge certain balance sheet and operational exposures resulting from changes in currency exchange rates. Such exposures result from purchases, sales, cash and intercompany loans that are denominated in currencies other than the functional currencies of the respective operations. The currency-exchange contracts principally hedge transactions denominated in euro, British pounds sterling, Swiss franc, Norwegian kroner, Canadian dollars, Japanese yen and Swedish kronor. Income and losses arising from these derivative contracts are recognized as offsets to losses and income resulting from the underlying exposure being hedged. The company does not enter into speculative derivative agreements.
Interest Rates
The company is exposed to changes in interest rates while conducting normal business operations as a result of ongoing investing and financing activities, which affect the company’s debt as well as cash and cash equivalents. As of December 31, 2018, the company’s debt portfolio was comprised primarily of fixed rate borrowings. The fair market value of the company’s fixed interest rate debt is subject to interest rate risk. Generally, the fair market value of fixed interest rate debt will increase as interest rates fall and decrease as interest rates rise. The total estimated fair value of the company’s debt at December 31, 2018 was $19.04 billion (see Note 13). Fair values were determined from available market prices using current interest rates and terms to maturity. If interest rates were to decrease by 100 basis points, the fair value of the company’s debt at December 31, 2018 would increase by approximately $1.06 billion. If interest rates were to increase by 100 basis points, the fair value of the company’s debt at December 31, 2018 would decrease by approximately $0.98 billion.
In addition, interest rate changes would result in a change in the company’s interest expense due to variable-rate debt instruments including swap arrangements. In 2018, a 100 basis point increase in interest rates on the swap arrangements and variable-rate debt would have increased the company’s annual pre-tax interest expense by approximately $43 million.
Currency Exchange Rates
The company views its investment in international subsidiaries with a functional currency other than the U.S. dollar as permanent. The company’s investment in international subsidiaries is sensitive to fluctuations in currency exchange rates. The functional currencies of the company’s international subsidiaries are principally denominated in British pounds sterling, Swedish kronor, euro, Canadian dollars, Swiss franc, Norwegian kroner and Danish kroner. The effect of a change in the period ending currency exchange rates on the company’s net investment in international subsidiaries is reflected in the "accumulated other comprehensive items" component of shareholders’ equity. The company also uses foreign currency-denominated debt to partially hedge its net investments in foreign operations against adverse movements in exchange rates. A 10% depreciation in year-end 2018 functional currencies, relative to the U.S. dollar, would result in a reduction of shareholders’ equity of $0.84 billion.
The fair value of forward currency-exchange contracts is sensitive to changes in currency exchange rates. The fair value of forward currency-exchange contracts is the estimated amount that the company would pay or receive upon termination of the contract, taking into account the change in currency exchange rates. A 10% depreciation in year-end 2018 non-functional currency exchange rates related to the company’s contracts would result in an additional unrealized loss on forward currency-exchange contracts of $145 million. A 10% appreciation in year-end 2018 non-functional currency exchange rates related to the company’s contracts would result in an unrealized gain on forward currency-exchange contracts of $138 million. The unrealized gains or losses on forward currency-exchange contracts resulting from changes in currency exchange rates are expected to approximately offset losses or gains on the exposures being hedged.
Certain of the company’s cash and cash equivalents are denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the depositor and are sensitive to changes in currency exchange rates. A 10% depreciation in the related year-end 2018 non-functional currency exchange rates applied to such cash balances would result in a negative impact of $25 million on the company’s net income.

40



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.

Item 8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
This data is submitted as a separate section to this report. See Item 15 "Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules."

Item 9.
Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Not applicable.

Item 9A.
Controls and Procedures
Management’s Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
The company’s management, with the participation of the company’s chief executive officer and chief financial officer, has evaluated the effectiveness of the company’s disclosure controls and procedures (as such term is defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act) as of the end of the period covered by this report. Based on such evaluation, the company’s chief executive officer and chief financial officer concluded that, as of the end of such period, the company’s disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
There have been no changes in the company’s internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f)) during the fiscal quarter ended December 31, 2018, that have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect the company’s internal control over financial reporting.
Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
The company’s management, including the company’s chief executive officer and chief financial officer, is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f)) for the company. Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. The company’s management conducted an assessment of the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018 based on criteria established in "Internal Control - Integrated Framework" (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). Based on this assessment, the company’s management concluded that, as of December 31, 2018, the company’s internal control over financial reporting was effective.
The company’s independent registered public accounting firm, PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, has audited the effectiveness of the company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018, as stated in their report that appears on page F-2 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Item 9B.
Other Information
Not applicable.
PART III
Item 10.
Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
The information with respect to directors required by this Item will be contained in our definitive proxy statement to be filed with the SEC not later than 120 days after the close of business of the fiscal year (2019 Definitive Proxy Statement) and is incorporated in this report by reference.
The information with respect to executive officers required by this Item is included in Item 1 of Part I of this report.
The other information required by this Item will be contained in our 2019 Definitive Proxy Statement and is incorporated in this report by reference.


41



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.

Item 11.
Executive Compensation
The information required by this Item will be contained in our 2019 Definitive Proxy Statement and is incorporated in this report by reference.

Item 12.
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
The information required by this Item will be contained in our 2019 Definitive Proxy Statement and is incorporated in this report by reference.

Item 13.
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
The information required by this Item will be contained in our 2019 Definitive Proxy Statement and is incorporated in this report by reference.

Item 14.
Principal Accountant Fees and Services
The information required by this Item will be contained in our 2019 Definitive Proxy Statement and is incorporated in this report by reference.

PART IV
Item 15.
Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
(a)
The following documents are filed as part of this report:
(1)
Consolidated Financial Statements (see Index on page F-1 of this report)
(2)
All schedules are omitted because they are not applicable or not required, or because the required information is included either in the consolidated financial statements or in the notes thereto.
(b)
Exhibits
See the Exhibit Index on page 44.

Item 16.
Form 10-K Summary
None.


42



SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this Report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
Date:
February 27, 2019
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Marc N. Casper
 
 
 
Marc N. Casper
 
 
 
President and Chief Executive Officer
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the Registrant and in the capacities indicated, as of February 27, 2019.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Marc N. Casper
 
By:
/s/ Judy C. Lewent
 
Marc N. Casper
 
 
Judy C. Lewent
 
President, Chief Executive Officer and Director
 
 
Director
 
(Principal Executive Officer)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Jim P. Manzi
 
By:
/s/ Thomas J. Lynch
 
Jim P. Manzi
 
 
Thomas J. Lynch
 
Chairman of the Board and Director
 
 
Director
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Stephen Williamson
 
By:
/s/ James C. Mullen
 
Stephen Williamson
 
 
James C. Mullen
 
Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
 
 
Director
 
(Principal Financial Officer)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Peter E. Hornstra
 
By:
/s/ Lars R. Sørensen
 
Peter E. Hornstra
 
 
Lars R. Sørensen
 
Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer
 
 
Director
 
(Principal Accounting Officer)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Nelson J. Chai
 
By:
/s/ Scott M. Sperling
 
Nelson J. Chai
 
 
Scott M. Sperling
 
Director
 
 
Director
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ C. Martin Harris
 
By:
/s/ Elaine S. Ullian
 
C. Martin Harris
 
 
Elaine S. Ullian
 
Director
 
 
Director
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Tyler E. Jacks
 
By:
/s/ Dion J. Weisler
 
Tyler E. Jacks
 
 
Dion J. Weisler
 
Director
 
 
Director

43



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
EXHIBIT INDEX


Exhibit Number
 
Description of Exhibit
2.1