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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023 or
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Commission file number 1-8002
THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware04-2209186
(State of incorporation)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
168 Third Avenue
Waltham, Massachusetts 02451
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (781) 622-1000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $1.00 par valueTMONew York Stock Exchange
0.750% Notes due 2024TMO 24ANew York Stock Exchange
0.125% Notes due 2025TMO 25BNew York Stock Exchange
2.000% Notes due 2025TMO 25New York Stock Exchange
3.200% Notes due 2026TMO 26BNew York Stock Exchange
1.400% Notes due 2026TMO 26ANew York Stock Exchange
1.450% Notes due 2027TMO 27New York Stock Exchange
1.750% Notes due 2027TMO 27BNew York Stock Exchange
0.500% Notes due 2028TMO 28ANew York Stock Exchange
1.375% Notes due 2028TMO 28New York Stock Exchange
1.950% Notes due 2029TMO 29New York Stock Exchange
0.875% Notes due 2031TMO 31New York Stock Exchange
2.375% Notes due 2032TMO 32New York Stock Exchange
3.650% Notes due 2034TMO 34New York Stock Exchange
2.875% Notes due 2037TMO 37New York Stock Exchange
1.500% Notes due 2039TMO 39New York Stock Exchange
1.875% Notes due 2049TMO 49New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:  None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes   No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes   No  
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes   No
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months. Yes   No 
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.      Large accelerated filer ☒             Accelerated filer              Non-accelerated filer ☐         Smaller reporting company         Emerging growth company 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to § 240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes   No 
As of June 30, 2023, the aggregate market value of the voting stock held by nonaffiliates of the Registrant was approximately $201,176,616,000 (based on the last reported sale of common stock on the New York Stock Exchange Composite Tape reporting system on June 30, 2023).
As of February 3, 2024, the Registrant had 381,312,268 shares of Common Stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Sections of Thermo Fisher’s definitive Proxy Statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Shareholders (the “Proxy Statement”) are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.



THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2023
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
PART I
PART II
PART III
PART IV

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THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
PART I
Forward-looking Statements
Forward-looking statements, within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Exchange Act), are made throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Any statements contained herein that are not statements of historical fact may be deemed to be forward-looking statements, including without limitation statements regarding: projections of revenues, expenses, earnings, margins, tax rates, tax provisions, cash flows, pension and benefit obligations and funding requirements, and our liquidity position; cost reductions, restructuring activities, new product and service developments, competitive strengths or market position, acquisitions or divestitures; growth, declines and other trends in markets we sell into; new or modified laws, regulations and accounting pronouncements; outstanding claims, legal proceedings, tax audits and assessments and other contingent liabilities; foreign currency exchange rates and fluctuations in those rates; general economic and capital markets conditions; the timing of any of the foregoing; assumptions underlying any of the foregoing; the COVID-19 pandemic; and any other statements that address events or developments that Thermo Fisher intends or believes will or may occur in the future. Without limiting the foregoing, the words “believes,” “anticipates,” “plans,” “expects,” “seeks,” “estimates,” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements are accompanied by such words. While the company may elect to update forward-looking statements in the future, it specifically disclaims any obligation to do so, even if the company’s estimates change, and readers should not rely on those forward-looking statements as representing the company’s views as of any date subsequent to the date of the filing of this report. A number of important factors could cause the results of the company to differ materially from those indicated by such forward-looking statements, including those detailed under the heading, “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A.
Item 1.    Business
Description of Business
Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. (also referred to in this document as “Thermo Fisher,” “we,” the “company,” or the “registrant”) is the world leader in serving science. Our Mission is to enable our customers to make the world healthier, cleaner and safer. We serve customers working in pharmaceutical and biotech companies, hospitals and clinical diagnostic labs, universities, research institutions and government agencies, as well as environmental, industrial, research and development, quality and process control settings. Our global team delivers an unrivaled combination of innovative technologies, purchasing convenience and pharmaceutical services through our industry-leading brands, including Thermo Scientific, Applied Biosystems, Invitrogen, Fisher Scientific, Unity Lab Services, Patheon and PPD.
We continuously increase our depth of capabilities across our broad portfolio of innovative products and services and leverage our extensive global channels to address our customers’ needs. We do this through organic investments in research and development, capacity and capabilities and through acquisitions. Our goal is to enable our customers to be more productive in an increasingly competitive business environment, enable them to accelerate innovation, solve their challenges and advance their important work.
Business Segments and Products
We report our business in four segments – Life Sciences Solutions, Analytical Instruments, Specialty Diagnostics, and Laboratory Products and Biopharma Services.
Life Sciences Solutions Segment
Through our Life Sciences Solutions segment, we provide an extensive portfolio of reagents, instruments and consumables used in biological and medical research, discovery and production of new drugs and vaccines as well as diagnosis of infection and disease. These products and services are used by customers in pharmaceutical, biotechnology, agricultural, clinical, healthcare, academic, and government markets. Life Sciences Solutions includes three primary businesses – Biosciences, Genetic Sciences, and BioProduction.
Our biosciences business includes reagents, instruments and consumables that help our customers conduct biological and medical research in areas such as molecular biology and protein biology, discover new drugs and vaccines, and enable the diagnosis of infection and disease. Our genetic sciences business combines a wide variety of instruments and related reagents used to provide high-value genomic solutions to assist customer decisions in the research, clinical, healthcare and applied markets. Our bioproduction business supports developers and manufacturers of biological-based therapeutics and vaccines with a portfolio of premium solutions and services focused on upstream cell culture, downstream purification, analytics for detection and quantitation of process/product impurities, and a suite of single-use solutions spanning the biologics workflow.
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Analytical Instruments Segment
Through our Analytical Instruments segment, we provide a broad offering of instruments and the supporting consumables, software and services that are used for a range of applications. These products and services are used by customers in pharmaceutical, biotechnology, academic, government, environmental and other research and industrial markets, as well as the clinical laboratory. This segment includes three primary businesses – Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry, Chemical Analysis, and Electron Microscopy.
Our chromatography and mass spectrometry business develops and provides analytical instrumentation for organic and inorganic sample analysis across both applied technologies and scientific research. Our chemical analysis products fall into three main categories: production, process and analytics; field and safety instruments; and environmental and process instruments. Our electron microscopy business serves customers in the life sciences, materials sciences, and semiconductor markets providing leading research tools; and also, in the semiconductor market provides integrated workflows that power research development and production solutions.
Specialty Diagnostics Segment
Our Specialty Diagnostics segment offers a wide range of diagnostic test kits, reagents, culture media, instruments and associated products to serve customers in healthcare, clinical, pharmaceutical, industrial, and food safety laboratories. Our healthcare products are used to increase the speed and accuracy of diagnoses, which improves patient care in a more cost-efficient manner. This segment has five primary businesses – Clinical Diagnostics, ImmunoDiagnostics, Microbiology, Transplant Diagnostics and our Healthcare Market Channel.
Our clinical diagnostics products include a broad offering of liquid, ready-to-use and lyophilized immunodiagnostic reagent kits, calibrators, controls, protein detection assays, and instruments. Such products are used for, among other things, drugs-of-abuse testing, therapeutic drug monitoring, thyroid hormone testing, sepsis screening, serum toxicity, first trimester screening, tumor markers testing, and the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple myeloma. Our immunodiagnostics offerings include developing, manufacturing and marketing complete blood-test systems to support the clinical diagnosis and monitoring of allergy, asthma and autoimmune diseases. Our microbiology offerings include dehydrated and prepared culture media, collection and transport systems, instrumentation and consumables to detect pathogens in blood, diagnostic and rapid direct specimen tests, quality-control products and associated products for the microbiology laboratory. Our transplant diagnostics products include human leukocyte antigen typing and testing for the organ transplant market. Our healthcare market channel offerings include a broad array of consumables, diagnostic kits and reagents, equipment, instruments, solutions and services for hospitals, clinical laboratories, reference laboratories, physicians’ offices and other clinical testing facilities.
Laboratory Products and Biopharma Services Segment
Our Laboratory Products and Biopharma Services segment offers virtually everything needed for the laboratory. Our unique combination of self-manufactured and sourced products and extensive service offering enables our customers to focus on their core activities and helps them to be more innovative, productive and cost-efficient. The segment also includes a comprehensive offering of outsourced services used by the pharmaceutical and biotech industries for drug development, clinical research, clinical trials services and commercial drug manufacturing. We serve the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, academic, government and other research and industrial markets, as well as the clinical laboratory market through four key businesses: Laboratory Products, Research and Safety Market Channel, Pharma Services and Clinical Research.
Our laboratory products include lab consumables, equipment and chemicals that are used for life science research and drug discovery and development to advance the prevention and cure of diseases and enhance quality of life. Our research and safety market channel offers a mix of products that are manufactured by Thermo Fisher, by third parties for us on a private-label basis, and by third parties under their brands but offered for sale through us. Our pharma services business provides the entire spectrum of development, manufacturing and clinical trials services for both small-molecule and large-molecule pharmaceuticals. Our clinical research business offers comprehensive, integrated clinical development and analytical services including all phases of development (i.e., Phases I-IV), peri- and post-approval and site and patient access services.
Sales and Marketing
We market and sell our products and services through a direct sales force, customer-service professionals, electronic commerce and third-party distributors. Our global team delivers a combination of innovative technologies, purchasing convenience and pharmaceutical services through our industry-leading brands, including Thermo Scientific, Applied Biosystems, Invitrogen, Fisher Scientific, Unity Lab Services, Patheon and PPD.
We have approximately 14,000 sales personnel including highly trained technical specialists who enable us to better meet the needs of our more technical end-users. We also provide customers with product standardization and other supply-chain-management services to reduce procurement costs.
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New Products and Research and Development
Our business includes the development and introduction of new products and may include entry into new business segments. We anticipate that we will continue to make significant expenditures for research and development as we seek to provide a continuing flow of innovative products to maintain and improve our competitive position.
Resources
Raw Materials
Our management team believes that we have a readily available supply of raw materials for all of our significant products from various sources. No single supplier is material, although for reasons of quality assurance, regulatory requirements, cost effectiveness, availability or uniqueness of design, certain materials components may be sourced from a single supplier or a limited number of suppliers that can readily provide such materials or components.
Raw material and fuel prices are subject to fluctuations due to market conditions. We employ many strategies, including the use of alternative materials, to mitigate the effect of these fluctuations on our results.
Patents, Licenses and Trademarks
Patents are important in many aspects of our business. No particular patent, or related group of patents, is so important, however, that its loss would significantly affect our operations as a whole. Where appropriate, we seek patent protection for inventions and developments made by our personnel that are incorporated into our products or otherwise fall within our fields of interest. Patent rights resulting from work sponsored by outside parties do not always accrue exclusively to the company and may be limited by agreements or contracts.
We protect some of our technology as trade secrets and, where appropriate, we use trademarks or register trademarks used in connection with products. We also enter into license agreements with others to grant and/or receive rights to intellectual property rights.
All trademarks, trade names, product names, graphics and logos of Thermo Fisher contained herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of Thermo Fisher or its subsidiaries, as applicable, in the United States and/or other countries. Solely for convenience, we may refer to trademarks in this Annual Report on Form 10-K without the ™ and ® symbols. Such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent permitted by law, our rights to our trademarks. To the extent other trademarks appear in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, they are the property of their respective owners.
Seasonal Influences
Revenues in the fourth quarter are historically stronger than in other quarters due to the capital spending patterns of industrial, pharmaceutical and government customers. Sales of seasonal products, such as allergy and flu tests and related diagnostic products, vary quarter to quarter and year to year.
Competition
The company encounters aggressive and able competition in virtually all of the markets we serve. Because of the diversity of our products and services, we face many different types of competitors and competition. Our competitors include a broad range of manufacturers, third-party distributors and service providers. Competitive climates in many of the markets we serve are characterized by changing technology and customer demands that require continuing research and development. Our success primarily depends on the following factors:
technical performance and advances in technology that result in new products and improved price/performance ratios;
product differentiation, availability and reliability;
the depth of our capabilities;
our reputation among customers as a quality provider of products and services;
customer service and support;
active research and application-development programs; and
relative prices of our products and services.
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Government Regulation
Environmental Regulations
We are subject to various laws and governmental regulations concerning environmental matters and employee safety and health in the United States and other countries. U.S. federal environmental legislation that affects us includes the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). We are also subject to regulation by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) concerning employee safety and health matters. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), OSHA, and other federal agencies have the authority to promulgate regulations that have an effect on our operations.
In addition to these federal laws and regulations, various states have been delegated certain authority under the aforementioned federal statutes and have authority over these matters under state laws. Many state and local governments have adopted environmental and employee safety and health laws and regulations, some of which are similar to federal requirements.
A number of our operations involve the handling, manufacturing, use or sale of substances that are or could be classified as toxic or hazardous materials within the meaning of applicable laws. Consequently, some risk of environmental harm is inherent in our operations and products, as it is with other companies engaged in similar businesses.
Our expenses for environmental requirements are incurred generally for ongoing compliance and historical remediation matters. Based on current information, we believe that these compliance costs are not material. For historical remediation obligations, our expenditures relate primarily to the cost of permitting, installing, and operating and maintaining groundwater-treatment systems and other remedial measures.
Our Fair Lawn and Somerville, New Jersey facilities entered into administrative consent orders with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection in 1984 to maintain groundwater-remediation activities at these sites, and are currently under the State’s Licensed Site Remediation Professional Program. As the owner of the Fair Lawn facility, we are listed as a potentially responsible party for remediation within an area called the Fair Lawn Wellfields Superfund Site, and, in 2008, the company and certain other parties entered into a consent order with the USEPA to complete a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study. In 2018, the USEPA issued a Record of Decision, setting forth the scope of required remediation work at the site, which includes upgrading a water treatment plant to address constituents such as chlorinated organic compounds, 1,4-dioxane, and perfluorooctanoic acid/perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOA/PFOS). In 2020, the court approved a consent decree that requires the company and another responsible party to finance and perform the required remediation work with USEPA oversight. In 2023, the design of a groundwater treatment plant was fully approved by USEPA. Construction is expected to commence in 2024, and the plant is expected to be fully operating by April 2025.
In 2011, our Life Technologies subsidiary entered into a consent decree with the USEPA and other responsible parties to implement a groundwater remedy at the former Davis Landfill Superfund site in Smithfield, Rhode Island. After years of additional study, in September, 2020, USEPA revised its cleanup plan by selecting an interim remedial approach that includes groundwater treatment followed by additional monitoring of site conditions. Depending on the results of these treatment and monitoring activities over the next several years, USEPA anticipates selecting a final groundwater remedy for the site. In November 2021, the 2011 consent decree was amended to reflect the parties’ obligations to implement USEPA’s interim remedy, for which pre-design work commenced during 2022 and is ongoing.
We record accruals for environmental liabilities based on current interpretations of environmental laws and regulations when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of such liability can be reasonably estimated. We calculate estimates based upon several factors, including reports prepared by environmental specialists and management’s knowledge and experience with these environmental matters. We include in these estimates potential costs for investigation, remediation and operation and maintenance of cleanup sites. Accrued liabilities for environmental matters totaled $75 million at December 31, 2023.
These environmental liabilities do not include third-party recoveries to which we may be entitled. We believe that our accrual is adequate for the environmental liabilities we currently expect to incur. As a result we believe that our ultimate liability with respect to environmental matters will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows. However, we may be subject to remedial or compliance costs due to future events, such as changes in existing laws and regulations, changes in agency direction or enforcement policies, developments in remediation technologies, changes in the conduct of our operations, and the effect of changes in accounting rules, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows. For a discussion of the environmental laws and regulations that the Company’s operations, products and services are subject to and other environmental contingencies, refer to Note 12 to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
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Other Laws and Regulations
Our operations, and some of the products and services we offer, are subject to a number of complex and stringent laws and regulations governing the development, testing, approval, production, handling, transportation and distribution of chemicals, drugs and other similar products, including the operating and security standards of the Food and Drug Administration, the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, and various state boards of pharmacy as well as comparable state and foreign agencies. As Thermo Fisher’s businesses also include export and import activities, we are subject to pertinent laws enforced by the U.S. Departments of Commerce, State and Treasury. In addition, our logistics activities must comply with the rules and regulations of the Department of Transportation, the Federal Aviation Administration and similar foreign agencies. While we believe we are in compliance in all material respects with such laws and regulations, any noncompliance could result in substantial fines or otherwise restrict our ability to provide competitive distribution services and thereby have an adverse effect on our financial condition. To date, no such laws or regulations have had a material impact on our operations.
We are subject to laws and regulations governing government contracts, and failure to address these laws and regulations or comply with government contracts could harm our business by leading to a reduction in revenues associated with these customers. We have agreements relating to the sale of our products to government entities and, as a result, we are subject to various statutes and regulations that apply to companies doing business with the government. We are also subject to investigation for compliance with the regulations governing government contracts. A failure to comply with these regulations could also result in suspension of these contracts, criminal, civil and administrative penalties or debarment.
For a discussion of risks related to changes in governmental regulations, refer to “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A.
Human Capital
The success of Thermo Fisher is fueled by colleagues who are highly engaged and feel empowered to achieve their goals. Everything we do starts with our Mission – to enable our customers to make the world healthier, cleaner and safer. Our colleagues understand the role they play in fulfilling that Mission and that inspires them to bring their best to work each day. Our Mission is not only a differentiator for us externally, but a motivator for us internally.
Our culture is rooted in our 4i Values of Integrity, Intensity, Innovation and Involvement. Within this framework, we strive to create a safe, fair and positive working environment for our colleagues around the world. We want our teams to feel they have a stake in our success, a voice in our direction and to be empowered to make a difference for the key stakeholders we serve.
Every year, we conduct an Employee Involvement Survey to solicit direct feedback from our colleagues on what we’re doing well and where we need to improve. We then compile the feedback to measure our progress using three key indices: Leadership, Involvement and Inclusion. Our continued focus on enhancing our culture helps position our company to be an even better place to work.
We are committed to maintaining the strongest team in our industry, focusing on developing and retaining our colleagues, while leveraging our leadership to attract new colleagues to our company. As of December 31, 2023, we employed approximately 122,000 colleagues globally, with an approximate regional distribution as follows: 61,000 based in the Americas, 20,000 in the Asia Pacific region, and nearly 41,000 in Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA).
Culture of Inclusion
We recognize that the future aspirations outlined in our Vision for 2030, which serves as our long-term roadmap, will only be achievable if we have a culture that values diversity of backgrounds, experiences and viewpoints. When differences among colleagues are welcomed and supported, we create an inclusive workplace that unlocks the true benefits of diversity and promotes conditions for sustained success.
Diversity and Inclusion (D&I) is not an initiative at Thermo Fisher. It’s woven into the fabric of our culture, and our ways of working, embedded in every stage of our colleague lifecycle - from recruiting to onboarding, training, development and longer-term career planning. Our colleagues are encouraged to openly share the wide range of perspectives they represent. Progress is measured and reviewed on a range of D&I factors to help inform our efforts and initiatives, including those related to diversity within our workforce. We understand the critical role diversity plays in sustained business success, so we strive to have a workforce that represents the customers we serve. Further, to provide additional transparency to our U.S. workforce demographics, following our report submission to the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, we disclose our EEO-1 report on our website each year.
Our inclusive culture is a competitive advantage, and we prioritize colleague engagement and empowerment to contribute, collaborate and innovate. For example, in 2023, Thermo Fisher was recognized as a Top Company for Women and Best Employer for Diversity by Forbes, a Best Place to Work for Disability Inclusion, and a top scorer on the Human Rights
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Campaign’s Corporate Equality Index for LGBTQ inclusion. Establishing this kind of environment is critical for our colleagues, where they can contribute their best ideas and bring their true selves to work each day.
We are also committed to ensuring our colleagues have access to resources, awareness training and internal networks that offer support and guidance. Our D&I strategy is greatly enabled by our Business Resource Groups (BRGs), which bring together individuals with similar interests to share experiences, learn from each other and collaborate to identify solutions to business challenges. Our BRGs reinforce that all colleagues can make a difference for our customers, for each other and for our company. As of December 31, 2023, we had 9 global BRGs, with more than 230 local BRG chapters.
Talent Development
Our overarching goal from a talent perspective is to create opportunities for our colleagues to achieve their full potential and career aspirations here at Thermo Fisher. We focus on the entire lifecycle of a colleague’s career, from their initial recruitment, to onboarding, through ongoing development. We encourage and support colleagues to enhance their skills so they are in the best position to deliver on their goals and achieve their career objectives.
In today’s environment, we know talent is a key differentiator, and that building the strongest team in the industry is critical to our future. From our colleague referral program, summer internships, university relations, to our Graduate Leadership Development Program, we continue to build strong internal and external sourcing channels.
Once on board, talent development at Thermo Fisher is a key organizational capability. We continue to make significant investments to support our colleagues along every step of their career journey to help support their success. Our talent development framework incorporates a multi-faceted approach, including formal and self-paced training, networking opportunities, on-the-job stretch learning, coaching, mentoring and manager training utilizing contemporary technology solutions to support the broad needs of our workforce.
We provide multiple programs at all career levels, from online learning for all colleagues through Thermo Fisher University, to focused trainings for managers at various experience levels, to our Global Leadership Program for executives. We also support our colleagues’ career advancement through our tuition reimbursement program.
In a company our size, we can also actively manage our talent through rotational opportunities across our businesses, functions and geographies that help our colleagues gain new experiences, share knowledge and broaden their skills. Our executives and leaders participate in frequent talent discussions as well as formal reviews, leveraging workforce data and predictive analytics to better anticipate the talent requirements of our business based on our growth opportunities and market demand.
Thermo Fisher is dedicated to talent development to meet our evolving business needs and to provide our colleagues with opportunities for long and fulfilling careers. Our colleagues are passionate about our company, and their role in our success, and it’s our responsibility to help them reach their full potential.
Total Rewards
We offer a comprehensive total rewards package that we regularly evaluate and measure against established benchmarks to ensure its effectiveness in recruiting and retention, and to position Thermo Fisher as an employer of choice.
Our health and wellness programs provide competitive, flexible programs that our global colleagues and their families can count on. For example, for U.S. colleagues, we offer a choice of comprehensive national medical, dental and vision plans; a wellness program, including valuable health incentive opportunities and tax-advantaged savings and spending accounts; as well as commuter benefits, employee assistance programs, optional group legal coverage, and company-paid disability, accident and life insurance. We also offer a company-paid proprietary program for cancer care called the Impact Program, which gives our colleagues and their families access to personalized support and direct lines of communication to experts in cancer genetics and genomics. Similar benefits are available in all countries around the world where we operate.
We also invest in our colleagues’ financial health, helping them to grow and protect their savings, plan for the future and share in the success of the company they are helping to build. We deliver comprehensive rewards, including competitive base pay, and also provide a variety of incentive and equity programs that, by design, directly link the impact of colleague contributions to the company’s overall success.
Available Information
The company files annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other documents with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under the Exchange Act. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information that issuers, including the company, file electronically with the SEC. The public can obtain any documents that we file with the SEC at www.sec.gov. We also make available free of charge on or through our own website at www.thermofisher.com our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on
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Form 8-K and, if applicable, amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. In addition, paper copies of these documents may be obtained free of charge by writing to the company care of its Investor Relations Department at our principal executive office located at 168 Third Avenue, Waltham, Massachusetts 02451.
Information about Our Executive Officers
As of February 22, 2024, our executive officers were:
NameAgePresent Title
(Fiscal Year First Became Executive Officer)
Other Positions Held
Marc N. Casper55Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer (2001)President and Chief Executive Officer (2009-2020)
Chief Operating Officer (2008-2009)
Executive Vice President (2006-2009)
Stephen Williamson57Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (2015)Vice President, Financial Operations (2008-2015)
Michel Lagarde50Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer (2017)Executive Vice President (2019-2021)
Senior Vice President and President, Pharma Services (2017-2019)
President and Chief Operating Officer, Patheon N.V. (2016-2017)
Gianluca Pettiti45Executive Vice President (2021)Senior Vice President and President, Specialty Diagnostics (2019-2021)
President, Biosciences (2018-2019)
President, China (2015-2017)
Michael A. Boxer62Senior Vice President and General Counsel (2018)Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary (2021-2022)
Lisa P. Britt55Senior Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer (2017)
Joseph R. Holmes45Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer (2021)Senior Director, Technical Accounting (2017-2021)
Item 1A.    Risk Factors
Set forth below are the risks, some of which have occurred and any of which may occur in the future, that we believe are material to our investors. This section contains forward-looking statements. You should refer to the explanation of the qualifications and limitations on forward-looking statements in Item 1. Business under the caption “Forward-looking Statements”.
Industry and Economic Risks
Our growth would suffer if the markets into which we sell our products and services decline, do not grow as anticipated or experience cyclicality. Our growth depends in part on the growth of the markets which we serve. Any decline or lower than expected growth in our served markets would diminish demand for our products and services, which would adversely affect our financial statements. Certain of our businesses operate in industries that may experience periodic, cyclical downturns.
Our business is affected by general economic conditions and related uncertainties affecting markets in which we operate. Our business is affected by general economic conditions, both inside and outside the U.S. Both domestic and international markets experienced significant inflationary pressures in 2023 and inflation rates in the U.S., as well as in other countries in which we operate, continue at elevated levels. If the global economy and financial markets, or economic conditions in Europe, the U.S. or other key markets, continue to be unstable, they could adversely affect the business, results of operations and financial condition of the company and its customers, distributors, and suppliers, having the effect of:
reducing demand for some of our products;
increasing the rate of order cancellations or delays;
increasing the risk of excess and obsolete inventories;
increasing pressure on the prices for our products and services;
causing supply interruptions, which could disrupt our ability to produce our products; and
creating longer sales cycles, and greater difficulty in collecting sales proceeds and slower adoption of new technologies.
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Economic, political, foreign currency and other risks associated with international sales and operations could adversely affect our results of operations. International markets contribute a substantial portion of our revenues, and we intend to continue expanding our presence in these regions. The exposure to fluctuations in currency exchange rates takes on different forms. International revenues and costs are subject to the risk that fluctuations in exchange rates could adversely affect our reported revenues and profitability when translated into U.S. dollars for financial reporting purposes. These fluctuations could also adversely affect the demand for products and services provided by us. As a multinational corporation, our businesses occasionally invoice third-party customers in currencies other than the one in which they primarily do business (which we refer to as the functional currency). Movements in the invoiced currency relative to the functional currency could adversely impact our cash flows and our results of operations. As our international sales grow, exposure to fluctuations in currency exchange rates could have a larger effect on our financial results. In 2023, currency translation had an unfavorable effect of $0.02 billion on revenues due to the strengthening of the U.S. dollar relative to other currencies in which the company sells products and services.
Some emerging market countries may be particularly vulnerable to periods of global and local political, legal, regulatory and financial instability, including issues of geopolitical relations, the imposition of international sanctions in response to certain state actions and/or sovereign debt issues, and may have a higher incidence of corruption and fraudulent business practices. As a result of these and other factors, our strategy to grow in emerging markets may not be successful, and growth rates in these markets may not be sustainable.
In addition, many of our employees, contract manufacturers, suppliers, job functions, outsourcing activities and manufacturing facilities are located outside the U.S. Accordingly, our future results could be harmed by a variety of factors, including:
interruption to transportation flows for delivery of parts to us and finished goods to our customers;
changes in a specific country's or region's political, economic, social or other conditions;
changes in diplomatic and trade relationships, including new tariffs, trade protection measures, import or export licensing requirements, trade embargoes and sanctions and other trade barriers;
tariffs imposed by the U.S. on goods from other countries and tariffs imposed by other countries on U.S. goods, including the tariffs adopted by the U.S. government on various imports from China and by the Chinese government on certain U.S. goods;
the impact of public health emergencies, pandemics, epidemics or other health outbreaks on the global economy, such as the COVID-19 pandemic;
uncertainties regarding the collectability of accounts receivable;
the imposition of governmental controls;
diverse data privacy and protection requirements;
supply interruptions, which could disrupt our ability to produce our products;
increases in materials, energy, labor or other manufacturing-related costs or higher supply chain logistics costs;
negative consequences from changes in or interpretation of laws and regulations, including those related to tax and import/export;
difficulty in staffing and managing widespread operations;
differing labor regulations;
differing protection of intellectual property;
unexpected changes in regulatory requirements; and
geopolitical uncertainty or turmoil, including terrorism and war.
Demand for some of our products depends on capital spending policies of our customers and on government funding policies. Our customers include pharmaceutical and chemical companies, laboratories, universities, healthcare providers, government agencies and public and private research institutions. Many factors, including public policy spending priorities, available resources, and product and economic cycles, have a significant effect on the capital spending policies of these entities. Spending by some of these customers fluctuates based on budget allocations and the timely passage of the annual federal budget. An impasse in federal government budget decisions could lead to substantial delays or reductions in federal spending.
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We are subject to risks associated with public health emergencies, pandemics, epidemics, or other health outbreaks. Our global operations expose us to risks associated with public health emergencies, epidemics, pandemics and other health outbreaks, including the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 had an adverse impact on certain of our operations, supply chains and distribution systems, and we may experience unpredictable reductions in supply and demand for certain of our products and services. National, state and local governments have implemented and may continue to implement safety precautions, including quarantines, border closures, increased border controls, travel restrictions, shelter in place orders and shutdowns and other measures. These measures may disrupt normal business operations and may have significant negative impacts on businesses and financial markets worldwide. Our ability to continue to manufacture products is highly dependent on our ability to maintain the safety and health of our factory employees. The ability of our employees to work may be significantly impacted by future epidemics and pandemics. In addition, the duration and extent of future revenues from sales of products related to the COVID-19 response are uncertain and dependent primarily on customer testing demand as well as therapy and vaccine demand.
Business Risks
We must develop new products, adapt to rapid and significant technological change, respond to introductions of new products by competitors and maintain quality to remain competitive. Our growth strategy includes significant investment in and expenditures for product development. We sell our products in several industries that are characterized by rapid and significant technological changes, frequent new product and service introductions and enhancements and evolving industry standards. Competitive factors include technological innovation, price, service and delivery, breadth of product line, customer support, e-business capabilities and the ability to meet the special requirements of customers. Our competitors may adapt more quickly to new technologies and changes in customers’ requirements than we can. Without the timely introduction of new products, services and enhancements, our products and services will likely become technologically obsolete over time, in which case our revenues and operating results would suffer.
Many of our existing products and those under development are technologically innovative and require significant planning, design, development and testing at the technological, safety, quality, product and manufacturing-process levels. Our customers use many of our products to develop, test and manufacture their own products. As a result, we must anticipate industry trends and develop products in advance of the commercialization of our customers’ products. If we fail to adequately develop products or predict our customers’ needs and future activities, we may invest heavily in research and development of products and services that do not lead to significant revenues.
It may be difficult for us to implement our strategies for improving internal growth. Our growth depends in part on the growth of the markets which we serve. Any decline or lower than expected growth in our served markets could diminish demand for our products and services, which would adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. To address this issue, we are pursuing a number of strategies to improve our internal growth, including:
strengthening our presence in selected geographic markets;
allocating research and development funding to products with higher growth prospects;
developing new applications for our technologies;
expanding our service offerings;
continuing key customer initiatives;
combining sales and marketing operations in appropriate markets to compete more effectively;
finding new markets for our products; and
continuing the development of commercial tools and infrastructure to increase and support cross-selling opportunities of products and services to take advantage of our depth in product offerings.
We may not be able to successfully implement these strategies, and these strategies may not result in the expected growth of our business.
Because we compete directly with certain of our larger customers and product suppliers, our results of operations could be adversely affected in the short term if these customers or suppliers abruptly discontinue or significantly modify their relationship with us. Our largest customer in the laboratory products business is also a significant competitor. Our business may be harmed in the short term if our competitive relationship in the marketplace with certain of our large customers results in a discontinuation of their purchases from us. In addition, we manufacture products that compete directly with products that we source from third-party suppliers. We also source competitive products from multiple suppliers. Our business could be adversely affected in the short term if any of our large third-party suppliers abruptly discontinues selling products to us.
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Our inability to complete any pending acquisitions or to successfully integrate any new or previous acquisitions could have a material adverse effect on our business. Our business strategy includes the acquisition of technologies and businesses that complement or augment our existing products and services. Certain acquisitions may be difficult to complete for a number of reasons, including the need for antitrust and/or other regulatory approvals, as well as disputes or litigation. Any acquisition we may complete may be made at a substantial premium over the fair value of the net identifiable assets of the acquired company. Further, we may not be able to integrate acquired businesses successfully into our existing businesses, make such businesses profitable, or realize anticipated cost savings or synergies, if any, from these acquisitions, which could adversely affect our business.
Moreover, we have acquired many companies and businesses. As a result of these acquisitions, we recorded significant goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets (primarily tradenames) on our balance sheet, which amount to approximately $44.02 billion and $1.24 billion, respectively, as of December 31, 2023. In addition, we have definite-lived intangible assets totaling $15.44 billion as of December 31, 2023. We assess the realizability of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets annually as well as whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that these assets may be impaired. We assess the realizability of definite-lived intangible assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that these assets may be impaired. These events or circumstances would generally include operating losses or a significant decline in earnings associated with the acquired business or asset. Our ability to realize the value of the goodwill and intangible assets will depend on the future cash flows of these businesses. These cash flows in turn depend in part on how well we have integrated these businesses. If we are not able to realize the value of the goodwill and intangible assets, we may be required to incur material charges relating to the impairment of those assets.
Operational Risks
Our reliance upon sole or limited sources of supply for certain materials or components could cause production interruptions, delays and inefficiencies. Some of our businesses purchase certain materials from sole or limited source suppliers for reasons of quality assurance, regulatory requirements, cost effectiveness, availability or uniqueness of design. If these or other suppliers encounter financial, operating or other difficulties, or if our relationship with them changes, we might not be able to quickly establish or qualify replacement sources of supply. The supply chains for our businesses could also be disrupted by supplier capacity constraints, bankruptcy or exiting of the business for other reasons, decreased availability or increased cost of key raw materials or commodities, such as energy, and external events such as global economic downturns and macroeconomic trends, natural disasters, pandemic health issues such as COVID-19, war, terrorist actions, governmental actions and legislative or regulatory changes. Any of these factors could result in production interruptions, delays, extended lead times and inefficiencies.
A significant cyber-attack or other disruption in, or breach in security of, our information technology systems could adversely harm our operating results and financial condition, damage our reputation or otherwise materially harm our business. We rely on information technology systems to process, transmit and store electronic information (including sensitive data such as confidential business information, medical information, financial data and personally identifiable data relating to employees, customers and other business partners) and to manage or support a variety of critical business processes and activities (such as interacting with suppliers, selling our products and services, fulfilling orders and billing, collecting and making payments, shipping products, providing services and support to customers, tracking customer activity, fulfilling contractual obligations and otherwise conducting business). We use a risk-based approach to implementing security controls, reviewing the security controls of certain key business partners and third-party service providers and conducting due diligence on companies we propose to acquire. Despite our efforts, any particular system we operate or use may be susceptible to compromise of a vulnerability or a privileged account, damage or interruption from natural disasters, power loss, telecommunication failures, data center failure, third party provider failures (including failures at cloud services), hardware and software failures, human error or sabotage, terrorist attacks, geopolitical events, computer hackers, computer viruses, ransomware, phishing, computer denial-of-service attacks, unauthorized access to customer or employee data or company trade secrets, and other attempts to harm our systems and access our information.
We and our third-party providers experience cyber-attacks and other attempts to gain unauthorized access to our products, services, and systems and data on a regular basis, and we anticipate continuing to be subject to such attempts as cyber-attacks become increasingly sophisticated and more difficult to predict and protect against, particularly with the advancement of artificial intelligence. Despite our and our third-party providers’ implementation of security measures, our products, services, and systems and data, are vulnerable to cyber-attacks, data breaches, malware, inadvertent error, disruptions, tampering or other theft or misuse, including by employees, contingent workers, malicious actors, or nation-states or their agents. Although most of our systems leverage data backups, our disaster recovery planning is not sufficient for every eventuality. In addition, our customers rely upon our products (i.e. instruments, etc.) within their environments, which may be at risk of compromise. Risks affecting our products may include those associated with remote access solutions, system vulnerabilities, or delay of security updates, which may require customers to take action such as network isolation, password change, or manual update.
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Cyber-attacks, disruptions or other incidents described above, or breaches of security in our networks, in our customers’ or third-party providers’ networks, in third-party products we use, or in cloud-based services provided to us, regardless of whether the breach is attributable to a vulnerability in our products or services, a privileged account compromise, or a failure to maintain the digital security infrastructure or security tools that protect the integrity of our products, services, and systems and data, could materially interrupt our operations or our customer’s operations, delay production and shipments, impact quality, result in theft of our and our customers’ intellectual property and trade secrets, damage our reputation or key relationships, result in defective products or services, legal claims and proceedings, liability and penalties under privacy laws and increased cost for security and remediation, in each case resulting in an adverse effect on our business and financial results.
A violation of data privacy laws could adversely harm our operating results and financial condition, damage our reputation or otherwise materially harm our business. If we are unable to maintain reliable information technology systems and appropriate controls with respect to global data privacy and security requirements, we may suffer regulatory consequences in addition to business consequences. As a global organization, we are subject to data privacy and security laws, regulations, and customer-imposed controls in numerous jurisdictions as a result of producing, collecting, processing, storing and transmitting confidential, personal and/or sensitive data in the course of our business. For example, in the U.S., individual states regulate data breach and security requirements and multiple governmental bodies assert authority over aspects of the protection of personal privacy. European laws require us to have an approved legal mechanism to transfer personal data out of Europe, and the EU General Data Protection Regulation imposes significantly stricter requirements in how we collect and process personal data. Several countries, such as China, have passed laws that require personal data relating to their citizens to be maintained on local servers and impose additional data transfer restrictions. Government enforcement actions can be costly and interrupt the regular operation of our business, and data breaches or violations of data privacy laws can result in fines, reputational damage and civil lawsuits, any of which may adversely affect our business, reputation and financial statements.
Our success is largely dependent upon our ability to attract and retain a highly qualified workforce, comprised of scientific, technical, clinical, and management talent. We have in the past, and may in the future, have difficulty in attracting and retaining such talent. Our success in doing so is largely dependent upon various factors, including a highly competitive market, sought-after skills, management changes, competitor recruitment, and maintaining an attractive workplace culture. Macroeconomic shifts such as increased competition for employees and wage inflation, have previously and could in the future affect our talent retention, turnover rates and operational costs. We cannot ensure that we will be able to hire or retain the personnel necessary for our operations or that the departure of any personnel will not have a material impact on our financial condition and results of operations.
We may incur unexpected costs from increases in fuel and raw material prices, which could reduce our earnings and cash flows. Our primary commodity exposures are for fuel, petroleum-based resins and steel. The costs for these commodities, as well as the costs of transportation, construction and services necessary for the production and distribution of our products, continue to increase and be volatile. While we may seek to minimize the impact of price increases through higher prices to customers and various cost-saving measures, our earnings and cash flows could be adversely affected in the event these measures are insufficient to cover our costs.
Because we rely heavily on third-party package-delivery services, a significant disruption in these services or significant increases in prices may disrupt our ability to ship products, increase our costs and lower our profitability. We ship a significant portion of our products to our customers through independent package delivery companies, such as Federal Express in the U.S. and DHL in Europe. We also maintain a small fleet of vehicles dedicated to the delivery of our products and ship our products through other carriers, including national and regional trucking firms, overnight carrier services and the U.S. Postal Service. If one or more of these third-party package-delivery providers were to experience a major work stoppage, preventing our products from being delivered in a timely fashion or causing us to incur additional shipping costs we could not pass on to our customers, our costs could increase and our relationships with certain of our customers could be adversely affected. In addition, if one or more of these third-party package-delivery providers were to increase prices, and we were not able to find comparable alternatives or make adjustments in our delivery network, our profitability could be adversely affected.
Natural disasters, public health crises, political crises, and other catastrophic events or other events outside of our control may disrupt our facilities or the facilities of third parties on which we depend, and could impact customer spending. We have significant operations in California, near major earthquake faults, which make us susceptible to earthquake risk. An earthquake or other natural disaster (including the effects of climate change such as sea level rise, drought, flooding, wildfires and more intense weather events), could disrupt our operations, including the ability to fulfill supply obligations to our customers, or impair our critical systems. Any of these disruptions or other events outside of our control, such as strikes or other labor unrest, could have an adverse effect on our results of operations. In addition, if any of our facilities, including our manufacturing or warehouse facilities, or the facilities of our suppliers, third-party service providers, or customers, is affected by natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, power shortages or outages, fires, floods or monsoons, public health crises, such as pandemics and epidemics, political crises, such as terrorism, war, political instability or other conflict, or other events
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outside of our control, such as trade protectionism, strikes or other labor unrest, our results of operations could be adversely affected. Moreover, these types of events could negatively impact customer spending in the impacted regions or depending upon the severity, globally, which could also adversely impact our operating results.
Increasing attention to environmental, social and governance matters may impact our business, financial results, stock price or reputation. We face increasing scrutiny from stakeholders related to our environmental, social and governance (ESG) practices and disclosures, including practices and disclosures related to climate change, diversity and inclusion and governance standards. Investor advocacy groups, certain institutional investors, lenders, investment funds and other influential investors are also increasingly focused on ESG practices and disclosures and in recent years have placed increasing importance on the implications and social cost of their investments. In addition, government organizations are enhancing or advancing legal and regulatory requirements specific to ESG matters. The heightened stakeholder focus on ESG issues related to our business requires the continuous monitoring of various and evolving laws, regulations, standards and expectations and the associated reporting requirements. A failure to adequately meet evolving stakeholder expectations may result in noncompliance, the loss of business, reputational impacts, diluted market valuation, an inability to attract customers and an inability to attract and retain top talent. In addition, if legislation or regulations are enacted or promulgated in the U.S. or in any other jurisdiction in which we do business that impose more stringent restrictions and requirements than our current legal or regulatory obligations, we and companies in our supply chain may experience increased compliance burdens and costs to meet the regulatory obligations, which could cause disruption in the sourcing, manufacturing and distribution of our products and adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition, our adoption of certain standards or mandated compliance to certain requirements could necessitate additional investments that could impact our profitability.
Legal, Quality and Regulatory Risks
New governmental regulations or changes in existing governmental regulations may reduce demand for our products or increase our expenses. We compete in many markets in which we and our customers must comply with federal, state, local and international regulations, such as environmental, health and safety and food and drug regulations. We develop, configure and market our products to meet customer needs created by those regulations. Any significant change in regulations, such as the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (IRA), which contains drug price negotiation provisions, or change in the interpretation of existing regulations, could reduce demand for our products or increase our expenses. For example, we manufacture pharmaceuticals and many of our instruments are marketed to the pharmaceutical industry for use in discovering and developing drugs. Changes in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (the FDA) regulation of the drug discovery and development process could have an adverse effect on the demand for these products, and increased FDA regulation of laboratory-developed tests could delay and add to the cost of commercialization of these products, as well as subject us to additional regulatory controls.
We are subject to laws and regulations governing government contracts, and failure to address these laws and regulations or comply with government contracts could harm our business by leading to a reduction in revenues associated with these customers. We have agreements relating to the sale of our products to government entities and, as a result, we are subject to various statutes and regulations that apply to companies doing business with the government. The laws governing government contracts differ from the laws governing private contracts and government contracts may contain pricing terms and conditions that are not applicable to private contracts. We are also subject to investigation for compliance with the regulations governing government contracts. A failure to comply with these regulations could result in suspension of these contracts, criminal, civil and administrative penalties or debarment.
Our pharma services offerings are highly complex, and if we are unable to provide quality and timely offerings to our customers, our business could suffer. Our pharma services offerings are highly exacting and complex, due in part to strict quality and regulatory requirements. Our operating results in this business depend on our ability to execute and, when necessary, improve our quality management strategy and systems, and our ability to effectively train and maintain our employee base with respect to quality management. A failure of our quality control systems could result in problems with facility operations or preparation or provision of products. In each case, such problems could arise for a variety of reasons, including equipment malfunction, failure to follow specific protocols and procedures, problems with raw materials or environmental factors and damage to, or loss of, manufacturing operations. Such problems could affect production of a particular batch or series of batches of products, requiring the destruction of such products or a halt of facility production altogether.
In addition, our failure to meet required quality standards may result in our failure to timely deliver products to our customers, which in turn could damage our reputation for quality and service. Any such failure could, among other things, lead to increased costs, lost revenues, reimbursement to customers for lost drug product, registered intermediates, registered starting materials, and active pharmaceutical ingredients, other customer claims, damage to and possibly termination of existing customer relationships, time and expense spent investigating the cause and, depending on the cause, similar losses with respect to other batches or products. Production problems in our drug and biologic manufacturing operations could be particularly
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significant because the cost of raw materials for such manufacturing is often high. If problems in preparation or manufacture of a product or failures to meet required quality standards for that product are not discovered before such product is released to the market, we may be subject to adverse regulatory actions, including product recalls, product seizures, injunctions to halt manufacture and distribution, restrictions on our operations, civil sanctions, including monetary sanctions, and criminal actions. In addition, such problems or failures could subject us to litigation claims, including claims from our customers for reimbursement for the cost of lost or damaged active pharmaceutical ingredients, the cost of which could be significant.
We are subject to product and other liability risks for which we may not have adequate insurance coverage. We may be named as a defendant in product liability or errors and omissions lawsuits, which may allege that products or services we have provided have resulted or could result in an unsafe condition, property damage or injury to end users or financial loss for consumers. Additionally, products currently or previously sold by our environmental and process instruments and radiation measurement and security instruments businesses include fixed and portable instruments used for chemical, radiation and trace explosives detection. These products are used in airports, embassies, cargo facilities, border crossings and other high-threat facilities for the detection and prevention of terrorist acts. If any of these products were to malfunction, it is possible that explosive or radioactive material could fail to be detected by our product, which could lead to product liability claims. In addition, patients involved in our clinical services trials conducted by our clinical development services business or taking drugs approved on the basis of those trials may also bring personal injury claims against us. There are also many other factors beyond our control that could lead to liability claims, such as the reliability and competence of the customers’ operators and the training of such operators.
Any such product liability claims brought against us could be significant and any adverse determination may result in liabilities subject to insurance policy exclusions where insurance would not respond or in excess of our insurance coverage. Although we carry product liability and errors and omissions insurance, we cannot be certain that our current insurance will be sufficient to cover these claims or that it can be maintained on acceptable terms, if at all.
We are required to comply with a wide variety of laws and regulations, and are subject to regulation by various federal, state and foreign agencies. We are subject to various local, state, federal, foreign and transnational laws and regulations, which include the operating and security standards of the FDA, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (the DEA), various state boards of pharmacy, state health departments, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (the DHHS), the European Medicines Agency (the EMA), the EU member states and other comparable agencies and, in the future, any changes to such laws and regulations could adversely affect us. In particular, we are subject to laws and regulations concerning current good manufacturing practices and drug safety. Our subsidiaries may be required to register for permits and/or licenses with, and may be required to comply with the laws and regulations of, the DEA, the FDA, the DHHS, foreign agencies including the EMA, and other various state boards of pharmacy, state health departments and/or comparable state agencies as well as certain accrediting bodies depending upon the type of operations and location of product distribution, manufacturing and sale.
The manufacture, distribution and marketing of many of our products and services, including medical devices, and our pharma and clinical development services, are subject to extensive ongoing regulation by the FDA, the DEA, the EMA, and other equivalent local, state, federal and non-U.S. regulatory authorities. In addition, we are subject to inspections by these regulatory authorities. Failure by us or by our customers to comply with the requirements of these regulatory authorities, including without limitation, remediating any inspectional observations to the satisfaction of these regulatory authorities, could result in warning letters, product recalls or seizures, monetary sanctions, injunctions to halt manufacture and distribution, restrictions on our operations, civil or criminal sanctions, or withdrawal of existing or denial of pending approvals, including those relating to products or facilities. In addition, such a failure could expose us to contractual or product liability claims, contractual claims from our customers, including claims for reimbursement for lost or damaged active pharmaceutical ingredients or personal injury, as well as ongoing remediation and increased compliance costs, any or all of which could be significant. We are the sole manufacturer of a number of pharmaceuticals for many of our customers and a negative regulatory event could impact our customers’ ability to provide products to their customers.
We are also subject to a variety of federal, state, local and international laws and regulations that govern, among other things, the handling, transportation and manufacture of substances that could be classified as hazardous, and we are required to comply with various import laws and export control and economic sanctions laws, which may affect our transactions with certain customers. In certain circumstances, export control and economic sanctions regulations may prohibit the export of certain products, services and technologies. In other circumstances, we may be required to obtain an export license before exporting the controlled item. Compliance with the various import laws that apply to our businesses can restrict our access to, and increase the cost of obtaining, certain products and at times can interrupt our supply of imported inventory. Any noncompliance by us with applicable laws and regulations or the failure to maintain, renew or obtain necessary permits and licenses could result in criminal, civil and administrative penalties and could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
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Our reputation, ability to do business and financial statements may be impaired by improper conduct by any of our employees, agents, business partners or other third parties. We have internal controls and compliance systems to protect the company against acts committed by employees, agents or businesses that we acquire that would violate U.S. and/or non-U.S. laws, including the laws governing payments to government officials, bribery, fraud, kickbacks and false claims, pricing, sales and marketing practices, conflicts of interest, competition, employment practices and workplace behavior, export and import compliance, money laundering and data privacy, but these controls and systems may not be sufficient to prevent every such wrongful act. In particular, the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 and similar anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business, and we operate in many parts of the world that have experienced governmental corruption to some degree. Any such improper actions or allegations of such acts could damage our reputation and subject us to civil or criminal investigations in the U.S. and in other jurisdictions and related shareholder lawsuits, could lead to substantial civil and criminal, monetary and nonmonetary penalties and could cause us to incur significant legal and investigatory fees. In addition, the government may seek to hold us liable for violations committed by companies which we acquire. We also rely on our suppliers to adhere to our supplier standards of conduct, and material violations of such standards of conduct could occur that could have a material effect on our business, reputation and financial statements. In addition, any allegations of issues resulting from the misuse of our products could, even if untrue, adversely affect our reputation and our customers’ willingness to purchase products from us. Any such allegations could cause us to lose customers and divert our resources from other tasks, which could materially and adversely affect our business and operating results.
Our inability to protect our intellectual property could have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, third parties may claim that we infringe their intellectual property, and we could suffer significant litigation or licensing expense as a result. We place considerable emphasis on obtaining patent and trade secret protection for significant new technologies, products and processes because of the length of time and expense associated with bringing new products through the development process and into the marketplace. Our success depends in part on our ability to develop patentable products and obtain, defend and enforce patent protection for our products both in the U.S. and in other countries. We own numerous U.S. and foreign patents, and we intend to file additional applications, as appropriate, for patents covering our products. Patents may not be issued for any pending or future patent applications owned by or licensed to us, and the claims allowed under any issued patents may not be sufficiently broad to protect our technology. Any issued patents owned by or licensed to us may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, and the rights under these patents may not provide us with competitive advantages. In addition, competitors may design around our technology or develop competing technologies. Intellectual property rights may also be unavailable or limited in some foreign countries, which could make it easier for competitors to capture increased market position. We could incur substantial costs to defend ourselves in suits brought against us or in suits in which we may assert our patent rights against others. An unfavorable outcome of any such litigation could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations.
We also rely on trade secrets and proprietary know-how with which we seek to protect our products, in part, by confidentiality agreements with our collaborators, employees and consultants. These agreements may not adequately protect our trade secrets and other proprietary rights. These agreements may be breached and we may not have adequate remedies for any breach. In addition, our trade secrets may otherwise become known or be independently developed by our competitors.
We also depend in part on our trademarks and the strength of our proprietary brands, which we consider important to our business. If we are unable to protect or preserve the value of our intellectual property rights for any reason, including our inability to successfully defend against counterfeit, knock offs, grey-market, infringing or otherwise unauthorized products, our brand and reputation could be damaged, and our business may be harmed.
Third parties may assert claims against us to the effect that we are infringing on their intellectual property rights. In the event that a claim relating to intellectual property is asserted against us, or third parties not affiliated with us hold pending or issued patents that relate to our products or technology, we may seek licenses to such intellectual property or challenge those patents. However, we may be unable to obtain these licenses on commercially reasonable terms, if at all, and our challenge of the patents may be unsuccessful. Our failure to obtain the necessary licenses or other rights could prevent the sale, manufacture, or distribution of our products and, therefore, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Relating to Financial Profile
Fluctuations in our effective tax rate may adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows. As a global company, we are subject to taxation in numerous countries, states and other jurisdictions. In preparing our financial statements, we record the amount of tax that is payable in each of the countries, states and other jurisdictions in which we operate. Our future effective tax rate, however, may be lower or higher than experienced in the past due to numerous factors, including a change in the mix of our profitability from country to country, changes in accounting for income taxes, the results of examinations and audits of
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our tax filings and recently enacted and future changes in tax laws in jurisdictions in which we operate. Any of these factors could cause us to experience an effective tax rate significantly different from previous periods or our current expectations, which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and cash flows.
In December 2021, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (“OECD”) published a proposal for the establishment of a global minimum tax rate of 15% (the “Pillar Two rule”). The OECD has recommended that the Pillar Two rule become effective for fiscal years beginning after January 1, 2024. To date, member states are in various stages of implementation and the OECD continues to refine technical guidance. We are closely monitoring developments of the Pillar Two rule and are currently evaluating the potential impacts in each of the countries in which we operate; however, we currently do not expect the Pillar Two rule to have a material impact on our effective tax rate.
Our existing and future indebtedness may restrict our investment opportunities or limit our activities and negatively impact our credit ratings. As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately $34.92 billion in outstanding indebtedness. In addition, we have availability to borrow under a revolving credit facility that provides for up to $5.00 billion of unsecured multi-currency revolving credit (the Facility). We may also obtain additional long-term debt and lines of credit to meet future financing needs, which would have the effect of increasing our total leverage.
Our leverage could have negative consequences, including increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions, limiting our ability to obtain additional financing and limiting our ability to acquire new products and technologies through strategic acquisitions.
Our ability to make scheduled payments, refinance our obligations or obtain additional financing will depend on our future operating performance and on economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not generate sufficient cash flow to meet our obligations. If we are unable to service our debt, refinance our existing debt or obtain additional financing, we may be forced to delay strategic acquisitions, capital expenditures or research and development expenditures.
Additionally, the agreements governing our debt require that we maintain a financial ratio, and contain affirmative and negative covenants that restrict our activities by, among other limitations, limiting our ability to incur additional indebtedness, merge or consolidate with other entities and create liens. The covenants in the Facility include a Consolidated Net Interest Coverage Ratio (Consolidated EBITDA to Consolidated Net Interest Expense), as such terms are defined in the Facility. Specifically, the company has agreed that, so long as any lender has any commitment under the Facility, any letter of credit is outstanding under the Facility, or any loan or other obligation is outstanding under the Facility, it will maintain a minimum Consolidated Net Interest Coverage Ratio of 3.5:1.0 as of the last day of any fiscal quarter.
Our ability to comply with these financial restrictions and covenants is dependent on our future performance, which is subject to prevailing economic conditions and other factors, including factors that are beyond our control such as the impact of foreign exchange rates and interest rates. Our failure to comply with any of these restrictions or covenants may result in an event of default under the applicable debt instrument, which could permit acceleration of the debt under that instrument and require us to prepay that debt before its scheduled due date. Also, an acceleration of the debt under certain of our debt instruments would trigger an event of default under other of our debt instruments.
Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 1C.    Cybersecurity
Cybersecurity Risk Management and Strategy
As is the case for most large global companies, we are regularly subject to cyberattacks and other cybersecurity incidents and, therefore, we incorporate cybersecurity into our overall risk management process. Our commitment to cybersecurity emphasizes using a risk-based, “defense in depth” approach to assess, educate, block, identify, respond to and recover from cybersecurity threats. Recognizing that no single technology, process or control can effectively prevent or mitigate all risks, we employ a strategy of technologies, processes and controls, all working independently but as part of a cohesive strategy to manage or reduce risk.
Our cybersecurity program assists in the management of risks associated with the confidentiality, integrity and availability of data and systems within the company environment to effectively support our business objectives and customer expectations. The program provides guidance to business stakeholders on cybersecurity risks as input into their risk management processes that balance cybersecurity risk with other important risks that may include strategic, regulatory, economic and financial considerations.
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We seek to routinely refine our cybersecurity approach to adapt to changes in the threat landscape and manage emerging security risks. In order to evaluate risks from cybersecurity threats associated with the company’s use of certain third-party technology providers, we have incorporated a risk-based assessment into the corporate information technology (IT) procurement process designed to assess the security risk of certain third parties providing new technology solutions to our environment.
We believe cybersecurity is the responsibility of every employee, and regularly educate and share best practices with our employees to raise awareness of cybersecurity threats through a security awareness training program, including regular exercises, periodic cyber-event simulations and annual attestation to our Technology Acceptable Use Policy.
We do not reasonably believe there are currently any cybersecurity incidents that have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect the company or its business strategy, results of operations or financial condition. For more information on the risks related to our IT systems, see “A significant disruption in, or breach in security of, our IT systems or violation of data privacy laws could adversely affect our business or customers that use our products” under the heading “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A.
Cybersecurity Governance and Oversight
The Board of Directors has delegated the oversight of cybersecurity risks to the Audit Committee. Our cybersecurity program is led by the company’s senior vice president, chief information officer, along with our vice president, chief information security officer. Management provides an operational update to the Audit Committee each quarter. In addition, the Audit Committee and our full Board of Directors receive an annual overview of the cybersecurity program, cybersecurity threat landscape, investments, and opportunities to enhance the company’s systems and security of products and operations.
The company’s corporate IT security team leads the company-wide cybersecurity strategy and advocates to protect the company systems, its employees and customers against cybersecurity risks. Through annual internal and external audits, we maintain an ISO/IEC 27001:2013 certification for the management of our cybersecurity program consisting of the following areas:
cybersecurity program management and governance including risk management;
cybersecurity operations including security operation centers;
product security;
security investigations;
cybersecurity architecture and engineering; and
security awareness and training.
Our senior vice president, chief information officer, vice president, chief information security officer (CISO), and vice president, chief product security officer have each served in various roles in IT and information security for over 20 years. These individuals’ knowledge and experience along with the culture and talent of the corporate IT security team organization are instrumental in developing and executing our cybersecurity strategies. The CISO meets with senior leadership to review and discuss the cybersecurity program, including emerging cybersecurity risks, threats and industry trends.
Cybersecurity is integrated into the risk management process for the company through various corporate mechanisms, including quarterly business reviews, annual budget planning, and targeted risk-based engagements.
Item 2.    Properties
The company owns and leases office, engineering, laboratory, production and warehouse space throughout the world.
Item 3.    Legal Proceedings
There are various lawsuits and claims against the company involving product liability, intellectual property, employment and commercial issues. See Note 12 to our Consolidated Financial Statements – “Commitments and Contingencies”.
Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
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PART II
Item 5.    Market for the Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Price of Common Stock
Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol TMO.
Holders of Common Stock
As of February 3, 2024, the company had 2,337 holders of record of its common stock. This does not include holdings in street or nominee names.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
There was no share repurchase activity for the company’s fourth quarter of 2023. On November 14, 2023, the Board of Directors announced that it replaced the existing authorization to repurchase the company’s common stock, of which $1.00 billion was remaining, with a new authorization to repurchase up to $4.00 billion of the company’s common stock. Early in the first quarter of 2024, the company repurchased $3.00 billion (5.5 million shares) of the company's common stock. At February 22, 2024, $1.00 billion was available for future repurchases of the company’s common stock under this authorization.
Item 6.    Reserved
Not applicable.
Item 7.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Reference is made throughout this Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations to Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, which begin on page 29 of this report. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for 2021 is included in Item 7 of the company’s 2022 Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
The company refers to various amounts or measures not prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (non-GAAP measures). These non-GAAP measures are further described and reconciled to their most directly comparable amount or measure under the section “Non-GAAP Measures” later in this “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
Overview
Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. enables customers to make the world healthier, cleaner and safer by helping them accelerate life sciences research, solve complex analytical challenges, increase laboratory productivity, and improve patient health through diagnostics and the development and manufacture of life-changing therapies. Markets served include pharmaceutical and biotech, academic and government, industrial and applied, as well as healthcare and diagnostics. The company’s operations fall into four segments (Note 4): Life Sciences Solutions, Analytical Instruments, Specialty Diagnostics and Laboratory Products and Biopharma Services.
Consolidated Results
(Dollars in millions except per share amounts)20232022Change
Revenues
$42,857 $44,915 (5)%
GAAP operating income$6,859 $8,393 (18)%
GAAP operating income margin16.0 %18.7 %(2.7) pt
Adjusted operating income (non-GAAP measure)
$9,810 $10,985 (11)%
Adjusted operating income margin (non-GAAP measure)
22.9 %24.5 %(1.6) pt
GAAP diluted earnings per share attributable to Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.$15.45 $17.63 (12)%
Adjusted earnings per share (non-GAAP measure)
$21.55 $23.24 (7)%
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Organic Revenue Growth
Revenue growth(5)%
Impact of acquisitions%
Impact of currency translation%
Organic revenue growth* (non-GAAP measure)
(5)%
*    Results may not sum due to rounding.
Since 2020, the Life Sciences Solutions and Specialty Diagnostics segments as well as the laboratory products business have supported COVID-19 diagnostic testing, scaling and evolving their molecular diagnostics solutions and plastic consumables businesses to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. The biosciences and bioproduction businesses have expanded their capacity to meet the needs of pharma and biotech customers as they have expanded their own production volumes to meet global vaccine manufacturing requirements. Additionally, our pharma services business has provided our pharma and biotech customers with the services they needed to develop and produce vaccines and therapies globally. Since the company’s acquisition of PPD in December 2021, the clinical research business has continued to play a leading role in supporting the clinical trials for COVID-19 vaccines and therapies. These positive impacts continued at much lower levels in 2023 as customer testing as well as therapy and vaccine demand declined. Sales of products related to COVID-19 testing were $0.33 billion and $3.11 billion in 2023 and 2022, respectively.
During 2023, growth from pharma and biotech customers slightly declined. Over the past few years, the company has played a meaningful role in the production of COVID-19 vaccines and therapies. In 2023, reduced demand for our products and services that support COVID-19 vaccines and therapies was partially offset through strong commercial execution as a result of our trusted partner status with customers in this market. We saw broad based strength across the academic and government market as we saw the benefits of our accelerated investments into high impact innovation with great customer adoption and strong demand globally. The industrial and applied market was strong, driven by the relevance of our analytical instrument technologies serving our semiconductor and materials science customers. The diagnostics and healthcare market declined due to decreased demand for COVID-19 testing products. During 2023, sales growth in all major regions declined due to decreased demand for COVID-19 related products, as well as a challenging macroeconomic environment and low economic activity in China. Contributions to organic revenue during 2023 from the Analytical Instruments and Laboratory Products and Biopharma Services segments were more than offset by declines in the Life Sciences Solutions and Specialty Diagnostics segments.
The company continues to execute its proven growth strategy which consists of three pillars:
High-impact innovation,
Our trusted partner status with customers, and
Our unparalleled commercial engine.
GAAP operating income margin and adjusted operating income margin decreased in 2023 due primarily to lower COVID-19 related revenue. This was partially offset by strong productivity improvements and strong pricing realization to address higher inflation. GAAP operating income margin in 2023 was also impacted by restructuring and other charges incurred for headcount reductions and facility consolidations in an effort to streamline operations and limit the impact of expected lower revenue (Note 16). We estimate that restructuring actions resulting in charges of approximately $0.2 billion in 2023 will realize annual cost savings of approximately $0.5 billion, primarily due to reduced employee expenses.
The company’s references to strategic growth investments generally refer to targeted spending for enhancing commercial capabilities, including expansion of geographic sales reach and e-commerce platforms, marketing initiatives, expanded service and operational infrastructure, research and development projects and other expenditures to enhance the customer experience, as well as incentive compensation and recognition for employees. The company’s references throughout this discussion to productivity improvements generally refer to improved cost efficiencies from its Practical Process Improvement (PPI) business system including reduced costs resulting from implementing continuous improvement methodologies, global sourcing initiatives, a lower cost structure following restructuring actions including headcount reductions and consolidation of facilities, and low cost region manufacturing.
Notable Recent Acquisitions
On January 3, 2023, the company acquired, within the Specialty Diagnostics segment, The Binding Site Group, a U.K.-based provider of specialty diagnostic assays and instruments to improve the diagnosis and management of blood cancers and immune system disorders. The acquisition expands the segment’s portfolio with the addition of pioneering innovation in diagnostics and monitoring for multiple myeloma.
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On August 14, 2023, the company acquired, within the Laboratory Products and Biopharma Services segment, CorEvitas, LLC, a U.S.-based provider of regulatory-grade, real-world evidence for approved medical treatments and therapies. The acquisition expands the segment’s portfolio with the addition of highly complementary real-world evidence solutions to enhance decision-making as well as the time and cost of drug development.
Segment Results
The company’s management evaluates segment operating performance using operating income before certain charges/credits as defined in Note 4. Accordingly, the following segment data are reported on this basis.
(Dollars in millions)20232022
Revenues
Life Sciences Solutions
$9,977 $13,532 
Analytical Instruments
7,263 6,624 
Specialty Diagnostics
4,405 4,763 
Laboratory Products and Biopharma Services
23,041 22,511 
Eliminations
(1,829)(2,515)
Consolidated revenues
$42,857 $44,915 
Life Sciences Solutions
Organic* (non-GAAP measure)
(Dollars in millions)20232022Total
Change
Currency
Translation
Acquisitions/ Divestitures
Revenues$9,977 $13,532 (26)%%%(26)%
Segment income3,420 5,582 (39)%
Segment income margin34.3 %41.2 %(6.9) pt
The decrease in organic revenues in 2023 was primarily due to moderation in COVID-19 related revenue. The decrease in segment income margin resulted primarily from significantly lower COVID-19 related revenue and unfavorable volume pull-through, partially offset by exceptionally strong productivity improvements and favorable price realization.
Analytical Instruments
Organic* (non-GAAP measure)
(Dollars in millions)20232022Total
Change
Currency
Translation
Acquisitions/ Divestitures
Revenues$7,263 $6,624 10 %(1)%%10 %
Segment income1,908 1,507 27 %
Segment income margin26.3 %22.8 %3.5  pt
The increase in organic revenues in 2023 was due to increased demand across all the segment’s businesses, with particular strength in the electron microscopy and chromatography and mass spectrometry businesses. The increase in segment income margin resulted primarily from strong productivity, strong pricing realization to address higher inflation and strong volume pull-through, offset in part by the effects of currency translation and strategic growth investments.
Specialty Diagnostics
Organic* (non-GAAP measure)
(Dollars in millions)20232022Total
Change
Currency
Translation
Acquisitions/ Divestitures
Revenues$4,405 $4,763 (8)%%%(13)%
Segment income1,124 1,024 10 %
Segment income margin25.5 %21.5 %4.0  pt
The decrease in organic revenues in 2023 was due to decreased demand, primarily driven by products addressing diagnosis of COVID-19, partially offset by underlying growth in the immunodiagnostics, microbiology, and transplant diagnostics businesses. The increase in segment income margin was due to favorable business mix, strong pricing realization to address higher inflation, and strong productivity improvements, partially offset by the impact of lower COVID-19 testing volume.
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Laboratory Products and Biopharma Services
Organic* (non-GAAP measure)
(Dollars in millions)20232022Total
Change
Currency
Translation
Acquisitions/ Divestitures
Revenues$23,041 $22,511 %%%%
Segment income3,358 2,872 17 %
Segment income margin14.6 %12.8 %1.8  pt
The increase in organic revenues in 2023 was primarily due to higher sales in the clinical research and pharma services businesses. The increase in segment income margin was primarily due to very strong productivity improvements and strong pricing realization to address higher inflation.
*    Results may not sum due to rounding
Non-operating Items
(Dollars in millions)20232022
Net interest expense
$496 $454 
GAAP other income/(expense)(65)(104)
Adjusted other income/(expense) (non-GAAP measure)
(15)13 
GAAP tax rate4.5 %9.0 %
Adjusted tax rate (non-GAAP measure)
10.0 %13.0 %
Weighted average diluted shares388 394 
Net interest expense (interest expense less interest income) increased due primarily to the increase in debt for general corporate purposes and the company’s capital deployment initiatives, which included financing stock buybacks, paying dividends and acquiring The Binding Site Group and CorEvitas, LLC (Note 2). These increases were partially offset by higher cash and cash equivalents balances as well as higher interest rates on these balances when compared to 2022. See additional discussion under the caption “Liquidity and Capital Resources” below. In 2023 and 2022 the company’s net interest expense was reduced by approximately $116 million and $16 million, respectively, as a result of its interest rate swap and cross-currency interest rate swap arrangements (Note 14).
GAAP other income/(expense) and adjusted other income/(expense) includes currency transaction gains/losses on non-operating monetary assets and liabilities, and net periodic pension benefit cost/income, excluding the service cost component. GAAP other income/(expense) in 2023 also includes $45 million of net losses on investments. GAAP other income/(expense) in 2022 also includes $160 million of net losses on investments and $26 million of losses on the early extinguishment of debt (Note 10), partially offset by $67 million of net gains on derivative instruments to address certain foreign currency risks.
The GAAP and adjusted tax rates in 2023 were impacted by changes in valuation allowances, including a $183 million release in a jurisdiction where the deferred tax assets are now expected to be realized, and, to a lesser extent, by a decrease in pre-tax earnings compared to 2022. The company’s GAAP and adjusted tax rates in 2023 were also impacted by tax planning initiatives, including a tax benefit of $127 million for U.S. tax credits and the revaluation of net operating loss carryforwards due to higher tax rates as a result of its tax return resubmissions, a tax benefit of $91 million, net of related tax expenses, from a foreign exchange loss on an intercompany debt refinancing transaction, and $233 million of tax benefits resulting from intra-entity transactions. The company’s GAAP and adjusted tax rates in 2022 were impacted by releases of valuation allowances of $189 million in jurisdictions where the deferred tax assets are now expected to be realized. The company’s 2022 GAAP tax rate was also impacted by a net benefit of $208 million resulting from tax audit settlements (Note 8). The effective tax rates in both 2023 and 2022 were also affected by relatively significant earnings in lower tax jurisdictions. Due primarily to the non-deductibility of intangible asset amortization for tax purposes, the company’s cash payments for income taxes were higher than its income tax expense for financial reporting purposes. See additional discussion under the caption “Liquidity and Capital Resources” below.
The company expects its GAAP effective tax rate in 2024 will be between 4% and 6% based on currently forecasted rates of profitability in the countries in which the company conducts business and expected generation of foreign tax credits. The effective tax rate can vary significantly from period to period as a result of discrete income tax factors and events. The company expects its adjusted tax rate will be approximately 10.5% in 2024.
The company has operations and a taxable presence in approximately 70 countries outside the U.S. Some of these countries have lower tax rates than the U.S. The company’s ability to obtain a benefit from lower tax rates outside the U.S. is dependent on its relative levels of income in countries outside the U.S. and on the statutory tax rates in those countries. Based on the
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dispersion of the company’s non-U.S. income tax provision among many countries, the company believes that a change in the statutory tax rate in any individual country is not likely to materially affect the company’s income tax provision or net income, aside from any resulting one-time adjustment to the company’s deferred tax balances to reflect a new rate.
Weighted average diluted shares decreased in 2023 compared to 2022 due to share repurchases, net of option dilution.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
The company’s proven growth strategy has enabled it to generate free cash flow as well as access the capital markets. The company deploys its capital primarily via mergers and acquisitions and secondarily via share buybacks and dividends.
December 31,December 31,
(In millions)20232022
Cash and cash equivalents$8,077 $8,524 
Total debt34,917 34,488 
Approximately half of the company’s cash balances and cash flows from operations are from outside the U.S. The company uses its non-U.S. cash for needs outside of the U.S. including acquisitions, capacity expansion, and repayment of third-party foreign debt by foreign subsidiaries. In addition, the company also transfers cash to the U.S. using non-taxable intercompany transactions, including loans and returns of capital, as well as dividends where the related U.S. dividend received deduction or foreign tax credit equals any tax cost arising from the dividends. As a result of using such means of transferring cash to the U.S., the company does not expect any material adverse liquidity effects from its significant non-U.S. cash balances for the foreseeable future.
The company believes that its existing cash and cash equivalents and its future cash flow from operations together with available borrowing capacity under its revolving credit agreement will be sufficient to meet the cash requirements of its existing businesses for the foreseeable future, including at least the next 24 months.
As of December 31, 2023, the company’s short-term debt totaled $3.61 billion. The company has a revolving credit facility with a bank group that provides up to $5.00 billion of unsecured multi-currency revolving credit (Note 10). If the company borrows under this facility, it intends to leave undrawn an amount equivalent to outstanding commercial paper to provide a source of funds in the event that commercial paper markets are not available. As of December 31, 2023, no borrowings were outstanding under the company’s revolving credit facility, although available capacity was reduced by immaterial outstanding letters of credit.
(In millions)20232022
Net cash provided by operating activities
$8,406 $9,154 
Net cash used in investing activities
(5,142)(2,159)
Net cash used in financing activities
(3,622)(2,810)
Free cash flow (non-GAAP measure)
7,014 6,935 
Operating Activities
During 2023, cash provided by income was offset in part by investments in working capital. A decrease in inventories provided cash of $0.60 billion. A decrease in accounts payable used cash of $0.50 billion, and changes in other assets and other liabilities used cash of $0.80 billion primarily due to the timing of payments for compensation and income taxes. Cash payments for income taxes were $1.48 billion during 2023.
During 2022, cash provided by income was offset in part by investments in working capital. Increases in accounts receivable and inventories used cash of $0.43 billion and $0.83 billion, respectively, primarily to support growth in sales. An increase in accounts payable provided cash of $0.65 billion. Cash payments for income taxes were $1.23 billion during 2022.
The company is contingently liable with respect to certain legal proceedings and related matters. An unfavorable outcome that differs materially from current accrual estimates, if any, for one or more of the matters described under the heading “Product Liability, Workers Compensation and Other Personal Injury Matters” in Note 12 could have a material adverse effect on the company’s financial position as well as its results of operations and cash flows.
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Investing Activities
During 2023, acquisitions of The Binding Site Group and CorEvitas, LLC used cash of $2.70 billion and $0.91 billion, respectively. The company’s investing activities also included purchases of $1.48 billion of property, plant and equipment for capacity and capability investments.
During 2022 the company’s investing activities were principally for the purchase of property, plant and equipment for capacity and capability investments.
The company expects that for all of 2024, expenditures for property, plant and equipment, net of disposals, will be between $1.3 billion and $1.5 billion.
Financing Activities
During 2023, issuance of senior notes provided $5.94 billion of cash. Repayment of senior notes and net commercial paper activity used cash of $5.78 billion and $0.32 billion, respectively. The company’s financing activities also included the repurchase of $3.00 billion of the company’s common stock (5.2 million shares) and the payment of $0.52 billion in cash dividends. On November 14, 2023, the Board of Directors announced that it replaced the existing authorization to repurchase the company’s common stock, of which $1.00 billion was remaining, with a new authorization to repurchase up to $4.00 billion of the company’s common stock.
Early in the first quarter of 2024, the company repurchased $3.00 billion (5.5 million shares) of the company's common stock. At February 22, 2024, $1.00 billion was available for future repurchases of the company’s common stock under this authorization.
During 2022, issuance of senior notes provided $3.19 billion of cash. Repayment of senior notes and net commercial paper activity used cash of $0.38 billion and $2.16 billion, respectively. The company’s financing activities also included the repurchase of $3.00 billion of the company's common stock (5.3 million shares) and the payment of $0.46 billion in cash dividends.
In addition to the obligations on the balance sheet at December 31, 2023, which include, but are not limited to pension obligations (Note 7), unrecognized tax benefits (Note 8), debt (Note 10), operating leases (Note 11), and contingent consideration (Note 14), the company has also entered into an agreement to acquire Olink (Note 2). The company also has unconditional purchase obligations in the ordinary course of business that include agreements to purchase goods, services or fixed assets, pay royalties, and fund capital commitments pursuant to investments held by the company (Note 12).
Non-GAAP Measures
In addition to the financial measures prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), we use certain non-GAAP financial measures such as organic revenue growth, which is reported revenue growth, excluding the impacts of revenues from acquired/divested businesses and the effects of currency translation. We report organic revenue growth because Thermo Fisher management believes that in order to understand the company’s short-term and long-term financial trends, investors may wish to consider the impact of acquisitions/divestitures and foreign currency translation on revenues. Thermo Fisher management uses organic revenue growth to forecast and evaluate the operational performance of the company as well as to compare revenues of current periods to prior periods.
We report adjusted operating income, adjusted operating income margin, adjusted other income/(expense), adjusted tax rate, and adjusted EPS. We believe that the use of these non-GAAP financial measures, in addition to GAAP financial measures, helps investors to gain a better understanding of our core operating results and future prospects, consistent with how management measures and forecasts the company’s core operating performance, especially when comparing such results to previous periods, forecasts, and to the performance of our competitors. Such measures are also used by management in their financial and operating decision-making and for compensation purposes. To calculate these measures we exclude, as applicable:
Certain acquisition-related costs, including charges for the sale of inventories revalued at the date of acquisition, significant transaction/acquisition-related costs, including changes in estimates of contingent acquisition-related consideration, and other costs associated with obtaining short-term financing commitments for pending/recent acquisitions. We exclude these costs because we do not believe they are indicative of our normal operating costs.
Costs/income associated with restructuring activities and large-scale abandonments of product lines, such as reducing overhead and consolidating facilities. We exclude these costs because we believe that the costs related to restructuring activities and large-scale abandonment of product lines are not indicative of our normal operating costs.
Equity in earnings/losses of unconsolidated entities; impairments of long-lived assets; and certain other gains and losses that are either isolated or cannot be expected to occur again with any predictability, including gains/losses on
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investments, the sale of businesses, product lines, and real estate, significant litigation-related matters, curtailments/settlements of pension plans, and the early retirement of debt. We exclude these items because they are outside of our normal operations and/or, in certain cases, are difficult to forecast accurately for future periods.
The expense associated with the amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets because a significant portion of the purchase price for acquisitions may be allocated to intangible assets that have lives of up to 20 years. Exclusion of the amortization expense allows comparisons of operating results that are consistent over time for both our newly acquired and long-held businesses and with both acquisitive and non-acquisitive peer companies.
The noncontrolling interest and tax impacts of the above items and the impact of significant tax audits or events (such as changes in deferred taxes from enacted tax rate/law changes), the latter of which we exclude because they are outside of our normal operations and difficult to forecast accurately for future periods.
We report free cash flow, which is operating cash flow excluding net capital expenditures, to provide a view of the continuing operations’ ability to generate cash for use in acquisitions and other investing and financing activities. The company also uses this measure as an indication of the strength of the company. Free cash flow is not a measure of cash available for discretionary expenditures since we have certain non-discretionary obligations such as debt service that are not deducted from the measure.
The non-GAAP financial measures of the company’s results of operations and cash flows included in this Form 10-K are not meant to be considered superior to or a substitute for the company’s results of operations prepared in accordance with GAAP. Reconciliations of such non-GAAP financial measures to the most directly comparable GAAP financial measures are set forth within the “Consolidated Results” and “Segment Results” sections and below.
(Dollars in millions except per share amounts)20232022
Reconciliation of adjusted operating income and adjusted operating income margin
GAAP operating income$6,859 16.0 %$8,393 18.7 %
Cost of revenues adjustments (a)
95 0.2 %46 0.1 %
Selling, general and administrative expenses adjustments (b)
59 0.1 %37 0.1 %
Restructuring and other costs (c)
459 1.1 %114 0.3 %
Amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets2,338 5.5 %2,395 5.3 %
Adjusted operating income (non-GAAP measure)
$9,810 22.9 %$10,985 24.5 %
Reconciliation of adjusted other income/(expense)
GAAP other income/(expense)$(65)$(104)
Adjustments (d)50 117 
Adjusted other income/(expense) (non-GAAP measure)
$(15)$13 
Reconciliation of adjusted tax rate
GAAP tax rate4.5 %9.0 %
Adjustments (e)5.5 %4.0 %
Adjusted tax rate (non-GAAP measure)
10.0 %13.0 %
Reconciliation of adjusted earnings per share
GAAP diluted earnings per share (EPS) attributable to Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.$15.45 $17.63 
Cost of revenues adjustments (a)0.24 0.12 
Selling, general and administrative expenses adjustments (b)0.15 0.09 
Restructuring and other costs (c)1.18 0.29 
Amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets6.03 6.07 
Other income/expense adjustments (d)0.13 0.30 
Provision for income taxes adjustments (e)(1.66)(1.70)
Equity in earnings/losses of unconsolidated entities0.15 0.44 
Noncontrolling interests adjustments (f)(0.12)— 
Adjusted EPS (non-GAAP measure)
$21.55 $23.24 
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(Dollars in millions except per share amounts)20232022
Reconciliation of free cash flow
GAAP net cash provided by operating activities$8,406 $9,154 
Purchases of property, plant and equipment(1,479)(2,243)
Proceeds from sale of property, plant and equipment87 24 
Free cash flow (non-GAAP measure)
$7,014 $6,935 
(a) Adjusted results in 2023 and in 2022 exclude charges for the sale of inventories revalued at the date of acquisition and charges for inventory write-downs associated with large-scale abandonment of product lines. Adjusted results in 2023 also exclude $13 million of accelerated depreciation on manufacturing assets to be abandoned due to facility consolidations.
(b) Adjusted results in 2023 and 2022 exclude certain third-party expenses, principally transaction/integration costs related to recent acquisitions, charges/credits for changes in estimates of contingent acquisition consideration, and charges associated with product liability litigation.
(c) Adjusted results in 2023 and 2022 exclude restructuring and other costs consisting principally of severance, impairments of long-lived assets, charges for environmental-related matters, abandoned facility and other expenses of headcount reductions and real estate consolidations. Adjusted results in 2023 also exclude $26 million of contract termination costs associated with facility closures, $19 million of net charges for pre-acquisition litigation and other matters, and $11 million of gains on the sale of real estate. Adjusted results in 2022 also exclude $14 million of gain on the sale of intellectual property.
(d) Adjusted results exclude net gains/losses on investments. Adjusted results in 2022 also exclude $67 million of net gains on derivative instruments to address certain foreign currency risks and $26 million of losses on the early extinguishment of debt.
(e) Adjusted results in 2023 and 2022 exclude incremental tax impacts for the reconciling items between GAAP and adjusted net income, incremental tax impacts as a result of tax rate/law changes and the tax impacts from audit settlements (including a $658 million benefit from an audit settlement in 2022). Adjusted results in 2023 also exclude $14 million of charges for pre-acquisition matters. Adjusted results in 2022 also exclude a $423 million charge for the impact of deferred tax realizability assessments as a result of audit settlements.
(f) Adjusted results exclude the incremental impacts for the reconciling items between GAAP and adjusted net income attributable to noncontrolling interests.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The company’s discussion and analysis of its financial condition and results of operations is based upon its financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. The preparation of these financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and related disclosure of contingent liabilities. On an on-going basis, management evaluates its estimates, including those related to acquisition-related measurements and income taxes. Management believes the most complex and sensitive judgments, because of their significance to the consolidated financial statements, result primarily from the need to make estimates about the effects of matters that are inherently uncertain. Management bases its estimates on historical experience, current market and economic conditions and other assumptions that management believes are reasonable. The results of these estimates form the basis for judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities where the values are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
The company believes the following represent its critical accounting policies and estimates used in the preparation of its financial statements:
Acquisition-related Measurements
Business Combinations
The company uses assumptions and estimates in determining the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination. The determination of the fair value of intangible assets, which represent a significant portion of the purchase price in many of the company’s acquisitions, requires the use of significant judgment with regard to (i) the fair value and (ii) whether such intangibles are amortizable or non-amortizable and, if the former, the period and the method by which the intangible asset will be amortized. The company estimates the fair value of acquisition-related intangible assets principally based on projections of cash flows that will arise from identifiable intangible assets of acquired businesses, which include estimates of customer attrition and technology obsolescence rates. The projected cash flows are discounted to determine the present value of the assets at the dates of acquisition. See Note 2 for additional information about our recent business combinations.
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Goodwill and Indefinite-lived Intangible Assets
The company evaluates goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment annually and when events occur or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of an asset below its carrying amount. Events or circumstances that might require an interim evaluation include unexpected adverse business conditions, economic factors, unanticipated technological changes or competitive activities, loss of key personnel and acts by governments and courts, among others. Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets totaled $44.02 billion and $1.24 billion, respectively, at December 31, 2023 (see Note 1 for additional information). Estimates of discounted future cash flows require assumptions related to revenue and operating income growth rates, discount rates and other factors. For the goodwill impairment tests, the company also considers (i) peer revenues and earnings trading multiples from companies that have operational and financial characteristics that are similar to the respective reporting units and (ii) estimated weighted average costs of capital. Different assumptions from those made in the company’s analysis could materially affect projected cash flows and the company’s evaluation of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment.
The company performed the quantitative goodwill impairment test for all of its reporting units and indefinite-lived intangible assets. Determinations of fair value based on projections of discounted cash flows, which decreased from the prior year projections primarily due to higher discount rates, and based on peer revenues and earnings trading multiples, which also decreased from the prior year, were sufficient to conclude that no impairments of goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets existed at the end of the tenth fiscal month of 2023, the date of the company’s annual impairment testing. There were no interim impairments of goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets in 2023. There can be no assurance, however, that adverse events or conditions will not cause the fair values of these assets to decline. Should the fair values of the company’s reporting units or indefinite-lived intangible assets decline because of reduced operating performance, market declines, or other indicators of impairment, or as a result of changes in the discount rates, charges for impairment may be necessary.
During its annual 2023 goodwill impairment assessments, the company determined that the excess of fair value over carrying value for one of the clinical research business’s reporting units had increased to 4%. Despite this favorable increase, given that the fair value of the reporting unit was not substantially in excess of its carrying value as of the annual 2023 assessment date, relatively small decreases in future cash flows versus anticipated results, decreases in peer trading multiples and/or increases in weighted average costs of capital could result in impairment of goodwill. The reporting unit had $3.95 billion of goodwill, and an overall carrying value of $5.54 billion as of December 31, 2023.
Definite-lived Intangible Assets
Definite-lived intangible assets totaled $15.44 billion at December 31, 2023 (see Note 1 for additional information). Certain definite-lived intangible assets have largely independent cash flows. The company reviews these definite-lived intangible assets for impairment individually when indication of potential impairment exists, such as a significant reduction in cash flows associated with the assets. Actual cash flows arising from a particular intangible asset could vary from projected cash flows, which could imply different carrying values from those established at the dates of acquisition and which could result in impairment of such asset. Most of the company’s definite-lived intangible assets are used in conjunction with other assets, such as property, plant and equipment and operating lease right-of-use assets. In these situations, the company considers the asset groups to be the units of account for impairment testing. The company recorded definite-lived intangible asset impairments of $0.01 billion and $0.12 billion in 2023 and 2021, respectively (Note 16).
Income Taxes
Unrecognized Tax Benefits
In the ordinary course of business there is inherent uncertainty in quantifying the company’s income tax positions. The company assesses income tax positions and records tax benefits for all years subject to examination based upon management’s evaluation of the facts, circumstances and information available at the reporting date. For those tax positions where it is more likely than not that a tax benefit will be sustained, the company has recorded the largest amount of tax benefit with a greater than 50 percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with a taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information. For those income tax positions where it is not more likely than not that a tax benefit will be sustained, no tax benefit has been recognized in the financial statements. Should tax return positions that the company expects are sustainable not be sustained upon audit, the company could be required to record an incremental tax provision for such taxes. The company’s liability for these unrecognized tax benefits totaled $0.54 billion at December 31, 2023, compared to $0.57 billion at December 31, 2022, primarily as a result of an audit settlement (Note 8).
The company operates in numerous countries under many legal forms and, as a result, is subject to the jurisdiction of numerous domestic and non-U.S. tax authorities, as well as to tax agreements and treaties among these governments. Determination of taxable income in any jurisdiction requires the company to interpret the related tax laws and regulations and the use of estimates and assumptions regarding significant future events, such as the amount, timing and character of deductions, permissible
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revenue recognition methods under the tax law and the sources and character of income and tax credits. Changes in tax laws, regulations, agreements and treaties, currency exchange restrictions or the company’s level of operations or profitability in each taxing jurisdiction could have an impact upon the amount of current and deferred tax balances and hence the company’s net income.
Valuation Allowances
The company estimates the degree to which tax assets will result in a benefit, after consideration of all positive and negative evidence, and provides a valuation allowance for tax assets that it believes will more likely than not go unused. In situations in which the company has been able to determine that its deferred tax assets will be realized, that determination generally relies on future reversals of taxable temporary differences and expected future taxable income. If it becomes more likely than not that a tax asset will be used, the company reverses the related valuation allowance. Any such reversals are recorded as a reduction of the company’s tax provision. The company’s tax valuation allowance totaled $1.32 billion at both December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022 (Note 8). Should the company’s actual future taxable income by tax jurisdiction vary from estimates, additional allowances or reversals thereof may be necessary.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
A description of recently issued accounting standards is included under the heading “Recent Accounting Pronouncements” in Note 1.
Item 7A.    Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
The company is exposed to market risk from changes in interest rates and currency exchange rates, which could affect its future results of operations and financial condition. The company manages its exposure to these risks through its regular operating and financing activities. The company has periodically hedged interest rate risks of fixed-rate instruments with offsetting interest rate swaps. Additionally, the company uses short-term forward and option contracts primarily to hedge certain balance sheet and operational exposures resulting from changes in currency exchange rates. Such exposures result from purchases, sales, cash and intercompany loans that are denominated in currencies other than the functional currencies of the respective operations. The currency-exchange contracts principally hedge transactions denominated in euro, British pounds sterling, Canadian dollars, Singapore dollars, Czech koruna, Hong Kong dollars and Swedish krona. Income and losses arising from these derivative contracts are recognized as offsets to losses and income resulting from the underlying exposure being hedged. The company does not enter into speculative derivative agreements.
Interest Rates
The company is exposed to changes in interest rates while conducting normal business operations as a result of ongoing investing and financing activities, which affect the company’s debt as well as cash and cash equivalents. As of December 31, 2023, the company’s debt portfolio was comprised primarily of fixed rate borrowings. The fair market value of the company’s fixed interest rate debt is subject to interest rate risk. Generally, the fair market value of fixed interest rate debt will increase as interest rates fall and decrease as interest rates rise. The total estimated fair value of the company’s debt at December 31, 2023 was $32.27 billion (Note 14). Fair values were determined from available market prices using current interest rates and terms to maturity. If interest rates were to decrease by 100 basis points, the fair value of the company’s debt at December 31, 2023 would increase by approximately $2.33 billion. If interest rates were to increase by 100 basis points, the fair value of the company’s debt at December 31, 2023 would decrease by approximately $2.05 billion.
In addition, the fair value of the company’s cross-currency interest rate swap arrangements is subject to interest rate risk. If interest rates were to decrease by 100 basis points, the fair value of the company’s cross-currency interest rate swaps at December 31, 2023 would decrease by approximately $0.39 billion. If interest rates were to increase by 100 basis points, the fair value of the company’s cross-currency interest rate swaps at December 31, 2023 would increase by approximately $0.53 billion.
Currency Exchange Rates
The company views its investments in international subsidiaries with a functional currency other than the U.S. dollar as permanent. The company’s investment in international subsidiaries is sensitive to fluctuations in currency exchange rates. The functional currencies of the company’s international subsidiaries are principally denominated in British pounds sterling, euro, Swedish krona, Canadian dollars, Norwegian kroner and Danish kroner. The effect of a change in the period ending currency exchange rates on the company’s net investment in international subsidiaries is reflected in the “accumulated other comprehensive items” component of shareholders’ equity. The company also uses foreign currency-denominated debt to partially hedge its net investments in foreign operations against adverse movements in exchange rates. A 10% depreciation in year-end 2023 functional currencies, relative to the U.S. dollar, would result in a reduction of shareholders’ equity of approximately $1.26 billion.
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THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
The fair value of forward currency-exchange contracts is sensitive to changes in currency exchange rates. The fair value of forward currency-exchange contracts is the estimated amount that the company would pay or receive upon termination of the contract, taking into account the change in currency exchange rates. A 10% depreciation in year-end 2023 non-functional currency exchange rates related to the company’s contracts would result in an unrealized loss on forward currency-exchange contracts of $43 million. A 10% appreciation in year-end 2023 non-functional currency exchange rates related to the company’s contracts would result in an additional unrealized gain on forward currency-exchange contracts of $49 million. The unrealized gains or losses on forward currency-exchange contracts resulting from changes in currency exchange rates are expected to approximately offset losses or gains on the exposures being hedged.
Certain of the company’s cash and cash equivalents are denominated in currencies other than the functional currency of the depositor and are sensitive to changes in currency exchange rates. A 10% depreciation in the related year-end 2023 non-functional currency exchange rates applied to such cash balances would result in a negative impact of $13 million on the company’s net income.
Item 8.    Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
INDEX OF CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 Page

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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.
Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the related consolidated statements of income, of comprehensive income, of redeemable noncontrolling interest and equity and of cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, including the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). We also have audited the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.
Basis for Opinions
The Company's management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.
Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely
30


detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
Critical Audit Matters
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (i) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (ii) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
Income taxes
As described in Note 8 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company’s provision for income taxes for the year ended December 31, 2023 was $284 million. The Company has deferred tax liabilities, net, of $1,091 million (including a valuation allowance of $1,317 million) and unrecognized tax benefits of $540 million as of December 31, 2023. As disclosed by management, the Company operates in numerous countries under many legal forms and, as a result, is subject to the jurisdiction of numerous domestic and non-U.S. tax authorities, as well as to tax agreements and treaties among these governments. Determination of taxable income in any jurisdiction requires management to interpret the related tax laws and regulations and to use estimates and assumptions regarding significant future events, such as the amount, timing and character of deductions, permissible revenue recognition methods under the tax law and the sources and character of income and tax credits. Management assesses income tax positions and records tax benefits for all years subject to examination based upon management’s evaluation of the facts, circumstances and information available at the reporting date. For those tax positions where it is more likely than not that a tax benefit will be sustained, management has recorded the largest amount of tax benefit with a greater than 50 percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with a taxing authority that has full knowledge of all relevant information. For those income tax positions where it is not more likely than not that a tax benefit will be sustained, no tax benefit has been recognized in the financial statements. Management estimates the degree to which tax assets will result in a benefit, after consideration of all positive and negative evidence, and provides a valuation allowance for tax assets that it believes will more likely than not go unused. In situations in which management has been able to determine that the Company’s deferred tax assets will be realized, that determination generally relies on future reversals of taxable temporary differences and expected future taxable income. If it becomes more likely than not that a tax asset will be used, management reverses the related valuation allowance.
The principal considerations for our determination that performing procedures relating to income taxes is a critical audit matter are (i) the significant judgment by management when interpreting the numerous and complex tax laws and regulations as it relates to determining the provision for income taxes, deferred tax assets and liabilities, including the valuation allowance, and liabilities for unrecognized tax benefits, (ii) a high degree of auditor judgment, subjectivity, and effort in performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence related to the provision for income taxes, deferred tax assets and liabilities, including the valuation allowance, and liabilities for unrecognized tax benefits, and (iii) the audit effort involved the use of professionals with specialized skill and knowledge.
Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the consolidated financial statements. These procedures included testing the effectiveness of controls relating to the provision for income taxes, deferred tax assets and liabilities, including the valuation allowance, and liabilities for unrecognized tax benefits. These procedures also included, among others (i) testing the accuracy of the provision for income taxes, including the rate reconciliation and permanent and temporary differences, (ii) evaluating whether the data utilized in the calculations of the provision for income taxes, deferred tax assets and liabilities, and liabilities for unrecognized tax benefits were appropriate and consistent with evidence obtained in other areas of the audit, (iii) evaluating management’s assessment of the realizability of deferred tax assets on a jurisdictional basis, (iv) evaluating the identification of liabilities for unrecognized tax benefits and the reasonableness of the more likely than not
31


determination in consideration of court decisions, legislative actions, statutes of limitations, and developments in tax examinations by jurisdiction, (v) testing the calculation of the liability for unrecognized tax benefits by jurisdiction, including estimates of the amount of income tax benefit expected to be sustained, and (vi) evaluating the adequacy of the Company’s disclosures. Professionals with specialized skill and knowledge were used to assist in evaluating the reasonableness of management’s judgments and estimates related to the application of foreign and domestic tax laws and regulations.



/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Boston, Massachusetts
February 22, 2024

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2002.
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THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
 December 31,December 31,
(In millions except share and per share amounts)20232022
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$8,077 $8,524 
Accounts receivable, less allowances of $193 and $189
8,221 8,115 
Inventories5,088 5,634 
Contract assets, net1,443 1,312 
Other current assets1,760 1,644 
Total current assets
24,589 25,229 
Property, plant and equipment, net9,448 9,280 
Acquisition-related intangible assets, net16,670 17,442 
Other assets3,999 4,007 
Goodwill44,020 41,196 
Total assets
$98,726 $97,154 
Liabilities, redeemable noncontrolling interest and equity
Current liabilities:
Short-term obligations and current maturities of long-term obligations$3,609 $5,579 
Accounts payable2,872 3,381 
Accrued payroll and employee benefits1,596 2,095 
Contract liabilities2,689 2,601 
Other accrued expenses3,246 3,354 
Total current liabilities
14,012 17,010 
Deferred income taxes1,922 2,849 
Other long-term liabilities4,642 4,238 
Long-term obligations31,308 28,909 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 12)
Redeemable noncontrolling interest118 116 
Equity:
Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. shareholders’ equity:
Preferred stock, $100 par value, 50,000 shares authorized; none issued
Common stock, $1 par value, 1,200,000,000 shares authorized; 442,188,634 and 440,668,112 shares issued
442 441 
Capital in excess of par value17,286 16,743 
Retained earnings47,364 41,910 
Treasury stock at cost, 55,541,290 and 50,157,275 shares
(15,133)(12,017)
Accumulated other comprehensive income/(loss)(3,224)(3,099)
Total Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. shareholders’ equity46,735 43,978 
Noncontrolling interests(11)54 
Total equity
46,724 44,032 
Total liabilities, redeemable noncontrolling interest and equity
$98,726 $97,154 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
 Year Ended
 December 31,December 31,December 31,
(In millions except per share amounts)202320222021
Revenues
Product revenues
$25,243 $28,548 $30,361 
Service revenues
17,614 16,367 8,850 
Total revenues
42,857 44,915 39,211 
Costs and operating expenses:
Cost of product revenues
13,168 14,247 13,594 
Cost of service revenues
12,589 11,697 5,979 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
8,445 8,993 8,007 
Research and development expenses1,337 1,471 1,406 
Restructuring and other costs
459 114 197 
Total costs and operating expenses
35,998 36,522 29,183 
Operating income6,859 8,393 10,028 
Interest income879 272 43 
Interest expense(1,375)(726)(536)
Other income/(expense)
(65)(104)(694)
Income before income taxes
6,298 7,835 8,841 
Provision for income taxes
(284)(703)(1,109)
Equity in earnings/(losses) of unconsolidated entities(59)(172)(4)
Net income5,955 6,960 7,728 
Less: net (losses) income attributable to noncontrolling interests and redeemable noncontrolling interest(40)10 3 
Net income attributable to Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.$5,995 $6,950 $7,725 
Earnings per share attributable to Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.
Basic
$15.52 $17.75 $19.62 
Diluted
$15.45 $17.63 $19.46 
Weighted average shares
Basic
386 392 394 
Diluted
388 394 397 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.

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THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC INC.
 CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
 Year Ended
 December 31,December 31,December 31,
(In millions)202320222021
Comprehensive income
Net income
$5,955 $6,960 $7,728 
Other comprehensive income/(loss):
Currency translation adjustment:
Currency translation adjustment (net of tax provision (benefit) of $(134), $173 and $231)
(69)(822)373 
Unrealized gains and losses on hedging instruments:
Reclassification adjustment for losses included in net income (net of tax benefit of $2, $1 and $17)
5 2 56 
Pension and other postretirement benefit liability adjustments:
Pension and other postretirement benefit liability adjustments arising during the period (net of tax provision (benefit) of $(22), $9 and $11)
(69)38 36 
Amortization of net loss and prior service benefit included in net periodic pension cost (net of tax benefit of $1, $3 and $6)
 5 13 
Total other comprehensive income/(loss)
(133)(777)