10-Q 1 tnet-20220331.htm 10-Q tnet-20220331
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
    QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2022
or
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number: 001-36373
tnet-20220331_g1.jpg
TRINET GROUP, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
Delaware
95-3359658
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
One Park Place,Suite 600
Dublin,
CA
94568
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (510352-5000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock par value $0.000025 per share
TNET
New York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
xAccelerated filero
Non-accelerated filer
o
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  Yes  o    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  x
The number of shares of Registrant’s Common Stock outstanding as of April 19, 2022 was 62,258,494.


TABLE OF CONTENTS


TRINET GROUP, INC.
Form 10-Q - Quarterly Report
For the Quarterly Period Ended March 31, 2022

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Form 10-Q
Cross Reference
Page
Part I, Item 1.
Part I, Item 2.
Part I, Item 3.
Part I, Item 4.
Part II, Item 1.
Risk Factors
Part II, Item 1A.
Part II, Item 2.
Part II, Item 3.
Part II, Item 4.
Part II, Item 5.
Part II, Item 6.

TRINET
2
2022 FORM 10-Q

Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations
Acronyms and abbreviations are used throughout this report, particularly in Part I, Item 1. Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and Part I, Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
2018 Term LoanOur $425 million term loan A executed in June 2018 and repaid in 2021
2021 Credit ProgramOur 2021 program to provide eligible clients with credits, subject to certain predefined conditions and based on certain pandemic related excess health care cost savings achieved.
2021 Credit AgreementOur credit agreement dated February 26, 2021, including our $500 million revolving line of credit.
2029 NotesOur $500 million senior unsecured notes maturing in March 2029
AFSAvailable-for-sale
CARES ActCoronavirus Aid Relief and Economic Security Act
CEOChief Executive Officer
CFOChief Financial Officer
COBRAConsolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act
COPSCost of providing services
COVID-19Novel coronavirus
D&ADepreciation and amortization expenses
EBITDAEarnings before interest expense, taxes, depreciation and amortization of intangible assets
EPSEarnings Per Share
ERISAEmployee Retirement Income Security Act
ESACEmployer Services Assurance Corporation
ETREffective tax rate
FFCRAFamilies First Coronavirus Response Act
G&AGeneral and administrative
GAAPGenerally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States
HCMHuman capital management
HRHuman Resources
IRSInternal Revenue Service
ICRInsurance cost ratio
ISRInsurance service revenues
LIBORLondon Inter-bank Offered Rate
MD&AManagement's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
OEOperating expenses
PEOProfessional Employer Organization
PFCPayroll funds collected
PPPPaycheck Protection Program, a loan program administered by the U.S. Small Business Administration
PSRProfessional service revenues
Recovery Credit2020 program to provide clients with one-time reductions against fees for future services
Reg FDRegulation Fair Disclosure
ROURight-of-use
RSARestricted Stock Award
RSURestricted Stock Unit
SBCStock Based Compensation
S&MSales and marketing
S&PStandard & Poor's
SD&PSystems development and programming
SECU.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
SMBSmall and medium-size business
U.S.United States
WSEWorksite employee
YTDYear to date
ZenefitsYourPeople, Inc. (dba Zenefits) and its subsidiaries
TRINET
3
2022 FORM 10-Q

FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS AND OTHER FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
For purposes of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (Form 10-Q), the terms “TriNet,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to TriNet Group, Inc., and its subsidiaries. This Form 10-Q contains statements that are not historical in nature, are predictive in nature, or that depend upon or refer to future events or conditions or otherwise contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 21 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements are often identified by the use of words such as, but not limited to, "ability," “anticipate,” “believe,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “design,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “hope,” "impact," “intend,” “may,” “outlook,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “strategy,” “target,” "value," “will,” “would” and similar expressions or variations intended to identify forward-looking statements. Examples of forward-looking statements include, among others, TriNet’s expectations regarding: our continued ability to support the economic recovery of our clients and SMBs; our ability to respond appropriately to the impact of COVID-19 on our business and our clients' businesses; ; the impact of our completed tender offer on our future share prices; the impact of the Zenefits acquisition on our business including our ability to diversify our offerings and grow the Zenefits client base; the effect that our $500 million o3.50% senior notes and of our replacement of our existing revolving facility with our 2021 Credit Agreement will have on our business; the timing and strategies we employ with respect to corporate investments and capital expenditures;; expectations regarding medical utilization rates by our WSEs;; the impact of our Recovery Credit program and our 2021 Credit Program and their suitability for generating client loyalty and retention; our ability to modify or develop service offerings to assist clients still affected by COVID-19; the impact of our vertical approach; our ability to leverage our scale and industry HR experience to deliver vertical service offerings; the impact of our plans to continue to grow our client base; planned improvements to our technology platform; our ability to drive operating efficiencies and improve the client experience; the impact of our client service initiatives; the volume and severity of insurance claims and the continuing impact of COVID-19 on those claims; metrics that may be indicators of future financial performance; the relative value of our benefit offerings versus those SMBs can independently obtain; the principal competitive drivers in our market; our plans to retain clients and manage client attrition; our investment strategy and its impact on our ability to generate future interest income, net income, and Adjusted EBITDA; seasonal trends and their impact on our business, including due to COVID-19; fluctuations in the period-to-period timing of when we incur certain operating expenses; the estimates and assumptions we use to prepare our financial statements; and other expectations, outlooks and forecasts on our future business, operational and financial performance.
Important factors that could cause actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements are discussed above and throughout our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 filed with the SEC on February 14, 2022 (our 2021 Form 10-K), including those appearing under the heading “Risk Factors” in Item 1A, and under the heading “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 of our 2021 Form 10-K, as well as those appearing under the heading “Risk Factors” in Part II, Item 1A of this Form 10-Q and under the heading “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this Form 10-Q and those appearing in our other periodic filings with the SEC, including risk factors associated with: the economic, health and business disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic; the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our clients and prospects, insurance costs and operations; the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the laws and regulations that impact our industry and clients; our ability to manage unexpected changes in workers’ compensation and health insurance claims and costs by worksite employees; our ability to mitigate the business risks we face as a co-employer; the effects of volatility in the financial and economic environment on the businesses that make up our client base and the concentration of our clients in certain geographies and industries; loss of clients for reasons beyond our control; the short-term contracts we typically use with our clients; the impact of regional or industry-specific economic an health factors on our operations; the impact of failures or limitations in the business systems we rely upon; the impact of our Recovery Credit program and 2021 Credit Program; adverse changes in our insurance coverage or our relationships with key insurance carriers; our ability to improve our services and technology to satisfy regulatory requirements and meet the expectations of our clients and manage client attrition; our ability to effectively integrate businesses we have acquired or may acquire in the future; our ability to effectively manage and improve our operational processes; our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel; the effects of increased competition and our ability to compete effectively; the impact on our business of cyber-attacks and security breaches; our ability to secure our information technology infrastructure and our confidential, sensitive and personal information; our ability to comply with constantly evolving data privacy and security laws; our ability to manage changes in, uncertainty regarding, or adverse application of the complex laws and regulations that govern our business; changing laws and regulations governing health insurance and employee benefits; our ability to be recognized as an employer of worksite employees under federal and state regulations; changes in the laws and regulations that govern what it means to be an employer, employee or independent
TRINET
4
2022 FORM 10-Q

FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS AND OTHER FINANCIAL INFORMATION
contractor; our ability to comply with the laws and regulations that govern PEOs and other similar industries; the outcome of existing and future legal and tax proceedings; fluctuation in our results of operation and stock price due to factors outside of our control, such as the volume and severity of our workers’ compensation and health insurance claims and the amount and timing of our insurance costs, operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements; our ability to comply with the restrictions of our credit facility and meet our debt obligations; and the impact of concentrated ownership in our stock. Any of these factors could cause our actual results to differ materially from our anticipated results.
Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance, but are based on management’s expectations as of the date of this Form 10-Q and assumptions that are inherently subject to uncertainties, risks and changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict. Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from our current expectations and any past results, performance or achievements. Given these risks and uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements.
The information provided in this Form 10-Q is based upon the facts and circumstances known as of the date of this Form 10-Q, and any forward-looking statements made by us in this Form 10-Q speak only as of the date of this Form 10-Q. We undertake no obligation to revise or update any of the information provided in this Form 10-Q, except as required by law.
The MD&A of this Form 10-Q includes references to our performance measures presented in conformity with GAAP and other non-GAAP financial measures that we use to manage our business, to make planning decisions, to allocate resources and to use as performance measures in our executive compensation plans. Refer to the Non-GAAP Financial Measures within our MD&A for definitions and reconciliations from GAAP measures.
Website Disclosures
We use our website (www.trinet.com) to announce material non-public information to the public and to comply with our disclosure obligations under Regulation Fair Disclosure (Reg FD). We also use our website to communicate with the public about our Company, our services, and other matters. Our SEC filings, press releases and recent public conference calls and webcasts can also be found on our website. The information we post on our website could be deemed to be material information under Reg FD. We encourage investors and others interested in our Company to review the information we post on our website. Information contained in or accessible through our website is not a part of this report.
Our Company is the sole owner of the trademark “TriNet” and other trademarks appearing in this report. Our Company does not intend to use or display trade names or trademarks owned by others to imply any form of association with any of those companies.
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2022 FORM 10-Q

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Executive Summary
Overview
TriNet is a leading provider of HR expertise, payroll services, employee benefits, employment risk mitigation services and human capital management (HCM) software for SMBs. We deliver a comprehensive suite of services that help our clients administer and manage various HR-related needs and functions, such as compensation and benefits, payroll processing, employee data, health insurance and workers' compensation programs, and transactional HR needs using our technology platform, cloud-based software and HR, benefits and compliance expertise. We empower SMBs to focus on what matters most - growing their business.
We leverage our scale and industry HR experience to deliver our PEO service offerings tailored for SMBs in specific industry verticals. We believe our vertical approach is a key differentiator for us and creates additional value for our PEO clients driven by addressing their industry-specific HR needs. We offer six industry-tailored PEO vertical services: TriNet Financial Services, TriNet Life Sciences, TriNet Main Street, TriNet Nonprofit, TriNet Professional Services, and TriNet Technology. Through our acquisition of Zenefits in February 2022, we now offer a self-directed, cloud-based HCM software product and other HR related services for all SMBs without using a co-employment model.
Acquisition
In February 2022, we acquired Zenefits, a leading cloud HR platform which provides innovative and intuitive HR, benefits, payroll and employee engagement software purpose-built for SMBs. We believe the acquisition of Zenefits and its cloud-based HCM software allows us to diversify our product and service offerings to all SMBs without using a co-employment model, and enables us to dynamically service SMBs throughout their lifecycle and expand the customers we serve.
Operational Highlights
Our consolidated results for the first quarter of 2022 reflect our continuing efforts to serve our existing clients and attract new customers while supporting the economic recovery of SMBs from the COVID-19 pandemic.
During the three months ended March 31, 2022 we:
continued to grow total revenues,
completed the acquisition of Zenefits, diversifying our product and service offerings, and
completed a tender offer to repurchase $316 million in shares of TriNet common stock.

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2022 FORM 10-Q

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
Performance Highlights
Our results for the first quarter ended March 31, 2022, when compared to the same period of 2021, are noted below:
Q1 2022
$1.2B$204M80%
Total revenuesOperating incomeInsurance cost ratio
15 %increase48 %increase(3)%decrease
$146M$2.21$168M
Net incomeDiluted EPSAdjusted Net income *
45 %increase46 %increase51 %increase
343,245348,349253,766
Average WSEsTotal WSEsAverage HCM Users
%increase%increase
*
Non-GAAP measure. See definitions below under the heading "Non-GAAP Financial Measures".
We continued to achieve quarter-over-quarter revenue growth, reflecting our higher Average WSEs, rate increases and the expiration of credit programs created in prior years to benefit our customers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our addition of HCM cloud services following the acquisition of Zenefits in February 2022 also contributed to our growth.
During the first quarter of 2022, our Average WSEs increased 7% and total WSEs increased 7% compared to the same period in 2021, primarily as a result of continued hiring in our installed base.
Increased medical services utilization in the first quarter of 2022, combined with increased volume due to quarter-over-quarter WSE growth, resulted in higher insurance costs compared to the same period in 2021.
The growth in total revenues, partially offset by increases in insurance costs and operating expenses, resulted in increases in our net income and Adjusted Net Income of 45% and 51%, respectively.
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2022 FORM 10-Q

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
Results of Operations
The following table summarizes our results of operations for the first quarter of March 31, 2022 when compared to the same period of 2021. For details of the critical accounting judgments and estimates that could affect our Results of Operations, see the Critical Accounting Judgments and Estimates section within the MD&A in Item 7 of our 2021 Form 10-K.
 Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions, except operating metrics data)20222021% Change
Income Statement Data:
Professional service revenues$194 $153 27 %
Insurance service revenues1,024 907 13 
Total revenues1,218 1,060 15 
Insurance costs823 751 10 
Operating expenses191 171 12 
Total costs and operating expenses1,014 922 10 
Operating income204 138 48 
Other income (expense):
Interest expense, bank fees and other(5)(5)— 
Interest income1 (50)
Income before provision for income taxes200 135 48 
Income taxes54 34 59 
Net income$146 $101 45 %
Cash Flow Data:
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities214 $(175)(222)
Net cash used in investing activities(213)(3)7,000 
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities(353)56 (730)
Non-GAAP measures (1):
Adjusted EBITDA$242 163 48 
Adjusted Net income$168 111 51 
Corporate Operating Cash Flows193 131 47 
Operating Metrics:
Insurance Cost Ratio80 %83 %(3)%
Average WSEs343,245 321,295 %
Total WSEs348,349 326,216 %
Average HCM Users (2)
253,766 N/AN/A
(1)    Refer to Non-GAAP measures definitions and reconciliations from GAAP measures under the heading "Non-GAAP Financial Measures".
(2)    From February 15, 2022, the date on which we acquired Zenefits, to the end of the period.
The following table summarizes our balance sheet data as of March 31, 2022 compared to December 31, 2021.
(in millions)March 31,
2022
December 31,
2021
% Change
Balance Sheet Data:
Working capital$305 $700 (56)%
Total assets3,204 3,309 (3)
Debt495 495 — 
Total stockholders’ equity695 881 (21)
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2022 FORM 10-Q

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
In addition to financial measures presented in accordance with GAAP, we monitor other non-GAAP financial measures that we use to manage our business, to make planning decisions, to allocate resources and to use as performance measures in our executive compensation plan. These key financial measures provide an additional view of our operational performance over the long-term and provide information that we use to maintain and grow our business.
The presentation of these non-GAAP financial measures is used to enhance the understanding of certain aspects of our financial performance. It is not meant to be considered in isolation from, superior to, or as a substitute for the directly comparable financial measures prepared in accordance with GAAP.
Non-GAAP MeasureDefinition
How We Use The Measure
Adjusted EBITDA
• Net income, excluding the effects of:
- income tax provision,
- interest expense, bank fees and other,
- depreciation,
- amortization of intangible assets,
- stock based compensation expense, and
- transaction and integration costs.

• Provides period-to-period comparisons on a consistent basis and an understanding as to how our management evaluates the effectiveness of our business strategies by excluding certain non-recurring costs, such as transaction and integration costs, and non-cash charges, such as depreciation and amortization, and stock-based compensation recognized based on the estimated fair values. We believe these charges are either not directly resulting from our core operations or not indicative of our ongoing operations.
• Enhances comparisons to prior periods and, accordingly, facilitates the development of future projections and earnings growth prospects.
• Provides a measure, among others, used in the determination of incentive compensation for management.
• We also sometimes refer to Adjusted EBITDA margin, which is the ratio of Adjusted EBITDA to total revenues.
Adjusted Net Income
• Net income, excluding the effects of:
- effective income tax rate (1),
- stock based compensation,
- amortization of other intangible assets, net,
- non-cash interest expense (2),
- transaction and integration costs, and
- the income tax effect (at our effective tax rate (1) of these pre-tax adjustments.
• Provides information to our stockholders and board of directors to understand how our management evaluates our business, to monitor and evaluate our operating results, and analyze profitability of our ongoing operations and trends on a consistent basis by excluding certain non-recurring costs and non-cash charges.
Corporate Operating Cash Flows• Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities, excluding the effects of:
- Assets associated with WSEs (accounts receivable, unbilled revenue, prepaid expenses and other current assets) and
- Liabilities associated with WSEs (client deposits and other client liabilities, accrued wages, payroll tax liabilities and other payroll withholdings, accrued health benefit costs, accrued workers' compensation costs, insurance premiums and other payables, and other current liabilities).
• Provides information that our stockholders and management can use to evaluate our cash flows from operations independent of the current assets and liabilities associated with our WSEs.
• Enhances comparisons to prior periods and, accordingly, used as a liquidity measure to manage liquidity between corporate and WSE related activities, and to help determine and plan our cash flow and capital strategies.
(1)    Non-GAAP effective tax rate is 25.5% for 2022 and 2021, which excludes the income tax impact from stock-based compensation, changes in uncertain tax positions and nonrecurring benefits or expenses from federal legislative changes.
(2)    Non-cash interest expense represents amortization and write-off of our debt issuance costs and loss on a terminated derivative.


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2022 FORM 10-Q

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
Reconciliation of GAAP to Non-GAAP Measures

The table below presents a reconciliation of Net income to Adjusted EBITDA:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)
20222021
Net income
$146 $101 
Provision for income taxes
54 34 
Stock based compensation
12 11 
Interest expense, bank fees and other6 
Depreciation and amortization of intangible assets ¹
14 12 
Transaction and integration costs10 — 
Adjusted EBITDA$242 $163 
Adjusted EBITDA Margin
19.9 %15.4 %
(1)    Amount includes amortization of cloud computing arrangements included in operating expenses.
The table below presents a reconciliation of Net income to Adjusted Net Income:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)
20222021
Net income
$146 $101 
Effective income tax rate adjustment4 — 
Stock based compensation12 11 
Amortization of other intangible assets, net
3 
Non-cash interest expense  
Transaction and integration costs10 — 
Income tax impact of pre-tax adjustments(7)(4)
Adjusted Net Income$168 $111 

The table below presents a reconciliation of net cash provided by operating activities to Corporate Operating Cash Flows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
(in millions)20222021
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities$214 $(175)
  Less: Change in WSE related other current assets(9)(85)
  Less: Change in WSE related liabilities30 (221)
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities - WSE$21 $(306)
Net cash provided by operating activities - Corporate$193 $131 

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2022 FORM 10-Q

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
Operating Metrics
Worksite Employees (WSE)
Average WSE growth is a volume measure we use to monitor the performance of our PEO business. We have historically experienced our highest volumes of changes in new and exiting clients during the first quarter of the year, as SMBs generally change their payroll service providers at the beginning of the payroll tax year. Average WSEs increased 7% when comparing the first quarter of 2022 to the same period in 2021, primarily due to higher Total WSEs at the beginning of 2022 compared to 2021 and increased hiring in our installed base across most verticals during the current quarter, led by our Technology and Professional Services verticals. While the number of clients exiting during the first quarter of 2022 was consistent with the same period in 2021, we experienced higher WSE attrition during the first quarter of 2022 primarily due to large customers leaving as they either grew out of the PEO model or were acquired.
Total WSEs can be used to estimate our beginning WSEs for the next period and, as a result, can be used as an indicator of our potential future success in growing our business and retaining clients.
Anticipated revenues for future periods can diverge from the revenue expectation derived from Average WSEs or Total WSEs due to pricing differences across our HR solutions and services and the degree to which clients and WSEs elect to participate in our solutions during future periods. In addition to focusing on growing our Average WSE and Total WSE counts, we also focus on pricing strategies, benefit participation and service differentiation to expand our revenue opportunities. We report the impact of client and WSE participation differences as a change in mix.
In addition to focusing on retaining and growing our WSE base, we continue to review acquisition opportunities that would add appropriately to our scale. We continue to invest in efforts intended to enhance client experience and manage attrition, through operational and process improvements.
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HCM Users

Average HCM Users is a volume measure we use to monitor the performance of our cloud-based HCM services business. Average HCM Users from the date of our acquisition of Zenefits, February 15, 2022 to the end of the first quarter of 2022 was 253,766.

Insurance Cost Ratio (ICR)
ICR is a performance measure calculated as the ratio of insurance costs to insurance service revenues. We believe that ICR promotes an understanding of our insurance cost trends and our ability to align our relative pricing to risk performance.
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2022 FORM 10-Q

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
We purchase workers' compensation and health benefits coverage for our colleagues and WSEs. Under the insurance policies for this coverage, we bear claims costs up to a defined deductible amount. Our insurance costs, which comprise a significant portion of our overall costs, are significantly affected by our WSEs’ health and workers' compensation insurance claims experience. We set our insurance service fees for workers’ compensation and health benefits in advance for fixed benefit periods. As a result, increases in these insurance costs above our projections, reflected as a higher ICR, result in lower net income. Conversely, decreases in these insurance costs below our projections, reflected as a lower ICR, result in higher net income.
Under our fully-insured workers' compensation insurance policies, we assume the risk for losses up to $1 million per claim occurrence (deductible layer). The ultimate cost of the workers’ compensation services provided cannot be known until all the claims are settled. Our ability to predict these costs is limited by unexpected increases in frequency or severity of claims, which can vary due to changes in the cost of treatments or claim settlements.
Under our risk-based health insurance policies, we assume the risk of variability in future health claims costs for our enrollees. This variability typically results from changing trends in the volume, severity and ultimate cost of medical and pharmaceutical claims, due to changes to the components of medical cost trend. These trends change, and other seasonal trends and variability may develop. As a result, it is difficult for us to predict our insurance costs with accuracy and a significant increase in these costs could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)20222021
Insurance costs$823 $751 
Insurance service revenues1,024 907 
Insurance Cost Ratio80 %83 %

ICR decreased for the quarter as the increase in ISR in 2022 more than offset the increase in insurance costs that resulted from increased medical services utilization and COVID-19 testing, treatment and vaccination costs. ICR in the first quarter of 2021 was impacted by the $32 million reduction in insurance service revenues from the 2021 Credit Program and Recovery Credit program, which increased the ICR by 3 points. While medical services utilization has increased in 2022, the ICR remains below pre-pandemic levels, as access to medical systems in the quarter was constrained in regions where increases in hospitalizations arising from the COVID-19 Omicron variant reduced preventative and elective procedures.
Total Revenues
Our revenues consist of professional service revenues (PSR) and insurance service revenues (ISR). PSR represents fees charged to clients for processing payroll-related transactions on behalf of our clients, access to our HR expertise, employment and benefit law compliance services, other HR-related services and fees charged to access our cloud-based HCM services. ISR consists of insurance-related billings and administrative fees collected from clients and withheld from WSEs for workers' compensation insurance and health benefit insurance plans provided by third-party insurance carriers.
Monthly total revenues per Average WSE is a measure we use to monitor the success of our PEO pricing strategies. This measure increased 8% during the first quarter of 2022 compared to the same period in 2021.
We also use the following measures to further analyze changes in total revenue:
Volume - the percentage change in period over period Average WSEs,
Rate - the combined weighted average percentage changes in service fees for each vertical service and changes in service fees associated with each insurance service offering,
Mix - the change in composition of Average WSEs within our verticals combined with the composition of our enrolled WSEs within our insurance service offerings,
Credit - the weighted average change in amounts recognized for the Recovery Credit and 2021 Credit Program, and
HCM - incremental HCM cloud services revenue from our acquisition of Zenefits in mid-February 2022.
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2022 FORM 10-Q

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS

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PSR
* Total revenues exclude revenues from our HCM cloud services
ISR - % represents proportion of insurance service revenues to total revenues
The growth in total revenues was primarily driven by higher Average WSEs and growth in rate, combined with the decrease in credits to customers, as the credit programs we created in prior years to benefit our customers during the COVID-19 pandemic have expired.
In the first quarter of 2022, we did not recognize any reduction in revenue for any credit programs, such as the Recovery Credit or for the 2021 Credit Program. In the same period in 2021, we recognized a reduction in revenue of $12 million for the Recovery Credit and $25 million for the 2021 Credit Program.
Operating Income
Our operating income consists of total revenues less insurance costs and OE. Our insurance costs include insurance premiums for coverage provided by insurance carriers, reimbursement of claims payments made by insurance carriers or third-party administrators, and changes in accrued costs related to contractual obligations with our workers' compensation and health benefit carriers. Our OE consists primarily of our corporate employees' compensation related expenses, which includes payroll, payroll taxes, SBC, bonuses, commissions and other payroll-and benefits-related costs.
The table below provides a view of the changes in components of operating income for the first quarter of 2022, as compared to the same period in 2021.
(in millions)
$138First Quarter 2021 Operating Income
+158 
Higher total revenues primarily driven by higher Average WSEs, rate increases and the expiration of credit programs we created in prior years to benefit our customers, which reduced revenue by $37 million in the prior year.
-72 Higher insurance costs primarily as a result of higher medical services utilization and higher volume driven by the growth in WSEs.
-20 Higher OE primarily as a result of higher compensation and consulting expenses to support initiatives to improve client experience, enhance service offerings, and improve processes, together with transaction and integration costs from our acquisition of Zenefits.
$204First Quarter 2022 Operating Income
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2022 FORM 10-Q

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
Professional Service Revenues
Our PEO clients are primarily billed on a fee per WSE per month per transaction. Our vertical approach provides us the flexibility to offer our clients in different industries with varied services at different prices, which we believe potentially reduces the value of solely using Average WSE and Total WSE counts as indicators of future potential revenue performance. Our HCM cloud services clients are primarily billed a monthly fee per user, with certain fees earned on a per transaction basis.
PSR from PEO Services customers and HCM cloud services clients was as follows:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)20222021
PEO Services$188 $153 
HCM Cloud Services (1)
6 — 
Total$194 $153 
(1)    Represents 1.5 months of revenue from our acquisition of Zenefits on February 15, 2022.
We also analyze changes in PSR with the following measures:
Volume - the percentage change in period over period Average WSEs,
Rate - the weighted average percentage change in fees for each vertical,
Mix - the change in composition of Average WSEs across our verticals,
Recovery Credit - the weighted average change in amounts recognized for the Recovery Credit program, and
HCM - incremental HCM cloud services revenue from our acquisition of Zenefits in mid-February 2022.
tnet-20220331_g6.jpgtnet-20220331_g7.jpgtnet-20220331_g8.jpg
The growth in PSR for the quarter was driven by a growth in rate which incorporates an increase in fees for other services, including COBRA administration, volume growth due to higher Average WSEs and a decrease in the Recovery Credit recognized. We continued to experience a favorable change in our vertical mix of WSEs, as SMBs in our Technology and Professional Services verticals, who generally utilize more services and had more WSE growth than other verticals . Our new HCM Cloud Services revenue also contributed to the increase.
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2022 FORM 10-Q

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
Insurance Service Revenues
ISR consists of insurance services-related billings and administrative fees collected from our PEO clients and withheld from WSE payroll for health benefits and workers' compensation insurance provided by third-party insurance carriers.
We use the following measures to analyze changes in ISR:
Volume - the percentage change in period over period Average WSEs,
Rate - the weighted average percentage change in fees associated with each of our insurance service offerings,
Mix - all other changes including the composition of our enrolled WSEs within our insurance service offerings (health plan enrollment), and
Credit - the weighted average change in amounts recognized for the Recovery Credit and 2021 Credit Program.

tnet-20220331_g9.jpgtnet-20220331_g10.jpgtnet-20220331_g11.jpg
The growth in ISR for the quarter was primarily driven by higher Average WSEs, rate increases and the decrease in the Recovery Credit and 2021 Credit Program.
Insurance Costs
Insurance costs include insurance premiums for coverage provided by insurance carriers, payments for claims costs and other risk management services, reimbursement of claims payments made by insurance carriers or third-party administrators below a predefined deductible limit, and changes in accrued costs related to contractual obligations with our workers' compensation and health benefit carriers.
We use the following measures to analyze changes in insurance costs:
Volume - the percentage change in period over period Average WSEs,
Rate - the weighted average percentage change in cost trend associated with each of our insurance service offerings, and
Mix - all other changes including the composition of our enrolled WSEs within our insurance service offerings (health plan enrollment).
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2022 FORM 10-Q

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
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Medical services utilization increased in the first quarter of 2022 as enrollees returned to outpatient medical, dental and vision care and elective procedures. The higher overall utilization was partially offset by reductions in some regions due to the surge of the COVID-19 Omicron variant, which constrained access to medical systems from mid-December 2021 through January 2022. As a result, our medical services utilization for the quarter remained below pre-pandemic levels. The decrease in utilization in December also contributed to positive claims development as our accrued health costs were paid during the first quarter of 2022.
The increase in medical services utilization, combined with increased COVID-19 testing, treatment and vaccination costs, caused the increase in rate. The increase in volume was primarily driven by higher Average WSEs.
Operating Expenses
OE includes cost of providing services (COPS), sales and marketing (S&M), general and administrative (G&A), systems development and programming (SD&P), and depreciation and amortization expenses (D&A).
We had approximately 3,300 corporate employees as of March 31, 2022 primarily located in 13 offices across the U.S. Our corporate employees' compensation-related expenses represent a majority of our operating expenses. Compensation costs for our corporate employees include payroll, payroll taxes, SBC, bonuses, commissions and other payroll- and benefits-related costs. Compensation-related expense represented 67% and 65% of our OE in the first quarters of 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Transaction and integration costs associated with our acquisition of Zenefits are included in G&A. These costs include advisory, legal, employee retention and cash consideration payable for unvested Zenefits restricted stock. Refer to Note 7 in Part I, Item 1. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Form 10-Q for further discussion.
During the first quarter, OE increased 12% when compared to the same period in 2021. The ratio of OE to total revenues was 16% in the first quarter of 2022 and 2021.
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2022 FORM 10-Q

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
tnet-20220331_g15.jpgtnet-20220331_g16.jpgtnet-20220331_g17.jpg
% represents portion of compensation related expense included in operating expenses

We analyze and present our OE based upon the business functions COPS, S&M, G&A and SD&P and D&A. The charts below provide a view of the expenses of the business functions. Dollars are presented in millions and percentages represent year-over-year change.
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(in millions)
$171Q1 2021 Operating Expenses
+6 COPS increased, driven primarily by additional hiring to support more WSEs.
-1 
S&M was consistent with the prior year, with higher compensation offset by a reduction in accrued broker commissions due to a settlement.
+11 
G&A increased, driven primarily by the $10 million of transaction and integration costs related to the Zenefits acquisition.
+3 SD&P increased, driven primarily by higher technology services expenses as we continue to work to improve our client experience and our systems and processes.
+1 
D&A increased due to the amortization of intangible assets recognized for the Zenefits acquisition.
$191Q1 2022 Operating Expenses
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2022 FORM 10-Q

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
The primary drivers to the changes in our OE are presented below:
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Other Income (Expense)
Other income (expense) consists primarily of interest and dividend income from investments and interest expense on our 3.50% Senior Notes due 2029 (our 2029 Notes) issued in February 2021.
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Interest income, interest expense, bank fees and other for the quarter was consistent with the prior period.
Income Taxes
Our effective tax rate (ETR) was 27% and 25% for the first quarter of 2022 and 2021, respectively. The increase in ETR was primarily attributable to an increase in nondeductible compensation and a decrease in tax benefits related to stock-based compensation.

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2022 FORM 10-Q

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Liquidity
Liquidity is a measure of our ability to access sufficient cash flows to meet the short-term and long-term cash requirements of our business operations. Our principal source of liquidity for operations is derived from cash provided by operating activities. We rely on cash provided by operating activities to meet our short-term liquidity requirements, which primarily relate to the payment of corporate payroll and other operating costs, and capital expenditures. Our cash flow related to WSE payroll and benefits is generally matched by advance collection from our clients. To minimize the credit risk associated with remitting the payroll and associated taxes and benefits costs, we require clients to prefund the payroll and related payroll taxes and benefits costs.
Included in our balance sheets are assets and liabilities resulting from transactions directly or indirectly associated with WSEs, including payroll and related taxes and withholdings, our sponsored workers' compensation and health insurance programs, and other benefit programs. Although we are not subject to regulatory restrictions that require us to do so, we distinguish and manage our corporate assets and liabilities separately from those current assets and liabilities held by us to satisfy our employer obligations associated with our WSEs as follows:
March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
(in millions)CorporateWSETotalCorporateWSETotal
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$235 $ $235 $612 $— $612 
Investments154  154 135 — 135 
Restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments19 1,197 1,216 19 1,176 1,195 
Other current assets73 415 488 91 406 497 
Total current assets$481 $1,612 $2,093 $857 $1,582 $2,439 
Total current liabilities$176 $1,612 $1,788 $157 $1,582 $1,739 
Working capital$305 $ $305 $700 $— $700 
Working capital for WSEs related activities
We designate funds to ensure that we have adequate current assets to satisfy our current obligations associated with WSEs, the Recovery Credit liability and 2021 Credit Program liability. We manage our WSE payroll and benefits obligations through collections of payments from our clients which generally occur two to three days in advance of client payroll dates. We regularly review our short-term obligations associated with our WSEs (such as payroll and related taxes, insurance premium and claim payments) and designate funds required to fulfill these short-term obligations, which we refer to as PFC. PFC is included in current assets as restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments.
We manage our sponsored benefit and workers' compensation insurance obligations by maintaining collateral funds in restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments. These collateral amounts are generally determined at the beginning of each plan year and we may be required by our insurance carriers to adjust our collateral balances when facts and circumstances change. We regularly review our collateral balances with our insurance carriers and anticipate funding further collateral in the future based upon our capital requirements. We classify our restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments as current and noncurrent assets to match against the anticipated timing of payments to carriers.
Working capital for corporate purposes

Corporate working capital as of March 31, 2022 decreased $395 million from December 31, 2021, primarily driven by a $377 million decrease in corporate unrestricted cash and cash equivalents due to cash paid to repurchase our stock and acquire Zenefits.


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MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
We use our available cash and cash equivalents to satisfy our operational and regulatory requirements and to fund capital expenditures. We believe that we can meet our present and reasonably foreseeable operating cash needs and future commitments through existing liquid assets, continuing cash flows from corporate operating activities and the potential issuance of debt or equity securities. We believe our existing corporate cash and cash equivalents and positive working capital will be sufficient to meet our working capital expenditure needs for at least the next twelve months.
Cash Flows
The following table presents our cash flow activities for the stated periods:
 Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)20222021
CorporateWSETotalCorporateWSETotal
Net cash provided by (used in):  
Operating activities$193 $21 $214 $131 $(306)$(175)
Investing activities(209)(4)(213)(9)(3)
Financing activities(353) (353)56 — 56 
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents, unrestricted and restricted$(369)$17 $(352)$193 $(315)$(122)
Cash and cash equivalents, unrestricted and restricted:
Beginning of period660 1,078 1,738 352 1,291 1,643 
End of period$291 $1,095 $1,386 $545 $976 $1,521 
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents:
Unrestricted$(377)$ $(377)$199 $— $199 
Restricted8 17 25 (6)(315)(321)
Operating Activities
Components of net cash provided by (used in) operating activities are as follows:
 Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)20222021
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities$214 $(175)
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities - WSE21 (306)
Net cash provided by operating activities - Corporate193 131 

The year-over-year change in net cash provided by operating activities for WSE purposes was primarily driven by timing of client payments, payments of payroll and payroll taxes, settlement of the Recovery Credit, and insurance claim activities. We expect the changes in restricted cash and cash equivalents to correspond to WSE cash provided by (or used in) operations as we manage our obligations associated with WSEs through restricted cash.

Our corporate operating cash flows in the three months ended March 31, 2022 increased, when compared to the same period in 2021, due to the increase in our net income and the timing of our payments of corporate obligations.
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MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
Investing Activities
Cash used in investing activities for the periods presented below primarily consisted of purchases of investments and capital expenditures, partially offset by proceeds from the sale and maturity of investments.
 Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)20222021
Investments:
Purchases of investments(91)(82)
Proceeds from sale and maturity of investments72 84 
Acquisition of Zenefits, net of cash acquired(183)— 
Cash provided by (used in) investments$(202)$
Capital expenditures:
Software and hardware$(10)$(4)
Office furniture, equipment and leasehold improvements(1)(1)
Cash used in capital expenditures$(11)$(5)
Cash used in investing activities$(213)$(3)
Investments
We invest a portion of available cash in investment-grade securities with effective maturities less than five years that are classified on our balance sheets as investments.
We also invest funds held as collateral to satisfy our long-term obligation towards workers' compensation liabilities. These investments are classified on our balance sheets as restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments. We review the amount and the anticipated holding period of these investments regularly in conjunction with our estimated long-term workers' compensation liabilities and anticipated claims payment trend. At March 31, 2022, our investments had a weighted average duration of less than two years and an average S&P credit rating of AA.
As of March 31, 2022, we held approximately $1.9 billion in restricted and unrestricted cash, cash equivalents and investments, of which $235 million was unrestricted cash and cash equivalents and $319 million was unrestricted investments. Refer to Note 2 in the condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes included in this Form 10-Q.
In February 2022, we acquired Zenefits for a total purchase price of $209 million, settled by the issuance of $17 million of TriNet stock to eligible selling shareholders, with the remainder paid in cash from corporate working capital. Refer to Note 11 in the condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes included in this Form 10-Q.
Capital Expenditures
During the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, we continued to make investments in software and hardware and we enhanced our existing service offerings and technology platform. We expect capital investments in our software and hardware to continue in the future.
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MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
Financing Activities
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities in the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021 consisted of our debt and equity-related activities.
 Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)20222021
Financing activities
Repurchase of common stock$(353)$(65)
Proceeds from issuance of 2029 Notes 500 
Repayment of borrowings (370)
Payment of debt issuance costs (7)
Payment of long-term financing fees (2)
Cash provided by (used in) financing activities$(353)$56 
In February 2022, our board of directors authorized a $300 million incremental increase to our ongoing stock repurchase program, which was initiated in May 2014. We use this program to return value to our stockholders and to offset dilution from the issuance of stock under our equity-based incentive plan and employee purchase plan.
Also in February 2022, we announced a tender offer to purchase for cash up to $300 million in value of our issued and outstanding common stock, plus the right to accept for purchase up to an additional 2% of our outstanding shares. The tender offer expired on March 17, 2022. In accordance with the terms and conditions of the tender offer, we accepted the tender of, and purchased, 3,653,690 shares at a price of $86.50 per share, for an aggregate cost of approximately $319 million, including fees and expenses relating to the tender offer. Included in the 3,653,690 shares that we accepted for purchase were 185,971 shares that we elected to purchase pursuant to our right to purchase up to an additional 2% of our outstanding shares.
During the three months ended March 31, 2022, we repurchased a total of 4,010,945 shares of our common stock for approximately $347 million, plus costs, through our stock repurchase program, including the completed tender offer. As of March 31, 2022, approximately $217 million remained available for repurchase under all authorizations by our board of directors. We plan to use current cash and cash generated from ongoing operating activities to fund this stock repurchase program.
In February 2021, we issued $500 million aggregate principal amount of our 2029 Notes. $370 million of the proceeds was used to repay and terminate the 2018 Term Loan A. The remaining funds were used for general corporate purposes. Refer to Note 9 in Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of our 2021 Form 10-K for further information.
Capital Resources
As of March 31, 2022, $500 million aggregate principal of our 2029 Notes was outstanding. The Indenture governing the 2029 Notes includes restrictive covenants limiting our ability to: (i) create liens on certain assets to secure debt; (ii) grant subsidiary guarantees of certain debt without also providing a guarantee of the 2029 Notes; and (iii) consolidate or merge with or into, or sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets to, another person, subject, in each case, to certain customary exceptions.
Our 2021 Credit Agreement includes a $500 million revolving credit facility. At March 31, 2022, we had $491 million available under our 2021 Credit Agreement. The 2021 Credit Agreement includes negative covenants that limit our ability to incur indebtedness and liens, sell assets and make restricted payments, including dividends and investments, subject to certain exceptions. In addition, the 2021 Credit Agreement also contains other customary affirmative and negative covenants and customary events of default. The 2021 Credit Agreement also contains a financial covenant that requires the Company to maintain certain maximum total net leverage ratios.
We were in compliance with all financial covenants under our 2021 Credit Agreement at March 31, 2022.
Critical Accounting Policies, Estimates and Judgments
Other than the inclusion of the following additional item that required significant estimation or judgment, there have been no material changes in our critical accounting policies as discussed in our 2021 Form 10-K.
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MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS

Business Combinations
Under the acquisition method of accounting we generally recognize the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed in an acquiree at their estimated fair values as of the date of acquisition. We measure goodwill as the excess of the fair value of consideration transferred over the net of the estimated fair values of the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed. Refer to Note 11 in Part I, Item 1. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, of this Form 10-Q.
The acquisition method of accounting requires us to exercise judgment and make significant estimates and assumptions regarding the fair values of the elements of a business combination as of the date of acquisition, including the estimated fair values of identifiable intangible assets, deferred tax asset valuation allowances, liabilities related to uncertain tax positions, and contingencies. This method also allows us to refine these estimates over a one-year measurement period to reflect new information obtained about facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date that, if known, would have affected the measurement of the amounts recognized as of that date. If we are required to retroactively adjust provisional amounts that we have recorded for the fair values of assets and liabilities in connection with acquisitions, these adjustments could materially decrease net income and result in lower asset values on our consolidated balance sheet.
These significant estimates are inherently uncertain as they relate to future economic conditions, future cash flows that we expect to generate from the acquired assets and customer behavior. If the subsequent actual results and updated projections of the underlying business activity change compared with the assumptions and projections used to develop these values, we could record impairment charges. In addition, we have estimated the economic lives of certain acquired assets and these lives are used to calculate depreciation and amortization expense. If our estimates of the economic lives change, depreciation or amortization expenses could be accelerated or slowed.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements
There have been no material changes to our recent accounting pronouncements as discussed in our 2021 Form 10-K.
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QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
AND CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Our exposure to changes in interest rates relates primarily to our investment portfolio. Changes in U.S. interest rates affect the interest earned on the Company's cash, cash equivalents and the fair value of our investments.
Our cash equivalents consist primarily of money market mutual funds, which are not significantly exposed to interest rate risk. Our investments are subject to interest rate risk because these securities generally include a fixed interest rate. As a result, the market values of these securities are affected by changes in prevailing interest rates. We attempt to limit our exposure to interest rate risk and credit risk by investing in instruments that meet the minimum credit quality, liquidity, diversification and other requirements of our investment policy. Our investments consist of liquid, investment-grade securities. The risk of rate changes on investment balances was not material at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021.
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QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
AND CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Controls and Procedures
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
We have, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and our Chief Financial Officer (CFO), evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures as of March 31, 2022, as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.
Based on the evaluation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of March 31, 2022, our CEO and CFO have concluded that the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of such date in ensuring that (i) information required to be disclosed by the Company in reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including the CEO and CFO, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure and (ii) such information is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC rules and forms.
We have concluded that the condensed consolidated financial statements included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q fairly present, in all material respects, our financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the periods presented in conformity with GAAP.
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting identified in connection with the evaluation required by Rule 13a-15(d) and 15d-15(d) of the Exchange Act that occurred during the quarter ended March 31, 2022, that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
Limitations on Effectiveness of Controls and Procedures
In designing and evaluating the disclosure controls and procedures, management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objectives. In addition, the design of disclosure controls and procedures must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints and that management is required to apply judgment in evaluating the benefits of possible controls and procedures relative to their costs.
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FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

TRINET GROUP, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (Unaudited)
 Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions except per share data)20222021
Professional service revenues
$194 $153 
Insurance service revenues
1,024 907 
Total revenues
1,218 1,060 
Insurance costs
823 751 
Cost of providing services
70 64 
Sales and marketing
45 46 
General and administrative
47 36 
Systems development and programming
16 13 
Depreciation and amortization of intangible assets
13 12 
Total costs and operating expenses
1,014 922 
Operating income
204 138 
Other income (expense):
Interest expense, bank fees and other
(5)(5)
Interest income
1 2 
Income before provision for income taxes
200 135 
Income taxes
54 34 
Net income
$146 $101 
Other comprehensive loss, net of income taxes(8)(1)
Comprehensive income
$138 $100 
Net income per share:
Basic
$2.23 $1.53 
Diluted
$2.21 $1.51 
Weighted average shares:
Basic
65 66 
Diluted
66 67 
 See accompanying notes.
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FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
TRINET GROUP, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS (Unaudited)
March 31,December 31,
(in millions, except share and per share data)20222021
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents
$235 $612 
Investments
154 135 
Restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments
1,216 1,195 
Accounts receivable, net
10 15 
Unbilled revenue, net
317 324 
Prepaid expenses, net
55 67 
Other current assets
106 91 
Total current assets2,093 2,439 
Restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments, noncurrent
163 166 
Investments, noncurrent
165 168 
Property, equipment and software, net
82 79 
Operating lease right-of-use asset
48 42 
Goodwill
433 294 
Other intangible assets, net
100 6 
Other assets
120 115 
Total assets$3,204 $3,309 
Liabilities and stockholders' equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable and other current liabilities
$118 $86 
Client deposits and other client liabilities
124 97 
Accrued wages
561 369 
Accrued health insurance costs, net
166 174 
Accrued workers' compensation costs, net
48 55 
Payroll tax liabilities and other payroll withholdings
739 929 
Operating lease liabilities
15 11 
Insurance premiums and other payables
17 18 
Total current liabilities1,788 1,739 
Long-term debt, noncurrent
495 495 
Accrued workers' compensation costs, noncurrent, net
143 135 
Deferred taxes
26 11 
Operating lease liabilities, noncurrent
48 41 
Other non-current liabilities
9 7 
Total liabilities2,509 2,428 
Commitments and contingencies (see Note 6)
Stockholders' equity:
Preferred stock  
($0.000025 par value per share; 20,000,000 shares authorized; no shares issued or outstanding at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021)
Common stock and additional paid-in capital837 808 
($0.000025 par value per share; 750,000,000 shares authorized; 62,258,896 and 65,968,224 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively)
Retained earnings (Accumulated deficit) (133)74 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(9)(1)
Total stockholders' equity695 881 
Total liabilities & stockholders' equity$3,204 $3,309 
See accompanying notes.
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FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
TRINET GROUP, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY (Unaudited)
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)
20222021
Total Stockholders' Equity, beginning balance$881 $607 
Common Stock and Additional Paid-In Capital
Beginning balance
808 747 
Issuance of common stock for the acquisition of Zenefits17 — 
Stock based compensation expense
12 11 
Ending balance
837 758 
Retained Earnings (Accumulated Deficit)
Beginning balance
74 (144)
Net income
146 101 
Repurchase of common stock
(350)(60)
Awards effectively repurchased for required employee withholding taxes
(3)(5)
Ending balance
(133)(108)
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income
Beginning balance
(1)4 
Other comprehensive loss(8)(1)
Ending balance
(9)3 
Total Stockholders' Equity, ending balance
$695 $653 
See accompanying notes.

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FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
TRINET GROUP, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (Unaudited)
 Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)20222021
Operating activities
Net income
$146 $101 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization
21 19 
Stock based compensation12 11 
Amortization of ROU asset, lease modification and impairment3 3 
Deferred income taxes
2  
Other2 2 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable, net
8 13 
Unbilled revenue, net7 (94)
Other assets and prepaid expenses, net(11)(19)
Accounts payable and other liabilities10 29 
Client deposits and other client liabilities28 17 
Accrued wages188 179 
Accrued health insurance costs, net(8)(7)
Accrued workers' compensation costs, net1  
Payroll taxes payable and other payroll withholdings(191)(426)
Operating lease liabilities(4)(3)
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities214 (175)
Investing activities
Purchases of marketable securities
(91)(82)
Proceeds from sale and maturity of marketable securities72 84 
Purchases of property and equipment(11)(5)
Acquisition of Zenefits, net of cash acquired(183) 
Net cash used in investing activities
(213)(3)
Financing activities
Repurchase of common stock
(350)(60)
Awards effectively repurchased for required employee withholding taxes
(3)(5)
Payment of long-term financing fees and debt issuance costs (9)
Proceeds from issuance of 2029 Notes 500 
Repayment of debt
 (370)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities(353)56 
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents, unrestricted and restricted(352)(122)
Cash and cash equivalents, unrestricted and restricted:
Beginning of period
1,738 1,643 
End of period
$1,386 $1,521 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information
Interest paid
$9 $2 
Income taxes (refund) paid, net$(12)$2 
See accompanying notes.
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FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
NOTE 1. DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Description of Business
TriNet Group, Inc. (TriNet, or the Company, we, our and us), a professional employer organization, provides comprehensive human resources solutions for small and medium-size businesses under a co-employment model. These HR solutions include multi-state payroll processing and tax administration, employee benefits programs, including health insurance and retirement plans, workers' compensation insurance and claims management, employment and benefit law compliance, and other HR-related services. Through the co-employment relationship, we are the employer of record for certain employment-related administrative and regulatory purposes for the worksite employees (WSEs), including:
compensation through wages and salaries,
certain employer payroll-related tax payments,
employee payroll-related tax withholdings and payments,
employee benefit programs, including health and life insurance, and others, and
workers' compensation coverage.
Our clients are responsible for the day-to-day job responsibilities of the WSEs.
With our acquisition of Zenefits, we also provide cloud-based HCM services to small and medium-size businesses that allows them to manage hiring, onboarding and managing employee information, payroll processing and payroll tax administration, health insurance, and other benefits, from a single cloud-based software platform. We are not the co-employer or employer of record for such users.

We operate in one reportable segment. All of our service revenues are generated from external clients. Less than 1% of our revenue is generated outside of the U.S.
Basis of Presentation
These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America for interim financial reporting and the instructions to Form 10-Q and Rule 10-01 of Regulation S-X of the Rules and Regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission. Certain information and note disclosures included in our annual financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. In the opinion of management, the condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, that are normal and recurring in nature, necessary for fair financial statement presentation. The results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2022 are not necessarily indicative of the operating results anticipated for the full year. These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 (2021 Form 10-K). Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to current period presentation.

Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect certain reported amounts and related disclosures.
These estimates are based on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable from the facts available to us. Some of the assumptions are highly uncertain at the time of estimation. To the extent actual experience differs from the assumptions used, our consolidated financial statements could be materially affected.
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FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Revenue Recognition
Performance Obligation: Cloud HCM Services
We receive fees through our cloud-based platform for providing subscription agreements to our human resource management software platform and related services. Software fees for the premium software and services are derived on a per user per month. Certain software fees are earned on a per transaction basis.
We satisfy our performance obligation by providing access to our cloud-based software-as-a service over time, and processing transactions for usage-based contracts. Revenues associated with this performance obligation are reported as professional services revenue. For non-usage-based fees, the period of time over which we are performing is commensurate with the contract term because that is the period during which we have an obligation to provide the service. The performance obligation is recognized on time elapsed basis, by month for which the services are provided, once enablement/implementation is complete. For usage-based fees, revenue is recognized in the month in which we provide the usage to the customer. Certain contracts have options to purchase additional user rights, which are recognized in the period the additional rights are delivered.
Payment terms and conditions vary by contract type, although our standard terms require immediate payment upon invoicing, or within 30 days if contractually agreed upon. In instances where the timing of revenue recognition differs from the timing of invoicing, we have determined that our contracts do not include a significant financing component.
Recovery Credit
The change in the balance of the Recovery Credit unsatisfied performance obligation, included in client deposits and other client liabilities on the balance sheet was as follows:
March 31, 2022
(in millions)Three Months Ended
Balance at beginning of period$23 
(-) Distributions to clients(13)
Balance at end of period$10 
Accrued Health Insurance Costs
We sponsor and administer a number of employee benefit plans, including group health, dental, and vision as an employer plan sponsor under section 3(5) of the ERISA. In the three months ended March 31, 2022, a majority of our group health insurance costs related to risk-based plans. Our remaining group health insurance costs were for guaranteed-cost policies.
Accrued health insurance costs are established to provide for the estimated unpaid costs of reimbursing the carriers for paying claims within the deductible layer in accordance with risk-based health insurance policies. These accrued costs include estimates for reported losses, plus estimates for claims incurred but not paid. We assess accrued health insurance costs regularly based upon external actuarial studies that include other relevant factors such as current and historical claims payment patterns, plan enrollment and medical trend rates.
In certain carrier contracts we are required to prepay the expected claims activity for subsequent periods. These prepaid balances by agreement permit net settlement of obligations and offset the accrued health insurance costs. As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, prepayments and miscellaneous receivables offsetting accrued health insurance costs were $55 million and $54 million, respectively. When the prepaid amount is in excess of our recorded liability the net asset position is included in prepaid expenses. As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, accrued health insurance costs offsetting prepaid expenses were $76 million and $79 million, respectively.
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FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
NOTE 2. CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS AND INVESTMENTS - UNRESTRICTED AND RESTRICTED
Under the terms of the agreements with certain of our workers' compensation and health benefit insurance carriers, we are required to maintain collateral in trust accounts for the benefit of specified insurance carriers and to reimburse the carriers’ claim payments within our deductible layer. We invest a portion of the collateral amounts in marketable securities. We report the current and noncurrent portions of these trust accounts as restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments on the consolidated balance sheets.
We require our clients to prefund their payroll and related taxes and other withholding liabilities before payroll is processed or due for payment. This prefund is included in restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments as payroll funds collected, which is designated to pay pending payrolls, payroll tax liabilities and other payroll withholdings.
We also invest available corporate funds, primarily in fixed income securities which meet the requirements of our corporate investment policy and are classified as available for sale (AFS).
Our total cash, cash equivalents and investments are summarized below:
March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
(in millions)Cash and cash equivalentsAvailable-for-sale marketable securitiesTotalCash and cash equivalentsAvailable-for-sale marketable securitiesTotal
Cash and cash equivalents$235 $ $235 $612 $ $612 
Investments 154 154  135 135 
Restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments:
Payroll funds collected1,031  1,031 1,012  1,012 
Collateral for health benefits claims29 102 131 25 98 123 
Collateral for workers' compensation claims51  51 58  58 
Other security deposits3  3 2  2 
Total restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments1,114 102 1,216 1,097 98 1,195 
Investments, noncurrent 165 165  168 168 
Restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments, noncurrent
Collateral for workers' compensation claims33 126 159 29 137 166 
Other security deposits4  4    
Total$1,386 $547 $1,933 $1,738 $538 $2,276 
NOTE 3. INVESTMENTS

The amortized cost, gross unrealized gains, gross unrealized losses, and fair value of our AFS investments as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021 are presented below:
March 31, 2022December 31, 2021
(in millions)Amortized CostGross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized LossesFair ValueAmortized CostGross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized LossesFair Value
Asset-backed securities$47 $ $(2)$45 $49 $ $ $49 
Corporate bonds170  (4)166 167 1 (1)167 
U.S. government agencies and government-
sponsored agencies
16  (1)15 17   17 
U.S. treasuries308  (6)302 285 1 (1)285 
Certificate of deposit11   11 11   11 
Other debt securities8   8 9   9 
Total$560 $ $(13)$547 $538 $2 $(2)$538 
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As of March 31, 2022, gross unrealized losses related to AFS investments in an unrealized loss position for greater than 12 months were immaterial. Gross unrealized losses were immaterial at December 31, 2021.
Unrealized losses on fixed income securities are principally caused by changes in market interest rates and the financial condition of the issuer. In analyzing an issuer's financial condition, we consider whether the securities are issued by the federal government or its agencies, whether downgrades by credit rating agencies have occurred, and industry analysts' reports. As we believe substantially all of the unrealized losses are driven by changes in market interest rates and we have the ability to hold these investments until maturity, or for the foreseeable future, no impairment charges were deemed necessary. Actual maturities may differ from contractual maturities because borrowers may have the right to prepay obligations with or without prepayment penalties.
The fair value of debt investments by contractual maturity are shown below:
(in millions)March 31, 2022
One year or less$233 
Over one year through five years280 
Over five years through ten years12 
Over ten years22 
Total fair value$547 
The gross proceeds from sales and maturities of AFS securities for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and March 31, 2021 are presented below. We had immaterial gross realized gains and losses from sales of investments for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021.
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)20222021
Gross proceeds from sales$22 $41 
Gross proceeds from maturities50 43 
Total$