10-Q 1 tnet-20240331.htm 10-Q tnet-20240331
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, DC 20549
FORM 10-Q
(Mark One)
    QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2024
or
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number: 001-36373
Logo.jpg
TRINET GROUP, INC.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
Delaware
95-3359658
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
One Park Place,Suite 600
Dublin,
CA
94568
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (510352-5000
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock par value $0.000025 per share
TNET
New York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  x    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
xAccelerated filero
Non-accelerated filer
o
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  Yes  o    No  o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  x
The number of shares of Registrant’s Common Stock outstanding as of April 19, 2024 was 50,563,849.


TABLE OF CONTENTS


TRINET GROUP, INC.
Form 10-Q - Quarterly Report
For the Quarterly Period Ended March 31, 2024

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Form 10-Q
Cross Reference
Page
Part I, Item 1.
Part I, Item 2.
Part I, Item 3.
Part I, Item 4.
Part II, Item 1.
Part II, Item 1A.
Part II, Item 2.
Part II, Item 3.
Part II, Item 4.
Part II, Item 5.
Part II, Item 6.
TRINET
2
2024 Q1 FORM 10-Q

Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations
Acronyms and abbreviations are used throughout this report, particularly in Part I, Item 1. Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and Part I, Item 2. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
2022 CreditsIncludes both of our announced 2022 credits, each of which provides eligible clients with discretionary credits, subject to certain predefined conditions.
2021 Credit Agreement
Our credit agreement dated February 26, 2021, as amended, supplemented or modified from time to time, most recently August 16, 2023.
2021 Revolver
Our $700 million revolving line of credit included in our 2021 Credit Agreement
2029 NotesOur $500 million senior unsecured notes maturing in March 2029
2031 NotesOur $400 million senior unsecured notes maturing in August 2031
AFSAvailable-for-sale
CARES ActCoronavirus Aid Relief and Economic Security Act
CEOChief Executive Officer
CFOChief Financial Officer
COBRAConsolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act
ColleagueTriNet’s internal employees (as distinguished from WSEs and HRIS Users)
COPSCost of providing services
COVID-19Novel coronavirus
D&ADepreciation and amortization expenses
EBITDAEarnings before interest expense, taxes, depreciation and amortization of intangible assets
EPSEarnings Per Share
ERISAEmployee Retirement Income Security Act
ESACEmployer Services Assurance Corporation
ETREffective tax rate
FFCRAFamilies First Coronavirus Response Act
G&AGeneral and administrative
GAAPGenerally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States
HCMHuman capital management
HRHuman Resources
HRISHuman resources information system
HRIS UserA client employee who is a user of our HR Platform (for example, employees of an HRIS client)
IRSInternal Revenue Service
ICRInsurance cost ratio
ISRInsurance service revenues
LIBORLondon Inter-bank Offered Rate
MD&AManagement's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
OEOperating expenses
PEOProfessional Employer Organization
PFCPayroll funds collected
PSRProfessional service revenues
R&DResearch and Development
Reg FDRegulation Fair Disclosure
ROURight-of-use
RSURestricted Stock Unit
TRINET
3
2024 Q1 FORM 10-Q

SBCStock Based Compensation
S&MSales and marketing
S&PStandard & Poor's
SD&PSystems development and programming
SECU.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
SMBSmall and medium-size business
TriNet Clarus R+DClarus R+D Solutions, LLC
U.S.United States
WSEA worksite employee who is co-employed by, or otherwise receiving services from a TriNet PEO
YTDYear to date
ZenefitsYourPeople, Inc. and its subsidiaries

TRINET
4
2024 Q1 FORM 10-Q

FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS AND OTHER FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
For purposes of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (Form 10-Q), the terms “TriNet,” “the Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to TriNet Group, Inc., and its subsidiaries. This Form 10-Q contains statements that are not historical in nature, are predictive in nature, or that depend upon or refer to future events or conditions or otherwise contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 21 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward-looking statements are often identified by the use of words such as, but not limited to, "ability," “anticipate,” “believe,” “can,” “continue,” “could,” “design,” “estimate,” “expect,” “forecast,” “hope,” "impact," “intend,” “may,” “outlook,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “strategy,” “target,” "value," “will,” “would” and similar expressions or variations intended to identify forward-looking statements. Examples of forward-looking statements include, among others, TriNet’s expectations regarding: our ability to successfully diversify our overall service and technology offerings to support SMBs throughout their lifecycle; our plans and ability to grow our client base; the impact of our ongoing efforts to ensure that our billing practices best match the expectations of our customers and the impact on our WSE count; our expectations regarding medical utilization rates by our WSEs and the impact of inflation on our insurance costs; the effect that our stock repurchase program will have on our business; the impact of our notes; our ability to leverage our scale and industry HR experience to deliver vertical focused offerings; the impact of planned improvements to our technology platform and HRIS software and whether they will meet the needs of our current clients and attract new ones; the implementation of our ERP system and its impact on our internal financial controls and operations; our ability to improve operating efficiencies; the impact of our client service initiatives and whether they enhance client experience and satisfaction; our continued ability to provide access to a broad range of benefit programs on a cost-effective basis; our expectations regarding the volume and severity of insurance claims and insurance claim trends; the effectiveness of our risk strategies for, and management of, workers' compensation, health benefit insurance costs and deductibles, and EPLI risk; the metrics that may be indicators of future financial performance; the relative value of our benefit offerings versus those SMBs can independently obtain; the impact that our benefit offerings have for SMBs seeking to attract and retain employees; the principal competitive drivers in our market; the impact of our plans to improve our sales performance, grow net new clients and manage client attrition; our investment strategy and its impact on our ability to generate future interest income, net income, and Adjusted EBITDA; seasonal trends and their impact on our business; fluctuations in the period-to-period timing of when we incur certain operating expenses; the estimates and assumptions we use to prepare our financial statements; our belief we can meet our present and reasonably foreseeable cash needs and future commitments through existing liquid assets and continuing cash flows from corporate operating activities; and other expectations, outlooks and forecasts on our future business, operational and financial performance.
Important factors that could cause actual results, level of activity, performance or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements are discussed above and throughout our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023 filed with the SEC on February 15, 2024 (our 2023 Form 10-K), including those appearing under the heading “Risk Factors” in Item 1A, and under the heading “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 of our 2023 Form 10-K, and those appearing in the other periodic filings we make with the SEC, and including risk factors associated with: our ability to manage unexpected changes in workers’ compensation and health insurance claims and costs by WSEs; our ability to mitigate the unique business risks we face as a co-employer; the effects of volatility in the financial and economic environment on the businesses that make up our client base; loss of clients for reasons beyond our control and the short-term contracts we typically use with our clients; the impact of regional or industry-specific economic and health factors on our operations; the impact of failures or limitations in the business systems and centers we rely upon; the impact of discontinuing our discretionary credits on our business and client loyalty and retention; changes in our insurance coverage or our relationships with key insurance carriers; our ability to improve our services and technology to satisfy client and regulatory expectations; our ability to effectively integrate businesses we have acquired or may acquire in the future; our ability to effectively manage and improve our operational effectiveness and resiliency; our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel; the effects of increased competition and our ability to compete effectively; the impact on our business of cyber-attacks, breaches, disclosures and other data-related incidents; our ability to protect against and remediate cyber-attacks, breaches, disclosures and other data-related incidents, whether intentional or inadvertent and whether attributable to us or our service providers; our ability to comply with evolving data privacy and security laws; our ability to manage changes in, uncertainty regarding, or adverse application of the complex laws and regulations that govern our business; changing laws and regulations governing health insurance and employee benefits; our ability to be recognized as an employer of worksite employees and for our benefits plans to satisfy all requirements under federal and state regulations; changes in the laws and regulations that govern what it means to be an employer, employee or independent contractor; the impact of new and changing laws regarding remote work; our ability to comply with the licensing requirements that govern our solutions; the outcome of existing and future legal and tax
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FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS AND OTHER FINANCIAL INFORMATION
proceedings; fluctuation in our results of operations and stock price due to factors outside of our control; our ability to comply with the restrictions of our credit facility and meet our debt obligations; and the impact of concentrated ownership in our stock by Atairos and other large stockholders. Any of these factors could cause our actual results to differ materially from our anticipated results.
Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance but are based on management’s expectations as of the date of this Form 10-Q and assumptions that are inherently subject to uncertainties, risks and changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict. Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from our current expectations and any past results, performance or achievements. Given these risks and uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements.
The information provided in this Form 10-Q is based upon the facts and circumstances known as of the date of this Form 10-Q, and any forward-looking statements made by us in this Form 10-Q speak only as of the date of this Form 10-Q. We undertake no obligation to revise or update any of the information provided in this Form 10-Q, except as required by law.
The MD&A of this Form 10-Q includes references to our performance measures presented in conformity with GAAP and other non-GAAP financial measures that we use to manage our business, to make planning decisions, to allocate resources and to use as performance measures in our executive compensation plans. Refer to the Non-GAAP Financial Measures within our MD&A for definitions and reconciliations from GAAP measures.
Website Disclosures
We use our website (www.trinet.com) to announce material non-public information to the public and to comply with our disclosure obligations under Reg FD. We also use our website to communicate with the public about our Company, our services, and other matters. Our SEC filings, press releases and recent public conference calls and webcasts can also be found on our website. The information we post on our website could be deemed to be material information under Reg FD. We encourage investors and others interested in our Company to review the information we post on our website. Information contained in or accessible through our website is not a part of this report.
Our Company is the sole owner of the trademark “TriNet” and other trademarks appearing in this report. Our Company does not intend to use or display trade names or trademarks owned by others in a manner that would imply any form of association with any of those companies.
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MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Executive Summary
Overview
TriNet is a leading provider of comprehensive and flexible HCM solutions designed to address a wide range of SMB needs as they change over time. Our flexible HCM solutions free SMBs from HR complexities and empower SMBs to focus on what matters most - growing their business and enabling their people.
TriNet offers access to human capital expertise, benefits, payroll, risk mitigation and compliance, all enabled by industry leading technology capabilities. TriNet's suite of products also includes services and software-based solutions to help streamline workflows by connecting HR, benefits, payroll, time and attendance, and employee engagement. Clients can use our industry tailored PEO services and technology platform to receive the full benefit of our HCM services enabling their WSEs to participate in our TriNet-sponsored employee benefit plans. Clients can alternatively choose to use our self-directed, cloud-based HRIS software solution and add HR services such as payroll and access to benefits management as needed. By providing PEO and HRIS services, we believe that we can support a wider range of SMBs and create a pipeline of HRIS clients that may be able to benefit from and transition to TriNet’s higher-touch PEO services at future points in their business lifecycle. In order to better serve TriNet’s customers throughout their business lifecycle, we are investing in our technology platform so that it can accommodate both PEO and HRIS customers.
Operational Highlights
Our consolidated results for the first quarter of 2024 reflect our continuing efforts to serve our clients, attract new clients and invest in our platform.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, we:
improved sales performance and customer retention,
continued to grow total revenues and manage expenses prudently,
launched a common stock dividend of $0.25 per share paid in April 2024,
welcomed Mike Simonds as our new President and CEO, and
celebrated our ten-year anniversary as a NYSE-listed company.





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Performance Highlights
Our results for the first quarter ended March 31, 2024, when compared to the same period of 2023, are noted below:
Q1 2024
$1.3B$122M86%
Total revenuesOperating incomeInsurance cost ratio
%increase(28)%decrease%increase
$91M$1.78$111M
Net incomeDiluted EPSAdjusted Net income *
(31)%decrease(18)%decrease(26)%decrease
348,164351,919195,157
Average WSEs **Total WSEs **Average HRIS Users
%increase%increase(16)%decrease
*
Non-GAAP measure. See definitions below under the heading "Non-GAAP Financial Measures".
**
Total WSEs and Average WSEs include approximately 19,600 and 17,600, respectively, for incremental WSEs that were charged a platform user access fee. Additionally, Total WSEs and Average WSEs include approximately 5,300 and 5,400, respectively, of incremental additional service recipients for the quarter ended March 31, 2024. These were identified as a result of our ongoing effort to ensure that our billing practices best match the expectations of our customers. For details, refer to the heading "Operating Metrics – Worksite Employees (WSEs).”
Our total revenues increased 1% compared to the same period in 2023, driven by rate increases, partially offset by lower health plan enrollment.
During the first quarter of 2024, our Average WSEs and Total WSEs increased 6% and 7%, respectively, compared to the same period in 2023, primarily due to additional PEO Platform Users and additional service recipients identified as a result of our ongoing effort to ensure that our billing practices best match the expectations of our customers.
Our ICR was 4 points higher compared to the same period in 2023, driven by increased health benefits utilization rates and inflation in health costs.
Higher insurance costs, operating expenses and interest expense, partially offset by higher revenues, resulted in decreases of net income and Adjusted Net income of 31% and 26%, respectively, as compared to the same period in 2023.


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Results of Operations
The following table summarizes our results of operations for the first quarter ended March 31, 2024, when compared to the same period of 2023. For details of the critical accounting judgments and estimates that could affect our Results of Operations, see the Critical Accounting Judgments and Estimates section within the MD&A in Item 7 of our 2023 Form 10-K.
 Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions, except operating metrics data)20242023% Change
Income Statement Data:
Professional service revenues$214 $205 %
Insurance service revenues1,050 1,041 
Total revenues1,264 1,246 
Insurance costs907 852 
Operating expenses235 225 
Total costs and operating expenses1,142 1,077 
Operating income122 169 (28)
Other income (expense):
Interest expense, bank fees and other(16)(7)129 
Interest income18 18 — 
Income before provision for income taxes124 180 (31)
Income taxes33 49 (33)
Net income$91 $131 (31)%
Cash Flow Data:
Net cash used in operating activities(122)(77)58 
Net cash used in investing activities(47)(23)104 
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities(30)200 (115)
Non-GAAP measures (1):
Adjusted EBITDA$180 223 (19)
Adjusted Net income$111 150 (26)
Corporate Operating Cash Flows201 169 19 
Operating Metrics:
Insurance Cost Ratio86 %82 %
Average WSEs (2)
348,164 327,107 %
Total WSEs (2)
351,919 328,299 %
Average HRIS Users
195,157 231,347 (16)%
(1)    Refer to Non-GAAP measures definitions and reconciliations from GAAP measures under the heading "Non-GAAP Financial Measures".
(2)    Total WSEs and Average WSEs include approximately 19,600 and 17,600, respectively, for incremental WSEs that were charged a platform user access fee for the first quarter ended March 31, 2024,. Additionally, Total WSEs and Average WSEs include approximately 5,300 and 5,400, respectively, incremental additional service recipients. These were identified as a result of our ongoing effort to ensure that our billing practices best match the expectations of our customers. For details, refer to the heading "Operating Metrics – Worksite Employees (WSEs).”

The following table summarizes our balance sheet data as of March 31, 2024 compared to December 31, 2023.
(in millions)March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
% Change
Balance Sheet Data:
Working capital$171 $115 49 %
Total assets3,968 3,693 
Debt1,093 1,093 — 
Total stockholders’ equity143 78 83 
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MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
In addition to financial measures presented in accordance with GAAP, we monitor other non-GAAP financial measures that we use to manage our business, to make planning decisions, to allocate resources and to use as performance measures in our executive compensation plan. These key financial measures provide an additional view of our operational performance over the long-term and provide information that we use to maintain and grow our business.
The presentation of these non-GAAP financial measures is used to enhance the understanding of certain aspects of our financial performance. It is not meant to be considered in isolation from, superior to, or as a substitute for the directly comparable financial measures prepared in accordance with GAAP.
Non-GAAP MeasureDefinition
How We Use The Measure
Adjusted EBITDA
• Net income, excluding the effects of:
- income tax provision,
- interest expense, bank fees and other,
- depreciation,
- amortization of intangible assets,
- stock based compensation expense,
- amortization of cloud computing arrangements, and
- transaction and integration costs.
• Provides period-to-period comparisons on a consistent basis and an understanding as to how our management evaluates the effectiveness of our business strategies by excluding certain non-recurring costs, which include transaction and integration costs, as well as certain non-cash charges such as depreciation and amortization, and stock-based compensation and certain impairment charges recognized based on the estimated fair values. We believe these charges are either not directly resulting from our core operations or not indicative of our ongoing operations.
• Enhances comparisons to the prior period and, accordingly, facilitates the development of future projections and earnings growth prospects.
• Provides a measure, among others, used in the determination of incentive compensation for management.
• We also sometimes refer to Adjusted EBITDA margin, which is the ratio of Adjusted EBITDA to total revenues.
Adjusted Net Income
• Net income, excluding the effects of:
- effective income tax rate (1),
- stock based compensation,
- amortization of intangible assets, net,
- non-cash interest expense,
- transaction and integration costs, and
- the income tax effect (at our effective tax rate (1) of these pre-tax adjustments.
• Provides information to our stockholders and board of directors to understand how our management evaluates our business, to monitor and evaluate our operating results, and analyze profitability of our ongoing operations and trends on a consistent basis by excluding certain non-cash charges.
Corporate Operating Cash Flows• Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities, excluding the effects of:
- Assets associated with WSEs (accounts receivable, unbilled revenue, prepaid expenses, other payroll assets and other current assets) and
- Liabilities associated with WSEs (client deposits and other client liabilities, accrued wages, payroll tax liabilities and other payroll withholdings, accrued health insurance costs, accrued workers' compensation costs, insurance premiums and other payables, and other current liabilities).
• Provides information that our stockholders and management can use to evaluate our cash flows from operations independent of the current assets and liabilities associated with our WSEs.
• Enhances comparisons to prior periods and, accordingly, used as a liquidity measure to manage liquidity between corporate and WSE related activities, and to help determine and plan our cash flow and capital strategies.
(1)    Non-GAAP effective tax rate is 25.6% for the first quarters of 2024 and 2023, which excludes the income tax impact from stock-based compensation, changes in uncertain tax positions, and nonrecurring benefits or expenses from federal legislative changes.



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Reconciliation of GAAP to Non-GAAP Measures

The table below presents a reconciliation of Net income to Adjusted EBITDA:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)
20242023
Net income
$91 $131 
Provision for income taxes
33 49 
Stock based compensation
20 11 
Interest expense, bank fees and other16 
Depreciation and amortization of intangible assets18 18 
Amortization of cloud computing arrangements2 
Transaction and integration costs 
Adjusted EBITDA$180 $223 
Adjusted EBITDA Margin
14.2 %17.9 %
The table below presents a reconciliation of Net income to Adjusted Net Income:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)
20242023
Net income
$91 $131 
Effective income tax rate adjustment1 
Stock based compensation20 11 
Amortization of other intangible assets, net5 
Transaction and integration costs 
Income tax impact of pre-tax adjustments(6)(6)
Adjusted Net Income$111 $150 

The table below presents a reconciliation of net cash provided by operating activities to Corporate Operating Cash Flows:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
(in millions)20242023
Net cash used in operating activities$(122)$(77)
  Less: Change in WSE related other current assets(420)(178)
  Less: Change in WSE related liabilities97 (68)
Net cash used in operating activities - WSE$(323)$(246)
Net cash provided by operating activities - Corporate$201 $169 

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Operating Metrics
Worksite Employees (WSE)
Average WSE change is a volume measure we use to monitor the performance of our PEO business. Our PEO clients generally change their payroll service providers at the beginning of the payroll tax and benefits enrollment year; as a result, we have historically experienced our highest volumes of new PEO clients joining and existing clients terminating in the month of January. PEO client attrition, new PEO client additions and changes in employment levels within our installed PEO client base all impact our Average WSEs and Total WSEs as we move through a calendar year.
We support WSEs from the date on which their co-employment with TriNet commences through the end of their co-employment with TriNet and also after their co-employment period. We define WSEs to include co-employees and other individuals receiving PEO services, such as individuals who receive COBRA benefits post co-employment or are subject to partnership tax reporting as well as individuals who utilize our PEO platform on behalf of TriNet PEO clients. As part of an ongoing effort to ensure that our billing practices best match the expectations of our customers, in the third quarter of 2023 we determined that certain individuals such as those described above and certain co-employees were not previously or consistently counted in Total WSEs and Average WSEs. This resulting adjustment increased our reported Total WSEs by approximately 5,300 for March 31, 2024 and Average WSEs by approximately 5,400 for the first quarter of 2024. We intend to continue our ongoing effort to ensure that our billing practices best match the expectations of our customers and in the future we may identify additional individuals that should be included in Total WSEs and Average WSEs.
In December 2023, we implemented a platform user access fee to charge clients for those users of our PEO platform that may not be co-employed by us and to charge clients for co-employees for whom payroll may not be regularly run. In addition to co-employees for whom payroll may not be regularly run, this includes individuals authorized by our clients to access and use the PEO platform for functions such as bookkeeping and benefits management. The amount of the fee is comparable to the fee we charge for users of our HRIS platform. While the amount of revenue we recognized for this service to date has not been significant, these users of the PEO platform for whose access we charged this fee increased our reported Total WSEs by approximately 19,600 as of March 31, 2024 and Average WSEs by approximately 17,600 for the first quarter of 2024.
The effect of this new fee is that we are now receiving revenue from two types of users on our PEO platform, those that are co-employed in our PEO business and those that are utilizing our PEO platform, albeit in a more limited capacity. The table below illustrates how those two components comprise our Total WSE and Average WSE metrics.
 Three Months Ended March 31,% Change
202420232024 vs. 2023
Average WSEs348,164 327,107 
   Co-Employed330,566 327,107 
   PEO Platform Users17,598 N/AN/A
Total WSEs351,919 328,299 
   Co-Employed332,361 328,299 
   PEO Platform Users19,558 N/AN/A
Average WSEs increased 6% when comparing the first quarter of 2024 to the same period in 2023, primarily due to the additional Co-Employed and PEO Platform Users WSEs described above. The growth in Average WSEs was driven by our Main Street, Non-Profit and Financial Services verticals, partially offset by decreases in our Technology and Professional Services verticals.
Total WSEs can be used to estimate our beginning WSEs for the next period and, as a result, can be used as an indicator of our potential future success in generating revenue, growing our business and retaining clients. Total WSEs increased 7% when compared to the same period in 2023, primarily due to the additional Co-Employed and PEO Platform Users WSEs described above.
Anticipated revenues for future periods can diverge from the revenue expectation derived from Average WSEs or Total WSEs due to pricing differences across our HCM solutions and services and the degree to which clients and WSEs elect to participate in our solutions during future periods. In addition to focusing on growing our Average WSE
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and Total WSE counts, we also focus on pricing strategies, benefit participation and service differentiation to expand the value we provide to our clients and our resulting revenue opportunities. We report the impact of client and WSE participation differences as a change in mix.
We continue to invest in efforts intended to enhance client experience, improve our new sales performance, and manage client attrition, through product development as well as operational and process improvements. As we continue our work in combining our PEO platform and our HRIS SaaS capabilities into a single platform, these various types of TriNet users will all be served from the same platform. In addition to focusing on retaining and growing our WSE base, we continue to review acquisition opportunities that would expand our product offering and provide further scale.
Screenshot 2024-04-10 131640.jpg
HRIS Users

Average HRIS Users is a volume measure we use to monitor the performance of our cloud-based HRIS services. Average HRIS Users for the first quarter 2024 and 2023, was 195,157, and 231,347, respectively. This decline is being driven by both higher client attrition as compared to new client additions and lower hiring by HRIS clients similar to SMB hiring trends that we have observed in our PEO business.
Insurance Cost Ratio (ICR)
ICR is a performance measure calculated as the ratio of insurance costs to insurance service revenues. We believe that ICR promotes an understanding of our insurance cost trends and our ability to align our relative pricing to risk performance.
We purchase workers' compensation and health benefits coverage for our WSEs. Under the insurance policies for this coverage, we bear claims costs up to a defined deductible amount. Our insurance costs, which comprise a significant portion of our overall costs, are significantly affected by our WSEs’ health and workers' compensation insurance claims experience. We set our insurance service fees for workers’ compensation and health benefits in advance for fixed benefit periods. As a result, increases in insurance costs above our projections, reflected as a higher ICR, result in lower net income. Decreases in insurance costs below our projections, reflected as a lower ICR, result in higher net income, but can be an indicator that insurance costs are developing more slowly than our projections, which are reflected in our fees, and this can have a negative impact over time on client retention and new sales.
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Under our fully-insured workers' compensation insurance policies, we assume the risk for losses up to $1 million per claim occurrence (deductible layer). The ultimate cost of the workers’ compensation services provided cannot be known until all the claims are settled. Our ability to predict these costs is limited by unexpected increases in frequency or severity of claims, which can vary due to changes in the cost of treatments or claim settlements.
Under our risk-based health insurance policies, we assume the risk of variability in future health claims costs for our enrollees. This variability typically results from changing trends in the volume, severity and ultimate cost of medical and pharmaceutical claims, due to changes to the components of medical cost trend, which we define as changes in participant use of services, including the introduction of new treatment options, changes in treatment guidelines and mandates, and changes in the mix, cost of providing treatment and timing of services provided to plan participants. These trends change, and other seasonal trends and variability may develop. As a result, it is difficult for us to predict our insurance costs with accuracy and a significant increase in these costs could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)20242023
Insurance costs$907 $852 
Insurance service revenues1,050 1,041 
Insurance Cost Ratio86 %82 %

ICR increased for the first quarter as compared to the same period in 2023, primarily driven by higher insurance costs. Insurance costs increased due to higher costs associated with medical services utilization, in particular pharmacy costs and outpatient services. This was partially offset by favorable prior period development in workers' compensation.
Total Revenues
Our revenues consist of PSR and ISR. PSR represents fees charged to clients for processing payroll-related transactions on behalf of our PEO and HRIS clients, access to our HR expertise, employment and benefit law compliance services, other HR-related and tax credit filing services and fees charged to access our cloud-based HRIS services. ISR consists of insurance-related billings and administrative fees collected from PEO clients and withheld from WSEs for workers' compensation insurance and health benefit insurance plans provided by third-party insurance carriers.
Monthly total revenues per Average WSE is a measure we use to monitor our PEO pricing strategies. This measure was flat during the first quarter of 2024 compared to the same period in 2023.
We also use the following measures to further analyze changes in total revenue:
Volume - the percentage change in period over period co-employed Average WSEs,
Rate - the combined weighted average percentage changes in service fees for each vertical service and changes in service fees associated with each insurance service offering,
Mix - the change in composition of Average WSEs within our verticals combined with the composition of our enrolled WSEs within our insurance service offerings and the composition of products and services our clients receive, including TriNet Clarus R+D, and
HRIS - incremental HRIS cloud services revenue.
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1500 1504549755816558
PSR
ISR - % represents proportion of insurance service revenues to total revenues
*Total revenues generated from PEO services only
The increase in total revenue for the first quarter of 2024 was primarily driven by rate increases, partially offset by lower health plan enrollment.
Operating Income
Our operating income consists of total revenues less insurance costs and OE. Our insurance costs include insurance premiums for coverage provided by insurance carriers, expenses for claims costs and risk management and administrative services, and changes in accrued costs related to contractual obligations with our workers' compensation and health benefit carriers. Our OE consists primarily of our colleagues' compensation related expenses, which includes payroll, payroll taxes, SBC, bonuses, commissions and other payroll-and benefits-related costs.
The table below provides a view of the changes in components of operating income for the first quarter of 2024, as compared to the same period in 2023.
(in millions)
$169First Quarter 2023 Operating Income
+18 
Higher total revenues primarily driven by rate increases from our PEO services, partially offset by lower health plan enrollment.
-55 
Higher insurance costs primarily driven by higher health insurance utilization and rate inflation.
-10 OE increased due to higher compensation expenses partially offset by lower transaction and integration costs and discretionary spending.
$122First Quarter 2024 Operating Income

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Professional Service Revenues
Our PEO and HRIS clients are primarily billed on a fee per WSE or HRIS User per month per transaction. Our vertical approach provides us the flexibility to offer our PEO clients in different industries with varied services at different prices, which we believe potentially reduces the value of solely using Average WSE and Total WSE counts as indicators of future potential revenue performance.
PSR from PEO Services customers and HRIS cloud services clients was as follows:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)20242023
PEO Services$203 $193 
HRIS Cloud Services
11 12 
Total$214 $205 

We also analyze changes in PSR with the following measures:
Volume - the percentage change in period over period co-employed Average WSEs,
Rate - the weighted average percentage change in fees for each vertical,
Mix - the change in composition of Average WSEs across our verticals and the composition of products and services our clients receive, including TriNet Clarus R+D, and
HRIS - incremental HRIS cloud services revenue.
9249251649267443334
The increase in PSR for the first quarter of 2024 was primarily driven by higher Average WSEs and rates, partially offset by changes in composition of Average WSEs across our verticals and the composition of products and services our clients receive, including TriNet Clarus R+D.
Insurance Service Revenues
ISR consists of insurance services-related billings and administrative fees collected from PEO clients and withheld from WSE payroll for health benefits and workers' compensation insurance provided by third-party insurance carriers.
We use the following measures to analyze changes in ISR:
Volume - the percentage change in period over period co-employed Average WSEs,
Rate - the weighted average percentage change in fees associated with each of our insurance service offerings, and
Mix - all other changes including the composition of our enrolled WSEs within our insurance service offerings (health plan enrollment).

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MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
7347351649267442869

The increase in ISR for the first quarter was primarily driven by rate increases, partially offset by lower health plan enrollment.
Insurance Costs
Insurance costs include insurance premiums for coverage provided by insurance carriers, payments for claims costs and expenses for other risk management and administrative services, reimbursement of claims payments made by insurance carriers or third-party administrators below a predefined deductible limit, and changes in accrued costs related to contractual obligations with our workers' compensation and health benefit carriers.
We use the following measures to analyze changes in insurance costs:
Volume - the percentage change in period over period co-employed Average WSEs,
Rate - the weighted average percentage change in cost trend associated with each of our insurance service offerings, and
Mix - all other changes including the composition of our enrolled WSEs within our insurance service offerings (health plan enrollment).
8348351649267442970
Insurance costs increased for the first quarter, primarily due to higher utilization, primarily due to prescription and outpatient services as well as inflationary increases in rates paid for services. This was partially offset by lower health plan enrollment.
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2024 Q1 FORM 10-Q

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
Operating Expenses
OE includes COPS, S&M, G&A, SD&P, and D&A.
We had approximately 3,600 colleagues as of March 31, 2024 primarily across the U.S. but also in India and Canada. Compensation costs for our colleagues include payroll, payroll taxes, SBC, bonuses, commissions and other payroll- and benefits-related costs. Compensation-related expense represented 68% and 65% of our OE in the first quarters of 2024 and 2023, respectively.

Transaction and integration costs associated with our acquisitions of Zenefits and Clarus R+D are included in G&A. These costs include advisory, legal, and employee retention costs tied to ongoing employment.
During the first quarter of 2024 , OE increased 4% when compared to the same period in 2023. The ratio of OE to total revenues was 19% for the first quarters of 2024 and 2023.
837838839
% represents portion of compensation related expense included in operating expenses

We analyze and present our OE based upon the business functions COPS, S&M, G&A and SD&P and D&A. The charts below provide a view of the expenses of the business functions. Dollars are presented in millions and percentages represent year-over-year change.
10991100110111021103
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2024 Q1 FORM 10-Q

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
(in millions)
$225Q1 2023 Operating Expenses
+1 COPS increased slightly due to higher compensation expense.
+3 
S&M increased, driven primarily by higher compensation to support our sales force together with higher corporate events expenses, partially offset by lower advertising costs.
+5 G&A increased due to higher compensation expense partially offset by lower transaction and integration expense.
+1 SD&P was consistent with the prior period as higher compensation expense was offset by lower consulting expense.
— 
D&A was consistent with the prior period.
$235Q1 2024 Operating Expense
The primary spend type drivers to the changes in our OE are presented below:
1186
Other Income (Expense)
Other income (expense) consists primarily of interest income from cash and investments and interest expense on our outstanding debt.
173 184
Interest income for the first quarter of 2024 was consistent with the prior period. The higher interest expense, bank fees and other for the first quarter of 2024 was primarily due to the additional interest on our 2031 Notes issued in the third quarter of 2023.
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2024 Q1 FORM 10-Q

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
Income Taxes
Our ETR was 27% for the first quarter of 2024 and 2023. The increase in tax benefits related to stock-based compensation from the first quarter of 2023 was offset by an increase in non-deductible compensation in the first quarter of 2024.
TRINET
20
2024 Q1 FORM 10-Q

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Liquidity
Liquidity is a measure of our ability to access sufficient cash flows to meet the short-term and long-term cash requirements of our business operations. Our principal source of liquidity for operations is derived from cash provided by operating activities. We rely on cash provided by operating activities to meet our short-term liquidity requirements, which primarily relate to the payment of corporate payroll and other operating costs, and capital expenditures. Our cash flow related to WSE payroll and benefits is generally matched by advance collection from our PEO clients. To minimize the credit risk associated with remitting the payroll and associated taxes and benefits costs, we require PEO clients to prefund the payroll and related payroll taxes and benefits costs.
Included in our balance sheets are assets and liabilities resulting from transactions directly or indirectly associated with WSEs, including payroll and related taxes and withholdings, our sponsored workers' compensation and health insurance programs, and other benefit programs. Although we are not subject to regulatory restrictions that require us to do so, we distinguish and manage our corporate assets and liabilities separately from those current assets and liabilities held by us to satisfy our employer obligations associated with our WSEs as follows:
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
(in millions)CorporateWSETotalCorporateWSETotal
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$298 $ $298 $287 $— $287 
Investments85  85 65 — 65 
Restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments135 924 1,059 22 1,247 1,269 
Other current assets94 1,304 1,398 73 884 957 
Total current assets$612 $2,228 $2,840 $447 $2,131 $2,578 
Total current liabilities$441 $2,228 $2,669 $332 $2,131 $2,463 
Working capital$171 $ $171 $115 $— $115 
As of March 31, 2024, we did not have any material off-balance sheet arrangements that are reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on our financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources.
Working capital for WSEs related activities
We designate funds to ensure that we have adequate current assets to satisfy our current obligations associated with WSEs. We manage our WSE payroll and benefits obligations through collections of payments from our clients which generally occur two to three days in advance of client payroll dates. We regularly review our short-term obligations associated with our WSEs (such as payroll and related taxes, insurance premium and claim payments) and designate funds required to fulfill these short-term obligations, which we refer to as PFC. PFC is included in current assets as restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments.
We manage our sponsored benefit and workers' compensation insurance obligations by maintaining collateral funds in restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments. These collateral amounts are generally determined at the beginning of each plan year and we may be required by our insurance carriers to adjust our collateral balances when facts and circumstances change. We regularly review our collateral balances with our insurance carriers and anticipate funding further collateral in the future based upon our capital requirements. We classify our restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments as current and noncurrent assets to match against the anticipated timing of payments to carriers.
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2024 Q1 FORM 10-Q

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
Working capital for corporate purposes
Corporate working capital as of March 31, 2024 increased $56 million from December 31, 2023, primarily due to the increases in our corporate unrestricted cash and cash equivalents, investments and other current assets, which was driven by our cash flows from operations. The increase in restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments was largely offset by the increase in total current liabilities. These increases were primarily driven by the contribution of HRIS assets into our trust. Refer to Note 1 in Item 1 of this Form 10-Q for more details.
In December of 2023, TriNet created a trust for the purpose of holding funds provided by HRIS clients for the remittance to HRIS Users, tax authorities and other recipients. This trust is consolidated into our financial statements. During the first quarter of 2024, the trust assumed ownership and responsibility of certain bank accounts that hold HRIS client funds. The associated cash is reflected on our balance sheet as restricted cash and the associated liabilities are classified as accrued wages, payroll tax liabilities and other payroll withholdings, and client deposits and other client liabilities and assumed the related liabilities. As of March 31, 2024, the balance of restricted cash in the trust was $113 million.
We use our available cash and cash equivalents to satisfy our operational and regulatory requirements and to fund capital expenditures. We believe that we can meet our present and reasonably foreseeable operating cash needs and future commitments through existing liquid assets, continuing cash flows from corporate operating activities and the potential issuance of debt or equity securities. We hold both corporate cash and cash associated with WSEs across multiple financial institutions to reduce concentrations of counterparty risk. We believe our existing corporate cash and cash equivalents and positive working capital will be sufficient to meet our working capital expenditure needs for at least the next twelve months.

Cash Flows
The following table presents our cash flow activities for the stated periods:
 Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)20242023
CorporateWSETotalCorporateWSETotal
Net cash provided by (used in):  
Operating activities$201 $(323)$(122)$169 $(246)$(77)
Investing activities(47) (47)(21)(2)(23)
Financing activities(30) (30)200 — 200 
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents, unrestricted and restricted$124 $(323)$(199)$348 $(248)$100 
Cash and cash equivalents, unrestricted and restricted:
Beginning of period$334 $1,132 $1,466 $406 $1,131 $1,537 
End of period$458 $809 $1,267 $754 $883 $1,637 
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents:
Unrestricted$11 $ $11 $353 $— $353 
Restricted$113 $(323)$(210)$(5)$(248)$(253)
Operating Activities
Components of net cash used in operating activities are as follows:
 Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)20242023
Net cash used in operating activities:$(122)$(77)
Net cash used in operating activities - WSE(323)(246)
Net cash provided by operating activities - Corporate201 169 
The year-over-year change in net cash used in operating activities for WSE purposes was primarily driven by timing of client payments, payments of payroll and payroll taxes and insurance claim activities. We expect the changes in
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2024 Q1 FORM 10-Q

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
restricted cash and cash equivalents to correspond to WSE cash provided by (or used in) operations as we manage our obligations associated with WSEs through restricted cash.
Our corporate operating cash flows in the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased, when compared to the same period in 2023, primarily due to the timing of our payments of corporate obligations.
Investing Activities
Cash used in investing activities for the periods presented below primarily consisted of purchases of investments, capital expenditures and acquisition of business, partially offset by proceeds from the sale and maturity of investments.
 Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)20242023
Investments:
Purchases of investments$(95)$(82)
Proceeds from sale and maturity of investments66 76 
Cash used in investments$(29)$(6)
Cash used in capital expenditures$(18)$(17)
Cash used in investing activities$(47)$(23)
Investments
We invest a portion of available cash in investment-grade securities with effective maturities less than five years that are classified on our balance sheets as investments. We consider industry and issuer concentrations in our investment policy.
We also invest funds held as collateral to satisfy our long-term obligation towards workers' compensation liabilities. These investments are classified on our balance sheets as restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments. We review the amount and the anticipated holding period of these investments regularly in conjunction with our estimated long-term workers' compensation liabilities and anticipated claims payment trend. At March 31, 2024, our investments had a weighted average duration of less than two years and an average S&P credit rating of AA+.
As of March 31, 2024, we held approximately $1.8 billion in restricted and unrestricted cash, cash equivalents and investments, of which $298 million was unrestricted cash and cash equivalents and $246 million was unrestricted investments. Refer to Note 2 in the condensed consolidated financial statements and related notes included in this Form 10-Q.
Capital Expenditures
During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, we continued to make investments in software and hardware and we enhanced our existing service offerings and technology platform. We expect capital investments in our software and hardware to continue in the future.
Financing Activities
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities in the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 consisted of our debt and equity-related activities.
 Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)20242023
Financing activities
Repurchase of common stock, net of issuance costs$(30)$(95)
Draw down from revolving credit agreement borrowings 495 
Repayment of revolving credit agreement borrowings (200)
Cash provided by (used in) financing activities$(30)$200 
In February 2023, our board of directors authorized a $300 million incremental increase to our ongoing stock repurchase program initiated in May 2014. In July 2023, our board of directors authorized a further $1 billion incremental increase to this stock repurchase program. We use this program to return value to our stockholders and to offset dilution from the issuance of stock under our equity-based incentive plan and employee purchase plan.
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2024 Q1 FORM 10-Q

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
On August 28, 2023, we completed a public tender offer through which we repurchased 5,981,308 shares of common stock at a price of $107.00 per share, for total consideration of approximately $640 million. On September 13, 2023, we repurchased 3,364,486 shares of common stock at a price of $107.00 per share, for total consideration of approximately $360 million, through a private repurchase from our largest stockholder, Atairos Group, Inc.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, we repurchased 197,872 shares of our common stock for approximately $23 million through our existing stock repurchase program in addition to 59,249 shares acquired to satisfy tax withholding obligations related to SBC vesting. As of March 31, 2024, approximately $409 million remained available for repurchase under all authorizations by our board of directors. We plan to use current cash and cash generated from ongoing operating activities to fund this stock repurchase program.
In March 2023, to ensure that we maintained liquidity during the regional banking liquidity challenges, we drew down the available $495 million of capacity under our 2021 Revolver. As concerns about market liquidity subsided, we repaid $200 million in March and $295 million in April. In September of 2023, we drew down $200 million under our 2021 Revolver to partially fund our share repurchases in the third quarter of 2023 noted above.
In February of 2024, our board of directors declared a cash dividend of $0.25 per share, for a total payment of approximately $13 million paid in April 2024.
Capital Resources
As of March 31, 2024, $500 million and $400 million aggregate principal of our 2029 Notes and 2031 Notes was outstanding, respectively. The indenture governing our 2029 Notes and 2031 Notes each includes restrictive covenants limiting our ability to: (i) create liens on certain assets to secure debt; (ii) grant a subsidiary guarantee of certain debt without also providing a guarantee of the 2029 Notes or 2031 Notes, as applicable; and (iii) consolidate or merge with or into, or sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets to, another person, subject, in each case, to certain customary exceptions.
Our 2021 Credit Agreement includes a $700 million revolver. In September of 2023, we drew down $200 million of this revolver to partially fund our third quarter of 2023 share repurchases. The 2021 Credit Agreement includes negative covenants that limit our ability to incur indebtedness and liens, sell assets and make restricted payments, including dividends and investments, subject to certain exceptions. In addition, the 2021 Credit Agreement also contains other customary affirmative and negative covenants and customary events of default. The 2021 Credit Agreement also contains a financial covenant that requires the Company to maintain certain maximum total net leverage ratios.
We were in compliance with all financial covenants under our 2021 Credit Agreement, 2029 Notes and 2031 Notes at March 31, 2024.
Critical Accounting Policies, Estimates and Judgments
There have been no material changes to our critical accounting policies, estimates and judgments as discussed in our 2023 Form 10-K.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Refer to Note 1 in Item 1 of this Form 10-Q.
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2024 Q1 FORM 10-Q

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
AND CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Our exposure to changes in interest rates relates primarily to our investment portfolio. Changes in U.S. interest rates affect the interest earned on the Company's cash, cash equivalents and the fair value of our investments.
Our cash equivalents consist primarily of money market mutual funds, which are not significantly exposed to interest rate risk. Our investments are subject to interest rate risk because these securities generally include a fixed interest rate. As a result, the market values of these securities are affected by changes in prevailing interest rates. We attempt to limit our exposure to interest rate risk and credit risk by investing in instruments that meet the minimum credit quality, liquidity, diversification and other requirements of our investment policy. Our investments consist of liquid, investment-grade securities. The risk of rate changes on investment balances was not material at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.
As of March 31, 2024, we had drawn down $200 million under our floating rate 2021 Revolver. The impact of a 100 basis point increase or decrease in market interest rates to interest expense on our 2021 Revolver as of March 31, 2024 over the next twelve months was approximately $2 million.
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2024 Q1 FORM 10-Q

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
AND CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Controls and Procedures
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
We have, with the participation of our CEO and our CFO, evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures as of March 31, 2024, as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.
Based on the evaluation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of March 31, 2024, our CEO and CFO have concluded that the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures were effective as of such date in ensuring that (i) information required to be disclosed by the Company in reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including the CEO and CFO, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure and (ii) such information is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC rules and forms.
We have concluded that the condensed consolidated financial statements included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q fairly present, in all material respects, our financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the periods presented in conformity with GAAP.
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
There were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting identified in connection with the evaluation required by Rule 13a-15(d) and 15d-15(d) of the Exchange Act that occurred during the quarter ended March 31, 2024, that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
Limitations on Effectiveness of Controls and Procedures
In designing and evaluating the disclosure controls and procedures, management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objectives. In addition, the design of disclosure controls and procedures must reflect the fact that there are resource constraints and that management is required to apply judgment in evaluating the benefits of possible controls and procedures relative to their costs.
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2024 Q1 FORM 10-Q

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

TRINET GROUP, INC.

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (Unaudited)
 Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions except per share data)20242023
Professional service revenues
$214 $205 
Insurance service revenues
1,050 1,041 
Total revenues
1,264 1,246 
Insurance costs
907 852 
Cost of providing services
79 78 
Sales and marketing
72 69 
General and administrative
48 43 
Systems development and programming
18 17 
Depreciation and amortization of intangible assets
18 18 
Total costs and operating expenses
1,142 1,077 
Operating income
122 169 
Other income (expense):
Interest expense, bank fees and other
(16)(7)
Interest income
18 18 
Income before provision for income taxes
124 180 
Income taxes
33 49 
Net income
$91 $131 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of income taxes(3)3 
Comprehensive income
$88 $134 
Net income per share:
Basic
$1.80 $2.18 
Diluted
$1.78 $2.17 
Weighted average shares:
Basic
51 60 
Diluted
51 60 
See accompanying notes.
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2024 Q1 FORM 10-Q

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
TRINET GROUP, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS (Unaudited)
March 31,December 31,
(in millions, except share and per share data)20242023
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents
$298 $287 
Investments
85 65 
Restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments
1,059 1,269 
Accounts receivable, net
11 18 
Unbilled revenue, net
467 447 
Prepaid expenses, net
79 67 
Other payroll assets791 381 
Other current assets
50 44 
Total current assets2,840 2,578 
Restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments, noncurrent
152 158 
Investments, noncurrent
161 143 
Property and equipment, net15 17 
Operating lease right-of-use asset
22 24 
Goodwill
462 462 
Software and other intangible assets, net174 172 
Other assets
142 139 
Total assets$3,968 $3,693 
Liabilities and stockholders' equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable and other current liabilities
$122 $87 
Revolving credit agreement borrowings
109 109 
Client deposits and other client liabilities
51 65 
Accrued wages
537 515 
Accrued health insurance costs, net
167 175 
Accrued workers' compensation costs, net
51 50 
Payroll tax liabilities and other payroll withholdings
1,611 1,438 
Operating lease liabilities
14 14 
Insurance premiums and other payables
7 10 
Total current liabilities2,669 2,463 
Long-term debt, noncurrent
984 984 
Accrued workers' compensation costs, noncurrent, net
120 120 
Deferred taxes
13 13 
Operating lease liabilities, noncurrent
27 30 
Other non-current liabilities
12 5 
Total liabilities3,825 3,615 
Commitments and contingencies (see Note 5)
Stockholders' equity:
Preferred stock  
($0.000025 par value per share; 20,000,000 shares authorized; no shares issued or outstanding at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023)
Common stock and additional paid-in capital996 976 
($0.000025 par value per share; 750,000,000 shares authorized; 50,573,176 and 50,664,471 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively)
Accumulated deficit(848)(896)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(5)(2)
Total stockholders' equity143 78 
Total liabilities & stockholders' equity$3,968 $3,693 
See accompanying notes.
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2024 Q1 FORM 10-Q

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
TRINET GROUP, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY (Unaudited)
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)
20242023
Total Stockholders' Equity, beginning balance$78 $775 
Common Stock and Additional Paid-In Capital
Beginning balance
976 899 
Stock based compensation expense
20 11 
Ending balance
996 910 
Retained Earnings (Accumulated Deficit)
Beginning balance
(896)(119)
Net income
91 131 
Dividends Declared(13) 
Repurchase of common stock
(23)(91)
Awards effectively repurchased for required employee withholding taxes
(7)(4)
Ending balance
(848)(83)
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income
Beginning balance
(2)(5)
Other comprehensive income (loss)(3)3 
Ending balance
(5)(2)
Total Stockholders' Equity, ending balance
$143 $825 
See accompanying notes.

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2024 Q1 FORM 10-Q

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
TRINET GROUP, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (Unaudited)
 Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)20242023
Operating activities
Net income
$91 $131 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization of intangible assets18 18 
Amortization of deferred costs11 12 
Amortization of ROU asset, lease modification, impairment, and abandonment2 2 
Stock based compensation20 11 
Provision for doubtful accounts
1 1 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable, net
6 3 
Unbilled revenue, net(20)5 
Prepaid expenses, net (12)(14)
Other assets(21)(10)
Other payroll assets(410)(180)
Accounts payable and other liabilities20 30 
Client deposits and other client liabilities(14)25 
Accrued wages23 (21)
Accrued health insurance costs, net(7)(5)
Accrued workers' compensation costs, net1 (1)
Payroll taxes payable and other payroll withholdings173 (80)
Operating lease liabilities(4)(4)
Net cash used in operating activities(122)(77)
Investing activities
Purchases of marketable securities
(95)(82)
Proceeds from sale and maturity of marketable securities66 76 
Acquisitions of property and equipment and projects in process(18)(17)
Net cash used in investing activities
(47)(23)
Financing activities
Repurchase of common stock
(23)(91)
Awards effectively repurchased for required employee withholding taxes
(7)(4)
Proceeds from revolving credit agreement borrowings
 495 
Repayment of revolving credit agreement borrowings (200)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities(30)200 
Net change in cash and cash equivalents, unrestricted and restricted(199)100 
Cash and cash equivalents, unrestricted and restricted:
Beginning of period
1,466 1,537 
End of period
$1,267 $1,637 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information
Interest paid
$26 $11 
Income taxes paid, net$7 $4 
Supplemental schedule of noncash investing and financing activities
Cash dividend declared, but not yet paid$13 $ 
Payable for purchase of property and equipment$3 $5 
See accompanying notes.
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2024 Q1 FORM 10-Q

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
NOTE 1. DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Description of Business
TriNet Group, Inc. (TriNet, or the Company, we, our and us) provides comprehensive HCM solutions for small and medium-size businesses under both a PEO model and an HRIS services model. These HCM solutions include multi-state payroll processing and tax administration, employee benefits programs, including health insurance and retirement plans, workers' compensation insurance and claims management, employment and benefit law compliance, and other HR-related services. Through our PEO service model, we are the employer of record for certain employment-related administrative and regulatory purposes for WSEs, including:
compensation through wages and salaries,
certain employer payroll-related tax payments,
employee payroll-related tax withholdings and payments,
employee benefit programs, including health and life insurance, and
workers' compensation coverage.
Our PEO clients are responsible for the day-to-day job responsibilities of the WSEs.
Through our HRIS services model, we provide cloud-based HCM services to SMBs that allows them to manage hiring, onboarding, employee information, payroll processing, payroll tax administration, health insurance, and other benefits, from a single cloud-based software platform. We are not the co-employer or employer of record for such employees.
We operate in one reportable segment. All of our service revenues are generated from external clients. Less than 1% of our revenue is generated outside of the U.S.
Basis of Presentation and Basis of Consolidation
These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America for interim financial reporting and the instructions to Form 10-Q and Rule 10-01 of Regulation S-X of the Rules and Regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission. The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and an entity consolidated under the variable interest model. Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated. Certain information and note disclosures included in our annual financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. In the opinion of management, the condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments, that are normal and recurring in nature, necessary for fair financial statement presentation. The results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2024 are not necessarily indicative of the operating results anticipated for the full year. These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023. Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to current period presentation.
When entering into contractual arrangements with other entities, we assess whether we have a variable interest. If we determine that we have a variable interest, we then determine whether the arrangement is with a variable interest entity ("VIE"). If the arrangement is with a VIE, we assess whether we are the primary beneficiary of the VIE by identifying the most significant activities and determining who has the power over those activities and who has the obligation to absorb the majority of the losses or benefits of the VIE. We consolidate a VIE when we have the power to direct activities that most significantly affect the economic performance of the VIE and have the obligation to absorb the majority of their losses or benefits, making us the primary beneficiary.
Periodically, we assess whether any changes in our interest or relationship with the entity affect our determination of whether the entity is a VIE and, if so, whether we are the primary beneficiary.
In December 2023, we created a trust ("the Trust") for the purpose of holding HRIS clients' payroll funds for the remittance to HRIS Users, tax authorities and other recipients. The Trust's assets are restricted and can only be used for payments on behalf of HRIS clients, payments on behalf of the HRIS Users, repayments of any advances from TriNet, or payments to TriNet of interest income earned on the balances of the Trust. In the event of any
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2024 Q1 FORM 10-Q

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
losses, creditors to the Trust have recourse to the Trust's property and not that of TriNet overall. The risks associated with the Trust are similar to those that currently exist for the Company such as banking losses in excess of FDIC insurance levels, interest rate and market conditions.
We determined that this Trust meets the definition of a variable interest entity and as the primary beneficiary we have both the power to direct the Trust’s activities that most significantly affect its performance and we have the right to receive benefits from the Trust, in the form of interest income. As a result, this Trust is consolidated into our financial statements. During the first quarter of 2024, the Trust assumed ownership and responsibility of certain bank accounts that hold HRIS client funds and assumed the related liabilities.
The following table presents the assets and liabilities of the Trust which are included in our consolidated balance sheet. These amounts on any particular date can vary due to timing of cash receipts and remittance to HRIS users and payroll tax agencies.
March 31,
(in millions)2024
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents
$1 
Restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments
113 
Total current assets114 
Total assets$114 
LIABILITIES
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable and other current liabilities
$1 
Accrued wages
15 
Payroll tax liabilities and other payroll withholdings
98 
Total current liabilities114 
Total liabilities$114 
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect certain reported amounts and related disclosures.
These estimates are based on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable from the facts available to us. Some of the assumptions are highly uncertain at the time of estimation. To the extent actual experience differs from the assumptions used, our condensed consolidated financial statements could be materially affected.
Revenue Recognition
Variable Consideration and Pricing Allocation
From time to time, we may offer credits to our clients considered to be variable consideration. Incentive credits related to contract renewals are recorded as a reduction to revenue as part of the transaction price at contract inception and are allocated among the performance obligations based on their relative standalone selling prices.
We allocate the total transaction price to each performance obligation based on the estimated relative standalone selling prices of the promised services underlying each performance obligation. The transaction price for the payroll and payroll tax processing performance obligations is determined upon establishment of the contract that contains the final terms of the arrangement, including the description and price of each service purchased. The estimated service fee is determined based on observable inputs and includes the following key assumptions: target profit margin, pricing strategies including the mix of services purchased and competitive factors, and client and industry specifics.
The fees for access to health benefits and workers' compensation insurance performance obligations are determined during client on-boarding and annually through the enrollment processes based on the types of benefits coverage the WSEs have elected and the applicable risk profile of the client. We estimate our service fees based on actuarial forecasts of our expected insurance premiums and loss sensitive premium costs and amounts to cover our costs to administer these programs.
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We require our clients to prefund payroll and related taxes and other withholding liabilities before payroll is processed or due for payment. Under the provision of our contracts with clients, we generally will process the payment of a client’s payroll only when the client successfully funds the amount required. As a result, there is no financing arrangement for the contracts. However, certain contracts to provide payroll and payroll tax processing services permit the client to pay certain payroll tax components ratably over periods of up to 12 months rather than as payroll tax is otherwise determined and due, which may be considered a significant financing arrangement under FASB ASC Topic 606 Revenue from Contracts with Customers. However, as the period between our performing the service under the contract and when the client pays for the service is less than one year, we have elected, as a practical expedient, not to adjust the transaction price.
In previous years, we created our Recovery Credits to assist in the economic recovery of our existing PEO clients and enhance our ability to retain these clients. These credits were based on the performance of our insurance costs and were recorded as a reduction to insurance services revenues and included in client deposits and other client liabilities on the balance sheets. The change in balance for the liability for credits previously accrued is the following:
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)20242023
Balance at beginning of period$7 $75 
(+) Accruals  
(-) Distributions to clients(7)(8)
Balance at end of period$ $67 
Accrued Health Insurance Costs
We sponsor and administer a number of employee benefit plans for our PEO WSEs, including group health, dental, and vision as an employer plan sponsor under section 3(5) of the ERISA. In the three months ended March 31, 2024, the majority of our group health insurance costs were related to risk-based plans. Our remaining group health insurance costs were for guaranteed-cost policies.
Accrued health insurance costs are established to provide for the estimated unpaid costs of reimbursing the carriers for paying claims within the deductible layer in accordance with risk-based health insurance policies. These accrued costs include estimates for claims incurred but not paid. We assess accrued health insurance costs regularly based upon actuarial studies that include other relevant factors such as current and historical claims payment patterns, plan enrollment and medical trend rates.
In certain carrier contracts we are required to prepay our obligations for the expected claims activity for subsequent periods. These prepaid balances by agreement permit net settlement of obligations and offset the accrued health insurance costs. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, prepayments and miscellaneous receivables offsetting accrued health insurance costs were $65 million and $58 million, respectively. When the prepaid amount is in excess of our recorded liability the net asset position is included in prepaid expenses. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, accrued health insurance costs offsetting prepaid expenses were $71 million and $68 million, respectively.
Restricted Cash, Cash Equivalents and Investments
Restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments presented on our consolidated balance sheets include:
cash and cash equivalents in Trust accounts functioning as security deposits for our insurance carriers,
payroll funds collected representing cash collected in advance from clients which we designate as restricted for the purpose of funding WSE and HRIS User payroll and payroll taxes and other payroll related liabilities, and
amounts held in Trust for current and future premium and claim obligations with our insurance carriers, which amounts are held in Trust according to the terms of the relevant insurance policies and by the local insurance regulations of the jurisdictions in which the policies are in force.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recently issued accounting guidance
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Income Taxes
In December 2023, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2023-09, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures (“ASU 2023-09”), which will require the Company to disclose specified additional information in its income tax rate reconciliation and provide additional information for reconciling items that meet a quantitative threshold. ASU 2023-09 will also require the Company to disaggregate its income taxes paid disclosure by federal, state and foreign taxes, with further disaggregation required for significant individual jurisdictions. The ASU is effective for TriNet on a prospective basis for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2024. We are currently evaluating the provisions of this ASU.
Segment Reporting
In November 2023, the FASB issued ASU No. 2023-07, Segment Reporting (Topic 280): Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures (“ASU 2023-07”), which will require the Company to disclose segment expenses that are significant and regularly provided to the Company’s chief operating decision maker (“CODM”). In addition, ASU 2023-07 will require the Company to disclose the title and position of its CODM and how the CODM uses segment profit or loss information in assessing segment performance and deciding how to allocate resources. The ASU is effective for TriNet for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2023, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024. We are currently evaluating the provisions of this ASU.
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NOTE 2. CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS AND INVESTMENTS - UNRESTRICTED AND RESTRICTED
Under the terms of the agreements with certain of our workers' compensation and health benefit insurance carriers, we are required to maintain collateral in Trust accounts for the benefit of specified insurance carriers and to reimburse the carriers’ claim payments within our deductible layer. We invest a portion of the collateral amounts in marketable securities. We report the current and noncurrent portions of these Trust accounts as restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments on the consolidated balance sheets.
We require our clients to prefund their payroll and related taxes and other withholding liabilities before payroll is processed or due for payment. This prefund, for PEO customers, as well as amounts held by our statutory Trust for our HRIS Users, is included in restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments as payroll funds collected, which is designated to pay pending payrolls, payroll tax liabilities and other payroll withholdings.
We also invest available corporate funds, primarily in fixed income securities which meet the requirements of our corporate investment policy and are classified as AFS.
Our total cash, cash equivalents and investments are summarized below:
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
(in millions)Cash and cash equivalentsAvailable-for-sale marketable securitiesTotalCash and cash equivalentsAvailable-for-sale marketable securitiesTotal
Cash and cash equivalents$298 $ $298 $287 $ $287 
Investments 85 85  65 65 
Restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments:
Payroll funds collected743  743 1,067  1,067 
Collateral for health benefits claims32 114 146 31 113 144 
Collateral for workers' compensation claims55  55 54 2 56 
Trust for our HRIS Users113  113    
Other security deposits2  2 2  2 
Total restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments945 114 1,059 1,154 115 1,269 
Investments, noncurrent 161 161  143 143 
Restricted cash, cash equivalents and investments, noncurrent
Collateral for workers' compensation claims24 128 152 25 133 158 
Total$1,267 $488 $1,755 $1,466 $456 $1,922 

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NOTE 3. INVESTMENTS
The following tables summarize our financial instruments by significant categories and fair value measurement on a recurring basis as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 and the amortized cost, gross unrealized gains, gross unrealized losses, fair value of our AFS investments:
(in millions)Fair Value LevelAmortized CostGross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized LossesFair ValueCash and Cash EquivalentsInvestmentsRestricted Cash, Cash Equivalents and Investments
March 31, 2024
Cash equivalents:
Money market mutual fundsLevel 1$327 $ $ $327 $40 $ $287 
U.S. treasuriesLevel 24   4 1  3 
Total cash equivalents331   33141  290 
AFS Investments:
Asset-backed securitiesLevel 238   38  38  
Corporate bondsLevel 2148   148  115 33 
Agency securitiesLevel 237  (1)36  8 28 
U.S. treasuriesLevel 2260  (4)256  77 179 
Certificate of depositLevel 22   2   2 
Other debt securitiesLevel 28   8  8  
Total AFS Investments$493 $ $(5)$488 $ $246 $242 
(in millions)Fair Value LevelAmortized CostGross Unrealized GainsGross Unrealized LossesFair ValueCash and Cash EquivalentsInvestmentsRestricted Cash, Cash Equivalents and Investments
December 31, 2023
Cash equivalents:
Money market mutual fundsLevel 1$183 $— $— $183 $96 $ $87 
U.S. treasuriesLevel 27 — — 75  2 
Total cash equivalents190 — — 190101  89 
AFS Investments:
Asset-backed securitiesLevel 241  (1)40  40  
Corporate bondsLevel 2135 1  136  103 33 
Agency securitiesLevel 240  (1)39  10 29 
U.S. treasuriesLevel 2231 1 (1)231  47 184 
Certificate of depositLevel 22   2   2 
Other debt securitiesLevel 28   8  8  
Total AFS Investments$457 $2 $(3)$456 $ $208 $248 
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
We use an independent pricing source to determine the fair value of our securities. The independent pricing source utilizes various pricing models for each asset class, including the market approach. The inputs and assumptions for the pricing models are market observable inputs including trades of comparable securities, dealer quotes, credit spreads, yield curves and other market-related data.
We have not adjusted the prices obtained from the independent pricing service and we believe the prices received from the independent pricing service are representative of the prices that would be received to sell the assets at the measurement date (exit price).

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The carrying value of the Company's cash equivalents and restricted cash equivalents approximate their fair values due to their short-term maturities.
We did not have any Level 3 financial instruments recognized in our condensed consolidated balance sheets as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023. There were no transfers between levels as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.
Sales and Maturities
The fair value of debt investments by contractual maturity are shown below:
(in millions)March 31, 2024
One year or less$113 
Over one year through five years347 
Over five years through ten years10 
Over ten years18 
Total fair value$488 
The gross proceeds from sales and maturities of AFS securities for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and March 31, 2023 are presented below. We had immaterial gross realized gains and losses from sales of investments for the first quarter of 2024 and immaterial gross realized gains for the first quarter of 2023.
Three Months Ended March 31,
(in millions)20242023
Gross proceeds from sales$39 $32 
Gross proceeds from maturities27 44 
Total$66 $76 
Fair Value of Long-Term Debt
The fair value of our 2029 Notes and 2031 Notes was obtained from a third-party pricing service and is based on observable market inputs. As such, the fair value of the senior notes is considered Level 2 in the hierarchy for fair value measurement. As of March 31, 2024, our 2029 Notes and 2031 Notes were carried at their cost, net of issuance costs, and had a fair value of $449 million and $411 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2023, our 2029 Notes and 2031 Notes were carried at their cost, net of issuance costs, and had a fair value of $443 million and $414 million, respectively.
Our 2021 Revolver is a floating rate debt. At March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the fair value of our 2021 Revolver approximated its carrying value (exclusive of issuance costs). The fair value of our floating rate debt is estimated based on a discounted cash flow, which incorporates credit spreads, market interest rates and contractual maturities to estimate the fair value and is considered Level 3 in the hierarchy for fair value measurement.
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NOTE 4. ACCRUED WORKERS' COMPENSATION COSTS
The following table summarizes the accrued workers’ compensation cost activity for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023:
Three Months Ended
March 31,
(in millions)20242023
Total accrued costs, beginning of period$175 $189 
Incurred
Current year16 16 
Prior years(4)(6)
Total incurred12 10 
Paid
Current year(1)(1)
Prior years(11)(11)
Total paid(12)(12)
Total accrued costs, end of period$175 $187 
The following summarizes workers' compensation liabilities on the condensed consolidated balance sheets:
(in millions)March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Total accrued costs, end of period$175 $175 
Collateral paid to carriers and offset against accrued costs(4)(5)
Total accrued costs, net of carrier collateral offset$171 $170 
Payable in less than 1 year
(net of collateral paid to carriers of
$1 and $1 at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively)
$51 $50 
Payable in more than 1 year
(net of collateral paid to carriers of
$3 and $4 at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively)
120 120 
Total accrued costs, net of carrier collateral offset$171 $170 
Incurred claims related to prior years represent changes in estimates for ultimate losses on workers' compensation claims. For the three months ended March 31, 2024, the favorable development is due to lower than expected reported claim frequency and severity for the more recent years.
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, we had $31 million and $32 million of collateral held by insurance carriers of which $4 million and $5 million, respectively, was offset against accrued workers' compensation costs as the agreements permit and are net settled of insurance obligations against collateral held.
NOTE 5. COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
Contingencies
We are and, from time to time, have been and may in the future become involved in various litigation matters, legal proceedings, and claims arising in the ordinary course of our business, including disputes with our clients or various class action, collective action, representative action, and other proceedings arising from the nature of our co-employment relationship with our clients and WSEs in which we are named as a defendant. In addition, due to the nature of our co-employment relationship with our clients and WSEs, we could be subject to liability for federal and state law violations, even if we do not participate in such violations. While our agreements with our clients contain indemnification provisions related to the conduct of our clients, we may not be able to avail ourselves of such provisions in every instance. We have accrued our current best estimates of probable losses with respect to these matters, which are individually and in aggregate immaterial to our consolidated financial statements.
While the outcome of the matters described above cannot be predicted with certainty, management currently does not believe that any such claims or proceedings will have a materially adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. However, the unfavorable resolution of any particular matter or our reassessment of our exposure for any of the above matters based on additional information obtained in the future could have a material impact on our consolidated financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
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NOTE 6. STOCK BASED COMPENSATION
Restricted Stock Units (RSUs)
Time-based RSUs generally vest over a four-year term. Performance-based RSUs are subject to vesting requirements and are earned, in part, based on certain financial performance metrics as defined in the grant notice. Actual number of shares earned may range from 0% to 200% of the target award. Performance-based awards granted in 2024 and 2023 are earned based on a single-year performance period subject to subsequent multi-year time-based vesting with 50% of the shares earned vesting in one year after the performance period and the remaining shares in the year after. RSUs are generally forfeited if the participant terminates service prior to vesting.
The following tables summarize RSU activity for the three months ended March 31, 2024:
Time-based RSUs
Total Number
of Shares
Weighted-Average
Grant Date
Fair Value
Nonvested at December 31, 20231,229,202 $80.88 
Granted488,872 125.52 
Vested(155,051)76.36 
Forfeited(18,289)83.55 
Nonvested at March 31, 20241,544,734 $95.43 
Performance-based RSUs
Total Number of Shares
Weighted-Average