SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
|☐||REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) or (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
|ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 or 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022
|☐||TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 or 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
|☐||SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 or 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
Date of event requiring this shell company report
For the transition period from to
Commission file number 1-33867
TEEKAY TANKERS LTD.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
Republic of the Marshall Islands
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
4th Floor, Belvedere Building, 69 Pitts Bay Road, Hamilton, HM 08 Bermuda
(Address of principal executive offices)
N. Angelique Burgess
4th Floor, Belvedere Building, 69 Pitts Bay Road, Hamilton, HM 08 Bermuda
Telephone: (441) 298-2530
Fax: (441) 292-3931
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
Securities registered, or to be registered, pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.
|Title of each class||Trading symbol||Name of each exchange on which registered|
|Class A common stock, par value of $0.01 per share||TNK||New York Stock Exchange|
Securities registered, or to be registered, pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
29,312,945 shares of Class A common stock, par value of $0.01 per share.
4,625,997 shares of Class B common stock, par value of $0.01 per share.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
Yes ý No ¨
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
Yes ¨ No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes ý No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes ý No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer ¨ Accelerated Filer ý Non-Accelerated Filer ¨ Emerging growth company ☐
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ¨
† The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes ý No ¨
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ¨
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ¨
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
|U.S. GAAP||x|| ||International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board ||¨|| ||Other ||¨|
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow:
Item 17 ¨ Item 18 ¨
If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Yes ☐ No ý
Auditor Name: KPMG LLP Auditor Location: Vancouver BC, Canada Auditor Firm ID: 85
TEEKAY TANKERS LTD.
INDEX TO REPORT ON FORM 20-F
This Annual Report should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included in this Annual Report.
Unless otherwise indicated, references in this Annual Report to “Teekay Tankers Ltd.", the "Company", "we”, "us" and "our" and similar terms refer to Teekay Tankers Ltd. and/or one or more of its subsidiaries, except that those terms, when used in this Annual Report in connection with the common stock described herein, shall mean specifically Teekay Tankers Ltd. References in this Annual Report to "Teekay" or “Teekay Corporation” refer to Teekay Corporation and/or any one or more of its subsidiaries.
In addition to historical information, this Annual Report contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Such forward-looking statements relate to future events and our operations, objectives, expectations, performance, financial condition and intentions. When used in this Annual Report, the words “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “anticipate,” “estimate” and variations of such words and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements in this Annual Report include, in particular, statements regarding:
•our future financial condition, results of operations and future revenues, expenses and capital expenditures, and our expected financial flexibility and sources of liquidity to fund capital expenditures and pursue acquisitions and other expansion opportunities;
•our dividend policy and ability to pay dividends on shares of our common stock;
•the crude oil and refined product tanker market fundamentals, including the balance of supply and demand in the tanker market, changes in the world tanker fleet, changes in global oil and refined products demand, the rate of global oil production (including OPEC supply measures), and changes in long-haul crude tanker movements, trading patterns, tanker fleet utilization, spot tanker rates, and the demand for lightering;
•anticipated levels of tanker newbuilding orders and deliveries;
•our compliance with, and the effect on our business and operating results of, covenants under our term loans, credit facilities and obligations related to finance leases;
•the consequences of any future epidemic or pandemic crises;
•the ability to leverage Teekay Corporation’s relationships and reputation in the shipping industry;
•the effectiveness of our chartering strategy in capturing upside opportunities and reducing downside risks;
•our acquisition strategy and the expected benefits of our acquisitions of vessels or businesses;
•our expectation that our U.S. Gulf lightering business will complement our spot trading strategy in the Caribbean to the U.S. Gulf market, allowing us to better optimize the deployment of the fleet that we trade in this region through enhanced scheduling flexibility, higher utilization and higher average revenues;
•our expectation regarding our vessels’ ability to perform to specifications and maintain their hire rates;
•operating expenses, availability of crew, relationships with labor unions, number of off-hire days, dry docking requirements, internal risk management systems, insurance costs and adequacy of insurance coverage, and expectations as to cost-saving initiatives;
•the impact and expected cost of, and our ability and plans to comply with, new and existing governmental regulations and maritime self-regulatory organization standards applicable to our business, including, among others, the expected cost to install ballast water treatment systems (or BWTS) on our tankers;
•our ability to obtain all permits, licenses and certificates material to the conduct of our operations;
•the impact on us and the shipping industry of environmental liabilities and developments, including climate change;
•the impact of any sanctions on our operations and our ongoing compliance with such sanctions;
•the impact of the invasion of Ukraine by Russia on the economy, our industry and our business;
•the expected impact of the cessation of the London Inter-Bank Offered Rate (or LIBOR) or the adoption of the "Poseidon Principles" by financial institutions;
•our expectations regarding tax liabilities, including whether applicable tax authorities may agree with our tax positions;
•our expectations regarding the effect of economic substance regulations in the Marshall Islands and Bermuda and the Marshall Islands' and Bermuda’s future status under those regulations;
•our strategy regarding our ship-to-ship transfer business and the expected ongoing benefits of our ship-to-ship transfer business, including, among others, the ability of the business to provide stable cash flow to help us partially manage the cyclicality of the tanker market;
•our expectations as to the useful vessel lives and the source of capital for any fleet renewal expenditures;
•our customers’ increasing emphasis on environmental and safety concerns;
•the impact of increasing scrutiny and changing expectations from investors, lenders and other stakeholders with respect to environmental, social and governance (or ESG) policies and practices and the Company's ability to meet its corporate ESG goals;
•our expected liquidity combined with anticipated cash generated to be sufficient in meeting our cash requirements for least a one-year period;
•our ability to refinance existing debt obligations, to raise additional debt and capital to fund capital expenditures or the cost of repurchasing vessels under our finance leases, and to negotiate extensions or redeployments of existing assets, including our expectations as to the timing for a new secured revolving credit facility;
•our expectations and hedging activities relating to foreign exchange, interest rate and spot market risks;
•the ability of counterparties to our derivative and other contracts to fulfill their contractual obligations;
•the timing of the purchase and delivery of vessels and commencement or termination of charters;
•our position that we are not a passive foreign investment company;
•the expected impact of new accounting guidance or the adoption of new accounting standards; and
•our business strategy and other plans and objectives for future operations.
Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks and are based upon a number of assumptions and estimates that are inherently subject to significant uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control. Actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially include, but are not limited to, those factors discussed below in Item 3 – Key Information: Risk Factors and other factors detailed from time to time in other reports we file with or furnish to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (or the SEC).
We do not intend to revise any forward-looking statements in order to reflect any change in our expectations or events or circumstances that may subsequently arise. You should carefully review and consider the various disclosures included in this Annual Report and in our other filings made with the SEC that attempt to advise interested parties of the risks and factors that may affect our business, prospects and results of operations.
Item 1.Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisors
Item 2.Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Item 3.Key Information
Some of the risks summarized below and discussed in greater detail in the following pages relate principally to the industries in which we operate and to our business in general. Other risks relate principally to the securities market and to ownership of our common stock. The occurrence of any of the events described in this section could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and ability to pay dividends on, and the trading price of our common stock.
Risk Factor Summary
Risks Related to Our Industry
•Changes in the oil markets could result in decreased demand for our vessels and services.
•The cyclical nature of the tanker industry may lead to volatile changes in charter rates, and significant fluctuations in the utilization of our vessels.
•Changes in the spot tanker market may result in significant fluctuations in the utilization of our vessels and our profitability.
•Our vessels operate in the highly competitive international tanker market.
•High oil prices could negatively impact tanker freight rates.
•Marine transportation is inherently risky, and an incident involving loss or damage to a vessel, significant loss of product or environmental contamination by any of our vessels could harm our reputation and business.
•Terrorist attacks, increased hostilities, political change, or war could lead to further economic instability, increased costs, and business disruption.
•Acts of piracy on ocean-going vessels continue to be a risk, which could adversely affect our business.
•Public health threats, including COVID-19 or variants, could have an adverse effects on our operations and financial results.
Risks Related to Our Business
•Economic downturns, including disruptions in the global credit markets, could adversely affect our ability to grow.
•Economic downturns may affect our customers’ ability to charter our vessels and pay for our services and may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
•We may not be able to grow or to manage our growth effectively.
•An increase in operating costs could adversely affect our cash flows and financial condition.
•The timing of dry dockings of our vessels during peak market conditions could adversely affect our profitability.
•Delays in the delivery of and installation of new vessel equipment could result in significant vessel off hire and have adverse impacts on our results of operations.
•Technological innovation could reduce our charter hire income and the value and operational lives of our vessels.
•Over time, the value of our vessels may decline, which could adversely affect our existing loans and finance leases, our ability to obtain new financing or our operating results.
•We depend on the ability of our subsidiaries to distribute funds to us in order to satisfy our financial obligations and to make any dividend payments.
•Financing agreements containing operating and financial restrictions may restrict our business and financing activities.
•We may be required to make substantial capital expenditures should we decide to expand the size of our fleet, involving significant installment payments. Our financial leverage could increase or our shareholders’ ownership interest in us could be diluted.
•Our substantial obligations related to finance leases may limit our flexibility in obtaining additional financing, pursuing other business opportunities and paying dividends.
•Our ability to repay or refinance debt and lease obligations and to fund our capital expenditures will depend on certain financial, business and other factors. To the extent we are able to finance these obligations and expenditures, our ability to pay cash dividends may be diminished or our financial leverage may increase, or our shareholders may be diluted.
•Many seafaring employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements, and the failure to renew those agreements or any future labor agreements may disrupt operations and adversely affect our cash flows.
•We or Teekay Corporation may be unable to attract and retain qualified, skilled employees or crew necessary to operate our business, and the cost of attracting and retaining such personnel may increase.
•We anticipate we may need to accelerate our fleet renewal in coming years, the success of any such program will depend on newbuilding and second-hand vessel availability and prices, market conditions and available financing, and which we anticipate will require significant expenditures.
•A number of third-party vessel owners have installed exhaust gas scrubbers for their vessels to comply with IMO 2020 requirements to reduce the amount of sulfur in fuel globally. Increased demand for and supply of vessels fitted with scrubbers could reduce demand for our existing vessels and impair our ability to time charter-out our vessels at competitive rates.
•Our insurance may be insufficient to cover losses that may occur to our vessels or result from our operations.
•Maritime claimants could arrest, or port authorities could detain, our vessels, which could interrupt our cash flow from these vessels.
•We depend significantly on Teekay Corporation to assist us in operating our business and competing in our markets, and our business will be harmed if Teekay Corporation fails to assist us.
•Exposure to interest rate fluctuations will result in fluctuations in our cash flows and operating results.
•Use of LIBOR is scheduled to cease, and interest rates on our LIBOR-based obligations may increase in the future.
•Our cash and cash equivalents are exposed to credit risk, which may be adversely affected by market conditions, interest rates and failures of financial institutions.
•We may be unable to take advantage of favorable opportunities in the spot market to the extent any of our vessels are employed on medium to long-term time charters.
•Our U.S. Gulf lightering business competes with alternative methods of delivering crude oil to ports and exports to offshore for consolidation onto larger vessels, which may limit our earnings in this market.
•Our full service lightering operations are subject to specific risks that could lead to accidents, oil spills or property damage.
•Our and many of our customers' substantial operations outside the United States (or U.S.) expose us and them to political, governmental, and economic instability, which could harm our operations.
•Exposure to currency exchange fluctuations could result in fluctuations in our operating results.
•Our operating results are subject to seasonal fluctuations.
•Our failure to renew or replace fixed-rate charters could cause us to trade the related vessels in the spot market.
•The fiduciary duties of certain of our officers and directors may conflict with their duties as officers or directors of Teekay Corporation and its affiliates.
•Our executive officers and directors and certain officers and directors of Teekay Corporation may favor interests of Teekay Corporation and its other affiliates above our interests and those of our Class A common shareholders.
•Our Manager (Teekay Services Limited) has rights to terminate our management agreement and, under certain circumstances, could receive substantial sums in connection with such termination; however, even if our Board of Directors or our shareholders are dissatisfied with our Manager, there are limited circumstances under which we can terminate our management agreement.
•Our Manager could receive a performance fee which is contingent on our results of operations and financial condition.
Legal and Regulatory Risks
•We are bound to adhere to sanctions from many jurisdictions, including the U.S., United Kingdom, European Union and Canada, due to our domicile and location of offices.
•Past port calls by our vessels or third-party vessels participating in Revenue Sharing Agreements (or RSAs) to countries that are subject to sanctions imposed by the U.S., European Union and the United Kingdom could harm our business.
•Failure to comply with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the UK Bribery Act, the UK Criminal Finances Act and similar laws in other jurisdictions could result in fines, criminal penalties, contract terminations and an adverse effect on our business.
•The shipping industry is subject to substantial environmental and other regulations, which may significantly limit operations and increase expenses.
•Climate change and greenhouse gas restrictions may adversely impact our operations and markets.
•Increasing scrutiny and changing expectations from investors, lenders, customers and other market participants with respect to ESG policies and practices may impose additional costs on us or expose us to additional risks.
•Our operations may be subject to economic substance requirements in the Marshall Islands and other offshore jurisdictions, which could impact our business.
•Regulations relating to ballast water discharge may adversely affect our operational results and financial condition.
•The smuggling of drugs or other contraband onto our vessels may lead to governmental claims against us.
Information and Technology Risks
•A cyber-attack could materially disrupt our business.
•We rely on our information systems to conduct our business, and failure to protect these systems against viruses and security breaches could adversely affect our business and results of operations. Additionally, if these systems fail or become unavailable for any significant period of time, our business could be harmed.
•Our failure to comply with data privacy laws could damage our customer relationships and expose us to litigation risks and potential fines.
Risks Related to an Investment in Our Securities
•The superior voting rights of our Class B common stock held by Teekay Corporation limit our Class A common shareholders’ ability to control or influence corporate matters.
•Because we are incorporated in the Marshall Islands, shareholders may have fewer rights and protections under Marshall Islands law than under a typical jurisdiction in the U.S.
•Because we are organized under the laws of the Marshall Islands, it may be difficult to serve us with legal process or enforce judgments against us, our directors or our management.
•U.S. tax authorities could treat us as a “passive foreign investment company,” which could have adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to our U.S. shareholders and other adverse consequences to us and all of our shareholders.
•We are subject to taxes. The imposition of taxes, including as a result of a change in tax law or accounting requirements, may reduce our cash available for distribution to shareholders.
Risks Related to Our Industry
Changes in the oil markets could result in decreased demand for our vessels and services.
Demand for our vessels and services in transporting oil depends upon world and regional oil markets. Any decrease in shipments of crude oil in those markets could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Historically, those markets have been volatile as a result of the many conditions and events that affect the price, production and transport of oil, including competition from alternative energy sources. Past slowdowns of the U.S. and world economies have resulted in reduced consumption of oil products and decreased demand for our vessels and services, which reduced vessel earnings. Additional slowdowns could have similar effects on our operating results and may limit our ability to expand our fleet.
The cyclical nature of the tanker industry may lead to volatile changes in charter rates, and significant fluctuations in the utilization of our vessels, which may adversely affect our earnings.
Historically, the tanker industry has been cyclical, experiencing volatility in profitability due to changes in the supply of and demand for tanker capacity and changes in the supply of and demand for oil and oil products. The cyclical nature of the tanker industry may cause significant increases or decreases in the revenues we earn from our vessels and may also cause significant increases or decreases in the value of our vessels. If the tanker market is depressed, our earnings may decrease. Our exposure to industry business cycles is more acute because of our exposure to the spot tanker market, which is more volatile than the tanker industry generally. Our ability to operate profitably in the spot market and to recharter our other vessels upon the expiration or termination of their charters will depend upon, among other factors, economic conditions in the tanker market.
The factors affecting the supply of and demand for tankers are outside of our control, and the nature, timing and degree of changes in industry conditions are unpredictable.
Key factors that influence the supply of tanker capacity include:
•environmental concerns and regulations;
•the number of newbuilding deliveries;
•the scrapping rate of older vessels;
•conversion of tankers to other uses; and
•the number of vessels that are out of service.
Key factors that influence demand for tanker capacity include:
•supply of oil and oil products;
•demand for oil and oil products;
•regional availability of refining capacity;
•global and regional economic and political conditions;
•the distance oil and oil products are to be moved by sea;
•demand for floating storage of oil; and
•changes in seaborne and other transportation patterns.
Historically, the tanker markets have been volatile as a result of the many conditions and factors that can affect the price and the supply of, and demand for, tanker capacity. Changes in demand for transportation of oil over longer distances and in the supply of tankers to carry that oil may materially affect our revenues, profitability and cash flows.
The conflict in Ukraine and the consequent sanctions imposed on Russia have significantly increased tanker demand and rates by reshaping global oil trading patterns, including the rerouting of Russian oil exports away from Europe and the subsequent backfilling of imports into Europe from other more distant sources. Changes in or resolution of the conflict in Ukraine and the lifting of those sanctions may lead to a reversal of these trading patterns or other effects that could significantly decrease tanker demand and rates.
Changes in the spot tanker market may result in significant fluctuations in the utilization of our vessels and our profitability.
During 2022 and 2021, we derived approximately 93.7% and 72.0%, respectively, of our net revenues from vessels operating in the spot tanker market, either directly or by means of participation in RSAs (which includes vessels operating under full service lightering (or FSL) contracts and charters with an initial term of less than one year). Due to our involvement in the spot-charter market, declining spot rates in a given period generally will result in corresponding declines in our operating results for that period.
The spot-charter market is highly volatile and fluctuates based upon tanker and oil supply and demand. The successful operation of our vessels in the spot-charter market depends upon, among other things, obtaining profitable spot charters and minimizing, to the extent possible, time spent waiting for charters and time spent traveling unladen to load cargo. Future spot rates may not be sufficient to enable our vessels trading in the spot tanker market to operate profitably or to provide sufficient cash flow to service our debt obligations.
In addition, the impact of changes in the spot tanker market may be further impacted by our tankers participating in RSAs as an RSA may include vessels of third-party owners that do not perform as well as our vessels. As a result, we may earn less net revenue than we could by operating our vessels independently. For further information about the RSAs, please read "Item 4 – Information on the Company: B. Business Overview – Revenue Sharing Agreements".
Our vessels operate in the highly competitive international tanker market.
The operation of oil tankers and transportation of crude oil and refined petroleum products are extremely competitive businesses. Competition arises primarily from other tanker owners, including major oil companies and independent tanker companies, some of which have substantially greater financial strength and capital than do we or Teekay Corporation. Competition for the transportation of oil and oil products can be intense and
depends on price and the location, size, age, and condition of the tanker and the acceptability of the tanker and its operators to the charterers. Our competitive position may erode over time.
High oil prices could negatively impact tanker freight rates.
Global crude oil prices increased through the course of 2021 and reached more than a ten-year high in June 2022. High oil prices could negatively impact tanker freight rates due to reduced oil demand, higher operating costs as a result of increased bunker prices, and weaker refining margins.
Marine transportation is inherently risky, and an incident involving loss or damage to a vessel, significant loss of product or environmental contamination by any of our vessels could harm our reputation and business.
Our vessels, crew and cargoes are at risk of being damaged, injured or lost because of events such as:
•bad weather or natural disasters;
•mechanical or electrical failures;
•grounding, capsizing, fire, explosions and collisions;
•piracy (hijackings and kidnappings);
•acute-onset illness in connection with global or regional pandemics or similar public health crises;
•mental health of crew members;
•human error; and
•war and terrorism.
An accident involving any of our vessels could result in any of the following:
•significant litigation with our customers or other third parties;
•death or injury to persons, loss of property or damage to the environment and natural resources;
•delays in the delivery of cargo;
•liabilities or costs to recover any spilled oil or other petroleum products and to restore the environment affected by the spill;
•loss of revenues from charters;
•governmental fines, penalties, or restrictions on conducting business;
•higher insurance rates; and
•damage to our reputation and customer relationships generally.
Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results. In addition, any damage to, or environmental contamination involving, oil production facilities serviced by our vessels could result in the suspension or curtailment of operations by our customers, which would, in turn, result in loss of revenues.
Terrorist attacks, increased hostilities, political change, or war could lead to further economic instability, increased costs, and business disruption.
Terrorist attacks, and current or future conflicts in Ukraine, the Middle East, Libya, East Asia, South East Asia, West Africa and elsewhere, and political change, may adversely affect our business, operating results, financial condition, and ability to raise capital and fund future growth. Recent hostilities in Ukraine, the Middle East - especially among Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Yemen (Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Area), or Iran - and elsewhere may lead to additional armed conflicts or to further acts of terrorism and civil disturbance in the U.S. or elsewhere, which may contribute further to economic instability and disruption of oil production and distribution, which could result in reduced demand for our services and have an adverse impact on our operations and our ability to conduct business.
Furthermore, Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, in addition to sanctions announced by several world leaders and nations against Russia and any further sanctions, may also adversely impact our business given Russia’s role as a major global exporter of crude oil. Our business could be harmed by trade tariffs, trade embargoes or other economic sanctions by the U.S., the European Union or other countries against Russia, companies with Russian connections or the Russian energy sector and harmed by any retaliatory measures by Russia or other countries in response. While much uncertainty remains regarding the global impact of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, it is possible that such tensions could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operation and cash flows. In addition, it is possible that third parties with which we have charter contracts may be impacted by events in Russia and Ukraine, which could adversely affect our operations and financial condition.
In addition, oil facilities, shipyards, vessels, pipelines, oil fields or other infrastructure could be targets of future terrorist attacks or warlike operations and our vessels could be targets of hijackers, terrorists, or warlike operations; the conflict in Ukraine has recently resulted in missile attacks on commercial vessels in the Black Sea. Any such attacks could lead to, among other things, bodily injury or loss of life, vessel or other property
damage, increased vessel operational costs, including insurance costs, and the inability to transport oil to or from certain locations. Terrorist attacks, war, hijacking or other events beyond our control that adversely affect the distribution, production or transportation of oil to be shipped by us could entitle customers to terminate charters which would harm our cash flow and business.
Acts of piracy on ocean-going vessels continue to be a risk, which could adversely affect our business.
Acts of piracy have historically affected ocean-going vessels trading in regions of the world such as the South China Sea, Gulf of Guinea and the Indian Ocean off the coast of Somalia. While there continues to be a significant risk of piracy incidents in the Southern Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean, recently there have been increases in the frequency and severity of piracy incidents off the coast of West Africa and a resurgent risk of piracy and/or armed robbery in the Straits of Malacca, Sulu & Celebes Sea, Gulf of Mexico and surrounding waters. If these piracy attacks result in regions in which our vessels are deployed being named on the Joint War Committee Listed Areas, war risk insurance premiums payable for such coverage may increase significantly and such insurance coverage may be more difficult to obtain. In addition, crew costs, including costs which are incurred to the extent we employ on-board security guards and escort vessels, could increase in such circumstances. We may not be adequately insured to cover losses from these incidents, which could have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, hijacking as a result of an act of piracy against our vessels, or an increase in cost or unavailability of insurance for our vessels, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Public health threats, including COVID-19 or variants, could have an adverse effect on our operations and financial results.
Public health threats and highly communicable diseases, such as COVID-19, outbreaks of which have already occurred in various parts of the world near where we operate, could adversely affect our operations, the operations of our customers or suppliers and the global economy. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries, ports and organizations, including those where we conduct a large part of our operations, implemented measures to combat the outbreak, such as quarantines and travel restrictions. Such measures caused severe trade disruptions. In addition, the pandemic initially resulted, and the pandemic or other future public health threats may again result in, a significant decline in global demand for crude oil and refined petroleum products. As our business is the transportation of crude oil and refined oil products on behalf of oil majors, oil traders and other customers, any significant decrease in demand for the cargo we transport could adversely affect demand for our vessels and services. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic or any other public health threat may impact our business, results of operations and financial condition, including possible impairments, will depend on future developments, which are uncertain and cannot be predicted, including, among others, the impact of the end of China’s zero-COVID policy and of the development of variants of the COVID-19 virus, and the level of the effectiveness and administration of vaccines and other actions to contain or treat its impact.
Risks Related to Our Business
Economic downturns, including disruptions in the global credit markets, could adversely affect our ability to grow.
Economic downturns, bank failures and financial crises in the global markets could produce illiquidity in the capital markets, market volatility, heightened exposure to interest rate and credit risks, and reduced access to capital markets. If global financial markets and economic conditions significantly deteriorate in the future, we may face restricted access to the capital markets or bank lending, which may make it more difficult and costly to fund future growth. Decreased access to such resources could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Global financial markets and economic conditions have been, and continue to be, volatile. Several economists anticipate a potential slowing of the global economy due in part to inflationary pressures and higher interest rates, and with many nations, including the U.S., facing a potential economic recession during 2023.
Economic downturns may affect our customers’ ability to charter our vessels and pay for our services and may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Economic downturns in the global financial markets or economy generally may lead to a decline in our customers’ operations or ability to pay for our services, which could result in decreased demand for our vessels and services. Our customers’ inability to pay could also result in their default on our current contracts and charters. A decline in the amount of services requested by our customers or their default on our contracts with them could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may not be able to grow or to manage our growth effectively.
Our future growth will depend upon a number of factors, some of which are beyond our control. These factors include our ability to:
•identify suitable tankers or shipping companies for acquisitions or joint ventures;
•integrate successfully any acquired tankers or businesses with our existing operations; and
•obtain required financing for our existing and any new operations.
In addition, competition from other companies, many of which have significantly greater financial resources than do we or Teekay Corporation, may reduce our acquisition opportunities or cause us to pay higher prices. Our failure to effectively identify, purchase, develop and integrate any tankers or businesses could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Furthermore, any acquisition of a vessel or business may not be profitable at or after the time of acquisition and may not generate cash flows sufficient to justify the investment. In addition, acquisitions expose us to risks that may harm our business, financial condition and operating results.
To the extent we acquire existing vessels, they typically do not carry warranties as to their condition, unlike newbuilding vessels. While we generally inspect existing vessels prior to purchase, such an inspection would normally not provide us with as much knowledge of a vessel’s condition as we would possess if it had been built for us and operated by us during its life. Repairs and maintenance costs for existing vessels are difficult to predict
and may be substantially higher than for vessels we have operated since they were built. These costs could decrease our cash flows and liquidity and harm our financial condition and performance.
An increase in operating costs, due to increased inflation or otherwise, could adversely affect our cash flows and financial condition.
Our levels of vessel operating expenses depend upon a variety of factors, many of which are beyond our control, such as competition for crew and inflation. Inflation has increased significantly on a worldwide basis since mid-2021, with many countries facing their highest inflation rates in decades. Inflation has increased our vessel operating expenses, voyage expenses and certain other expenses. To the extent our charter rates do not cover increased vessel operating expenses or voyage expenses for which we are responsible, or if other costs and expenses increase, our earnings would decrease and our cash flows and financial condition would be adversely affected.
The timing of dry dockings of our vessels during peak market conditions could adversely affect our profitability.
We periodically dry dock each of our vessels for inspection, repairs and maintenance and any modifications to comply with industry certification or governmental requirements. Generally, each vessel is dry docked every two and a half years to five years depending on the age of the vessel. Depending on the type of dry docking required, a vessel will incur a number of off-hire days where it will not be in service. During times of favorable market conditions, any increase in the number of required dry dockings in a given timeframe and the lost revenue days arising from this off hire could result in a material loss of earnings.
Delays in the delivery of and installation of new vessel equipment could result in significant vessel off hire and have adverse impacts on our results of operations.
In order to maximize fleet performance and efficiency, we plan to invest from time to time in new technologies to be installed on our fleet. However, the delivery and installation of any new equipment depends on a number of factors, some of which are within our control, such as the location of the vessels on a given date, and other factors which are outside of our control, such as the delivery due date, the availability of qualified personnel to install new equipment and potential bottlenecks in the supply chain. Depending on the type of new equipment to be installed, we may need to co-ordinate delivery and installation in line with vessel dry dockings. Any delays in the delivery or installation of new equipment could result in an increase in the number of dry docking days and adversely impact our results of operation.
Technological innovation could reduce our charter hire income and the value and operational lives of our vessels.
The charter hire rates and the value and operational life of a vessel are determined by a number of factors, including the vessel’s efficiency, operational flexibility and physical life. Efficiency includes speed, fuel economy and the ability to load and discharge cargo quickly. Flexibility includes the ability to enter various harbors and ports, utilize related docking facilities and pass through canals and straits. The length of a vessel’s physical life is related to its original design and construction, its maintenance and the impact of the stress of operations. If new tankers are built that are more efficient or more flexible or have longer physical lives than our vessels, competition from these more technologically-advanced vessels could adversely affect the amount of charter hire payments, if any, we receive for our vessels and the resale value of our vessels could significantly decrease. As a result, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Over time, the value of our vessels may decline, which could adversely affect our existing loans and finance leases, our ability to obtain new financing or our operating results.
Vessel values for oil tankers can fluctuate substantially over time due to a number of different factors. Vessel values may decline from existing levels. If the operation of a tanker is not profitable, rather than continue to incur costs to maintain and finance the vessel, we may seek to dispose of it. Our inability to dispose of the vessel at a fair market value or the disposition of the vessel at a fair market value that is lower than its book value could result in a loss on its sale and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, vessel value declines may result in impairment charges against our earnings. As of December 31, 2022, our revolving credit facility and our 27 obligations related to finance leases contain loan-to-value financial covenants tied to the value of the vessels that collateralize the credit facility and finance leases. We are required to maintain vessel value to outstanding loan and lease principal balance ratios ranging from 100%-125%. As at December 31, 2022, we were in compliance with these requirements. A decline in the market value of these tankers may result in a default of the applicable financing arrangement or may require us to prepay portions of the outstanding principal or pledge additional collateral to avoid a default. If we are unable to cure any such breach within the prescribed cure period in a particular financing facility, the relevant financiers could accelerate our debt or obligations under finance lease and foreclose on our vessels and other assets pledged as collateral or require an early termination of the credit facility or finance lease. In certain circumstances, such a breach could result in cross-defaults under our other financing agreements. In addition, a significant decline in the market value of our tankers may prevent us from refinancing tankers with a similar amount of debt thereby requiring us to either reduce debt levels in facilities collateralized by the tankers or seek alternative financing structures.
In addition, if we determine at any time that a vessel’s future useful life and earnings require us to impair its value on our consolidated financial statements, we may need to recognize a significant charge against our earnings.
We depend on the ability of our subsidiaries to distribute funds to us in order to satisfy our financial obligations and to make any dividend payments.
Our subsidiaries, which are all directly and indirectly wholly-owned by us, own all of our substantive operating assets. As a result, our ability to satisfy our financial obligations and to pay any dividends to our shareholders depends on the ability of our subsidiaries to generate profits available for distribution to us and our subsidiaries being permitted by law and contract to make such distributions to us; to the extent that they are unable to generate or distribute profits to us, we may be unable to pay our creditors or any dividends to our shareholders.
Financing agreements containing operating and financial restrictions may restrict our business and financing activities.
The operating and financial restrictions and covenants in our revolving credit facility, working capital loan facility, lease obligations and in any of our future financing agreements could adversely affect our ability to finance future operations or capital needs or to pursue and expand our business activities. For example, these financing arrangements may restrict our ability to:
•incur additional indebtedness and guarantee indebtedness;
•pay dividends or make other distributions or repurchase or redeem our capital stock;
•prepay certain debt;
•issue certain preferred shares or similar equity securities;
•make loans and investments;
•enter into a new line of business;
•incur or permit certain liens to exist;
•enter into transactions with affiliates;
•create unrestricted subsidiaries;
•transfer, sell, convey or otherwise dispose of assets;
•make certain acquisitions and investments;
•enter into agreements restricting our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends; and
•consolidate, merge or sell all or substantially all of our assets.
In addition, certain of our debt agreements and lease obligations require us to comply with certain financial covenants. Our ability to comply with covenants and restrictions contained in debt agreements and finance lease obligations may be affected by events beyond our control, including prevailing economic, financial and industry conditions. If any such events were to occur, we may fail to comply with these covenants. If we breach any of the restrictions, covenants, ratios or tests in our financing agreements and we are unable to cure such breach within the prescribed cure period, our obligations may, at the election of the relevant financier, become immediately due and payable, and the lenders’ commitment under our credit facilities, if any, to make further loans available to us may terminate. In certain circumstances, this could lead to cross-defaults under our other financing agreements which in turn could result in obligations becoming due and commitments being terminated under such agreements. A default under financing agreements could also result in foreclosure on any of our vessels and other assets securing related loans and finance leases or our need to sell assets or take other actions in order to meet our debt obligations.
We may be required to make substantial capital expenditures should we decide to expand the size of our fleet. We generally will be required to make significant installment payments for any acquisitions of newbuilding vessels prior to their delivery and generation of revenue. Depending on whether we finance our expenditures through cash from operations or by issuing debt or equity securities, our financial leverage could increase or our shareholders’ ownership interests in us could be diluted.
We will be required to make substantial capital expenditures should we decide to increase the size of our fleet, including acquiring tankers from third parties. Our acquisitions may also include newbuildings. We generally will be required to make installment payments on any newbuildings prior to their delivery. We typically pay 10% to 20% of the purchase price of a newbuilding tanker upon signing the purchase contract, even though delivery of the completed vessel does not occur until much later (approximately two to three years from the order). To fund expansion capital expenditures, we may be required to use cash balances or cash from operations, incur borrowings or raise capital through the incurrence of debt or issuance of additional equity securities. Our ability to obtain bank financing or to access the capital markets for future offerings may be limited by our financial condition at the time of any such financing or offering, as well as by adverse market conditions resulting from, among other things, general economic conditions and contingencies and uncertainties that are beyond our control. Our failure to obtain funds for capital expenditures could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Even if we are successful in obtaining the necessary funds, incurring additional debt may significantly increase our interest expense and financial leverage, which could limit our financial flexibility and ability to pursue other business opportunities. In addition, issuing additional equity securities may result in significant shareholder ownership dilution.
Substantial obligations related to finance leases may limit our flexibility in obtaining additional financing, pursuing other business opportunities and paying dividends.
As of December 31, 2022, our long-term debt was $nil and an additional $82.5 million was available to us under our revolving credit facility, and our obligations related to finance leases were approximately $536.5 million. In addition, we have a working capital loan facility, which provides borrowings of up to a maximum of $80.0 million, the drawdown amount is limited to a percentage of certain receivables and accrued revenue, which is assessed weekly. As of December 31, 2022, the aggregate available borrowings were $80.0 million, of which $nil was drawn. We will continue to have the ability to incur additional debt, subject to limitations in our revolving credit facility and working capital loan facility. Our level of debt could have important consequences to us, including the following:
•our ability to obtain additional financing, if necessary, for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other purposes may be impaired, or such financing may not be available on favorable terms, if at all;
•we will need a substantial portion of our cash flow to make principal and interest payments on our debt and lease payments on our obligations related to finance leases, reducing the funds that would otherwise be available for operations, business opportunities, share repurchases and dividends to our shareholders;
•our debt level makes us more vulnerable than our competitors with less debt to competitive pressures or a downturn in our industry or the economy generally; and
•our debt level may limit our flexibility in responding to changing business and economic conditions.
Our ability to service our debt and obligations related to finance leases depends upon, among other things, our financial and operating performance, which is affected by prevailing economic conditions and financial, business, regulatory and other factors, many of which are beyond
our control. If our operating results are not sufficient to service our current or future indebtedness and obligations related to finance leases, we will be forced to take actions such as reducing or delaying our business activities, acquisitions, investments or capital expenditures, selling assets, restructuring or refinancing our debt, or seeking additional equity capital or bankruptcy protection. We may not be able to effect any of these remedies on satisfactory terms, or at all.
Our ability to repay or refinance debt and lease obligations and to fund our capital expenditures will depend on certain financial, business and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. To the extent we are able to finance these obligations and expenditures with cash from operations or by issuing debt or common shares, our ability to pay cash dividends may be diminished or our financial leverage may increase, or our shareholders may be diluted.
To fund our existing and future debt and lease obligations and capital expenditures, we may be required to use our existing liquidity or cash from operations, incur borrowings, raise capital through the sale of assets or ownership interests in certain assets or our joint venture entity, issue debt or additional equity securities and/or seek to access other financing sources. Our access to potential funding sources and our future financial and operating performance will be affected by prevailing economic conditions and financial, business, regulatory and other factors, many of which are beyond our control.
If we are unable to access additional financing and generate sufficient cash flow to meet our debt, lease, capital expenditure and other business requirements, we may be forced to take actions such as:
•restructuring our debt;
•selling additional assets or equity interests in certain assets or our joint venture;
•not paying dividends;
•reducing, delaying or canceling business activities, acquisitions, investments or capital expenditures; or
•seeking bankruptcy protection.
Such measures might not be successful, and additional debt or equity capital may not be available on acceptable terms or enable us to meet our debt, lease, capital expenditure and other obligations. Some of such measures may adversely affect our business and reputation. In addition, financing agreements may restrict our ability to implement some of these measures.
Use of cash from operations for capital purposes will reduce cash available for dividends to shareholders. Our ability to obtain bank financing or to access the capital markets for future offerings may be limited by our financial condition at the time of any such financing or offering as well as by adverse market conditions in general. Even if we are successful in obtaining necessary funds, the terms of such financings could limit our ability to pay cash dividends to shareholders or operate our business as currently conducted. In addition, incurring additional debt may significantly increase interest expense and financial leverage, and issuing additional equity securities may result in significant shareholder dilution. The sale of certain assets would reduce cash from operations and the cash available for shareholders.
Our primary liquidity needs in the next few years are to make scheduled repayments of debt, in addition to paying debt servicing costs, scheduled repayments of obligations related to our finance leases, operating expenses, dry-docking expenditures, costs associated with modifications to our vessels, funding our other working capital requirements, providing funding to our equity-accounted joint venture from time to time and dividends on equity as and if determined by our Board of Directors. We anticipate that our primary sources of funds in the next few years will be existing liquidity, cash flows from operations, long-term debt, finance leases and equity issuances or other sources of financing.
Many seafaring employees are covered by collective bargaining agreements, and the failure to renew those agreements or any future labor agreements may disrupt operations and adversely affect our cash flows.
A significant portion of Teekay Corporation’s seafarers that crew our vessels are employed under collective bargaining agreements. Teekay Corporation may become subject to additional labor agreements in the future. Teekay Corporation may suffer labor disruptions if relationships deteriorate with the seafarers or the unions that represent them. The collective bargaining agreements may not prevent labor disruptions, particularly when the agreements are being renegotiated. Salaries are typically renegotiated annually or biannually for seafarers. Although these negotiations have not caused labor disruptions in the past, any labor disruptions could harm our operations and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and cash flows.
We or Teekay Corporation may be unable to attract and retain qualified, skilled employees or crew necessary to operate our business, and the cost of attracting and retaining such personnel may increase.
Our success depends on our and Teekay Corporation’s ability to attract and retain highly skilled and qualified personnel. In crewing our vessels, we require technically skilled employees with specialized training who can perform physically demanding work. Competition to attract and retain qualified crew members is intense. The shipping industry continues to forecast a shortfall in qualified personnel, and crew and other compensation has increased recently and may continue to increase in the future. If crew costs increase and we are not able to increase our rates to compensate for any such increases, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected. Any inability we experience in the future to hire, train and retain a sufficient number of qualified employees or crew could impair our ability to manage, maintain and grow our business.
We anticipate we may need to accelerate our fleet renewal in coming years, the success of any such program will depend on newbuilding and second-hand vessel availability and prices, market conditions and available financing, and which we anticipate will require significant expenditures.
As approximately 30% of our fleet is currently aged 15 years and older, we anticipate we may need to accelerate our fleet renewal in coming years. Our ability to successfully execute a renewal program will depend on the availability and prices of newbuilding and second-hand vessels, market
conditions and charter rates (primarily spot tanker rates), and access to sufficient financing at acceptable rates. The cost of newbuilding or second-hand vessels will be significant, which could affect our financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
A number of third-party vessel owners have installed exhaust gas scrubbers for their vessels to comply with IMO 2020 requirements to reduce the amount of sulfur in fuel globally. Increased demand for and supply of vessels fitted with scrubbers could reduce demand for our existing vessels and impair our ability to time charter-out our vessels at competitive rates.
As of December 31, 2022, owners of approximately 33% of the worldwide fleet of tankers with capacity over 10,000 dead-weight tonnes had fitted or planned to fit scrubbers on their vessels. Fitting scrubbers allows a ship to consume high sulfur fuel oil, which is less expensive than the low sulfur fuel oil that ships without scrubbers must consume to comply with the IMO 2020 low sulfur emission requirements. Generally, owners of vessels with higher operating fuel requirements (generally larger ships) are more inclined to install scrubbers to comply with IMO 2020. Fuel expense reductions from operating scrubber-fitted ships could result in a substantial reduction of bunker cost for charterers compared to the vessels in our fleet, which do not have scrubbers. If (a) the supply of scrubber-fitted vessels increases, (b) the differential between the cost of high sulfur fuel oil and low sulfur fuel oil is high and (c) charterers prefer such vessels over our vessels to the extent they do not have scrubbers, demand for our vessels may be reduced and our ability to time charter-out our vessels at competitive rates may be impaired, which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our insurance may be insufficient to cover losses that may occur to our vessels or result from our operations.
The operation of oil tankers and lightering support vessels and the transfer of oil is inherently risky. Although we carry hull and machinery (marine and war risks), protection and indemnity insurance, and other liability insurance, all risks may not be adequately insured against, and any particular claim may not be paid or paid in full. In addition, we do not carry insurance on our vessels covering the loss of revenues resulting from vessel off-hire time. Any significant unpaid claims or off-hire time of our vessels could harm our business, operating results and financial condition. Any claims covered by insurance would be subject to deductibles, and since it is possible that a large number of claims may be brought, the aggregate amount of these deductibles could be material. Certain of our insurance coverage is maintained through mutual protection and indemnity associations, and as a member of such associations we may be required to make additional payments over and above budgeted premiums if member claims exceed association reserves. In addition, the cost of this protection and indemnity coverage has significantly increased and may continue to increase. Even if our insurance coverage is adequate to cover our losses, we may not be able to obtain a timely replacement vessel in the event of a total loss of a vessel.
We may be unable to procure adequate insurance coverage at commercially reasonable rates in the future. For example, more stringent environmental regulations have led to increased costs for, and in the future may result in the lack of availability of, insurance against risks of environmental damage or pollution. A catastrophic oil spill, marine disasters or natural disasters could exceed the insurance coverage, which could harm our business, financial condition and operating results. Any uninsured or underinsured loss could harm our business and financial condition. In addition, the insurance may be voidable by the insurers as a result of certain actions, such as vessels failing to maintain certification with applicable maritime regulatory organizations.
Changes in the insurance markets attributable to structural changes in insurance and reinsurance markets and risk appetite, economic factors, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, outbreaks of other communicable diseases, war, terrorist attacks, environmental catastrophes or political changes may also make certain types of insurance more difficult to obtain. In addition, the insurance that may be available may be significantly more expensive than existing coverage or be available only with restrictive terms.
Maritime claimants could arrest, or port authorities could detain, our vessels, which could interrupt our cash flow from these vessels.
Crew members, suppliers of goods and services to a vessel, shippers of cargo and other parties may be entitled to a maritime lien against that vessel for unsatisfied debts, claims or damages. In many jurisdictions, a maritime lienholder may enforce its lien by arresting a vessel through foreclosure proceedings. The arrest or attachment of one or more of our vessels could interrupt our cash flow and require us to pay large sums of funds to have the arrest or attachment lifted. In addition, in some jurisdictions, such as South Africa, under the “sister ship” theory of liability, a claimant may arrest both the vessel that is subject to the claimant’s maritime lien and any “associated” vessel, which is any vessel owned or controlled by the same owner. Claimants could try to assert “sister ship” liability against one vessel in our fleet or the RSAs in which we operate for claims relating to another of our ships. Also, port authorities may seek to detain our vessels in port, which could adversely affect our operating results or relationships with customers.
We depend significantly on Teekay Corporation to assist us in operating our business and competing in our markets, and our business will be harmed if Teekay Corporation fails to assist us.
Pursuant to the terms of the long-term management agreement (or Management Agreement), Teekay Services Limited (or the Manager), a subsidiary of Teekay Corporation, provides various services to us, including administrative (primarily accounting, legal and financial) and strategic (primarily advising on acquisitions, strategic planning and general management of the business), as well as certain commercial management and technical services for some of our fleet. Our success depends significantly upon the satisfactory performance of these services by our Manager. Our business may be harmed if our Manager fails to perform these services satisfactorily, if it stops providing these services to us or if it terminates the Management Agreement, as it is entitled to do under certain circumstances. The circumstances under which we are able to terminate the Management Agreement are limited and do not include mere dissatisfaction with our Manager’s performance. If Teekay Corporation suffers material damage to its reputation or relationships, it may harm our ability to:
•maximize revenues of our tankers;
•acquire new tankers or obtain new time charters;
•renew existing time charters upon their expiration;
•successfully interact with shipyards during periods of shipyard construction constraints;
•obtain financing on commercially acceptable terms; or
•maintain satisfactory relationships with suppliers and other third parties.
If our ability to do any of the things described above is impaired, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Please read "Item 7 – Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions: Related Party Transactions – Management Agreement" for additional information about the Management Agreement.
Exposure to interest rate fluctuations will result in fluctuations in our cash flows and operating results.
As of December 31, 2022, we had $390.0 million in aggregate principal amount of outstanding indebtedness and finance lease obligations that bear interest based on variable, floating rates. We anticipate that we will enter into additional variable-rate financing obligations in the future. We are exposed to the impact of interest rate changes primarily through our borrowings and finance lease obligations that require us to make interest payments based on LIBOR or SOFR. Significant increases in interest rates could adversely affect our profit margins, results of operations and our ability to service our debt. Interest rates have increased substantially since early 2021, with central banks implementing several rate increases during 2022 and contemplating further increases in 2023. In accordance with our risk management policy, we may use interest rate swaps to reduce our exposure to market risk from changes in interest rates. The principal objective of these contracts is to minimize the risks and costs associated with our floating rate debt. However, any hedging activities entered into by us may not be effective in fully mitigating our interest rate risk from our variable rate indebtedness.
In addition, we are exposed to credit loss in the event of non-performance by the counterparties to the interest rate swap agreements and the financial institutions where our cash and cash equivalents are held. For further information about our financial instruments at December 31, 2022 that are sensitive to changes in interest rates, please read "Item 11 - Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk".
Use of LIBOR is currently scheduled to cease, and interest rates on our LIBOR-based obligations may increase in the future.
LIBOR is no longer published on a representative basis, with the exception of the most commonly used tenors of U.S. dollar LIBOR, which will no longer be published on a representative basis after June 30, 2023. The U.S. Federal Reserve has selected as an alternative the Secured Overnight Finance Rate, a new index calculated by short-term repurchase agreements, backed by Treasury securities (or SOFR). SOFR is observed and backward-looking, which stands in contrast with LIBOR under the current methodology, which is an estimated forward-looking rate and relies, to some degree, on the expert judgment of submitting panel members. The ongoing transition from LIBOR to SOFR or any other alternative to LIBOR may not produce the economic equivalent of LIBOR.
As of December 31, 2022, our secured revolving credit facility agreement dated January 28, 2020 and 21 obligations related to finance leases each provide for an alternate method of calculating interest rates in the event that a LIBOR rate is unavailable. Transitions to the alternative methods may adversely affect the costs of these debt and finance lease obligations.
In January 2022, we amended our working capital loan facility to daily SOFR. We anticipate that our existing facilities and interest rate swap will likely be amended to SOFR or an alternative reference rate prior to LIBOR ceasing on June 30, 2023.
In addition, we may need to renegotiate certain LIBOR-based credit facilities or interest rate derivatives agreements, which could adversely impact our cost of debt. There can be no assurance that we will be able to modify existing documentation or renegotiate existing transactions before the discontinuation of LIBOR.
Our cash and cash equivalents are exposed to credit risk, which may be adversely affected by market conditions, interest rates and failures of financial institutions.
As of December 31, 2022, we had a total of $180.5 million of cash and cash equivalents. We manage our available cash through various financial institutions and primarily invest our cash reserves in bank deposits. A collapse or bankruptcy of any of the financial institutions in which or through which we hold or invest our cash reserves--or rumors or the appearance of any such potential collapse or bankruptcy--might prevent us from accessing all or a portion of our cash and cash equivalents for an uncertain period of time, if at all. As demonstrated recently by Silicon Valley Bank and other banks, the collapse of a financial institution may occur very rapidly. Any material limitation on our ability to access our cash and cash equivalents could adversely affect our liquidity, results of operations and ability to meet our obligations.
We may be unable to take advantage of favorable opportunities in the spot market to the extent any of our vessels are employed on medium to long-term time charters.
As of the date of this Annual Report, two of our time chartered-in vessels currently operate under fixed-rate time-charter contracts. To the extent we enter into medium or long-term time charters in the future, the vessels committed to such time charters may not be available for spot charters during periods of increasing charter hire rates, when spot charters might be more profitable.
Our U.S. Gulf lightering business competes with alternative methods of delivering crude oil to ports and exports to offshore for consolidation onto larger vessels, which may limit our earnings in this market.
Our U.S. Gulf lightering business faces competition from alternative methods of delivering crude oil shipments to port and exports to offshore for consolidation onto larger vessels, including the Louisiana Offshore Oil Platform and deep water terminals in Corpus Christi and Houston, Texas which can partially load Very Large Crude Carriers (or VLCCs). While we believe that lightering offers advantages over alternative methods of delivering crude oil to or from U.S. Gulf ports, our lightering revenues may be limited due to the availability of alternative methods.
Our full service lightering operations are subject to specific risks that could lead to accidents, oil spills or property damage.
Lightering is subject to specific risks arising from the process of safely bringing two large moving tankers next to each other and mooring them for lightering operations, in which oil, refined petroleum products or other cargoes are transferred from one ship to the other. These operations require a high degree of expertise and present a higher risk of collision or spill compared to when docking a vessel or transferring cargo at port. Lightering operations, similar to marine transportation in general, are also subject to risks due to events such as mechanical failures, human error, and weather conditions.
Our and many of our customers' substantial operations outside the U.S. expose us and them to political, governmental, and economic instability, which could harm our operations.
Because our operations and the operations of our customers are primarily conducted outside of the U.S., they may be affected by economic, political and governmental conditions in the countries where we or our customers engage in business or where our vessels are registered. Any disruption caused by these factors could harm our business, including by reducing the levels of oil exploration, development, and production activities in these areas or restricting the pool of customers. We derive some of our revenues from shipping oil from politically unstable regions. Conflicts in these regions have included attacks on ships and other efforts to disrupt shipping. Hostilities or other political instability in regions where we operate or where we may operate could have a material adverse effect on the growth of our business, results of operations and financial condition and ability to pay dividends.
In addition, tariffs, trade embargoes and other economic sanctions by the U.S. or other countries against countries in which we operate, to which we trade, or to which we or any of our customers, joint venture partners or business partners become subject, may limit trading activities with those countries or with customers, which could also harm our business and ability to pay dividends. For example, the U.S., the European Union, the United Kingdom and numerous other nations imposed substantial additional sanctions on Russia for its invasion of Ukraine. In addition, in 2018 and 2019, general trade tensions between the U.S. and China escalated and led to each nation imposing tariffs on certain products of the other nation, with the U.S. and China subsequently negotiating an agreement to reduce trade tensions which became effective in February 2020. Our business could be harmed by increasing trade protectionism or trade tensions between the U.S. and China, or trade embargoes or other economic sanctions by the U.S. or other countries against countries in the Middle East, Asia, Russia or elsewhere as a result of terrorist attacks, hostilities, or diplomatic or political pressures that limit trading activities with those countries.
In addition, a government could requisition one or more of our vessels, which is most likely during war or national emergency. Any such requisition would cause a loss of the vessel and could harm our cash flows and financial results.
Exposure to currency exchange fluctuations could result in fluctuations in our operating results.
Our primary economic environment is the international shipping market, which utilizes the U.S. Dollar as its functional currency. Consequently, virtually all of our revenues and the majority of our expenses are in U.S. Dollars. However, we incur certain voyage expenses, vessel operating expenses, dry-docking expenditures and general and administrative expenses in foreign currencies, the most significant of which are the Singapore Dollar, Euro, Canadian Dollar, British Pound and Japanese Yen. This partial mismatch in revenues and expenses could lead to fluctuations in our net income due to changes in the value of the U.S. Dollar relative to other currencies.
Our operating results are subject to seasonal fluctuations.
Our tankers operate in markets that have historically exhibited seasonal variations in tanker demand and, therefore, in spot-charter rates. This seasonality may result in quarter-to-quarter volatility in our results of operations. Tanker markets are typically stronger in the winter months as a result of increased oil consumption in the northern hemisphere but weaker in the summer months as a result of lower oil consumption in the northern hemisphere and refinery maintenance. In addition, unpredictable weather patterns during the winter months tend to disrupt vessel scheduling, which historically has increased oil price volatility and oil trading activities in the winter months. As a result, revenues generated by the tankers in our fleet have historically been weaker during our fiscal quarters ended June 30 and September 30, and stronger in our fiscal quarters ended December 31 and March 31.
Our failure to renew or replace fixed-rate charters could cause us to trade the related vessels in the spot market, which could adversely affect our operating results and make them more volatile.
Our general vessel employment strategy includes using a mix of spot and fixed-rate time charters, and we expect to enter into fixed-rate time charters in the future. As of the date of this Annual Report, two of our time chartered-in vessels currently operate under fixed-rate time-charter contracts, which are scheduled to expire in 2024. If upon their scheduled expiration or any early termination we are unable to renew or replace the fixed-rate charters on favorable terms, or if we choose not to renew or replace these fixed-rate charters, we may employ the vessels in the volatile spot market. Increasing our exposure to the spot market, particularly during periods of unfavorable market conditions, could harm our results of operations and make them more volatile.
The fiduciary duties of certain of our officers and directors may conflict with their duties as officers or directors of Teekay Corporation and its affiliates.
Our officers and directors have fiduciary duties to manage our business in a manner beneficial to us and our shareholders. However, our Chief Executive Officer and three of our directors also serve as officers, directors or members of the senior leadership team of Teekay Corporation, and our Chief Financial Officer is employed by a subsidiary of Teekay Corporation. As a result, they have fiduciary duties to manage the business of Teekay Corporation and its affiliates in a manner beneficial to such entities and their shareholders or partners, as the case may be. Consequently, these officers and directors may encounter situations in which their fiduciary obligations to Teekay Corporation or its affiliates, on the one hand, and us, on the other hand, are in conflict. The resolution of these conflicts may not always be in our best interest or that of our shareholders.
Our executive officers and directors and certain officers and directors of Teekay Corporation have conflicts of interest and limited fiduciary and contractual duties, which may permit them to favor interests of Teekay Corporation and its other affiliates above our interests and those of our Class A common shareholders.
Conflicts of interest may arise between Teekay Corporation and its other affiliates, on the one hand, and us and our shareholders, on the other hand. As a result of these conflicts, Teekay Corporation may favor its own interests and the interests of its other affiliates over our interests and those of our shareholders. These conflicts include, among others, the following situations:
•our Chief Executive Officer and three of our directors also serve as officers, directors or members of the senior leadership team of Teekay Corporation, and our Chief Financial Officer is employed by a subsidiary of Teekay Corporation. We have limited their fiduciary duties regarding corporate opportunities that may be attractive to both Teekay Corporation and us;
•our Manager, a subsidiary of Teekay Corporation, advises our Board of Directors about the amount and timing of asset purchases and sales, capital expenditures, borrowings, issuances of additional common stock and cash reserves, each of which can affect our ability to pay dividends to our shareholders and the amount of the performance fee payable to our Manager under the Management Agreement;
•our executive officers and those of our Manager do not spend all their time on matters related to our business; and
•our Manager will advise us of costs incurred by it and its affiliates that it believes are reimbursable by us.
Our Manager has rights to terminate the Management Agreement and, under certain circumstances, could receive substantial sums in connection with such termination; however, even if our Board of Directors or our shareholders are dissatisfied with our Manager, there are limited circumstances under which we can terminate the Management Agreement.
The current term of our Management Agreement expires on December 31, 2027 and will automatically renew for subsequent five-year terms provided that certain conditions are met. Our Manager has the right to terminate the Management Agreement with 12 months’ notice. Our Manager also has the right to terminate the Management Agreement after a dispute resolution process if we have materially breached the Management Agreement. The Management Agreement will terminate upon the sale of all or substantially all of our assets to a third party, our liquidation or after any change of control of our company occurs. If the Management Agreement is terminated as a result of an asset sale, our liquidation or change of control, then our Manager may be paid a termination fee. Any such payment could be substantial.
In addition, our rights to terminate the Management Agreement are limited. Even if we are not satisfied with the Manager’s efforts in managing our business, unless our Manager materially breaches the agreement or experiences certain bankruptcy or change of control events, we have only a limited right to terminate the agreement and may not be able to terminate the agreement until closer to the end of the current renewal period, which ends on December 31, 2027. If we elect to terminate the Management Agreement at the end of any renewal term, our Manager will receive a termination fee, which may be substantial.
Our Manager could receive a performance fee which is contingent on our results of operations and financial condition.
If Gross Cash Available for Distribution (as defined in the Management Agreement) for a given fiscal year exceeds $25.60 per share of our common stock (subject to further adjustment for stock dividends, splits, combinations and similar events, and based on the weighted-average number of shares outstanding for the year) (or the Incentive Threshold), our Manager generally will be entitled to payment of a performance fee equal to 20% of all Gross Cash Available for Distribution for such year in excess of the Incentive Threshold. Although the performance fee is payable on an annual basis, we accrue any amounts expected to be payable in respect of the performance fee on a quarterly basis. Gross Cash Available for Distribution generally represents the distributable cash flows that we generate from operations.
Legal and Regulatory Risks
We are bound to adhere to sanctions from many jurisdictions including the U.S., United Kingdom, European Union and Canada due to our domicile and location of offices.
The U.S. has imposed sanctions on several countries or regions such as Cuba, North Korea, Syria, Iran and the Ukraine regions Crimea, Luhansk and Donetsk. The U.S. also has imposed substantial restrictions on trade with Russia, Yemen and Venezuela.
Since February 2022, the U.S. and numerous other nations, notably including the European Union and United Kingdom, have imposed substantial sanctions on Russia regarding its invasion of Ukraine. During 2022, Australia, the United Kingdom, the U.S. and the European Union prohibited the import of Russian oil into their territories. In December 2022, the U.S., European Union and United Kingdom in particular have also prohibited the provision of financial, legal, brokering, shipping and insurance services to any person of any nationality carrying Russian origin oil unless it is at or below a stated cap (currently USD $60 per barrel). These Russian sanctions together with the global reaction to the Russian invasion of Ukraine may reduce our revenues.
Past port calls by our vessels or third-party vessels participating in RSAs to countries that are subject to sanctions imposed by the U.S., European Union and the United Kingdom could harm our business.
Several years ago, oil tankers owned or chartered-in by us, or third-party vessels participating in RSAs from which we derived revenue, made port calls in certain countries that are currently subject to sanctions imposed by the U.S., European Union and United Kingdom, for the loading and discharging of oil products. Those port calls did not violate U.S., European Union or United Kingdom sanctions, and we intend to maintain our compliance with all U.S., European Union and United Kingdom sanctions.
These historical port calls have not adversely affected our business, which we believed is due to such port calls being legal at the time and that we are able to demonstrate our compliance. However, some charterers may choose not to utilize a vessel that had previously called at a port in a now
sanctioned country. Some investors might decide not to invest in us simply because we previously called on, or through our participation in RSAs previously received revenue from calls on, ports in these sanctioned countries. Any such investor reaction could adversely affect the market for our common shares.
Failure to comply with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the UK Bribery Act, the UK Criminal Finances Act and similar laws in other jurisdictions could result in fines, criminal penalties, contract terminations and an adverse effect on our business.
We operate our vessels worldwide, which may require our vessels to trade in countries known to have a reputation for corruption. We are committed to doing business in accordance with applicable anti-corruption laws and have adopted a code of business conduct and ethics which is consistent and in full compliance with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 (the FCPA), the Bribery Act 2010 of the United Kingdom (or the UK Bribery Act) and the Criminal Finances Act 2017 of the United Kingdom (the CFA). We are subject, however, to the risk that we, our affiliated entities, or their respective officers, directors, employees and agents may take actions determined to be in violation of applicable anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws, including the FCPA, the UK Bribery Act and the CFA. Any such violation could result in substantial fines, sanctions, civil and/or criminal penalties, or curtailment of operations in certain jurisdictions, and might adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition. In addition, actual or alleged violations could damage our reputation and ability to do business. Furthermore, detecting, investigating, and resolving actual or alleged violations is expensive and can consume significant time and attention of our senior management.
The shipping industry is subject to substantial environmental and other regulations, which may significantly limit operations and increase expenses.
Our operations are affected by extensive and changing international, national and local environmental protection laws, regulations, treaties and conventions which are in force in international waters, the jurisdictional waters of the countries in which our vessels operate, as well as the countries of our vessels’ registration, including those governing oil spills, discharges to air and water, and the handling and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes. Many of these requirements are designed to reduce the risk of oil spills and other pollution. In addition, we believe that the heightened environmental, quality and security concerns of insurance underwriters, regulators and charterers will lead to additional regulatory requirements, including enhanced risk assessment and security requirements and greater inspection and safety requirements on vessels. For example, new or amended legislation relating to ship recycling, sewage systems, emission control (including emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants) as well as ballast water treatment and ballast water handling have been or may be adopted. The International Maritime Organization (or the IMO), the United Nations agency for maritime safety and the prevention of pollution by vessels, has also established progressive standards limiting emissions from ships starting from 2023 towards 2030 and 2050 goals. These and other laws or regulations may require significant additional capital expenditures or operating expenses in order for us to comply with the laws and regulations and maintain our vessels in compliance with international and national regulations.
The environmental and other laws and regulations applicable to us may affect the resale value or useful lives of our vessels, require a reduction in cargo capacity, ship modifications or operational changes or restrictions, lead to decreased availability of insurance coverage for environmental matters or result in the denial of access to certain jurisdictional waters or ports, or detention in, certain ports. Under local, national, and foreign laws, as well as international treaties and conventions, we could incur material liabilities, including cleanup obligations, if there is a release of petroleum or other hazardous substances from our vessels or otherwise in connection with our operations. We could also become subject to personal injury or property damage claims relating to the release of or exposure to hazardous materials associated with our operations. In addition, failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations may result in administrative and civil penalties, criminal sanctions or the suspension or termination of our operations, including, in certain instances, seizure or detention of our vessels. For further information about regulations affecting our business and the related requirements imposed on us, please read "Item 4 – Information on the Company: B. Business Overview – Regulations".
Climate change and greenhouse gas restrictions may adversely impact our operations and markets.
An increasing concern for and focus on climate change has promoted extensive existing and proposed international, national and local regulations intended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (including from various jurisdictions and the IMO). These regulatory measures may include the adoption of cap and trade regimes, carbon taxes, increased efficiency standards and incentives or mandates for renewable energy. Compliance with these or other regulations and our efforts to participate in reducing greenhouse gas emissions are expected to increase our compliance costs and require additional capital expenditures to reduce vessel emissions and may require changes to our business.
Our business includes transporting oil and oil products. Regulatory changes and growing public concern about the environmental impact of climate change may lead to reduced demand for our assets and decreased demand for our services, while increasing or creating greater incentives for use of alternative energy sources. We expect regulatory and consumer efforts aimed at combating climate change to intensify and accelerate. Although we do not expect demand for oil to decline dramatically over the short-term, in the long-term, climate change initiatives will likely significantly affect demand for oil and for alternatives. Any such change could adversely affect our ability to compete in a changing market and our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Increasing scrutiny and changing expectations from investors, lenders, customers and other market participants with respect to ESG policies and practices may impose additional costs on us or expose us to additional risks.
Companies across all industries are facing increasing scrutiny relating to their ESG policies. Investor advocacy groups, certain institutional investors, investment funds, lenders and other market participants are increasingly focused on ESG practices and, in recent years, have placed increasing importance on the implications and social cost of their investments. The increased focus and activism related to ESG and similar matters may hinder access to capital, as investors and lenders may decide to reallocate capital or to not commit capital as a result of their assessment of a company’s ESG practices. Companies that do not adapt to or comply with investor, lender or other industry stakeholder expectations and standards, which are evolving, or which are perceived to have not responded appropriately to the growing concern for ESG issues, regardless of whether there is a legal requirement to do so, may suffer from reputational damage and their business, financial condition and stock price may be adversely affected.
We may face increasing pressures from investors, lenders, customers and other market participants, which are increasingly focused on climate change, to prioritize sustainable energy practices, reduce our carbon footprint and promote sustainability. As a result, we may be required to implement more stringent ESG procedures or standards so that our existing and future investors and lenders remain invested in us and make further investments in us, or in order for customers to consider conducting future business with us, especially given our business of transporting oil and oil products. In addition, it is likely we will incur additional costs and require additional resources to monitor, report and comply with wide-ranging ESG requirements. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
As a Marshall Islands corporation with our headquarters in Bermuda, and with a majority of our subsidiaries being Marshall Islands entities and also having subsidiaries in other offshore jurisdictions, our operations may be subject to economic substance requirements, which could impact our business.
Finance ministers of the European Union rate jurisdictions for tax transparency, governance, real economic activity and corporate tax rate. Countries that do not adequately cooperate with the finance ministers are put on a “grey list” or a “blacklist”. As of December 31, 2022, Bermuda and the Marshall Islands remained "white-listed" by the European Union. However, on February 14, 2023 the European Union moved the Marshall Islands back to the "blacklist". Although we understand that the Marshall Islands is committed to full cooperation with the European Union and expects to be moved back to the "white list" in October 2023, subject to review by the European Union Council, there is no assurance that such a reclassification will occur. If the Marshall Islands is not removed from the blacklist and sanctions or other financial, tax or regulatory measures were applied by European Union member states to countries on the list or further economic substance requirements were imposed by the Marshall Islands, our business could be harmed.
European Union member states have agreed upon a set of measures, which they can choose to apply against blacklisted countries, including increased monitoring and audits, withholding taxes, special documentation requirements and anti-abuse provisions. The European Commission has stated it will continue to support member states' efforts to develop a more coordinated approach to sanctions for the listed countries. European Union legislation prohibits European Union funds from being channeled or transited through entities in countries on the blacklist. Other jurisdictions in which we operate could be put on the blacklist in the future.
We are a Marshall Islands corporation with our headquarters in Bermuda. A majority of our subsidiaries are Marshall Islands entities and certain our subsidiaries are either organized or registered in Bermuda. These jurisdictions have enacted economic substance laws and regulations with which we may be obligated to comply. We believe that we and our subsidiaries are compliant with the Bermuda and the Marshall Islands economic substance requirements. However, if there were a change in the requirements or interpretation thereof, or if there were an unexpected change to our operations, any such change could result in noncompliance with the economic substance legislation and related fines or other penalties, increased monitoring and audits, and dissolution of the non-compliant entity, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or operating results.
Regulations relating to ballast water discharge may adversely affect our operational results and financial condition.
The IMO has imposed updated guidelines for ballast water management systems specifying the maximum amount of viable organisms allowed to be discharged from a vessel’s ballast water. Depending on the date of the International Oil Pollution Prevention renewal survey, existing vessels are required to comply with updated applicable standards before September 8, 2024. Compliance with the applicable standard involves installing on-board systems to treat ballast water and eliminate unwanted organisms. We are currently implementing ballast water management system upgrades on our vessels in accordance with the required timelines imposed by the IMO and also in line with our asset management requirements. The cost of compliance with these regulations, primarily from installing such systems, may be substantial and may adversely affect our results of operation and financial condition. As of the date of this Annual Report, we have completed these upgrades on 33 of our vessels for an average cost of approximately $1.3 million per vessel. We expect to complete similar upgrades to the remainder of our fleet prior to July 2024.
In addition to the requirements under the IMO, the United States Coast Guard (or the USCG) has imposed mandatory ballast water management practices for all vessels equipped with ballast water tanks and entering U.S. waters. These USCG regulations may have the effect of restricting our vessels from entering U.S. waters, unless we equip our vessels with pre-approved BWTS management systems or receive authorization by a duly-issued permit or exemption.
The smuggling of drugs or other contraband onto our vessels may lead to governmental claims against us.
Our vessels call on certain ports where there is a higher risk that smugglers may attempt to hide drugs and other contraband on vessels, with or without the knowledge of crew members. To the extent our vessels are found with contraband, whether inside or attached to the hull of our vessel and whether with or without the knowledge of any of our crew, we may face governmental or other regulatory claims which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Information and Technology Risks
A cyber-attack could materially disrupt our business.
We rely on information technology systems and networks in our operations and the administration of our business. Cyber-attacks have increased in number and sophistication in recent years. Our operations could be targeted by individuals or groups seeking to sabotage or disrupt our information technology systems and networks, or to steal data. A successful cyber-attack could materially disrupt our operations, including the safety of our operations, or lead to the unauthorized release of information or alteration of information on our systems. Any such attack or other breaches of our information technology systems could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has been accompanied by cyber-attacks against the Ukrainian government and other countries in the region. It is possible that these attacks could have collateral effects on additional critical infrastructure and financial institutions globally or may be initiated against the U.S. or European Union or other countries, which could adversely affect our operations. It is difficult to assess the likelihood of such a threat and any potential impact at this time.
We rely on our information systems to conduct our business, and failure to protect these systems against viruses and security breaches could adversely affect our business and results of operations. Additionally, if these systems fail or become unavailable for any significant period of time, our business could be harmed.
Our business is international in scope, and the efficient operation of our business, including processing, transmitting and storing electronic and financial information, is dependent on computer hardware and software systems. Information systems are vulnerable to security breaches and other attacks by computer hackers and cyber terrorists. We rely on industry-accepted security measures and technology to securely maintain confidential and proprietary information maintained on our information systems. However, these measures and technology may not adequately prevent security breaches.
We may be required to spend significant capital and other resources to further protect us and our information systems against threats of security breaches and computer viruses, or to alleviate problems caused by security breaches or viruses. Security breaches and viruses could also expose us to claims, litigation and other possible liabilities. Any inability to prevent security breaches (including the inability of our third-party vendors, suppliers or counterparties to prevent security breaches) could also cause existing customers to lose confidence in our information systems and could adversely affect our reputation, cause losses to us or our customers, damage our brand, and increase our costs.
In addition, the unavailability of the information systems or the failure of these systems to perform as anticipated for any reason could disrupt our business and could result in decreased performance and increased operating costs. Any significant interruption or failure of our information systems or any significant breach of security could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our failure to comply with data privacy laws could damage our customer relationships and expose us to litigation risks and potential fines.
Data privacy is subject to frequently changing rules and regulations, which sometimes conflict among the various jurisdictions and countries in which we provide services and continue to develop in ways which we cannot predict, including with respect to evolving technologies such as cloud computing. For example, the European Union’s General Data Privacy Regulation (or GDPR), a comprehensive legal framework to govern data collection, processing, use, transfer and sharing and related consumer privacy rights took effect in May 2018 and the People’s Republic of China adopted the Personal Information Protection Law, containing similar provisions, which took effect in November 2021. These and other data privacy laws include significant penalties for non-compliance. Our failure to adhere to or successfully implement processes in response to changing regulatory requirements in this area could result in legal liability or impairment to our reputation in the marketplace, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to an Investment in Our Securities
The superior voting rights of our Class B common stock held by Teekay Corporation limit our Class A common shareholders’ ability to control or influence corporate matters.
Our Class B common stock has five votes per share, and our Class A common stock has one vote per share. However, the voting power of the Class B common stock is limited such that the aggregate voting power of all shares of outstanding Class B common stock can at no time exceed 49% of the voting power of our outstanding Class A common stock and Class B common stock, voting together as a single class. As of the date of this Annual Report, Teekay Corporation indirectly owns shares of Class A and Class B common stock representing a majority of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock. Through its ownership of all of our Class B common stock and of our Manager and other entities that provide services to us, Teekay Corporation has substantial control and influence over our management and affairs and over all matters requiring shareholder approval, including the election of directors and significant corporate transactions. In addition, because of this dual-class common stock structure, Teekay Corporation will continue to be able to control matters submitted to our shareholders for approval even though it owns significantly less than 50% of the outstanding shares of our common stock. This voting control limits our remaining Class A common shareholders’ ability to influence corporate matters and, as a result, we may take actions that our Class A common shareholders do not view as beneficial.
We are incorporated in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, which does not have a well-developed body of corporate case law or bankruptcy law and, as a result, shareholders may have fewer rights and protections under Marshall Islands law than under a typical jurisdiction in the U.S.
Our corporate affairs are governed by our articles of incorporation and bylaws and by the Marshall Islands Business Corporations Act (or the BCA). Many of the provisions of the BCA resemble provisions of the corporation laws of a number of states in the U.S. However, there have been few judicial cases in the Republic of the Marshall Islands interpreting the BCA. The rights and fiduciary responsibilities of directors and officers under the laws of the Republic of the Marshall Islands are not as clearly established as the rights and fiduciary responsibilities of directors and officers under statutes or judicial precedent in existence in certain U.S. jurisdictions.
Shareholder rights may differ as well. While the BCA incorporates the non-statutory law, or judicial case law, of the State of Delaware and other states with substantially similar legislative provisions, our shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions by management, directors or any controlling shareholders than would shareholders of a corporation incorporated in a U.S. jurisdiction. In addition, the Republic of the Marshall Islands does not have a well-developed body of bankruptcy law. As such, in the case of a bankruptcy involving us, there may be a delay of bankruptcy proceedings and the ability of securityholders and creditors to receive recovery after a bankruptcy proceeding, and any such recovery may be less predictable.
Because we are organized under the laws of the Marshall Islands, it may be difficult to serve us with legal process or enforce judgments against us, our directors or our management.
We are organized under the laws of the Marshall Islands, and all of our assets are located outside of the U.S. In addition, a majority of our directors and officers are non-residents of the U.S., and all or a substantial portion of the assets of these non-residents are located outside the U.S. As a
result, it may be difficult or impossible to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the U.S. Even if successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Marshall Islands and of other jurisdictions may prevent or restrict the enforcement of a judgment against us or our assets or our directors and officers.
In addition to the following risk factors, you should read "Item 4E – Taxation of the Company", "Item 10 - Additional Information – Material United States Federal Income Tax Considerations" and "Item 10 - Additional Information – Non-United States Tax Considerations" for a more complete discussion of the expected material U.S. federal and non-U.S. income tax considerations relating to us and the ownership and disposition of our Class A common stock.
U.S. tax authorities could treat us as a “passive foreign investment company” (or PFIC), which could have adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to our U.S. shareholders and other adverse consequences to us and all of our shareholders.
A non-U.S. entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes will be treated as a PFIC for such purposes in any tax year in which, after taking into account the income and assets of the corporation and, pursuant to a “look-through” rule, any other corporation or partnership in which the corporation directly or indirectly owns at least 25% of the stock or equity interests (by value) and any partnership in which the corporation directly or indirectly owns less than 25% of the equity interests (by value) to the extent the corporation satisfies an "active partner" test and does not elect out of "look through" treatment, either (i) at least 75% of its gross income consists of “passive income,” (or the PFIC income test) or (ii) at least 50% of the average value of the entity’s assets is attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of “passive income.” For purposes of these tests, “passive income” includes dividends, interest, gains from the sale or exchange of investment property and rents and royalties (other than rents and royalties that are received from unrelated parties in connection with the active conduct of a trade or business). By contrast, income derived from the performance of services does not constitute “passive income.”
With respect to the PFIC income test, there are legal uncertainties involved in determining whether the income derived from our and our look-through subsidiaries’ time-chartering activities constitutes rental income or income derived from the performance of services, including the decision in Tidewater Inc. v. United States, 565 F.3d 299 (5th Cir. 2009), which held that income derived from certain time-chartering activities should be treated as rental income rather than services income for purposes of a foreign sales corporation provision of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (or the Code). However, the Internal Revenue Service (or the IRS) stated in an Action on Decision (AOD 2010-01) that it disagrees with, and will not acquiesce to, the way that the rental versus services framework was applied to the facts in the Tidewater decision, and in its discussion stated that the time charters at issue in Tidewater would be treated as producing services income for PFIC purposes. The IRS’s statement with respect to Tidewater cannot be relied upon or otherwise cited as precedent by taxpayers. Consequently, in the absence of any binding legal authority specifically relating to the statutory provisions governing PFICs, there can be no assurance that the IRS or a court would not follow the Tidewater decision in interpreting the PFIC provisions of the Code. Nevertheless, based on our and our look-through subsidiaries’ current assets and operations, we intend to take the position that we are not now and have never been a PFIC. No assurance can be given, however, that this position would be sustained by a court if contested by the IRS, or that we would not constitute a PFIC for the 2023 tax year or any future tax year if there were to be changes in our and our look-through subsidiaries’ assets, income or operations.
If we or the IRS were to determine that we are or have been a PFIC for any tax year during which a U.S. Holder (as defined below under “Item 10 – Additional Information – Material United States Federal Income Tax Considerations”) held our stock, such U.S. Holder would face adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences. For a more comprehensive discussion regarding the tax consequences to U.S. Holders if we are treated as a PFIC, please read "Item 10 - Additional Information - Material United States Federal Income Tax Considerations - United States Federal Income Taxation of U.S. Holders - Consequences of Possible PFIC Classification."
We are subject to taxes, which reduces our cash available for distribution to shareholders.
We, our joint venture or our subsidiaries are subject to tax in certain jurisdictions in which we, our joint venture or our subsidiaries are organized own assets or have operations, which reduces the amount of our cash available for distribution. In computing our tax obligations in these jurisdictions, we are required to take various tax accounting and reporting positions, including in certain cases estimates, on matters that are not entirely free from doubt and for which we may not have received rulings from the governing authorities. We cannot assure you that upon review of these positions the applicable authorities will agree with our positions. A successful challenge by a tax authority could result in additional tax imposed on us, our joint venture or our subsidiaries, further reducing the cash available for distribution. We have established reserves in our financial statements that we believe are adequate to cover our liability for any such additional taxes. We cannot assure you, however, that such reserves will be sufficient to cover any additional tax liability that may be imposed on our subsidiaries. Additionally, tax laws, including tax rates, in the jurisdictions in which we operate may change as a result of macroeconomic or other factors outside of our control. For example, various governments and organizations such as the European Union and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (or the OECD) are increasingly focused on tax reform and other legislative or regulatory action to increase tax revenue. In January 2019, the OECD announced further work in continuation of its Base Erosion and Profit Shifting project, focusing on two “pillars.” Pillar One provides a framework for the reallocation of certain residual profits of multinational enterprises to market jurisdictions where goods or services are used or consumed. Pillar Two consists of two interrelated rules referred to as Global Anti-Base Erosion Rules, which operate to impose a minimum tax rate of 15% calculated on a jurisdictional basis. In October 2021, more than 130 countries tentatively signed on to a framework that imposes a minimum tax rate of 15%, among other provisions. The framework calls for law enactment by OECD and G20 members in 2022 to take effect in 2023 and 2024. Qualifying international shipping income is exempt from many aspects of this framework if the exemption requirements are met. On December 20, 2021, the OECD published model rules to implement the Pillar Two rules, which are generally consistent with agreement reached by the framework in October 2021. On December 12, 2022, the European Union member states agreed to implement the OECD’s Pillar Two global corporate minimum tax rate of 15% on large multinational enterprises with revenues of at least €750 million, which generally would go into effect in 2024. These changes, when and if enacted and implemented by various countries in which we do business, could result in additional tax imposed on us or our subsidiaries, further reducing the cash available for distribution.
In addition, changes in our operations or ownership could result in additional tax being imposed on us or on our subsidiaries in jurisdictions in which operations are conducted. For example, changes in the ownership of our stock may cause us to be unable to claim an exemption from U.S. federal income tax under Section 883 of the Code. If we were not exempt from tax under Section 883 of the Code, we would be subject to U.S. federal income tax on income we earn from voyages into or out of the U.S., the amount of which is not within our complete control. In addition, we may rely on an exemption to be deemed non-resident in Canada for Canadian tax purposes under subsection 250(6) of the Canada Income Tax Act for (i) corporations whose principal business is international shipping and that derive all or substantially all of their revenue from international shipping, and (ii) corporations that are holding companies that have over half of the cost base of their investments in eligible international shipping subsidiaries and receive substantially all of their revenue as dividends from those eligible international shipping subsidiaries are exempt under subsection 250(6). If we were to cease to qualify for the subsection 250(6) exemption, we could be subject to Canadian income tax and also Canadian withholding tax on outbound distributions, which could have an adverse effect on our operating results. In addition, to the extent Teekay Tankers Ltd. was to distribute dividends as a corporation determined to be resident in Canada, stockholders who are not resident in Canada for purposes of the Canada Income Tax Act would generally be subject to Canadian withholding tax in respect of such dividends paid by Teekay Tankers Ltd.
Typically, most of our time-charter and spot voyage charter contracts require the charterer to reimburse us for a certain period of time in respect of taxes incurred as a consequence of the voyage activities of our vessels while performing under the relevant charter. However, our rights to reimbursement under charter contracts may not survive for as long as the applicable tax statutes of limitations in the jurisdictions in which we operate. As such, we may not be able to obtain reimbursement from our charterers where any applicable taxes that are not paid before the contractual claim period has expired.
Item 4.Information on the Company
A.History and Development of the Company
Teekay Tankers Ltd. (“we,” “us,” or “the Company”) is an international provider of marine transportation to global oil industries. We were formed as a Marshall Islands corporation in October 2007 by Teekay Corporation (NYSE: TK), a leading provider of international crude oil and other marine transportation services. We completed our initial public offering on December 18, 2007 with an initial fleet of nine Aframax oil tankers which were transferred to us by Teekay Corporation.
Our tanker fleet size has increased from nine owned Aframax tankers in 2007 to 44 owned and leased tankers, five in-chartered tankers and one jointly-owned Very Large Crude Carrier (or VLCC) tanker as of December 31, 2022. The capacity of our tanker fleet has risen from approximately 980,000 deadweight tonnes (or dwt) in 2007 to approximately 6,327,900 dwt as of December 31, 2022.
In July 2015, we acquired our ship-to-ship (or STS) transfer business from a company jointly-owned by Teekay Corporation and a Norway-based marine transportation company, I.M. Skaugen SE. In addition to full service lightering and lightering support, this business also provided consultancy and LNG terminal management services. In April 2020, we sold the non-U.S. portion of our STS business, as well as our LNG terminal management business. Please read "Item 18 – Financial Statements: Note 19 - Gain (Loss) on Sale and (Write-down) of Assets".
In May 2017, we completed the acquisition from Teekay Holdings Ltd., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Teekay Corporation, of the remaining 50% interest in Teekay Tanker Operations Ltd. (or TTOL), which owns certain tanker commercial management and technical management operations.
In November 2017, we completed a merger with Tanker Investments Ltd. (or TIL) by acquiring all of the remaining 27.0 million issued and outstanding common shares of TIL, by way of a share-for-share exchange resulting in TIL becoming a wholly-owned subsidiary. Upon completion of the merger, we acquired TIL's fleet of ten Suezmax tankers and eight Aframax / LR2 tankers.
We sold one Suezmax tanker and three Aframax / LR tankers in 2022, four Aframax / LR2 tankers in 2021 and three Suezmax tankers in 2020. Please read "Item 18 – Financial Statements: Note 19 - Gain (Loss) on Sale and (Write-down) of Assets".
We completed two sale-leaseback financing transactions in 2022 relating to nine Suezmax tankers and four Aframax / LR2 tankers, as well as two sale-leaseback financing transactions in 2021 relating to six Aframax / LR2 tankers and two Suezmax tankers. In January 2023, we gave notice to exercise our vessel purchase options to acquire one Suezmax tanker and eight Aframax / LR2 tankers for a total cost of $164.3 million, as part of the repurchase options under the sale-leaseback arrangements. The purchase and delivery of these vessels were completed in March 2023. In addition, in March 2023, we gave notice to exercise our vessel purchase options to acquire five Suezmax tankers and one Aframax / LR2 tanker for a total cost of $142.8 million, as part of the repurchase options under the sale-leaseback arrangements. We expect to complete the purchase and delivery of these vessels in May 2023. Please read "Item 18 - Financial Statements: Note 10 - Operating Leases and Obligations Related to Finance Leases".
From time to time, we also charter-in vessels, typically from third parties as part of our chartering strategy. Please read “Business Strategies” below in this Item. Most of our acquisitions were financed by a combination of utilizing the net proceeds from public equity offerings or private placements, as well as raising new debt, the assumption of existing debt, drawing on our revolving credit facility, and using our available working capital.
We incorporated on October 17, 2007, under the laws of the Republic of the Marshall Islands as Teekay Tankers Ltd. and maintain our principal executive offices at 4th Floor, Belvedere Building, 69 Pitts Bay Road, Hamilton, HM 08, Bermuda. Our telephone number at such address is (441) 298-2530.
The SEC maintains an internet site at www.sec.gov, that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. Our website is www.teekay.com/business/tankers. The information contained on our website is not part of this Annual Report.
Our primary business is to own and operate crude oil and refined product tankers and we employ a chartering strategy that seeks to capture upside opportunities in the tanker spot market while using fixed-rate time charters and full service lightering contracts to reduce downside risks. In addition to our core business, we also provide STS support services, along with our tanker commercial management and technical management operations. We believe this improves our ability to manage the cyclicality of the tanker market through the less volatile cash flows generated by these operational areas. Historically, the tanker industry has experienced volatility in profitability due to changes in the supply of, and demand for, tanker capacity. Tanker supply and demand are each influenced by several factors beyond our control.
Teekay Corporation, which formed us in 2007, is a leading provider of international crude oil and other marine transportation services. We believe we benefit from Teekay Corporation’s expertise, relationships and reputation as we operate our fleet and pursue growth opportunities. We have acquired a portion of our current operating fleet from Teekay Corporation at various times since our inception, and we anticipate additional opportunities to expand our fleet through acquisitions of tankers from third parties.
Under the supervision of our executive officers and Board of Directors, our operations are conducted in part by our subsidiaries who receive services from our Manager and its affiliates. In addition, our Manager provides various services to us under our long-term Management Agreement. We pay our Manager certain fees and reimbursements for its services. In order to provide our Manager with an incentive to improve our operation and financial conditions, we have agreed to pay a performance fee to our Manager under certain circumstances, in addition to the basic fees provided in the Management Agreement. Please read "Item 7 – Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions: Related Party Transactions – Management Agreement" for additional information about the Management Agreement.
Revenue by Segment
Please read "Item 18 – Financial Statements: Note 4 - Segment Reporting" for a breakdown of revenue by segment.
Please read "Item 18 – Financial Statements: Note 4 - Segment Reporting" for a breakdown of revenues for customers that accounted for more than 10% of total revenues during 2022, 2021 and 2020.
The following table summarizes our fleet as at December 31, 2022:
|Owned and Leased Vessels||Chartered-in|
|Suezmax Tankers||— ||1 ||1 |
Aframax Tankers / Long Range 2 (or LR2) Product Tankers
|1 ||— ||1 |
Total Fixed-Rate Fleet (1)(2)
|1 ||1 ||2 |
|Suezmax Tankers||25 ||— ||25 |
Aframax Tankers / LR2 Product Tankers (3)
|18 ||4 ||22 |
VLCC Tanker (4)
|1 ||— ||1 |
|Total Spot Fleet||44 ||4 ||48 |
|Total Tanker Fleet||45 ||5 ||50 |
|Ship-to-Ship Support Vessels||— ||2 ||2 |
|Total Teekay Tankers Fleet||45 ||7 ||52 |
(1)The time charter-out contract for the Suezmax tanker is scheduled to expire in 2024, and the time charter-out contract for the Aframax / LR2 tanker expired during the first quarter of 2023.
(2)Excludes one Aframax / LR2 tanker, which was delivered to us during the first quarter of 2023 under a three-year time charter-in contract and at the same time commenced a time charter-out contract which is scheduled to expire in 2024.
(3)Excludes two Aframax / LR2 tankers, which were delivered to us during the first quarter of 2023 under two-year and seven-year time charter-in contracts.
(4)We own one VLCC through a 50/50 joint venture with Wah Kwong Maritime Transport Holdings Limited (please refer to "Item 18 – Financial Statements: Note 5 - Investment in and Advances to Equity-Accounted Joint Venture").
The following table provides additional information about our owned and leased Suezmax oil tankers as of December 31, 2022, all of which are Bahamian-flagged.
|Built||Employment||Daily Rate||Expiration of|
|Aspen Spirit||157,800 ||2009||Spot||—||—|
|Athens Spirit||158,500 ||2012||Spot||—||—|
|Atlanta Spirit ||158,700 ||2011||Spot||—||—|
|Baker Spirit||156,900 ||2009||Spot||—||—|
|Barcelona Spirit||158,500 ||2011||Spot||—||—|
|Beijing Spirit||156,500 ||2010||Spot||—||—|
|Cascade Spirit||156,900 ||2009||Spot||—||—|
|Copper Spirit||156,800 ||2010||Spot||—||—|
|Dilong Spirit||159,000 ||2009||Spot||—||—|
|Jiaolong Spirit||159,000 ||2009||Spot||—||—|
|London Spirit ||158,700 ||2011||Spot||—||—|
|Los Angeles Spirit ||159,200 ||2007||Spot||—||—|
|Montreal Spirit ||150,000 ||2006||Spot||—||—|
|Moscow Spirit||156,500 ||2010||Spot||—||—|
|Pinnacle Spirit||160,400 ||2008||Spot||—||—|
|Rio Spirit||158,400 ||2013||Spot||—||—|
|Seoul Spirit||160,000 ||2005||Spot||—||—|
|Shenlong Spirit||159,000 ||2009||Spot||—||—|
|Summit Spirit||160,500 ||2008||Spot||—||—|
|Tahoe Spirit||156,900 ||2010||Spot||—||—|
|Tianlong Spirit||159,000 ||2009||Spot||—||—|
|Vail Spirit||157,000 ||2009||Spot||—||—|
|Zenith Spirit||160,500 ||2009||Spot||—||—|
|Total Capacity||3,943,200 |
The following table provides additional information about our owned and leased Aframax oil tankers as of December 31, 2022, all of which are Bahamian-flagged.
|Built||Employment||Daily Rate||Expiration of|
|Blackcomb Spirit||109,000 ||2010||Spot||—||—|
|Emerald Spirit||109,000 ||2009||Spot||—||—|
|Erik Spirit||115,500 ||2005||Spot||—||—|
|Esther Spirit||115,400 ||2004||Spot||—||—|
|Everest Spirit||115,000 ||2004||Spot||—||—|
|Garibaldi Spirit||109,000 ||2009||Time-charter||$18,000||Feb-23|
|Peak Spirit||104,600 ||2011||Spot||—||—|
|Tarbet Spirit||107,500 ||2009||Spot||—||—|
|Whistler Spirit||109,000 ||2010||Spot||—||—|
|Yamato Spirit||107,600 ||2008||Spot||—||—|
|Total Capacity||1,101,600 |
The following table provides additional information about our owned and leased LR2 product tankers as of December 31, 2022, all of which are Bahamian-flagged.
|Built||Employment||Daily Rate||Expiration of|
|Donegal Spirit||105,200 ||2006||Spot||—||—|
|Galway Spirit||105,200 ||2007||Spot||—||—|
|Hovden Spirit||105,300 ||2012||Spot||—||—|
|Leyte Spirit||109,700 ||2011||Spot||—||—|
|Limerick Spirit||105,200 ||2007||Spot||—||—|
|Luzon Spirit||109,600 ||2011||Spot||—||—|
|Sebarok Spirit||109,600 ||2011||Spot||—||—|
|Seletar Spirit||109,000 ||2010||Spot||—||—|
|Trysil Spirit||105,300 ||2012||Spot||—||—|
|Total Capacity||964,100 |
The following table provides additional information about our VLCC oil tanker as of December 31, 2022, which is Hong Kong-flagged.
|Built||Employment||Daily Rate||Expiration of|
Hong Kong Spirit (1)
(1)The VLCC vessel, Hong Kong Spirit, is owned through a 50/50 joint venture and is employed in a spot market pool managed by a third party.
Please read Note 9 - Long-Term Debt and Note 10 - Operating Leases and Obligations Related to Finance Leases included in "Item 18 – Financial Statements" included in this Annual Report for information with respect to major encumbrances against our vessels.
Our primary business strategies include the following:
•Expand our fleet through accretive acquisitions. Since our initial public offering, we have purchased 21 tankers from Teekay Corporation, acquired 18 tankers resulting from the merger with TIL, purchased 17 tankers from third parties and purchased two tankers from Altera Infrastructure L.P. (formerly known as Teekay Offshore Partners L.P.) (or Altera). In the future, we anticipate acquiring vessels through acquisitions of tankers from third parties, by securing additional in-chartered vessels and by ordering newbuildings.
•Tactically manage our mix of spot, fixed-rate and full service lightering contracts. We employ a chartering strategy that seeks to capture upside opportunities in the spot market while using fixed-rate contracts to reduce downside risks. We believe that our experience operating through cycles in the tanker spot market will assist us in employing this strategy to optimize operating results.
•Provide superior customer service by maintaining high reliability, safety, environmental and quality standards. We believe that energy companies and oil traders seek transportation partners that have a reputation for high reliability, safety, environmental and quality standards. We leverage our reputation and operational expertise to further expand these relationships with consistent delivery of superior customer service.
Our Chartering Strategy and Participation in the Vessel Revenue Sharing Agreements
Chartering Strategy. We operate our vessels in the spot market, under time-charter contracts of varying lengths and under FSL contracts, in an effort to maximize cash flow from our vessels based on our outlook for freight rates, oil tanker market conditions and global economic conditions. As of December 31, 2022, a total of 43 of our owned and leased vessels, one vessel owned through a 50/50 joint venture and four time chartered-in vessels operated in the spot market through employment on spot voyage charters. Our mix of vessels trading in the spot market, providing lightering services in the U.S. Gulf (or USG), or subject to fixed-rate time charters will change from time to time. We also may seek to increase or decrease our exposure to the freight market through the use of freight forward agreements or other financial instruments.
Voyage Charters. Tankers operating in the spot market typically are chartered for a single voyage, which may last up to several weeks. Spot market revenues may generate increased profit margins during times when tanker rates are increasing, while tankers operating under fixed-rate time charters generally provide more predictable cash flows without exposure to the variable expenses such as port charges and bunkers. Under a typical voyage charter in the spot market, the shipowner is paid on the basis of moving cargo from a loading port to a discharge port. The shipowner is responsible for paying both vessel operating costs and voyage expenses, and the charterer is responsible for any delay at the loading or discharging ports. Voyage expenses are all expenses attributable to a particular voyage, including any bunker fuel expenses, port fees, cargo loading and unloading expenses, canal tolls, agency fees and commissions. Vessel operating expenses are incurred regardless of particular voyage details and include crewing, repairs and maintenance, insurance, stores, lube oils and communication expenses. When the vessel is “off-hire,” or not available for service, the vessel is unavailable to complete new voyage charters until the off hire is finalized and the vessel again becomes available for service. Under a voyage charter, the shipowner is generally required, among other things, to keep the vessel seaworthy, to crew and maintain the vessel and to comply with applicable regulations.
Time Charters. A time charter is a contract for the use of a vessel for a fixed period of time at a specified daily rate. A customer generally selects a time charter if it wants a dedicated vessel for a period of time, and the customer is commercially responsible for the use of the vessel. Under a typical time charter, the shipowner provides crewing and other services related to the vessel’s operation, the cost of which is included in the daily rate, while the customer is responsible for substantially all of the voyage expenses. When the vessel is "off-hire", or not available for service, the customer generally is not required to pay the hire rate, and the shipowner is responsible for all costs, including the cost of fuel bunkers, unless the customer is responsible for the circumstances giving rise to the lack of availability. A vessel generally will be deemed to be off-hire if there is an occurrence preventing the full working of the vessel. “Hire rate” refers to the basic payment from the charterer for the use of the vessel. Under our time charters, hire is payable monthly in advance in U.S. Dollars. Hire payments may be reduced, or under some time charters the shipowner must pay liquidated damages, if the vessel does not perform to certain of its specifications, such as if the amount of fuel consumed to power the vessel under normal circumstances exceeds a guaranteed amount.
Full Service Lightering. FSL is the process of transferring cargo between vessels, typically of different sizes. Our lightering capability leverages access to our Aframax fleet operating in the USG and our offshore lightering support acumen to provide full service lightering. Our customers include oil companies and trading companies that are importing or exporting crude oil in the USG to or from larger Suezmax and VLCC vessels which are port restricted due to their size. We believe that our full service lightering in the USG will provide additional base cargo volume complementary to our spot trading in the Caribbean to the USG market and allow us to better optimize the deployment of the fleet that we trade in this region through enhanced scheduling flexibility, higher utilization and higher average revenues.
Revenue Sharing Agreements
We and certain third-party vessel owners have entered into RSAs. As of December 31, 2022, 25 of the Suezmax tankers and 15 of the Aframax / LR2 tankers in our fleet, as well as seven vessels not in our fleet owned by third parties, were subject to RSAs. The vessels subject to the RSAs are employed and operated in the spot market or pursuant to time charters of less than one year.
The RSAs are designed to spread the costs and risks associated with operation of vessels and to share the net revenues earned by all of the vessels in the RSA, based on the actual earning days each vessel is available and the relative performance capabilities, including speed and bunker consumption of each vessel. The calculation of performance capabilities of each vessel is adjusted on standard intervals based on current data. Our share of the net revenues includes additional amounts, consisting of a per vessel per day fee and a percentage of the gross revenues related to the vessels not in our fleet owned by third-parties, based on our responsibilities in employing the vessels subject to the RSAs on voyage charters or time charters.
A participating tanker will no longer participate in the applicable RSAs if it becomes subject to a time charter with a term exceeding one year, unless otherwise agreed by all other participants for the applicable RSA, or if the tanker suffers an actual or constructive total loss or is sold or becomes controlled by a person who is not an affiliate of a party to the applicable RSA agreements.
An RSA participant may withdraw from the RSA upon at least 90 days' notice and shall cease to participate in the RSA if, among other things, it materially breaches the RSA agreement and fails to resolve the breach within a specified cure period or experiences certain bankruptcy events.
Ship-to-Ship Support Services
An STS support operation is the process of transferring cargo between seagoing ships positioned alongside each other, either stationary or underway. Demand for STS support services is often driven by oil market arbitrages and oil traders optimizing their cost per ton-mile on cargoes. The provision of ship-to-ship services may be required by our customers when blending cargos, breaking bulk cargo shipments, and optimizing opportunities when the oil market is in contango, which may use floating storage as a more cost-effective solution to onshore storage.
Industry and Competition
We compete in the Suezmax (125,000 to 199,999 dwt) and Aframax (85,000 to 124,999 dwt) crude oil tanker markets. Our competition in the Aframax and Suezmax markets is affected by the availability of other size vessels that compete in these markets. Suezmax size vessels, LR2 (85,000 to 109,999 dwt) size vessels and Panamax (55,000 to 84,999 dwt) size vessels can compete for many of the same charters for which our Aframax tankers compete; Aframax size vessels and VLCCs (200,000 to 319,999 dwt) can compete for many of the same charters for which our Suezmax tankers may compete. Because of their large size, VLCCs and Ultra Large Crude Carriers (or ULCCs) (320,000+ dwt) rarely compete directly with Aframax tankers, and ULCCs rarely compete with Suezmax tankers for specific charters. However, because VLCCs and ULCCs comprise a substantial portion of the total capacity of the market, movements by such vessels into Suezmax trades and of Suezmax vessels into Aframax trades would heighten the already intense competition.
We also compete in the LR2 product tanker market. Our competition in the LR2 product tanker market is affected by the availability of other size vessels that compete in the market. Long Range 1 (or LR1) (55,000-84,999 dwt) size vessels, as well as LR2 size vessels that trade in the Aframax market, can compete for many of the same charters for which our LR2 tankers compete.
Seaborne transportation of crude oil and refined petroleum products are provided both by major energy companies (private as well as state-owned) and by independent ship owners. The desire of many major energy companies to outsource all or a portion of their shipping requirements has caused the number of oil tankers owned by energy companies to decrease in the last 20 years. As a result of this trend, independent tanker companies now own or control a large majority of the international tanker fleet.
As of December 31, 2022, we remain one of three active STS lightering businesses in the USG. We are one of the two providers in this group who provides a complete full service STS offering, which includes the availability of Aframax tonnage to provide shipment between shore and offshore. USG lightering trade has a foundation of demand due to traditional imports into the U.S. to serve USG Coast refinery demand. Although imports of crude oil into the U.S. have declined as a result of rising domestic crude oil production since 2018, we believe that the current demand for import lightering has stabilized and is consistent with the dependency which U.S. refiners have on foreign oil that is most economically transported on
larger VLCC and Suezmax vessels into the USG. Export related crude accounted for between 60-65% of total USG lightering operations in 2022. Although the COVID-19 pandemic significantly reduced oil demand, following the moderation or end of the pandemic, we expect that the U.S. will continue to increase crude production and exports, which we anticipate will result in an increase in export lightering demand as shippers look to export crude oil to Asia on larger size vessels, including VLCC and Suezmax vessels. Although the ports of Houston and Corpus Christi, Texas are now able to accommodate a VLCC at berthside for direct loading, draft restrictions will still require offshore top off STS loading for those vessels to lift their full capacity. Overall port congestion at these locations will create an opportunity for the offshore lightering industry to absorb incremental U.S. crude output which the current deep berths are not able to accommodate efficiently.
The operation of tanker vessels, as well as the seaborne transportation of crude oil and refined petroleum products is a competitive market. There are several large operators of Aframax, Suezmax, and LR2 tonnage that provide these services globally. Competition in both the crude and product tanker markets is primarily based on price, location (for single-voyage or short-term charters), size, age, condition and acceptability of the vessel, oil tanker shipping experience and quality of ship operations, and the size of an operating fleet, with larger fleets allowing for greater vessel substitution, availability and customer service. Aframax and Suezmax tankers are particularly well-suited for short and medium-haul crude oil routes, while LR2 tankers are well-suited for long and medium-haul refined product routes.
Historically, the tanker industry has been cyclical, experiencing volatility in profitability due to changes in oil tanker demand and oil tanker supply. The cyclical nature of the tanker industry causes significant increases or decreases in charter rates earned by operators of oil tankers. Because voyage charters occur in short intervals and are priced on a current, or “spot,” market rate, the spot market is more volatile than time charters. In the past, there have been periods when spot rates declined below the operating cost of the vessels.
Oil Tanker Demand. Demand for oil tankers is a function of several factors, including world oil demand and supply (which affect the amount of crude oil and refined products transported in tankers), and the relative locations of oil production, refining and consumption (which affects the distance over which the oil or refined products are transported).
Oil has been one of the world’s primary energy sources for decades. According to the International Energy Agency (or IEA), global oil consumption decreased substantially in 2020 as a result of demand destruction caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, oil demand recovered substantially in 2021 and 2022, and is expected to increase further in 2023.
The distance over which crude oil or refined petroleum products are transported is determined by seaborne trading and distribution patterns, which are principally influenced by the relative advantages of the various sources of production and locations of consumption. Seaborne trading patterns are also periodically influenced by geopolitical events, such as wars, hostilities and trade embargoes that divert tankers from normal trading patterns, as well as by inter-regional oil trading activity created by oil supply and demand imbalances. Historically, the level of oil exports from the Middle East has had a strong effect on the crude tanker market due to the relatively long distance between this supply source and typical discharge points. Over the past few years, the growing economies of China and India have increased and diversified their oil imports, resulting in an overall increase in transportation distance for crude tankers. Major consumers in Asia have increased their crude import volumes from longer-haul producers, such as those in the Atlantic Basin.
The limited growth in refinery capacity in developed nations, the largest consumers of oil in recent years, and increasing refinery capacity in the Middle East and parts of Asia where capacity surplus supports exports, have also altered traditional trading patterns and contributed to the overall increase in transportation distance for both crude tankers and product tankers.
Oil Tanker Supply. New Aframax, Suezmax and LR2 tankers are generally expected to have a lifespan of approximately 25 to 30 years, based on estimated hull fatigue life. As of December 31, 2022, the world Aframax crude tanker fleet consisted of 680 vessels, with an additional 46 Aframax crude oil tanker newbuildings on order for delivery through 2025; the world Suezmax crude tanker fleet consisted of 655 vessels, with an additional 20 Suezmax crude oil tanker newbuildings on order for delivery through 2025; and the world LR2 product tanker fleet consisted of 416 vessels, with an additional 44 LR2 product tanker newbuildings on order through 2025. Currently, delivery of a vessel typically occurs within two to three years of ordering.
The supply of oil tankers is primarily a function of new vessel deliveries, vessel scrapping and the conversion or loss of tonnage. The level of newbuilding orders is primarily a function of newbuilding prices in relation to current and prospective charter market conditions. Other factors that affect tanker supply are the availability of financing and shipyard capacity. The level of vessel scrapping activity is primarily a function of scrapping prices in relation to current and prospective charter market conditions and operating, repair and survey costs. Industry regulations also affect scrapping levels. Please read “Regulations” below. Demand for drybulk vessels and floating storage off-take units, to which tankers can be converted, strongly affects the number of tanker conversions.
For many years, there has been a significant and ongoing shift toward quality in vessels and operations, as charterers and regulators increasingly focus on safety and protection of the environment. Since 1990, there has been an increasing emphasis on environmental protection through legislation and regulations such as the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (or OPA 90), IMO regulations and protocols, and classification society procedures that demand higher quality tanker construction, maintenance, repair and operations. We believe that operators with a proven ability to integrate these required safety regulations into their operations have a competitive advantage.
Safety, Management of Ship Operations and Administration
Safety and environmental compliance are our top operational priorities. We operate our vessels in a manner intended to protect the safety and health of our employees, and to minimize the impact on the environment and society. We seek to effectively manage risk in the organization using a three-tiered approach at an operational, management and corporate level, designed to provide a clear line of sight throughout the organization. All of our operational employees receive training in the use of risk tools and the management system. We also have an approved competency management system in place to ensure our seafarers continue their professional development and are competent before being promoted to more senior roles.
We believe in continuous improvement, which has seen our safety and environmental culture develop over a significant time period. Health, Safety and Environmental Program milestones include the roll-out of the Environmental Leadership Program (2005), Safety in Action (2007), Quality Assurance and Training Officer Program (2008), Operational Leadership-The Journey (2010), Significant Incident Potential (2015), Navigation Handbook (2016), Risk Tool Handbook (2017), Safety Management System upgrade (2018) and Fleet Training Officer (FTO) Program (2021).
In addition, the Operational Leadership-The Journey booklet was revised and relaunched in 2020. The booklet sets out our operational expectations and responsibilities and contains our safety, environmental and leadership commitments and our Health, Safety, Security and Environmental & Quality Assurance Policy, which is signed by all employees and empowers them to work safely, to live Teekay’s vision, and to look after one another.
We, through our subsidiaries and affiliates, provide technical management services for some of our vessels. We have obtained through Det Norske Veritas (or DNV), the Norwegian classification society, approval of our safety management system as being in compliance with the International Safety Management Code (or ISM Code), and this system has been implemented for all of our vessels. As part of our ISM Code compliance, all of the vessels’ safety management certificates are maintained through ongoing internal audits performed by certified internal auditors and intermediate audits performed by DNV.
In addition to the mandatory internal audits conducted by the FTOs on vessels, an internal review is conducted by our Health Safety, Environment and Quality (or HSEQ) team before customer audits (Tanker Management Self-Assessment inspections) to ensure that all ship management functions are strictly adhered to.
We conduct Safety Management courses for senior officers and Onboard Safety Officer courses for safety officers three times a year. Additionally, Safety Orientation Seminars are conducted every month for the ratings in Manila and Mumbai, to emphasize key messages about safety. A dedicated session is carried out for petty officers once every two months to emphasize the importance of their role in driving safety onboard.
Depending on existing HSEQ trends, various campaigns are run to address the shortcomings that are identified.
We provide, through our subsidiaries and affiliates, expertise in various functions critical to our operations and access to human resources, financial and other administrative functions. Critical ship management functions include:
•vessel maintenance (including repairs and dry docking) and certification;
•crewing by competent seafarers;
•purchasing of stores, bunkers and spare parts;
•financial management services.
These functions are supported by onboard and onshore systems for maintenance, inventory, purchasing and budget management.
All vessels are operated by us under a comprehensive and integrated Safety Management System that complies with the ISM Code, the International Standards Organization’s (or ISO) 9001 for Quality Assurance, ISO 14001 for Environment Management Systems, and ISO 45001:2018 Occupational Health and Safety Management System and the Maritime Labour Convention 2006 that became enforceable on August 20, 2013. The management system is certified by DNV. Although certification is valid for five years, compliance with the above-mentioned standards is confirmed yearly by a rigorous auditing procedure that includes both internal audits as well as external verification audits by DNV and certain flag states.
Since 2010, Teekay Corporation has produced a publicly available sustainability report that reflects the efforts, achievements, results and challenges faced by Teekay Corporation and its affiliates, including us, relating to several key areas, including emissions, climate change, corporate social responsibility, diversity and health, safety environment and quality. Teekay recognizes the significance of Environmental, Social and Governance considerations and in 2020 set an ESG strategy foundation that will direct our efforts and performance in the years ahead. Teekay's ESG strategy is focused on three broad areas: allocating capital to support the global energy transition; operating our existing fleets as safely and efficiently as possible; and further strengthening our ESG profile. Annual targets are set for the organization and are closely monitored.
Risk of Loss, Insurance and Risk Management
The operation of any ocean-going vessel and the performance of ship-to-ship transfer operations carries an inherent risk of catastrophic marine disasters, death or injury of persons and property losses caused by adverse weather conditions, mechanical failures, human error, war, terrorism, piracy and other circumstances or events. In addition, the transportation and transfer/lightering of crude oil and petroleum products is subject to the risk of spills and to business interruptions due to political circumstances in foreign countries, hostilities, labor strikes, sanctions and boycotts, whether relating to us or any of our joint venture partners, suppliers or customers. The occurrence of any of these events may result in loss of revenues or increased costs.
We carry hull and machinery (marine and war risks), protection and indemnity insurance coverage, and other liability insurance, to protect against most of the accident-related risks involved in the conduct of our business. Hull and machinery insurance covers loss of or damage to a vessel due to marine perils such as collision, grounding and weather. Protection and indemnity insurance indemnifies us against other liabilities incurred while operating vessels, including injury to the crew, third parties, cargo loss and pollution. The current maximum amount of our coverage for pollution is $1 billion per vessel per incident. We also carry insurance policies covering war risks (including piracy and terrorism). None of our vessels are insured against loss of revenues resulting from vessel off-hire time, based on the cost of this insurance compared to our off-hire experience.
We believe that our current insurance coverage is adequate to protect against most of the accident-related risks involved in the conduct of our business and that we maintain appropriate levels of environmental damage and pollution insurance coverage. However, we cannot guarantee that all covered risks are adequately insured against, that any particular claim will be paid or that we will be able to procure adequate insurance coverage at commercially reasonable rates in the future. More stringent environmental regulations have resulted in increased costs for, and may result in the lack of availability of, insurance against risks of environmental damage or pollution. In addition, the cost of protection and indemnity insurance significantly increased during 2022 and is likely to continue to increase in 2023, and, in 2022, the cost of hull and machinery insurance increased due to increased fleet values.
In our operations, we use Teekay Corporation’s thorough risk management program which includes, among other things, risk analysis tools, maintenance and assessment programs, a seafarers competence training program, seafarers workshops and membership in emergency response organizations. We believe we benefit from Teekay Corporation’s commitment to safety and environmental protection as certain of its subsidiaries assist us in managing our vessel operations.
Teekay Corporation has achieved certification under the standards reflected in ISO 9001 for quality assurance, ISO 14001 for environment management systems, ISO 45001:2018, and the IMO’s International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and Pollution Prevention on a fully integrated basis.
Flag, Classification, Audits and Inspections
Our vessels are registered with reputable flag states, and the hull and machinery of all of our vessels have been “Classed” by one of the major classification societies and members of the International Association of Classification Societies Ltd (or IACS): DNV, Lloyd’s Register of Shipping or the American Bureau of Shipping.
The applicable classification society certifies that the vessel’s design and build conform to the applicable class rules and meets the requirements of the applicable rules and regulations of the country of registry of the vessel and the international conventions to which that country is a signatory. The classification society also verifies throughout the vessel’s life that it continues to be maintained as per those rules. To validate this, the vessels are surveyed by the classification society in accordance with the classification society rules, which in the case of our vessels follows a comprehensive five-year special survey cycle, renewed every fifth year. During each five-year period, the vessel undergoes annual and intermediate surveys, the scrutiny and intensity of which is primarily dictated by the age of the vessel.
In addition to class surveys, the vessel’s flag state also verifies the condition of the vessel during annual flag state inspections, either independently or by additional authorization to class. Also, port state authorities of a vessel’s port of call are authorized under international conventions to undertake regular and spot checks of vessels visiting their jurisdiction.
Processes followed onboard are audited by either the flag state or the classification society acting on behalf of the flag state to ensure that they meet the requirements of the ISM Code. DNV typically carries out this task. We also follow an internal process of internal audits undertaken annually at each office and vessel.
We follow a comprehensive inspections scheme supported by our sea staff, shore-based operational and technical specialists, and members of our FTO program. We typically carry out regular inspections, which help us to ensure that:
•our vessels and operations adhere to our operating standards;
•the structural integrity of the vessel is being maintained;
•machinery and equipment are being maintained to give reliable service;
•we are optimizing performance in terms of speed and fuel consumption; and
•our vessels' appearance supports our brand and meets customer expectations.
Our customers also often carry out vetting inspections under the Ship Inspection Report Program, which is a significant safety initiative introduced by the Oil Companies International Marine Forum to specifically address concerns about sub-standard vessels. The inspection results permit charterers to screen a vessel to ensure that it meets their general and specific risk-based shipping requirements.
We believe that the heightened environmental and quality concerns of insurance underwriters, regulators and charterers will generally lead to greater scrutiny, inspection and safety requirements on all vessels in the oil tanker markets and will accelerate the scrapping or phasing out of older vessels throughout these markets.
Overall, we believe that our well-maintained, and high-quality vessels provide us with a competitive advantage in the current environment of increasing regulation and customer emphasis on quality of service.
Our business and the operation of our vessels are significantly affected by international conventions and national, state, and local laws and regulations in the jurisdictions in which our vessels operate, as well as in the country or countries of their registration. Because these conventions, laws and regulations change frequently, we cannot predict the ultimate cost of compliance or their impact on the resale price or useful life of our vessels. Additional conventions, laws and regulations may be adopted that could limit our ability to do business or increase the cost of our doing
business and that may materially affect our operations. We are required by various governmental and quasi-governmental agencies to obtain permits, licenses, and certificates for our operations. Subject to the discussion below and to the fact that the kinds of permits, licenses and certificates required for the operations of the vessels we own will depend on several factors, we believe that we will be able to continue to obtain all permits, licenses and certificates material to the conduct of our operations.
International Maritime Organization
The IMO is the United Nations’ agency for maritime safety and prevention of pollution. IMO regulations relating to pollution prevention for oil tankers have been adopted by many of the jurisdictions in which our tanker fleet operates. Under IMO regulations, and subject to limited exceptions, a tanker must be of double-hull construction as per the requirements set out in these regulations or be of another approved design ensuring the same level of protection against oil pollution. All of our tankers are double-hulled.
Many countries, but not the U.S., have ratified and follow the liability regime adopted by the IMO and set out in the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1969, as amended (or CLC). Under this convention, a vessel’s registered owner is strictly liable for pollution damage caused in the territorial waters of a contracting state by the discharge of persistent oil (e.g., crude oil, fuel oil, heavy diesel oil or lubricating oil), subject to certain defenses. The right to limit liability to specified amounts that are periodically revised is forfeited under the CLC when the spill is caused by the owner’s actual fault or when the spill is caused by the owner’s intentional or reckless conduct. Vessels trading to contracting states must provide evidence of insurance covering the limited liability of the owner. In jurisdictions where the CLC has not been adopted, various legislative regimes or common law governs, and liability is imposed either based on fault or in a manner similar to the CLC.
IMO regulations also include the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea (or SOLAS), including amendments to SOLAS implementing the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (or ISPS), the ISM Code, and the International Convention on Load Lines of 1966. SOLAS provides rules for the construction of, and the equipment required for, commercial vessels and includes regulations for their safe operation. Flag states, which have ratified the convention and the treaty generally employ the classification societies, which have incorporated SOLAS requirements into their class rules, to undertake surveys to confirm compliance.
SOLAS and other IMO regulations concerning safety, including those relating to treaties on the training of shipboard personnel, lifesaving appliances, radio equipment and the global maritime distress and safety system, apply to our operations. Non-compliance with IMO regulations, including SOLAS, the ISM Code, ISPS and other regulations, may subject us to increased liability or penalties, may lead to decreases in available insurance coverage for affected vessels and may result in the denial of access to or detention in some ports. For example, the USCG and European Union authorities have indicated that vessels not in compliance with the ISM Code will be prohibited from trading in U.S. and European Union ports. The ISM Code requires vessel operators to obtain a safety management certification for each vessel they manage, evidencing the shipowner’s development and maintenance of an extensive safety management system. Each of the existing vessels in our fleet is currently ISM Code-certified, and we obtain a safety management certificate for each newbuilding on delivery.
Annex VI to the IMO's International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) (or Annex VI) sets limits on sulfur oxide (or SOx) and nitrogen oxide (or NOx) emissions from ship exhausts and prohibits emissions of ozone-depleting substances, emissions of volatile compounds from cargo tanks and the incineration of specific substances. Annex VI also includes a world-wide cap on the sulfur content of fuel oil and allows for special “emission control areas” (or ECAs) to be established with more stringent controls on sulfur emissions.
Annex VI provides for a three-tier reduction in NOx emissions from marine diesel engines, with the final tier (or Tier III) to apply to engines installed on vessels constructed on or after January 1, 2016, and which operate in the North American ECA or the U.S. Caribbean Sea ECA as well as ECAs designated in the future by the IMO. Tier III limits are 80% below Tier I and these cannot be achieved without additional means such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (or SCR). In October 2016 the IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee (or MEPC) approved the designation of the North Sea (including the English Channel) and the Baltic Sea as ECAs for NOx emissions; these ECAs and the related amendments to Annex VI of MARPOL (with some exceptions) entered into effect on January 1, 2019. This requirement is applicable to new ships constructed on or after January 1, 2021, if they visit the Baltic or the North Sea (including the English Channel) and requires the future trading area of a ship to be assessed at the contract stage. There are exemption provisions to allow ships with only Tier II engines, to navigate in a NOx Tier III ECA if the ship is departing from a shipyard where the ship is newly built or visiting a shipyard for conversion/repair/maintenance without loading/unloading cargoes.
Effective January 1, 2020, Annex VI imposed a global limit for sulfur in fuel oil used on board ships of 0.50% m/m (mass by mass), regardless of whether a ship is operating outside a designated ECA. To comply with this new standard, ships must utilize different fuels containing low or zero sulfur (e.g. LNG, low sulfur heavy fuel oil (or LSHFO), low sulfur marine gas oil (or LSMGO), biofuels or other compliant fuels), or utilize exhaust gas cleaning systems, known as “scrubbers”. Amendments to the information to be included in bunker delivery notes relating to the supply of marine fuel oil to ships fitted with alternative mechanisms to address sulfur emission requirements (e.g. scrubbers) became effective January 1, 2019. We have implemented procedures to comply with the 2020 sulfur limit. We switched to burning compliant low sulfur fuel before the January 1, 2020 implementation date; however, with the exception of one vessel owned through a 50/50 joint venture, we have not installed any scrubbers on our fleet. Although the IMO has issued ISO 8217:2017 and PAS 23263:19, at present, neither the IMO nor the International Organization for Standardization has implemented globally accepted quality standards for 0.50% m/m fuel oil; however, a new specification for very low sulfur fuel oil is expected to be released in the coming years. The bunker market currently uses the specification for RMG 380 grade fuel oil with a maximum sulfur content of 0.50% m/m as an interim standard. We intend, and where applicable, expect our charterers to procure 0.50% m/m fuel oil from top tier suppliers. However, until such time that a globally accepted quality standard is issued, the quality of 0.50% m/m fuel oil that is supplied to the entire industry (including in respect of our vessels) is inherently uncertain. Low quality or a lack of access to high-quality low sulfur fuel may lead to a disruption in our operations (including mechanical damage to our vessels), which could impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
As of March 1, 2018, amendments to Annex VI impose new requirements on ships of 5,000 gross tonnage and above to collect fuel oil consumption data for ships, as well as certain other data including proxies for transport work. Amendments to MARPOL Annex VI that make the data collection system for fuel oil consumption of ships mandatory were adopted at the 70th session of the MEPC held in October 2016 and entered into force on
March 1, 2018. The amendments require operators to update the vessel's Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (or SEEMP) to include a part II describing the ship-specific methodology that will be used for collecting and measuring data for fuel oil consumption, distance travelled, hours underway, ensuring data quality is maintained and the processes that will be used to report the data. This has been verified as compliant on all ships for calendar years 2019 through 2021. A Confirmation of Compliance has been provided by the Ship's Flag State Administration / Recognized Organization on behalf of Flag State and is kept on board. Data collection for 2022 is in progress and will be submitted to authorized verifiers for confirmation. The process is expected to be completed by the end of April 2023.
IMO regulations required that as of January 1, 2015, all vessels operating within ECAs worldwide recognized under MARPOL Annex VI must comply with 0.1% sulfur requirements. Certain modifications were necessary to optimize operation on LSMGO of equipment originally designed to operate on Heavy Fuel Oil (or HFO). Also, LSMGO is more expensive than HFO and this could impact the cost of operations. We are primarily exposed to increased fuel costs through our spot trading vessels, although our competitors bear a similar cost increase as this is a regulatory item applicable to all vessels. All required vessels in our fleet trading to and within regulated low sulfur areas comply with applicable fuel requirements.
The IMO has issued guidance regarding protecting against acts of piracy off the coast of Somalia. We comply with these guidelines.
IMO guidance for countering acts of piracy and armed robbery is published by the IMO’s Maritime Safety Committee (or MSC). MSC.1/Circ.1339 (Piracy and armed robbery against ships in waters off the coast of Somalia) outlines Best Management Practices for Protection against Somalia Based Piracy. Specifically, MSC.1/Circ.1339 guides shipowners and ship operators, shipmasters, and crews on preventing and suppressing acts of piracy and armed robbery and was adopted by the IMO through Resolution MSC.324(89). The Best Management Practices (or BMP) is a joint industry publication by BIMCO, ICS, IGP&I Clubs, INTERTANKO and OCIMF. Version 5 is the latest BMP. Our fleet follows the guidance within BMP 5 when transiting in other regions with recognized threat levels for piracy and armed robbery, including West Africa.
The IMO's Ballast Water Management Convention entered into force on September 8, 2017. The convention stipulates two standards for discharged ballast water. The D-1 standard covers ballast water exchange while the D-2 standard covers ballast water treatment. The convention requires the implementation of either the D-1 or D-2 standard. There will be a transitional period from the entry into force to the International Oil Pollution Prevention (or IOPP) renewal survey in which ballast water exchange (reg. D-1) can be employed. Vessels will be required to meet the discharge standard D-2 by installing an approved BWTS. Besides the IMO convention, ships sailing in U.S. waters are required to employ a type approved BWTS which is compliant with USCG regulations. The USCG has approved several BWTS both nationally and internationally, out of which Sunrui Systems (China) are under Teekay’s approved list for retrofit. We estimate that the installation of an approved BWTS will cost approximately $1.2 million per vessel between the years 2023 and 2024. As at December 31, 2022, we have installed BWTS on 33 vessels in our fleet.
Cyber-related risks are operational risks that are appropriately assessed and managed as per the safety management requirements of the ISM Code. Cyber risks are required to be appropriately addressed in our safety management system no later than the first annual verification of our Document of Compliance after January 1, 2021. The annual verification audit of our Document of Compliance was completed on June 9, 2022 and confirmed that cyber risks are appropriately addressed in accordance with ISM standards in the Company's safety management system.
The Maritime Labour Convention (or MLC) 2006 was adopted by the International Labour Conference at its 94th (Maritime) Session (2006), establishing minimum working and living conditions for seafarers. The convention entered into force August 20, 2013, with further amendments approved by the International Labour Conference at its 103rd Session (2014). The MLC establishes a single, coherent instrument embodying all up-to-date standards of existing international maritime labor conventions and recommendations, as well as the fundamental principles to be found in other international labor conventions. All of our maritime labor contracts comply with the MLC.
The IMO continues to review and introduce new regulations and as such, it is difficult to predict what additional requirements, if any, may be adopted by the IMO and what effect, if any, such regulations might have on our operations.
European Union (or EU)
The EU has adopted legislation that: bans from European waters manifestly sub-standard vessels (defined as vessels that have been detained twice by EU port authorities in the preceding two years); creates obligations on the part of EU member port states to inspect minimum percentages of vessels using these ports annually; provides for increased surveillance of vessels posing a high risk to maritime safety or the marine environment; and provides the EU with greater authority and control over classification societies, including the ability to seek to suspend or revoke the authority of negligent societies.
Two regulations that are part of the implementation of the Port State Control Directive came into force on January 1, 2011, and introduced a ranking system (published on a public website and updated daily) displaying shipping companies operating in the EU with the worst safety records. The ranking is judged upon the results of the technical inspections carried out on the vessels owned by a particular shipping company. Those shipping companies that have the most positive safety records are rewarded by subjecting them to fewer inspections, while those with the most safety shortcomings or technical failings recorded upon inspection will, in turn, be subject to a greater frequency of official inspections to their vessels.
The EU has, by way of Directive 2005/35/EC, as amended by Directive 2009/123/EC, created a legal framework for imposing criminal penalties in the event of discharges of oil and other noxious substances from ships sailing in its waters, irrespective of their flag. This relates to discharges of oil or other noxious substances from vessels. Minor discharges shall not automatically be considered as offences, except where repetition leads to deterioration in the quality of the water. The persons responsible may be subject to criminal penalties if they have acted with intent, recklessly, or with serious negligence, and the act of inciting, aiding and abetting a person to discharge a polluting substance may also lead to criminal penalties.
The EU has adopted a directive requiring the use of low sulfur fuel. Since January 1, 2015, vessels have been required to burn fuel with sulfur content not exceeding 0.1% while within EU member states’ territorial seas, exclusive economic zones and pollution control zones that are included in SOx Emission Control Areas. Other jurisdictions have also adopted similar regulations.
All ships above 5,000 gross tonnage calling EU waters are required to comply with EU monitoring, reporting and verification (or MRV) regulations. These regulations came into force on July 1, 2015 and aim to reduce greenhouse gas (or GHG) emissions within the EU. It requires ships carrying out maritime transport activities to or from European Economic Area (or EEA) ports to monitor and report information including verified data on their carbon dioxide (or CO2) emissions from January 1, 2018. Data collection takes place on a per voyage basis and started from January 1, 2018. The reported CO2 emissions, together with additional data (e.g. cargo, energy efficiency parameters), are to be verified by independent verifiers and sent to a central database, managed by the European Maritime Safety Agency (or EMSA). Teekay Corporation signed an agreement with DNV for monitoring, verification and reporting as required by this regulation. We are presently using IMOS/Veslink forms which interface with DNV. Emission reports for the vessels which have carried out EU voyages have been submitted in the THETIS Database. Based on emission reports submitted in THETIS, a document of compliance has been issued and is placed on board. The data for 2022 has been submitted and is currently under verification by DNV, our authorized verifier. The review is expected to be completed by end of April 2023 for all of our vessels. In addition to the EU-MRV data, from January 1, 2022, we have also started submitting data for UK-MRV which is a new requirement for all vessels calling UK ports and waters.
The EU Ship Recycling Regulation aims to prevent, reduce, and minimize accidents, injuries and other negative effects on human health and the environment when ships are recycled and the hazardous waste they contain is removed. The legislation applies to all ships flying the flag of an EU country and to vessels with non-EU flags that call at an EU port or anchorage. It sets out responsibilities for ship owners and recycling facilities both in the EU and in other countries. Each new ship must have onboard an inventory of the hazardous materials (such as asbestos, lead or mercury) it contains in either its structure or equipment. The use of certain hazardous materials is forbidden. Before a ship is recycled, its owner must provide the company carrying out the work with specific information about the vessel and prepare a ship recycling plan. Recycling may only take place at facilities listed on the EU ‘List of facilities’.
The EU Ship Recycling Regulation generally entered into force on December 31, 2018, with certain provisions applicable from December 31, 2020. Compliance timelines are as follows: EU-flagged newbuildings were required to have on-board a verified Inventory of Hazardous Materials (or IHM) with a Statement of Compliance by December 31, 2018, existing EU-flagged vessels and non-EU-flagged vessels calling at EU ports are required to have on-board a verified IHM with a Statement of Compliance by December 31, 2020. We contracted with a class-approved hazardous materials company, Poly NDT Pte Ltd., to assist in the preparation of an Inventory of Hazardous Materials and with obtaining Statements of Compliance for our vessels. As of December 31, 2022, four of our vessels had not completed the IHM compliance process, which we expect will occur in 2023. The EU Commission adopted a European list of approved ship recycling facilities, as well as four further decisions dealing with certification and other administrative requirements set out in the regulation. In 2014, the Council Decision 2014/241/EU authorized EU countries having ships flying their flag or registered under their flag to ratify or to accede to the Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships. The Hong Kong Convention is not yet ratified.
The U.S. has enacted an extensive regulatory and liability regime for the protection and cleanup of the environment from oil spills, including discharges of oil cargoes, bunker fuels or lubricants, primarily through OPA 90 and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (or CERCLA). OPA 90 affects all owners, operators, and bareboat charterers whose vessels trade to the U.S. or its territories or possessions or whose vessels operate in U.S. waters, which include the U.S. territorial sea and the 200-mile exclusive economic zone around the U.S. CERCLA applies to the discharge of “hazardous substances” rather than “oil” and imposes strict joint and several liability upon the owners, operators, or bareboat charterers of vessels for cleanup costs and damages arising from discharges of hazardous substances. We believe that petroleum products should not be considered hazardous substances under CERCLA, but additives to oil or lubricants used on vessels might fall within its scope.
Under OPA 90, vessel owners, operators and bareboat charterers are “responsible parties” and are jointly, severally and strictly liable (unless the oil spill results solely from the act or omission of a third party, an act of God or an act of war and the responsible party reports the incident and reasonably cooperates with the appropriate authorities) for all containment and clean-up costs and other damages arising from discharges or threatened discharges of oil from their vessels. These other damages are defined broadly to include:
•natural resources damages and the related assessment costs;
•real and personal property damages;
•net loss of taxes, royalties, rents, fees and other lost revenues;
•lost profits or impairment of earning capacity due to property or natural resources damage;
•net cost of public services necessitated by a spill response, such as protection from fire, safety, or health hazards; and
•loss of subsistence use of natural resources.
OPA 90 limits the liability of responsible parties in an amount it periodically updates. The liability limits do not apply if the incident was proximately caused by a violation of applicable U.S. federal safety, construction or operating regulations, including IMO conventions to which the U.S. is a signatory, or by the responsible party’s gross negligence or willful misconduct, or if the responsible party fails or refuses to report the incident or to cooperate and assist in connection with the oil removal activities. Liability under CERCLA is also subject to limits unless the incident is caused by gross negligence, willful misconduct, or a violation of certain regulations. We currently maintain for each of our vessels pollution liability coverage in the maximum coverage amount of $1 billion per incident. A catastrophic spill could exceed the coverage available, which could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Under OPA 90, with limited exceptions, all newly built or converted tankers delivered after January 1, 1994 and operating in U.S. waters must be double-hulled. All of our tankers are double-hulled.
OPA 90 also requires owners and operators of vessels to establish and maintain with the USCG evidence of financial responsibility in an amount at least equal to the relevant limitation amount for such vessels under the statute. The USCG has implemented regulations requiring that an owner or
operator of a fleet of vessels must demonstrate evidence of financial responsibility in an amount sufficient to cover the vessel in the fleet having the greatest maximum limited liability under OPA 90 and CERCLA. Evidence of financial responsibility may be demonstrated by insurance, surety bond, self-insurance, guaranty, or an alternative method subject to approval by the USCG. Under the self-insurance provisions, the shipowner or operator must have a net worth and working capital, measured in assets located in the U.S. against liabilities located anywhere in the world, that exceeds the applicable amount of financial responsibility. We have complied with the USCG regulations by using self-insurance for certain vessels and obtaining financial guaranties from a third party for the remaining vessels. If other vessels in our fleet trade into the U.S. in the future, we expect to obtain guaranties from third-party insurers.
OPA 90 and CERCLA permit individual U.S. states to impose their own liability regimes with regard to oil or hazardous substance pollution incidents occurring within their boundaries and some states have enacted legislation providing for unlimited strict liability for spills. Several coastal states require state-specific evidence of financial responsibility and vessel response plans. We intend to comply with all applicable state regulations in the ports where our vessels call.
Owners or operators of vessels, including tankers operating in U.S. waters, are required to file vessel response plans with the USCG, and their tankers are required to operate in compliance with their USCG approved plans. Such response plans must, among other things:
•address a “worst case” scenario and identify and ensure, through contract or other approved means, the availability of necessary private response resources to respond to a “worst-case discharge”;
•describe crew training and drills; and
•identify a qualified individual with full authority to implement removal actions.
All our vessels have USCG-approved vessel response plans. Also, we conduct regular oil spill response drills as per the guidelines set out in OPA 90. The USCG has announced it intends to propose similar regulations requiring certain vessels to prepare response plans for the release of hazardous substances. Similarly, we also have California Vessel Contingency Plans onboard vessels which are likely to call ports in the State of California.
OPA 90 and CERCLA do not preclude claimants from seeking damages resulting from the discharge of oil and hazardous substances under other applicable law, including maritime tort law. The application of this doctrine varies by jurisdiction.
The U.S. Clean Water Act (or Clean Water Act) also prohibits the discharge of oil or hazardous substances in U.S. navigable waters and imposes strict liability in the form of penalties for unauthorized discharges. The Clean Water Act imposes substantial liability for the costs of removal, remediation and damages, and complements the remedies available under OPA 90 and CERCLA discussed above.
Our vessels that discharge certain effluents, including ballast water, in U.S. waters must obtain a Clean Water Act permit from the Environmental Protection Agency (or EPA) titled the “Vessel General Permit” (or VGP) and comply with a range of effluent limitations, best management practices, reporting, inspections and other requirements. The current Vessel General Permit incorporates USCG requirements for ballast water exchange and includes specific technology-based requirements for vessels as well as an implementation schedule to require vessels to meet the ballast water effluent limitations by the first dry docking after January 1, 2016, depending on the vessel size.
On December 4, 2018, the Vessel Incidental Discharge Act (or VIDA) came into effect under the Clean Water Act. The VIDA restructures the way the EPA and the USCG regulate discharges incidental to the normal operation of a vessel when operating as a means of transportation. In most cases, the future standards will be at least as stringent as the existing EPA 2013 VGP requirements and will be technology-based. Two years after the EPA publishes the final Vessel Incidental Discharge National Standards of Performance, the USCG is required to develop corresponding implementation, compliance, and enforcement regulations for those standards, including any requirements governing the design, construction, testing, approval, installation, and use of devices necessary to achieve the EPA standards. Vessels that are constructed after December 1, 2013, are subject to the ballast water numeric effluent limitations. Several U.S. states have added specific requirements to the VGP and, in some cases, may require vessels to install ballast water treatment technology to meet biological performance standards. Every five years the VGP gets reissued, however, the provisions of the 2013 VGP, all management, inspection, monitoring, and reporting requirements remain in effect for vessels operating in U.S. waters until the USCG and EPA finalizes new regulations in accordance with the VIDA to replace the 2013 VGP. Final rules are not expected for another 2-3 years.
On October 26, 2020, the EPA’s Notice of Proposed Rulemaking – Vessel Incidental Discharge National Standards of Performance – was published in the Federal Register for public comment. The proposed rule will reduce the environmental impact of discharges, such as ballast water, that are incidental to the normal operation of commercial vessels. When finalized, this new rule will streamline the current patchwork of federal, state, and local requirements that apply to the commercial vessel community and better protect U.S. waters.
Various states in the United States, including California, have implemented additional regulations relating to the environment and operation of vessels. The California Biofouling Management Plan requires vessels to have a Biofouling Management Plan and maintain a Biofouling Record Book. In addition, it requires mandatory biofouling management of the vessel’s wetted surfaces and mandatory biofouling management for vessels that undergo an extended residency period (e.g., remain in the same location for 45 or more days. Finally, it also requires the mandatory submission of a Marine Invasive Species Program Annual Vessel Reporting Form (MISP-AVRF) by the vessel at least 24 hours in advance of the first arrival of each calendar year at a California port. The regulation applied to new vessels delivered after January 1, 2018, and existing vessels after the first regularly scheduled dry dock after January 1, 2018.
China previously established ECAs in the Pearl River Delta, Yangtze River Delta and Bohai Sea, which took effect on January 1, 2016. The Hainan ECA took effect on January 1, 2019. From January 1, 2019, all the ECAs have merged, and the scope of Domestic Emission Controls Areas (or DECAs) were extended to 12 nautical miles from the coastline, covering the Chinese mainland territorial coastal areas as well as the Hainan Island territorial coastal waters. From January 1, 2019, all vessels navigating within the Chinese mainland territorial coastal DECAs and at berths are
required to use marine fuel with a sulfur content of maximum 0.50% m/m. As per the new regulation, ships can also use alternative methods such as an Exhaust Gas Scrubber, LNG or other clean fuel that reduces the SOx to the same level or lower than the maximum required limits of sulfur when using fossil fuel in the DECA areas or when at berth. All the vessels without an exhaust gas cleaning system entering the emission control area are only permitted to carry and use the compliant fuel oil specified by the new regulation.
From July 1, 2019, vessels engaged on international voyages (except tankers) that are equipped to connect to shore power must use shore power if they berth for more than three hours (or for more than two hours for inland river control areas) in berths with shore supply capacity in the coastal control areas.
From January 1, 2020, all vessels navigating within the Chinese mainland territorial coastal DECAs should use marine fuel with a maximum 0.5% m/m sulfur cap. All vessels entering China inland waterway emission control areas are to use fuel oil with a sulfur content not exceeding 0.1% m/m. Any vessel using or carrying non-compliant fuel oil due to the non-availability of compliant fuel oil is to submit a fuel oil non-availability report to the China Maritime Safety Administration (or CMSA) of the next arrival port before entering waters under the jurisdiction of China.
From March 1, 2020, all vessels entering waters under the jurisdiction of the People’s Republic of China are prohibited to carry fuel oil of sulfur content exceeding 0.50% m/m on board ships. Any vessel carrying non-compliant fuel oil in the waters under the jurisdiction of China is to:
•discharge the non-compliant fuel oil; or
•as permitted by the CMSA of the calling port, to retain the non-compliant fuel oil on board with a commitment letter stating it will not be used in waters under the jurisdiction of China.
New Zealand's Craft Risk Management Standard (or CRMS) requirements are based on the IMO's guidelines for the control and management of ships' biofouling to minimize the transfer of invasive aquatic species.
Marine pests and diseases brought in on vessel hulls (or biofouling) are a threat to New Zealand's marine resources. From May 15, 2018, all vessels arriving in New Zealand need to have a clean hull. Vessels staying up to 20 days and only visiting designated ports (places of first arrival) are allowed a slight amount of biofouling. Vessels staying longer and visiting other places will only be allowed a slime layer and goose barnacles.
Republic of Korea
The Korean Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries announced an air quality control program that defines selected South Korean ports and areas as ECAs. The ECAs cover Korea’s five major port areas: Incheon, Pyeongtaek & Dangjin, Yeosu & Gwangyang, Busan and Ulsan. From September 1, 2020, ships at berth or at anchor in the new Korean ECAs must burn fuel with a maximum sulfur content of 0.10%. Ships must switch to compliant fuel within one hour of mooring/anchoring and burn compliant fuel until not more than one hour before departure. From January 1, 2022, the requirements have been expanded, and the 0.10% sulfur limit will apply at all times while operating within the ECAs.
A Vessel Speed Reduction Program has also been introduced as a part of an air quality control program on a voluntary compliance basis to certain types of ships (crude, chemical and LNG carriers) calling at the ports of Busan, Ulsan, Yeosu, Gwangyang and Incheon.
On October 2, 2019, the Government of India urged its citizens and government agencies to take steps towards phasing out single-use plastics (or SUP). As a result, all shipping participants operating in Indian waters are required to contribute to the Indian government’s goal of phasing out SUPs.
The Directorate General of Shipping, India (or DGS) has mandated certain policies as a result, and in order to comply with these required policies, all cargo vessels are required as of January 31, 2020 to prepare a vessel-specific Ship Execution Plan (or SEP) detailing the inventory of all SUP used on board the vessel and which has not been exempted by the DGS. This SEP will be reviewed to determine the prohibition of SUP on the subject vessel.
Vessels will be allowed to use an additional 10% of SUP items in the SEP that have not been prohibited. Amendments to the finalized SEP are discouraged save for material corrections.
Foreign vessels visiting Indian ports are not allowed to use prohibited items while at a place or port in India. However, these items are allowed to be on board provided they are stored at identified locations. SEPs are also required to detail the prevention steps that will be implemented during a vessel’s call at an Indian port to prevent unsanctioned usage of SUPs. This includes the preparation and use of a deck and official log entry identifying all SUP items on board the vessel.
Greenhouse Gas Regulation
In February 2005, the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (or the Kyoto Protocol) entered into force. Under the Kyoto Protocol, adopting countries are required to implement national programs to reduce emissions of GHGs. In December 2009, more than 27 nations, including the U.S., entered into the Copenhagen Accord. The Copenhagen Accord is non-binding but is intended to pave the way for a comprehensive, international treaty on climate change. In December 2015 the Paris Agreement was adopted by a large number of countries at the 21st Session of the Conference of Parties (commonly known as COP 21, a conference of the countries which are parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; the COP is the highest decision-making authority of this organization). The Paris Agreement, which entered into force on November 4, 2016, deals with GHG emission reduction measures and targets from 2020 to limit the global temperature
increases to well below 2˚ Celsius above pre-industrial levels. Although shipping was ultimately not included in the Paris Agreement, it is expected that the adoption of the Paris Agreement may lead to regulatory changes in relation to curbing GHG emissions from shipping.
In July 2011, the IMO adopted regulations imposing technical and operational measures for the reduction of GHG emissions. These new regulations formed a new chapter in MARPOL Annex VI and became effective on January 1, 2013. The new technical and operational measures include the “Energy Efficiency Design Index” (or the EEDI), which is mandatory for newbuilding vessels, and the “Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan”, which is mandatory for all vessels. In October 2016, the IMO’s Marine Environment Protection Committee (or MEPC) adopted updated guidelines for the calculation of the EEDI. In October 2014, the IMO’s MEPC agreed in principle to develop a system of data collection regarding fuel consumption of ships. In October 2016, the IMO adopted a mandatory data collection system under which vessels of 5,000 gross tonnages and above are to collect fuel consumption and other data and to report the aggregated data so collected to their flag state at the end of each calendar year. The new requirements entered into force on March 1, 2018.
All vessels are required to submit fuel consumption data to their respective administration/registered organizations for onward submission to the IMO for analysis and to help with decision making on future measures. The amendments require operators to update the vessel's SEEMP to include descriptions of the ship-specific methodology that will be used for collecting and measuring data for fuel oil consumption, distance travelled, hours underway and processes that will be used to report the data, to ensure data quality is maintained.
The vessels in our fleet were verified as compliant before December 31, 2018, with the first data collection period being for the 2019 calendar year. A Confirmation of Compliance was issued by the administration/registered organization, which must be kept on board the ship. The IMO also approved a roadmap for the development of a comprehensive IMO strategy on the reduction of GHG emissions from ships with an initial strategy adopted on April 13, 2018, and a revised strategy to be adopted in 2023. Furthermore, the MEPC adopted two other sets of amendments to MARPOL Annex VI related to carbon intensity regulations. The MEPC agreed on combining the technical and operational measures with an entry into force date on January 1, 2023. The Energy Efficiency Existing Ships Index (or EEXI) will be implemented for existing ships as a technical measure to reduce CO2 emissions. The Carbon Intensity Index (CII) will be implemented as an operational carbon intensity measure to benchmark and improve efficiency. Regulations and frameworks are expected to be fully defined at the next MEPC meeting in June 2023. We have calculated the EEXI and Engine Power Limiter (or EPL) values for our vessels and are in the process of EPL application for regulation compliance.
The EU has also indicated that it intends to propose an expansion of an existing EU emissions trading regime to include emissions of GHGs from vessels, and individual countries in the EU may impose additional requirements. The EU has adopted Regulation (EU) 2015/757 on the MRV of CO2 emissions from vessels (or the MRV Regulation), which entered into force on July 1, 2015. The MRV Regulation aims to quantify and reduce CO2 emissions from shipping. It lists the requirements on the MRV of carbon dioxide emissions and requires ship owners and operators to annually monitor, report and verify CO2 emissions for vessels larger than 5,000 gross tonnage calling at any EU and EFTA (Norway and Iceland) port (with a few exceptions, such as fish-catching or fish-processing vessels). Data collection takes place on a per voyage basis and started on January 1, 2018. The reported CO2 emissions, together with additional data, such as cargo and energy efficiency parameters, are to be verified by independent verifiers and sent to a central inspection database hosted by the European Maritime Safety Agency to collate all the data applicable to the EU region. Companies responsible for the operation of large ships using EU ports are required to report their CO2 emissions. While the EU was considering a proposal for the inclusion of shipping in the EU Emissions Trading System as from 2023 (in the absence of a comparable system operating under the IMO), it appears that the decision to include shipping may be deferred until 2024.
In the U.S., the EPA issued an “endangerment finding” regarding GHGs under the Clean Air Act. While this finding in itself does not impose any requirements on our industry, it authorizes the EPA to regulate GHG emissions directly through a rule-making process. Also, climate change initiatives are being considered in the U.S. Congress and by individual states. Any passage of new climate control legislation or other regulatory initiatives by the IMO, EU, the U.S. or other countries or states where we operate that restrict emissions of GHG could have a significant financial and operational impact on our business that we cannot predict with certainty at this time.
Many financial institutions that lend to the maritime industry have adopted the Poseidon Principles, which establish a framework for assessing and disclosing the climate alignment of ship finance portfolios. The Poseidon Principles set a benchmark for the banks who fund the maritime sector, which is based on the IMO GHG strategy. The IMO approved an initial GHG strategy in April 2018 to reduce GHG emissions generated from shipping activity, which represents a significant shift in climate ambition for a sector that currently accounts for 2%-3% of global carbon dioxide emissions. As a result, the Poseidon Principles are expected to enable financial institutions to align their ship finance portfolios with responsible environmental behavior and incentivize international shipping’s decarbonization.
The ISPS was adopted by the IMO in December 2002 in the wake of heightened concern over worldwide terrorism and became effective on July 1, 2004. The objective of ISPS is to enhance maritime security by detecting security threats to ships and ports and by requiring the development of security plans and other measures designed to prevent such threats. Each of the existing vessels in our fleet currently complies with the requirements of ISPS and the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 (U.S. specific requirements). Procedures are in place to inform the Maritime Security Council Horn of Africa whenever our vessels are calling in the Indian Ocean Region or the Maritime Domain Awareness for Trade - Gulf of Guinea when calling in the West Coast of Africa. In order to mitigate the security risk, security arrangements are made which include boarding armed security teams (when vessels transit the Gulf of Aden) or arranging for security escort vessels (with 6-8 Nigerian Navy armed guards) from a distance of 195 nautical miles for all Nigerian port calls. In addition, our vessels are also escorted through the Nigerian Exclusive Economic Zone (or EEZ) for calling at some ports of Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea, which are close to the Nigerian EEZ. Our vessels are fully compliant with all recommendations of Best Management Practices for West Africa.
As of December 31, 2022, Teekay Corporation (NYSE: TK), directly or through its 100%-owned subsidiaries, Teekay Holdings Limited and Teekay Finance Limited, had a 28.5% economic interest and a 53.7% voting interest in us through its ownership of approximately 5.0 million shares of our Class A common stock and 4.6 million shares of our Class B common stock.
Our shares of Class A common stock entitle the holders thereof to one vote per share and our shares of Class B common stock entitle the holders thereof to five votes per share, subject to a 49% aggregate Class B common stock voting power maximum. Teekay Corporation currently holds a majority of the voting power of our common stock, and as such, we are controlled by Teekay Corporation.
Please read Exhibit 8.1 to this Annual Report for a list of our subsidiaries as of December 31, 2022.
D.Property, Plant and Equipment
Other than our vessels and related equipment, we do not have any material property.
Please see “Item 4. Information on the Company – B. Business Overview – Our Fleet” for a description of our vessels and “Item 18. Financial Statements: Note 9 – Long-Term Debt" and "Note 10 – Operating Leases and Obligations Related to Finance Leases” for information about major encumbrances against our vessels.
E.Taxation of the Company
United States Taxation
The following is a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to us. This discussion is based upon provisions of the Code, legislative history, applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations (or Treasury Regulations), judicial authority and administrative interpretations, all as in effect on the date of this Annual Report, and which are subject to change, possibly with retroactive effect, or are subject to different interpretations. Changes in these authorities may cause the tax consequences to vary substantially from the consequences described below.
Taxation of Operating Income. A significant portion of our gross income will be attributable to the transportation of crude oil and related products. For this purpose, gross income attributable to transportation (or Transportation Income) includes income derived from, or in connection with, the use (or hiring or leasing for use) of a vessel to transport cargo, or the performance of services directly related to the use of any vessel to transport cargo, and thus includes income from time charters and bareboat charters.
Fifty percent (50%) of Transportation Income that either begins or ends, but that does not both begin and end, in the U.S. (or U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income) is considered to be derived from sources within the U.S. Transportation Income that both begins and ends in the U.S. (or U.S. Source Domestic Transportation Gross Income) is considered to be 100% derived from sources within the U.S.. Transportation Income exclusively between non-U.S. destinations is considered to be 100% derived from sources outside the U.S. Transportation Income derived from sources outside the U.S. generally is not subject to U.S. federal income tax.
Based on our current operations, and the operations of our subsidiaries, a substantial portion of our Transportation Income is from sources outside the U.S. and not subject to U.S. federal income tax. In addition, we believe that we have not earned any U.S. Source Domestic Transportation Gross Income, and we expect that we will not earn a material amount of such income in future years. However, certain of our subsidiaries which have made special U.S. tax elections to be treated as partnerships or disregarded as entities separate from us for U.S. federal income tax purposes are potentially engaged in activities which could give rise to U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income. Unless the exemption from U.S. taxation under Section 883 of the Code (or the Section 883 Exemption) applies, our U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income generally is subject to U.S. federal income taxation under either the net basis and branch profits taxes or the 4% gross basis tax, each of which is discussed below.
The Section 883 Exemption. In general, the Section 883 Exemption provides that if a non-U.S. corporation satisfies the requirements of Section 883 of the Code and the Treasury Regulations thereunder (or the Section 883 Regulations), it will not be subject to the net basis and branch profits taxes or the 4% gross basis tax described below on its U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income. As discussed below, we believe that under our current ownership structure, the Section 883 Exemption will apply and we will not be taxed on our U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income. The Section 883 Exemption does not apply to U.S. Source Domestic Transportation Gross Income.
A non-U.S. corporation will qualify for the Section 883 Exemption if, among other things, it (i) is organized in a jurisdiction outside the U.S. that grants an exemption from tax to U.S. corporations on international Transportation Gross Income (or an Equivalent Exemption), (ii) meets one of three ownership tests (or Ownership Tests) described in the Section 883 Regulations, and (iii) meets certain substantiation, reporting and other requirements (or the Substantiation Requirements).
We are organized under the laws of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The U.S. Treasury Department has recognized the Republic of the Marshall Islands as a jurisdiction that grants an Equivalent Exemption. We also believe that we will be able to satisfy the Substantiation Requirements necessary to qualify for the Section 883 Exemption. Consequently, our U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income (including for this purpose, our share of any such income earned by our subsidiaries that have properly elected to be treated as partnerships or disregarded as entities separate from us for U.S. federal income tax purposes) will be exempt from U.S. federal income taxation provided we satisfy one of the Ownership Tests. We believe that we should satisfy one of the Ownership Tests because our stock is primarily and regularly traded on an established securities market in the U.S. within the meaning of Section 883 of the Code and the Section 883 Regulations. We can give no assurance, however, that changes in the ownership of our stock subsequent to the date of this Annual Report will permit us to continue to qualify for the Section 883 exemption.
Net Basis Tax and Branch Profits Tax. If the Section 883 Exemption does not apply, our U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income may be treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the U.S. (or Effectively Connected Income) if we have a fixed place of business in the U.S. and substantially all of our U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income is attributable to regularly scheduled transportation or, in the case of income derived from bareboat charters, is attributable to a fixed place of business in the U.S. Based on our current operations, none of our potential U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income is attributable to regularly scheduled
transportation or is derived from bareboat charters attributable to a fixed place of business in the U.S. As a result, we do not anticipate that any of our U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income will be treated as Effectively Connected Income. However, there is no assurance that we will not earn income pursuant to regularly scheduled transportation or bareboat charters attributable to a fixed place of business in the U.S. in the future, which will result in such income being treated as Effectively Connected Income.
U.S. Source Domestic Transportation Gross Income generally will be treated as Effectively Connected Income. However, we do not anticipate that a material amount of our income has been or will be U.S. Source Domestic Transportation Gross Income.
Any income we earn that is treated as Effectively Connected Income would be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax (which statutory rate as of the end of 2022 was 21%), and a 30% branch profits tax imposed under Section 884 of the Code. In addition, a branch interest tax could be imposed on certain interest paid or deemed paid by us.
On the sale of a vessel that has produced Effectively Connected Income, we generally would be subject to the net basis and branch profits taxes with respect to our gain recognized up to the amount of certain prior deductions for depreciation that reduced Effectively Connected Income. Otherwise, we would not be subject to U.S. federal income tax with respect to a gain realized on the sale of a vessel, provided the sale is considered to occur outside of the U.S. under U.S. federal income tax principles.
The 4% Gross Basis Tax. If the Section 883 Exemption does not apply and we are not subject to the net basis and branch profits taxes described above, we will be subject to a 4% U.S. federal income tax on our U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income, without benefit of deductions. For 2022, we estimate that if the Section 883 Exemption and the net basis tax did not apply, the U.S. federal income tax on such U.S. Source International Transportation Gross Income would have been approximately $10.2 million. If the Section 883 Exemption does not apply, the amount of such tax for which we are liable in any year will depend upon the amount of income we earn from voyages into or out of the U.S. in such year, however, which is not within our complete control.
Marshall Islands Taxation
Because we and our controlled affiliates do not, and we do not expect to, and assuming that we or they will not, conduct business, operations, or transactions in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, neither we nor our controlled affiliates are subject to income, capital gains, profits or other taxation under current Marshall Islands law, other than taxes, fines, or fees due to (i) the incorporation, dissolution, continued existence, merger, domestication (or similar concepts) of legal entities registered in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, (ii) filing certificates (such as certificates of incumbency, merger, or re-domiciliation) with the Marshall Islands registrar, (iii) obtaining certificates of good standing from, or certified copies of documents filed with, the Marshall Islands registrar, (iv) compliance with Marshall Islands law concerning vessel ownership, such as tonnage tax, or (v) non-compliance with economic substance regulations or with requests made by the Marshall Islands Registrar of Corporations relating to our books and records and the books and records of our subsidiaries. As a result, distributions by our controlled affiliates to us are not subject to Marshall Islands taxation.
We and our subsidiaries are subject to taxation in certain non-U.S. jurisdictions because we or our subsidiaries are either organized, or conduct business or operations, in such jurisdictions. In other non-U.S. jurisdictions, we and our subsidiaries rely on statutory exemptions from tax. However, we cannot assure that any statutory exemptions from tax on which we or our subsidiaries rely will continue to be available as tax laws in those jurisdictions may change or we or our subsidiaries may enter into new business transactions relating to such jurisdictions, which could affect our or our subsidiaries' tax liability.
Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 5.Operating and Financial Review and Prospects
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto appearing elsewhere in this Annual Report.
In addition, refer to item 5 in our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2021 for our discussion and analysis comparing financial condition and results of operations from 2021 to 2020.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
We were formed in October 2007 by Teekay Corporation (NYSE: TK), a leading provider of international crude oil and other marine transportation services, and we completed our initial public offering in December 2007. Our business is to own and operate crude oil and product tankers, and we employ a chartering strategy that seeks to capture upside opportunities in the tanker spot market while using fixed-rate time charters and full service lightering (or FSL) contracts to reduce potential downside risks. Our mix of vessels trading in the spot market, or subject to fixed-rate time charters will change from time to time. In addition to our core business, we also provide ship-to-ship (or STS) support services, along with our tanker commercial management and technical management operations. We believe this improves our ability to manage the cyclicality of the tanker market through the less volatile cash flows generated by these operational areas. Historically, the tanker industry has experienced volatility in
profitability due to changes in the supply of, and demand for, tanker capacity. Tanker supply and demand are each influenced by several factors beyond our control.
Teekay Corporation holds a majority of the voting power of our common stock, which includes Class A common stock and Class B common stock.
Significant Developments in 2022 and Early 2023
Conflict in Ukraine
In late February 2022, the Russian Federation invaded Ukraine. This followed Russia’s involvement in divesting control by Ukraine of the Crimea region and certain parts of south-eastern Ukraine starting in 2014. In response to both events, the U.S., several European Union nations, and other countries announced a series of sanctions and executive orders against citizens, entities, and activities connected to Russia and, with respect to the sanctions and orders announced in 2022, Belarus. The sanctions imposed following the 2022 invasion have been numerous and significant in scope. In addition, the U.S., Canada, Australia, the European Union, United Kingdom and several other countries have announced prohibitions on the importation of Russian oil and petroleum products, or intentions to cut back on their reliance on Russian oil. Carriage of Russian origin oil is now prohibited by many countries (including all of the Group of Seven (or G7) countries) unless it is at or below a price cap and the same applies to Russian refined petroleum products as of February 5, 2023. Furthermore, several of the world’s largest oil and gas companies, pension and wealth funds and other asset managers have announced divestments of Russian holdings and assets, including those related to the crude oil and petroleum products industries. As at the date of this Annual Report, the conflict is ongoing and, as a result, additional sanctions and executive orders may be implemented that could further impact the trade of crude oil and petroleum products, as well as the supply of Russian oil to the global market and the demand for, and price of, oil and petroleum products.
Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a significant decline in global demand for oil during 2020; although oil demand partially recovered in 2021, new outbreaks may continue to have a negative impact on oil demand in the future. As our business is primarily the transportation of crude oil and refined petroleum products on behalf of our customers, any significant decrease in demand for the cargo we transport could adversely affect demand for our vessels and services.
For the year ended December 31, 2022, we did not experience any material business interruptions as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Spot tanker rates came under pressure from mid-May 2020 through the beginning of 2022 as a result of significantly reduced oil demand due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent decision by the OPEC+ group of oil producers to implement record oil supply cuts. Reduced oil production from other oil producing nations due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the unwinding of floating storage and the delivery of newbuilding vessels to the world tanker fleet, also contributed to the weakness in tanker rates and became a contributing factor to the write-down of certain tankers during the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, as described in "Item 18 – Financial Statements: Note 19 - Gain (Loss) on Sale and (Write-down) of Assets", and the reduction in certain tax accruals during the year ended December 31, 2020 as described in "Item 18 – Financial Statements: Note 21 - Income Tax (Expense) Recovery" of this Annual Report. At the end of 2020, the roll out of COVID-19 vaccines commenced, which has contributed to the tempering and partial reversal of the negative impact that the pandemic had on oil demand during 2020 and 2021. As most countries around the world have lifted their COVID-19 restrictions, the pandemic's impact on oil demand has diminished. We continue to monitor the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on us and our industry, including counterparty risk associated with our vessels under contract and the impact on potential vessel impairments. We have also introduced a number of measures to protect the health and safety of the crews on our vessels, as well as our onshore staff.
Please read “Item 3 - Key Information - Risk Factors” for additional information about potential risks of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business.
During the first quarter of 2022, we agreed to sell one Suezmax tanker and two Aframax / LR2 tankers for a total price of $43.6 million, which resulted in a gain of $1.2 million during the year ended December 31, 2022. The Suezmax tanker was delivered to its new owner in February 2022, and the Aframax / LR2 tankers were delivered to their new owners in April 2022.
In July 2022, we agreed to sell one Aframax / LR2 tanker for $24.8 million, which resulted in a gain of $8.2 million during the year ended December 31, 2022. The tanker was delivered to its new owner in September 2022.
Time Chartered-in Vessels
In June 2022, we entered into a time charter-in contract for an Aframax / LR2 tanker for a two-year term at a rate of $23,000 per day. The vessel was delivered to us in July 2022.
In the fourth quarter of 2022, we entered into time charter-in contracts for a Suezmax tanker and an Aframax / LR2 tanker for terms of 54 months and 36 months, respectively, at an average rate of $31,700 per day. Both of the charters provide us with the option to extend for an additional 12 months at an average rate of $34,075 per day. The Suezmax tanker and Aframax / LR2 tanker were delivered to us in December 2022 and February 2023, respectively.
In January 2023, an Aframax / LR2 tanker newbuilding, related to the time charter-in contract that we previously entered into during 2020, was delivered to us. The time charter-in contract has a seven-year term at a rate of $18,700 per day with three one-year extension option periods and a purchase option at the end of the second extension option period.
In February 2023, we entered into a time charter-in contract for an Aframax / LR2 tanker for a two-year term at a rate of $35,750 per day. The vessel was delivered to us in the first quarter of 2023.
Time Chartered-out Vessels
In November 2022, we entered into a time charter-out contract for a Suezmax tanker with a term of 21 to 26 months at a daily rate of $38,475 per day. This time charter-out contract commenced in December 2022.
In December 2022, we entered into a time charter-out contract for an Aframax / LR2 tanker with a one-year term at a daily rate of $48,500 per day. This time charter-out contract commenced in February 2023.
Sale-leaseback Financing Transactions
In March 2022, we completed a $177.3 million sale-leaseback financing transaction relating to eight Suezmax tankers. Each vessel is leased on a bareboat charter ranging from six to nine-year terms, with purchase options available commencing at the end of the second year.
In April 2022, we completed a $114.0 million sale-leaseback financing transaction relating to four Aframax / LR2 tankers and one Suezmax tanker. Each vessel is leased on a bareboat charter ranging from seven to eight-year terms, with purchase options available throughout the lease terms and a purchase obligation at the end of the leases. In March 2023, we acquired these vessels subsequent to giving notice to exercise our vessel purchase options described below.
In January 2023, we gave notice to exercise our vessel purchase options to acquire one Suezmax tanker and eight Aframax / LR2 tankers for a total cost of $164.3 million, as part of the repurchase options under the sale-leaseback arrangements described in "Item 18 – Financial Statements: Note 10 - Operating Leases and Obligations related to Finance Leases" of this Annual Report. The purchase and delivery of these vessels were completed in March 2023.
In March 2023, we gave notice to exercise our vessel purchase options to acquire five Suezmax tankers and one Aframax / LR2 tanker for a total cost of $142.8 million, as part of the repurchase options under the sale-leaseback arrangements described in "Item 18 – Financial Statements: Note 10 - Operating Leases and Obligations related to Finance Leases" of this Annual Report. We expect to complete the purchase and delivery of these vessels in May 2023.
In February 2023, we signed a term sheet for a new secured revolving credit facility for up to $350.0 million to refinance 19 vessels (including the 15 vessels mentioned above) currently under sale-leaseback financing arrangements. The facility is expected to be completed during the second quarter of 2023.
Long-Term Incentive Plan
In March 2023, we adopted a 2023 Long-Term Incentive Plan (or the 2023 Plan) and suspended our 2007 Long-Term Incentive Plan (or the Prior Plan). We have authorized the issuance of up to 600,000 additional shares of Class A common stock pursuant to the 2023 Plan, in addition to up to an aggregate maximum of 1,291,416 shares that were previously reserved for issuance under the Prior Plan and either available or subject to outstanding awards (to the extent such awards terminate without the issuance of vested and non-forfeitable shares).
Important Financial and Operational Terms and Concepts
We use a variety of financial and operational terms and concepts when analyzing our performance. These include the following:
Revenues. Revenues primarily include revenues from time charters, voyage charters and full service lightering and lightering support services. Revenues are affected by hire rates and the number of days a vessel operates. Revenues are also affected by the mix of our business between time charters and voyage charters and to a lesser extent, whether our vessels are subject to a revenue sharing agreement (or RSA). Hire rates for voyage charters are more volatile, as they are typically tied to prevailing market rates at the time of a voyage. Our charters are explained further below.
Voyage Expenses. Voyage expenses are all expenses unique to a particular voyage, including any fuel expenses, port fees, cargo loading and unloading expenses, canal tolls, agency fees and commissions. Voyage expenses are typically paid by the shipowner under voyage charters and the customer under time charters, except when the vessel is off-hire during the term of a time charter, in which case, the shipowner pays voyage expenses.
Net Revenues. Net revenues represents income (loss) from operations before vessel operating expenses, time-charter hire expenses, depreciation and amortization, general and administrative expenses, gain or loss on sale and write-down of assets, and restructuring charges. This is a non-GAAP financial measure; for more information about this measure, please read "Item 5 - Operating and Financial Review and Prospects - Non-GAAP Finance Measures".
Vessel Operating Expenses. We are responsible for vessel operating expenses, which include crewing, repairs and maintenance, insurance, stores, lube oils and communication expenses. The two largest components of our vessel operating expenses are crew costs and repairs and maintenance. We expect these expenses to increase as our fleet matures and to the extent that it expands.
Income (Loss) from Vessel Operations. To assist us in evaluating our operations, we analyze the income or loss we receive after deducting operating expenses, but prior to interest expense, interest income, realized and unrealized gains or losses on derivative instruments, equity income or losses, and other income or expenses.
Dry Docking. We must periodically dry dock each of our vessels for inspection, repairs and maintenance and any modifications to comply with industry certification or governmental requirements. Generally, we dry dock each of our vessels every two and a half to five years, depending upon the age of the vessel. We capitalize a substantial portion of the costs incurred during dry docking and amortize those costs on a straight-line basis from the completion of a dry docking over the estimated useful life of the dry dock. We expense, as incurred, costs for routine repairs and maintenance performed during dry dockings that do not improve or extend the useful lives of the assets. The number of dry dockings undertaken in a given period and the nature of the work performed determine the level of dry docking expenditures.
Depreciation and Amortization. Our depreciation and amortization expense typically consists of charges related to the depreciation of the historical cost of our fleet (less an estimated residual value) over the estimated useful lives of our vessels, charges related to the amortization of dry-docking expenditures over the estimated number of years to the next scheduled dry docking, and charges related to the amortization of our intangible assets over the estimated useful life of 10 years.
Time-Charter Equivalent (TCE) Rates. Bulk shipping industry freight rates are commonly measured in the shipping industry at the net revenues level in terms of “time-charter equivalent” (or TCE) rates, which represent net revenues divided by revenue days. We calculate TCE rates as net revenue per revenue day before costs to commercially manage our vessels, and off-hire bunker expenses.
Revenue Days. Revenue days are the total number of calendar days our vessels were in our possession during a period, less the total number of off-hire days during the period associated with major repairs or modifications, dry dockings, or special or intermediate surveys. Consequently, revenue days represents the total number of days available for the vessel to earn revenue. Idle days, which are days when the vessel is available for the vessel to earn revenue yet is not employed, are included in revenue days. We use revenue days to explain changes in our net revenues between periods.
Average Number of Ships. Historical average number of ships consists of the average number of vessels that were in our fleet during a period. We use average number of ships primarily to highlight changes in vessel operating expenses and depreciation and amortization.
We generate revenues by charging customers for the transportation of their crude oil using our vessels. Historically, these services generally have been provided under the following basic types of contractual relationships:
•Voyage charters are charters for shorter intervals that are priced on a current or spot market rate; and
•Time charters, whereby vessels are chartered to customers for a fixed period of time at rates that are generally fixed, but may contain a variable component based on inflation, interest rates or current market rates.
The table below illustrates the primary distinctions among these types of charters and contracts:
| ||Voyage Charter||Time Charter|
|Typical contract length||Single voyage||One year or more|
Hire rate basis (1)
Voyage expenses (2)
|We pay||Customer pays|
Vessel operating expenses (3)
|We pay||We pay|
Off hire (4)
|Customer does not pay||Customer does not pay|
(1)Hire rate refers to the basic payment from the charterer for the use of the vessel.
(2)Voyage expenses are all expenses unique to a particular voyage, including any fuel expenses, port fees, cargo loading and unloading expenses, canal tolls, agency fees and commissions.
(3)Vessel operating expenses include crewing, repairs and maintenance, insurance, stores, lube oils and communication expenses.
(4)Off hire refers to the time a vessel is not available for service.
Summary Financial Data
Set forth below is summary consolidated financial and other data of Teekay Tankers Ltd. and its subsidiaries for fiscal years 2022 and 2021, which have been derived from our consolidated financial statements. The following table should be read together with, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 (which are included herein).
|Year Ended December 31,|
|(in thousands of U.S. dollars, except share and fleet data)||2022||2021|
|GAAP Financial Comparison:|
|Income Statement Data:|
|Income (loss) from operations||255,949||(194,095)|
|Net income (loss)||229,086||(242,372)|
|Earnings (loss) per share - diluted||6.68||(7.16)|
|Balance Sheet Data (at end of year):|
|Cash and cash equivalents||180,512||50,572|
Total vessels and equipment (1)
Total debt (2)
Non GAAP Financial Comparison: (3)
Average number of tankers (4)
|Aframax / LR2||23.8||25.6|
(1)Total vessels and equipment consist of (a) our vessels, at cost less accumulated depreciation, (b) vessels related to finance leases, at cost less accumulated depreciation, and (c) operating lease right-of-use assets.
(2)Total debt includes short-term debt, current and long-term portion of long-term debt, and current and long-term portion of obligations related to finance leases.
(3)Net revenues, EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are non-GAAP financial measures. An explanation of the usefulness and purpose of each measure as well as a reconciliation to the most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP are contained with the section “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” at the end of this Item 5 - Operating and Financial Review and Prospects.
(4)Average number of tankers consists of the average number of vessels that were in our possession during a period, including time chartered-in vessels, and the vessel owned by our High-Q Investments Ltd. (or High-Q) joint venture with Wah Kwong Maritime Transport Holdings Ltd.
Items You Should Consider When Evaluating Our Results of Operations
You should consider the following factors when evaluating our historical financial performance and assessing our future prospects:
•Our voyage revenues are affected by cyclicality in the tanker markets. The cyclical nature of the tanker industry causes significant increases or decreases in the revenue we earn from our vessels, particularly those we trade in the spot market.
•Tanker rates also fluctuate based on seasonal variations in demand. Tanker markets are typically stronger in the winter months as a result of increased oil consumption in the northern hemisphere but weaker in the summer months as a result of lower oil consumption in the northern hemisphere and increased refinery maintenance. In addition, unpredictable weather patterns during the winter months tend to disrupt vessel scheduling, which historically has increased oil price volatility and oil trading activities in the winter months. As a result, revenues generated by our vessels have historically been weaker during the quarters ended June 30 and September 30, and stronger in the quarters ended December 31 and March 31.
•The COVID-19 pandemic could have material adverse effects on our business, results of operations, or financial condition. For the year ended December 31, 2022, we did not experience any material business interruptions as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Please refer to “Significant Developments in 2022 and Early 2023” above for additional information and read “Item 3 - Key Information - Risk Factors” for additional information about the potential risks of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business.
•Our U.S. Gulf lightering business competes with alternative methods of delivering crude oil to ports and exports to offshore for consolidation onto larger vessels, which may limit our earnings in this area of our operations. Our U.S. Gulf lightering business faces competition from alternative methods of delivering crude oil shipments to port and exports to offshore for consolidation onto larger vessels, including the Louisiana Offshore Oil Platform and deep water terminals in Corpus Christi and Houston, Texas which can partially load Very Large Crude Carriers (or VLCCs). While we believe that lightering offers advantages over alternative methods of delivering crude oil to and from U.S. Gulf ports, our lightering revenues may be limited due to the availability of alternative methods.
•Vessel operating and other costs are facing industry-wide cost pressures. The shipping industry continues to forecast a shortfall in qualified personnel, which may be further affected by geopolitical events. We will continue to focus on our manning and training strategies to meet future needs. In addition, factors such as client demands for enhanced training and physical equipment, pressure on commodity and raw material prices, an increasing cost of freight, as well as changes in regulatory requirements could also contribute to operating expenditure increases. We continue to take action aimed at improving operational efficiencies, and to temper the effect of inflationary and other price escalations; however, increases to operational costs may occur in the future.
•The amount and timing of vessel dry dockings and major modifications can significantly affect our revenues between periods. Our vessels are normally off-hire when they are being dry docked. We had nine vessels dry dock in 2022, compared to 10 vessels which dry docked in 2021. During 2022 and 2021, an additional three and four vessels, respectively, were off-hire while completing BWTS installations. The total number of off-hire days relating to dry dockings and BWTS installations during the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 were 561 and 611, respectively. For our current fleet, there are eight owned and leased vessels and one time chartered-in vessel scheduled to dry dock in 2023.
Results of Operations
In accordance with GAAP, we report gross revenues in our consolidated statements of income (loss) and include voyage expenses among our operating expenses. However, ship-owners base economic decisions regarding the deployment of their vessels upon anticipated TCE rates, which represent net revenues (or income (loss) from operations before vessel operating expenses, time-charter hire expenses, depreciation and amortization, general and administrative expenses, gain (loss) on sale and (write-down) of assets, and restructuring charges), which includes voyage expenses, divided by revenue days; in addition, industry analysts typically measure bulk shipping freight and hire rates in terms of TCE rates. This is because under time charter-out contracts, the customer usually pays the voyage expenses, while under voyage charters the ship-owner usually pays the voyage expenses, which typically are added to the hire rate at an approximate cost (as is also described in "Our Charters" above). Accordingly, the discussion of revenue below focuses on net revenues and TCE rates (both of which are non-GAAP financial measures) where applicable.
Our consolidated income from operations was $255.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, compared to a loss from operations of $194.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The primary reasons for this increase in income are as follows:
•an increase of $329.3 million as a result of higher overall average realized spot TCE rates earned by our Suezmax tankers and Aframax / LR2 tankers, as well as higher earnings from our FSL dedicated vessels;
•an increase of $89.3 million due to a decrease in write-downs related to the impairment of two right-of-use assets during 2022, compared to write-downs related to two tankers that were held for sale, as well as the impairment of seven tankers and one right-of-use asset during 2021;
•an increase of $12.0 million due to the gain on sale of vessels related to three Aframax / LR2 tankers and one Suezmax tanker during 2022, compared to the loss on sale of two Aframax / LR2 tankers during the second half of 2021;
•an increase of $11.7 million due to the addition of three Aframax / LR2 chartered-in tankers and one Suezmax chartered-in tanker that were delivered to us during the second half of 2021 and the second half of 2022, as well as net savings from the redeliveries of two Aframax / LR2 chartered-in tankers to their owners during the first quarter of 2021;
•an increase of $3.8 million due to net savings from the sale of seven Aframax / LR2 tankers and one Suezmax tanker at various times during 2021 and 2022; and
•an increase of $2.8 million due to a decrease in vessel operating expenses primarily resulting from lower crewing-related costs, lower expenditures related to ship management, and the timing of repair and maintenance activities in 2022 compared to 2021.
Year Ended December 31, 2022 versus Year Ended December 31, 2021
The following table presents our results for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, and includes a comparison of net revenues, a non-GAAP financial measure, for those periods to income (loss) from operations, the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure.
| ||Year Ended December 31,|
|(in thousands of U.S. dollars, except percentages)||2022||2021||% Change|
|Vessel operating expenses||(150,448)||(165,375)||(9)%|
|Time-charter hire expenses||(27,374)||(13,799)||98%|
|Depreciation and amortization||(99,033)||(106,084)||(7)%|
|General and administrative expenses||(41,769)||(43,715)||(4)%|
|Gain (loss) on sale and (write-down) of assets||8,888||(92,368)||(110)%|
|Income (loss) from operations||255,949||(194,095)||(232)%|
|Realized and unrealized gain on derivative instruments||5,179||564||818%|
|Equity income (loss) ||244||(14,107)||(102)%|
|Other income (expense)||2,645||(1,756)||(251)%|
|Net income (loss) before income tax||229,615||(244,303)||(194)%|
|Income tax (expense) recovery||(529)||1,931||(127)%|
|Net income (loss)||229,086||(242,372)||(195)%|
Net Revenues. Net revenues were $567.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to $227.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was primarily due to:
•an increase of $325.5 million due to higher overall average realized spot rates earned by our Suezmax tankers and Aframax / LR2 tankers in 2022 compared to 2021;
•a net increase of $7.7 million primarily due to the addition of three Aframax / LR2 chartered-in tankers and one Suezmax chartered-in tanker that were delivered to us during the second half of 2021 and the second half of 2022, partially offset by the sale of seven Aframax / LR2 tankers and one Suezmax tanker at various times during 2021 and the first three quarters of 2022, as well as the redeliveries of two Aframax / LR2 chartered-in tankers to their owners during the first quarter of 2021;
•an increase of $4.7 million primarily due to higher net results from our FSL activities resulting from higher overall average FSL spot rates and an increase in the number of FSL voyages in 2022 compared to 2021;
•a net increase of $1.6 million primarily due to fewer off-hire days related to dry dockings and BWTS installations, partially offset by higher off-hire bunker expenses due to higher overall bunker costs in 2022 compared to 2021; and
•an increase of $1.2 million due to higher STS support service revenues resulting from a higher number of operations in 2022 compared to 2021.
Vessel Operating Expenses. Vessel operating expenses were $150.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to $165.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The decrease was primarily due to a reduction of $13.0 million due to the sale of eight tankers during 2021 and the first three quarters of 2022, a reduction of $1.5 million due to lower crewing-related costs and the timing of repair and maintenance activities, as well as a reduction of $1.3 million due to lower expenditures related to ship management in 2022, partially offset by an increase of $0.8 million due to a higher volume of STS support service activities in 2022.
Time-charter Hire Expenses. Time-charter hire expenses were $27.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to $13.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was primarily due to an increase of $13.1 million related to the deliveries of three Aframax / LR2 chartered-in tankers and one Suezmax chartered-in tanker during the second half of 2021 and the second half of 2022, as well as an increase of $1.7 million resulting from a lower expense in the prior year due to the impairment of an operating lease right-of-use asset related to one chartered-in vessel during 2021, partially offset by a decrease of $0.8 million due to the redeliveries of two Aframax / LR2 chartered-in tankers to their owners during the first quarter of 2021.
Depreciation and Amortization. Depreciation and amortization was $99.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to $106.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The decrease was primarily due to a decrease of $7.9 million due to the sale of eight tankers during 2021 and the first three quarters of 2022, as well as a decrease of $2.4 million resulting from the impairments of seven tankers during the first half of
2021, partially offset by an increase of $3.3 million due to depreciation related to capitalized expenditures associated with dry dockings and modifications to our vessels during 2021 and 2022.
General and Administrative Expenses. General and administrative expenses were $41.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to $43.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The decrease was primarily due to lower administrative, strategic management, and other fees incurred under our management agreement with a subsidiary of Teekay Corporation (or Teekay) primarily due to organizational changes, as well as lower equity-based compensation and other general corporate expenditures.
Gain (loss) on sale and (write-down) of assets. The gain on sale and (write-down) of assets of $8.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 was due to:
•the sale of three Aframax / LR2 tankers and one Suezmax tanker in 2022, which resulted in an aggregate gain of $9.4 million during the year ended December 31, 2022, and the reversal of the previous write-down of one of these tankers that had been recorded during the fourth quarter of 2021, which reversal was made to reflect the tanker's agreed sales price and resulted in a gain of $0.6 million during the year ended December 31, 2022;
partially offset by:
•the impairments recorded on two of our operating lease right-of-use assets resulting from a decline in short-term time-charter rates, which resulted in a write-down of $1.1 million during the year ended December 31, 2022.
The write-down and loss on the sale of assets of $92.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 was due to:
•the impairments recorded on three Suezmax tankers and four Aframax / LR2 tankers primarily due to a weaker near-term tanker market outlook and a reduction in certain charter rates, resulting from the economic climate to which the COVID-19 pandemic was a contributing factor, which resulted in a write-down of $85.0 million during the year ended December 31, 2021;
•the write-downs of one Aframax / LR2 tanker and one Suezmax tanker by $4.6 million to their estimated and agreed sales prices, respectively;
•the sale of two Aframax / LR2 tankers during the second half of 2021, which resulted in an aggregate net loss of $2.1 million; and
•the impairment recorded on one of our operating lease right-of-use assets resulting from a decline in short-term time-charter rates, which resulted in a write-down of $0.7 million during the year ended December 31, 2021.
Restructuring Charges. Restructuring charges of $1.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 were primarily related to organizational changes made by a subsidiary of Teekay and incurred under our management agreement, following Teekay's dispositions related to Teekay LNG Partners L.P. (now known as Seapeak LLC) in January 2022, as described in "Item 18 – Financial Statements: Note 14a - Related Party Transactions" of this Annual Report.
Interest Expense. Interest expense was $35.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to $35.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was primarily due to a higher average London Interbank Offered Rate (or LIBOR) during the year ended December 31, 2022, as well as the write-off of capitalized loan costs resulting from the sale-leaseback transactions completed for 13 vessels during the first half of 2022, partially offset by lower debt and lease principal balances.
Interest Income. Interest income was $1.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to $0.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was primarily due to higher cash balances earning higher interest rates during the year ended December 31, 2022.
Realized and Unrealized Gain on Derivative Instruments. Realized and unrealized gain on derivative instruments was $5.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to a gain of $0.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2021.
In March 2020, we entered into an interest rate swap with a notional amount of $50.0 million and a fixed rate of approximately 0.8%, which is scheduled to mature in December 2024. We realized a gain of $0.5 million during the year ended December 31, 2022, compared to a loss of $0.3 million during the prior year, primarily due to higher average LIBOR.
Primarily as a result of changes in the long-term forward LIBOR, we recognized an unrealized gain of $3.2 million during the year ended December 31, 2022, compared to an unrealized gain of $1.4 million during the prior year under the interest rate swap agreement.
We use forward freight agreements (or FFAs) to increase or decrease our exposure to spot market rates, within defined limits. We recognized a realized gain of $1.5 million during the year ended December 31, 2022, compared to a realized loss of $0.6 million during the prior year under the FFAs.
Equity Income (Loss). Equity income was $0.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to equity loss of $14.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was primarily due to a write-down recognized during the year ended December 31, 2021 of our investment in the High-Q joint venture, in which we have a 50% ownership interest, mainly resulting from a decline in the value of the VLCC as a result of the tanker market which was impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as higher spot rates realized during the year ended December 31, 2022 by the VLCC, which has been trading in a third-party managed VLCC pooling arrangement. For additional information, please refer to "Item 18 – Financial Statements: Note 5 - Investment in and Advances to Equity-Accounted Joint Venture" of this Annual Report.
Other Income (Expense). Other income was $2.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, compared to other expense of $1.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The decrease in other expense was primarily due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates related to our accrued tax and working capital balances, as well as premiums paid in relation to the repurchase of two vessels under their previous sale-leaseback agreements during the second quarter of 2021, partially offset by the settlement of a legal claim during 2022.
Income Tax (Expense) Recovery. Income tax expense was $0.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to a recovery of $1.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The decrease in income tax recovery was primarily due to lower recoveries related to the expiry of the statute of limitations in certain jurisdictions, as well as changes in vessel trading activities during the year ended December 31, 2022. For additional information, please read "Item 18 – Financial Statements: Note 21 - Income Tax (Expense) Recovery" of this Annual Report.
Mid-size crude tanker spot rates were the second highest on record during the fourth quarter of 2022 as a combination of longer voyage distances, a rush to book cargos ahead of the implementation of the EU ban and G7 price cap on Russian crude oil imports, an increase in Chinese crude oil imports, and weather-related vessel delays in key load regions led to a stretched tanker fleet and very high levels of fleet utilization. Mid-size tanker spot rates have remained at historic highs during the first quarter of 2023-to-date.
Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022 has led to a significant redrawing of global oil trade routes. Short-haul movements of crude oil from Russia to Europe fell immediately following the invasion, and continued to decline through the course of the year as European countries looked to replace Russian imports with crude oil from other, more distant destinations. This culminated in the total ban of Russian seaborne crude oil imports into the EU from December 5, 2022, with a similar ban on refined products coming into effect on February 5, 2023. Most of the crude oil which Russia was previously exporting to Europe is now moving long-haul, primarily to India and China, which has created significant tonne-mile demand in the mid-size sectors given that the main Russian load ports in the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, and Far East are inaccessible to VLCCs. In addition, Europe has been replacing Russian barrels with imports from further afield, including the U.S. Gulf, Latin America, West Africa, and the Middle East, further contributing to mid-size tanker tonne-mile demand. These changes are expected to be durable, and we expect that mid-size tanker trade routes will continue to be stretched in 2023, which will help support spot tanker rates.
The International Energy Agency expects global oil demand to grow by 2.0 million barrels per day (or mb/d) in 2023 to 102.0 mb/d, taking global oil demand above pre-pandemic levels for the first time. Almost half of this growth is expected to come from China, with demand accelerating from the second quarter of 2023 onwards as the country opens up after three years of strict COVID-19 management measures. Accelerating oil demand growth in China, and elsewhere in the non-OECD, will help offset slower growth in the OECD countries due to economic headwinds as a result of high inflation, rising interest rates and emerging concerns about the strength of the global banking market. The outlook for global oil supply is mixed, with uncertainty surrounding the trajectory of Russian oil supply in the coming weeks and months following the implementation of EU sanctions and price cap. In January 2023, Russian crude oil exports were not negatively impacted, with exports reaching an eight month high of 3.5 mb/d. However, in early February 2023 Russia announced that it would cut production by 0.5 mb/d in March, with the cuts lasting until June 2023. However, these cuts do not currently appear to be impacting Russian crude oil export volumes, with exports holding at 3.3 mb/d in both February and March 2023. While the OPEC+ group is expected to maintain current production quotas throughout 2023, non-OPEC+ supply is projected to grow by 1.8 mb/d in 2023 led by the U.S., Brazil, Norway, and Guyana. With the majority of oil demand growth expected to come from Asia, this should lead to an increase in long-haul movements from West to East during 2023, which is positive for tanker tonne-mile demand.
Fleet supply fundamentals are very positive. As of March 2023, the global tanker orderbook, when measured as a percentage of the existing fleet, has fallen to a record low of less than 4 percent. This is due to a lack of new vessel ordering, with just 9 million deadweight tons of new tanker orders placed in 2022, which was the lowest since the mid-1990s. As a result, we expect very low levels of new tanker deliveries over the next 2 to 3 years, with little scope to add to the orderbook during this timeframe as shipyards are largely full through the second half of 2025 due to the record amount of containership and LNG carrier orders placed over the past two years. Finally, the introduction of new environmental regulations from 2023, such as the Carbon Intensity Indicator (or CII), could lead to increased fleet inefficiencies in the form of slow steaming, which will further tighten available fleet supply in the medium-term.
In summary, we expect that the tanker market will remain firm during 2023 due to positive oil market fundamentals, the continued rerouting of Russian oil exports away from Europe and the subsequent replacement of imports into Europe from other sources, and an expected rebound in Chinese oil imports following the removal of COVID-19 mobility restrictions. We also retain a positive outlook for the longer-term due to the best fleet supply fundamentals in several decades, which we anticipate would ensure that spot tanker rates will remain well-supported, albeit volatile, in the coming years.
Fleet and TCE Rates
As at December 31, 2022, we owned and leased 44 double-hulled oil and product tankers and time-chartered in four Aframax / LR2 tankers and one Suezmax tanker. We also owned a 50% interest in one VLCC tanker, the results of which are included in equity income (loss).
As defined and discussed above, we calculate TCE rates as net revenue per revenue day before costs to commercially manage our vessels, and off-hire bunker expenses. The following tables highlight the average TCE rates earned by our time-charter vessels and spot vessels trading in RSAs, on voyage charters and in FSL, for 2022 and 2021:
|Year Ended December 31, 2022|
Voyage Expenses (2)
|TCE Revenues||Revenue Days|
Average TCE per Revenue Day (3)
|(in thousands)||(in thousands)||(in thousands)||(in thousands)|
|Voyage-charter contracts - Suezmax||$||557,971 ||$||(273,517)||$||2,232 ||$||286,686 ||8,888 ||$||32,257 |
Voyage-charter contracts - Aframax / LR2 (4)
|$||481,291 ||$||(233,757)||$||2,829 ||$||250,363 ||7,652 ||$||32,721 |
|Time charter-out contracts - Suezmax||$||49 ||$||(1)||$||— ||$||48 ||1 ||$||37,611 |
|Time charter-out contracts - Aframax / LR2||$||14,689 ||$||(272)||$||(505)||$||13,912 ||660 ||$||21,070 |
|Total||$||1,054,000 ||$||(507,547)||$||4,556 ||$||551,009 ||17,201 ||$||32,034 |
(1)Excludes $4.6 million of revenues related to our STS support services operations, $3.1 million of revenue earned from our responsibilities in employing the vessels subject to the RSAs, and $1.4 million of bunker commissions earned.
(2)Includes $11.9 million of operating expenses related to providing lightering support services to our FSL operations.
(3)Adjustments primarily include off-hire bunker expenses and a fee earned based on the redelivery location of one time chartered-out Aframax / LR2 tanker during the second quarter of 2022, which are excluded from Average TCE per Revenue Day.
(4)Includes $119.1 million of revenues and $74.6 million of voyage expenses related to our FSL operations, which includes $11.9 million of operating expenses referenced in note (2) above related to FSL operations.
|Year Ended December 31, 2021|
Voyage Expenses (2)(5)
|TCE Revenues||Revenue Days|
Average TCE per Revenue Day (3)
|(in thousands)||(in thousands)||(in thousands)||(in thousands)|
|Voyage-charter contracts - Suezmax||$||259,075 ||$||(176,203)||$||1,810 ||$||84,682 ||8,786 ||$||9,639 |
Voyage-charter contracts - Aframax / LR2 (4)(5)
|$||226,542 ||$||(147,226)||$||2,321 ||$||81,637 ||7,756 ||$||10,525 |
|Time charter-out contracts - Suezmax||$||20,390 ||$||(675)||$||(219)||$||19,496 ||436 ||$||44,678 |
|Time charter-out contracts - Aframax / LR2||$||25,769 ||$||(718)||$||196 ||$||25,247 ||1,055 ||$||23,934 |