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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_____________________________________________________________________________________________ 
FORM 10-Q
_____________________________________________________________________________________________ 
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2024
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
Commission File Number 1-35796
_____________________________________________________________________________________________ 

Picture1replace.jpg 
Tri Pointe Homes, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
 _____________________________________________________________________________________________ 
Delaware 61-1763235
(State or other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
_____________________________________________________________________________________________ 
940 Southwood Blvd, Suite 200
Incline Village, Nevada 89451
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code (775413-1030
Not Applicable
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)
____________________________________________________________________________________________________ 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareTPHNew York Stock Exchange
    Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  
94,877,377 shares of the registrant's common stock were issued and outstanding as of April 16, 2024.



EXPLANATORY NOTE
As used in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q, references to “Tri Pointe”, “the Company”, “we”, “us”, or “our” (including in the consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto in this annual report on Form 10-Q) refer to Tri Pointe Homes, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries.





TRI POINTE HOMES, INC.
QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q
INDEX
March 31, 2024
 
Page
Number
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 5.
Item 6.

- 2 -


PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1.    Financial Statements

TRI POINTE HOMES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
 
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
(unaudited)
Assets
Cash and cash equivalents$943,998 $868,953 
Receivables125,133 224,636 
Real estate inventories3,422,883 3,337,483 
Investments in unconsolidated entities124,723 131,824 
Goodwill and other intangible assets, net156,603 156,603 
Deferred tax assets, net37,996 37,996 
Other assets158,639 157,093 
Total assets$4,969,975 $4,914,588 
Liabilities  
Accounts payable$51,736 $64,833 
Accrued expenses and other liabilities485,052 453,531 
Loans payable288,337 288,337 
Senior notes, net1,095,192 1,094,249 
Total liabilities1,920,317 1,900,950 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 13)
Equity
Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred stock, $0.01 par value, 50,000,000 shares authorized; no
   shares issued and outstanding as March 31, 2024 and
   December 31, 2023, respectively
  
Common stock, $0.01 par value, 500,000,000 shares authorized;
   94,877,377 and 95,530,512 shares issued and outstanding at
  March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively
949 955 
Additional paid-in capital  
Retained earnings3,048,697 3,010,003 
Total stockholders’ equity3,049,646 3,010,958 
Noncontrolling interests12 2,680 
Total equity3,049,658 3,013,638 
Total liabilities and equity$4,969,975 $4,914,588 
 
See accompanying condensed notes to the unaudited consolidated financial statements.

- 3 -


TRI POINTE HOMES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(unaudited)
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Homebuilding:
Home sales revenue$918,353 $768,405 
Land and lot sales revenue7,068 1,706 
Other operations revenue787 674 
Total revenues926,208 770,785 
Cost of home sales707,304 588,118 
Cost of land and lot sales5,757 1,443 
Other operations expense765 665 
Sales and marketing50,224 41,862 
General and administrative51,328 46,366 
Homebuilding income from operations110,830 92,331 
Equity in income of unconsolidated entities57 227 
Other income, net15,226 7,604 
Homebuilding income before income taxes126,113 100,162 
Financial Services:
Revenues13,194 8,876 
Expenses8,727 5,831 
Financial services income before income taxes4,467 3,045 
Income before income taxes130,580 103,207 
Provision for income taxes(31,584)(27,350)
Net income98,996 75,857 
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests59 (1,115)
Net income available to common stockholders$99,055 $74,742 
Earnings per share  
Basic$1.04 $0.74 
Diluted$1.03 $0.73 
Weighted average shares outstanding
Basic95,232,315 101,019,253 
Diluted95,846,756 101,706,438 
 
See accompanying condensed notes to the unaudited consolidated financial statements.

- 4 -


TRI POINTE HOMES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF EQUITY
(unaudited)
(in thousands, except share amounts)
 
Number of
Shares of Common
Stock (Note 1)
Common
Stock
Additional
Paid-in
Capital
Retained
Earnings
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
Noncontrolling
Interests
Total
Equity
Balance at December 31, 202395,530,512 $955 $ $3,010,003 $3,010,958 $2,680 $3,013,638 
Net income— — 99,055 99,055 (59)98,996 
Shares issued under share-based awards789,650 8 1,033 — 1,041 — 1,041 
Tax withholding paid on behalf of employees for share-based awards    — — (16,572)— (16,572)— (16,572)
Stock-based compensation expense— — 6,679 — 6,679 — 6,679 
Share repurchases, including excise tax(1,442,785)(14)(50,233)— (50,247)— (50,247)
Distributions to noncontrolling interests, net— — — — — (2,609)(2,609)
Acquisition of joint venture minority interest— — (1,268)— (1,268)— (1,268)
Reclass the negative APIC to retained earnings— — 60,361 (60,361)— —  
Balance at March 31, 202494,877,377 $949 $ $3,048,697 $3,049,646 $12 $3,049,658 
Number of
Shares of Common
Stock (Note 1)
Common
Stock
Additional
Paid-in
Capital
Retained
Earnings
Total
Stockholders'
Equity
Noncontrolling
Interests
Total
Equity
Balance at December 31, 2022101,017,708 $1,010 $3,685 $2,827,694 $2,832,389 $4,142 $2,836,531 
Net income— — — 74,742 74,742 1,115 75,857 
Shares issued under share-based awards729,094 7 225 — 232 — 232 
Tax withholding paid on behalf of employees for share-based awards    — — (9,780)— (9,780)— (9,780)
Stock-based compensation expense— — 3,861 3,861 3,861 
Share repurchases(1,574,575)(15)(37,806)— (37,821)— (37,821)
Distributions to noncontrolling interests, net— — — — — (2,395)(2,395)
Reclass the negative APIC to retained earnings— — 39,815 (39,815)— —  
Balance at March 31, 2023100,172,227 $1,002 $ $2,862,621 $2,863,623 $2,862 $2,866,485 
See accompanying condensed notes to the unaudited consolidated financial statements.
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TRI POINTE HOMES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(unaudited)
(in thousands)
 
 Three Months Ended March 31,
 20242023
Cash flows from operating activities:  
Net income$98,996 $75,857 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:  
Depreciation and amortization7,327 7,054 
Equity in income of unconsolidated entities, net(57)(227)
Amortization of stock-based compensation6,679 3,861 
Charges for impairments and lot option abandonments402 717 
Gain on increase in carrying amount of investment3,495  
Changes in assets and liabilities:  
Real estate inventories(84,500)31,965 
Receivables99,503 28,373 
Other assets(5,809)(429)
Accounts payable(13,097)(4,780)
Accrued expenses and other liabilities31,805 (6,752)
Net cash provided by operating activities144,744 135,639 
Cash flows from investing activities:
Purchases of property and equipment(6,417)(6,501)
Proceeds from investment717  
Net investments in unconsolidated entities(8,213)(2,951)
Distributions from unconsolidated entities13,650  
Net cash used in investing activities(263)(9,452)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Distributions to noncontrolling interests(3,877)(2,395)
Proceeds from issuance of common stock under share-based awards1,041 232 
Tax withholding paid on behalf of employees for share-based awards(16,572)(9,780)
Share repurchases, excluding excise tax(50,028)(37,610)
Net cash used in financing activities(69,436)(49,553)
Net increase in cash and cash equivalents75,045 76,634 
Cash and cash equivalents–beginning of period868,953 889,664 
Cash and cash equivalents–end of period$943,998 $966,298 
 
See accompanying condensed notes to the unaudited consolidated financial statements.

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TRI POINTE HOMES, INC.
CONDENSED NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(unaudited)
 
1.    Organization, Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Organization
Tri Pointe is engaged in the design, construction and sale of innovative single-family attached and detached homes across ten states, including Arizona, California, Colorado, Maryland, Nevada, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, and Washington, and the District of Columbia. In September 2023, we announced our expansion into the greater Salt Lake City region with the launch of a new division in Utah. In April 2024, we announced further expansion into Orlando, Florida, and the Coastal Carolinas area of North and South Carolina. As of March 31, 2024, we had not yet commenced significant homebuilding operations in these new markets.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), as contained within the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”), for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. They should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and footnotes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023. In the opinion of management, all adjustments consisting of normal recurring adjustments, necessary for a fair presentation with respect to interim financial statements, have been included. The results for the three months ended March 31, 2024 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the full year ending December 31, 2024 due to seasonal variations and other factors.
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Tri Pointe Homes and its wholly owned subsidiaries, as well as other entities in which Tri Pointe Homes has a controlling interest and variable interest entities (“VIEs”) in which Tri Pointe Homes is the primary beneficiary. The noncontrolling interests as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 represent the outside owners’ interests in the Company’s consolidated entities. All significant intercompany accounts have been eliminated upon consolidation.
Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms “Tri Pointe”, “the Company”, “we”, “us”, and “our” used herein refer to Tri Pointe Homes, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of these financial statements requires our management to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosures of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from our estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents and Concentration of Credit Risk

We define cash and cash equivalents as cash on hand, demand deposits with financial institutions, and short-term liquid investments with a maturity date of less than three months from the date of acquisition, including U.S. Treasury bills and government money-mark funds with maturities of 90 days or less when purchased. The Company’s cash balances exceed federally insurable limits. The Company monitors the cash balances in its operating accounts and adjusts the cash balances as appropriate; however, these cash balances could be impacted if the underlying financial institutions fail or are subject to other adverse conditions in the financial markets. To date, the Company has experienced no loss or lack of access to cash in its operating accounts.
Revenue Recognition
We recognize revenue in accordance with Accounting Standards Topic 606 (“ASC 606”), Revenue from Contracts with Customers. Under ASC 606, we apply the following steps to determine the timing and amount of revenue to recognize: (i) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (iii) determine the transaction price; (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (v) recognize revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies a performance obligation.
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Home sales revenue
We generate the majority of our total revenues from home sales, which consists of our core business operation of building and delivering completed homes to homebuyers. Home sales revenue and related profit is generally recognized when title to and possession of the home are transferred to the homebuyer at the home closing date. Our performance obligation to deliver the agreed-upon home is generally satisfied in less than one year from the original contract date. Included in home sales revenue are forfeited deposits, which occur when homebuyers cancel home purchase contracts that include a nonrefundable deposit. Both revenue from forfeited deposits and deferred revenue resulting from uncompleted performance obligations existing at the time we deliver new homes to our homebuyers are immaterial.
Financial services revenues
Tri Pointe Solutions is a reportable segment and is comprised of our Tri Pointe Connect mortgage financing operations, Tri Pointe Assurance title and escrow services operations, and Tri Pointe Advantage property and casualty insurance agency operations.
Mortgage financing operations
For the year ended December 31, 2023, our Tri Pointe Connect mortgage operations were conducted through a joint venture with an established mortgage lender. Tri Pointe Connect acted as a preferred mortgage loan broker to our homebuyers in all of the markets in which we operate, generating income from fees paid by third party lenders for the successful funding and closing of loans for homebuyers that originated through Tri Pointe Connect. For the year ended December 31, 2023, Tri Pointe Connect was fully consolidated in accordance with Accounting Standards Topic 810 (“ASC 810”), Consolidation, under the Financial Services section of our consolidated statements of operations, with the noncontrolling interest recorded on the consolidated statements of operations as net income attributable to noncontrolling interests.
Effective February 1, 2024, we acquired the minority equity interest in the joint venture, upon which Tri Pointe Connect became a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company. In connection with this transaction, Tri Pointe Connect will transition to a mortgage lending entity that will act as a preferred mortgage lender to our homebuyers in all of the markets in which we operate and provide mortgage financing by utilizing its own funds and funds made available pursuant to a credit facility with third party lenders. We intend to sell all of the loans we originate in the secondary market within a short period of time after origination. Tri Pointe Connect will retain the ability to act as a mortgage loan broker for our homebuyers that originate loans with third party lenders.
Title and escrow services operations
Tri Pointe Assurance provides title examinations for our homebuyers in the Carolinas and Colorado and both title examinations and escrow services for our homebuyers in Arizona, the District of Columbia, Maryland, Nevada, Texas, Washington and Virginia. Tri Pointe Assurance is a wholly owned subsidiary of Tri Pointe and acts as a title agency for First American Title Insurance Company. Revenue from our title and escrow services operations is fully recognized at the time of the consummation of the home sales transaction, at which time no further performance obligations are left to be satisfied. Tri Pointe Assurance revenue is included in the Financial Services section of our consolidated statements of operations.
Property and casualty insurance agency operations
Tri Pointe Advantage is a wholly owned subsidiary of Tri Pointe and provides property and casualty insurance agency services that help facilitate the closing process in all of the markets in which we operate. The total consideration for these services, including renewal options, is estimated upon the issuance of the initial insurance policy, subject to constraint. Tri Pointe Advantage revenue is included in the Financial Services section of our consolidated statements of operations.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted
In November 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-07, Segment Reporting (Topic 280): Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures ("ASU 2023-07"), which requires expanded disclosure of significant segment expenses and other segment items on an annual and interim basis. ASU 2023-07 is effective for us for annual periods beginning after January 1, 2024 and interim periods beginning after January 1, 2025. We are currently evaluating the impact ASU 2023-07 will have on our financial statement disclosures.
In December 2023, FASB issued ASU 2023-09, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures ("ASU 2023-09"), which requires expanded disclosure of our income tax rate reconciliation and income taxes paid. ASU 2023-09 is effective for us for annual periods beginning after January 1, 2025. We are currently evaluating the impact ASU 2023-09 will have on our financial statement disclosures.
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2.    Segment Information
We operate two principal businesses: homebuilding and financial services.
In accordance with ASC Topic 280, Segment Reporting, in determining the most appropriate reportable segments within our homebuilding business, we have considered similar economic and other characteristics, including product types, average sales prices, gross profits, production processes, suppliers, subcontractors, regulatory environments, land acquisition results, and underlying demand and supply. Based upon these factors and in consideration of the geographical layout of our homebuilding markets, we have identified three homebuilding reporting segments and, as such, our homebuilding segments are reported under the following hierarchy:
West region: Arizona, California, Nevada and Washington
Central region: Colorado, Texas and Utah
East region: District of Columbia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia
In September 2023, we announced our expansion into the greater Salt Lake City region with the launch of a new division in Utah. As of March 31, 2024, we had not yet commenced significant operations in this new Central segment market, however we have controlled lots within this market. Subsequent to March 31, 2024, we announced further expansion into Orlando, Florida, and the Coastal Carolinas area of North and South Carolina. Our operations in Orlando and the Coastal Carolinas will be reported within our East segment.
Our Tri Pointe Solutions financial services operation is a reportable segment and is comprised of our Tri Pointe Connect mortgage financing operations, our Tri Pointe Assurance title and escrow services operations, and our Tri Pointe Advantage property and casualty insurance agency operations. For further details, see Note 1, Organization, Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies.
Corporate is a non-operating segment that develops and implements company-wide strategic initiatives and provides support to our homebuilding reporting segments by centralizing certain administrative functions, such as marketing, legal, accounting, treasury, insurance, internal audit, risk management, information technology and human resources, to benefit from economies of scale. Our Corporate non-operating segment also includes general and administrative expenses related to operating our corporate headquarters. All of the expenses incurred by Corporate are allocated to each of the homebuilding reporting segments based on their respective percentage of revenues.
The reportable segments follow the same accounting policies used for our consolidated financial statements, as described in Note 1, Organization, Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies. Operational results of each reportable segment are not necessarily indicative of the results that would have been achieved had the reportable segment been an independent, stand-alone entity during the periods presented.

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Total revenues and income before income taxes for each of our reportable segments were as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Revenues
West $553,591 $480,941 
Central274,223 166,140 
East98,394 123,704 
Total homebuilding revenues926,208 770,785 
Financial services13,194 8,876 
Total$939,402 $779,661 
Income before income taxes
West$72,859 $72,911 
Central43,293 13,939 
East9,961 13,312 
Total homebuilding income before income taxes126,113 100,162 
Financial services4,467 3,045 
Total$130,580 $103,207 
 
Total real estate inventories and total assets for each of our reportable segments, as of the date indicated, were as follows (in thousands):
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Real estate inventories
West$2,235,876 $2,209,113 
Central772,857 762,051 
East414,150 366,319 
Total$3,422,883 $3,337,483 
Total assets(1)
West$2,513,529 $2,557,608 
Central934,029 947,200 
East466,633 421,630 
Corporate998,385 941,824 
Total homebuilding assets4,912,576 4,868,262 
Financial services57,399 46,326 
Total$4,969,975 $4,914,588 
__________
(1)    Total assets as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 includes $139.3 million of goodwill, with $125.4 million included in the West segment, $8.3 million included in the Central segment and $5.6 million included in the East segment. Total Corporate assets as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 includes our Tri Pointe Homes trade name. For further details on goodwill and our intangible assets, see Note 8, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets.


3.    Earnings Per Share
The following table sets forth the components used in the computation of basic and diluted earnings per share (in thousands, except share and per share amounts):
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 Three Months Ended March 31,
 20242023
Numerator:  
Net income available to common stockholders$99,055 $74,742 
Denominator:  
Basic weighted-average shares outstanding95,232,315 101,019,253 
Effect of dilutive shares: 
Stock options and unvested restricted stock units614,441 687,185 
Diluted weighted-average shares outstanding95,846,756 101,706,438 
Earnings per share  
Basic$1.04 $0.74 
Diluted$1.03 $0.73 
Antidilutive stock options and unvested restricted stock units not included in diluted earnings per share2,510,864 2,671,754 
  

4.    Receivables
Receivables consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Escrow proceeds and other accounts receivable, net$59,120 $158,622 
Warranty insurance receivable (Note 13)66,013 66,014 
Total receivables$125,133 $224,636 

Receivables are evaluated for collectability and allowances for potential losses are established or maintained on applicable receivables based on an expected credit loss approach. Receivables were net of allowances for doubtful accounts of $436,000 as of both March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.
 

5.    Real Estate Inventories
Real estate inventories consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Real estate inventories owned:
Homes completed or under construction$1,526,569 $1,402,762 
Land under development1,255,357 1,299,074 
Land held for future development154,279 153,615 
Model homes308,721 306,565 
Total real estate inventories owned3,244,926 3,162,016 
Real estate inventories not owned:
Land purchase and land option deposits177,957 175,467 
Total real estate inventories not owned177,957 175,467 
Total real estate inventories$3,422,883 $3,337,483 
 
Homes completed or under construction is comprised of costs associated with homes in various stages of construction and includes direct construction and related land acquisition and land development costs. Land under development primarily consists of land acquisition and land development costs, which include capitalized interest and real estate taxes, associated with land undergoing improvement activity. Land held for future development principally reflects land acquisition and land development costs related to land where development activity has not yet begun or has been suspended, but is expected to occur in the future.
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Real estate inventories not owned represents deposits related to land purchase and land and lot option agreements. For further details, see Note 7, Variable Interest Entities.
Interest incurred, capitalized and expensed were as follows (in thousands):
 Three Months Ended March 31,
 20242023
Interest incurred$36,156 $37,479 
Interest capitalized(36,156)(37,479)
Interest expensed$ $ 
Capitalized interest in beginning inventory$221,647 $191,411 
Interest capitalized as a cost of inventory36,156 37,479 
Interest previously capitalized as a cost of
inventory, included in cost of sales
(30,846)(20,251)
Capitalized interest in ending inventory$226,957 $208,639 
 
Interest is capitalized to real estate inventory during development and other qualifying activities. During all periods presented, we capitalized all interest incurred to real estate inventory in accordance with ASC Topic 835, Interest, as our qualified assets exceeded our debt. Interest that is capitalized to real estate inventory is included in cost of home sales or cost of land and lot sales as related units or lots are delivered. Interest that is expensed as incurred is included in other (expense) income, net.
Real Estate Inventory Impairments and Land Option Abandonments
Real estate inventory impairments and land and lot option abandonments and pre-acquisition charges consisted of the following (in thousands):
 Three Months Ended March 31,
 20242023
Real estate inventory impairments$ $ 
Land and lot option abandonments and pre-acquisition charges402 717 
Total$402 $717 
In addition to owning land and residential lots, we also have option agreements to purchase land and lots at a future date. We have option deposits and capitalized pre-acquisition costs associated with the optioned land and lots. When the economics of a project no longer support acquisition of the land or lots under option, we may elect not to move forward with the acquisition. Option deposits and capitalized pre-acquisition costs associated with the assets under option may be forfeited at that time. 
Real estate inventory impairments and land option abandonments are recorded in cost of home sales in the consolidated statements of operations.
  

6.    Investments in Unconsolidated Entities
As of March 31, 2024, we held equity investments in thirteen active homebuilding partnerships or limited liability companies. Our participation in these entities may be as a developer, a builder, or an investment partner. Our ownership percentage varies from 8% to 50%, depending on the investment, with no controlling interest held in any of these investments.
Aggregated assets, liabilities and equity of the entities we account for as equity-method investments are as follows (in thousands):
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March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Assets
Cash$37,061 $35,308 
Receivables76,125 38,839 
Real estate inventories439,920 450,097 
Other assets6,324 27,632 
Total assets$559,430 $551,876 
Liabilities and equity
Debt obligations and other liabilities$172,221 $155,616 
Company’s equity124,723 131,824 
Outside interests’ equity262,486 264,436 
Total liabilities and equity$559,430 $551,876 
 
Guarantees
The unconsolidated entities in which we hold an equity investment generally finance their activities with a combination of equity and secured project debt financing. We have, and in some cases our joint venture partner has, guaranteed portions of the loan obligations for some of the homebuilding partnerships or limited liability companies, which may include any or all of the following: (i) project completion; (ii) remargin obligations; and (iii) environmental indemnities.
In circumstances in which we have entered into joint and several guarantees with our joint venture partner, we generally seek to implement a reimbursement agreement with our partner that provides that neither party is responsible for more than its proportionate share or agreed-upon share of the guaranteed obligations. In the event our joint venture partner does not have adequate financial resources to meet its obligations under such a reimbursement agreement, or otherwise fails to satisfy its obligations thereunder, we may be responsible for more than our proportionate share of any obligations under such guarantees.
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, we have not recorded any liabilities for these obligations and guarantees, as the fair value of the related joint venture real estate assets exceeded the threshold where a remargin payment would be required and no other obligations under the guarantees existed as of such time. At March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, aggregate outstanding debt for unconsolidated entities, included in the “Debt obligations and other liabilities” line of the aggregated assets, liabilities and equity shown in the table above, was $148.0 million and $125.9 million, respectively.

Aggregated results of operations from unconsolidated entities (in thousands):
 Three Months Ended March 31,
 20242023
Net sales$29,898 $22,138 
Other operating expense(30,057)(21,653)
Other income, net(6)(3)
Net income (loss)$(165)$482 
Company’s equity in income (loss) of unconsolidated entities$57 $227 
  

7.    Variable Interest Entities
Land and Lot Option Agreements
In the ordinary course of business, we enter into land and lot option agreements in order to procure land and residential lots for future development and the construction of homes. The use of such land and lot option agreements generally allows us to reduce the risks associated with direct land ownership and development, and reduces our capital and financial commitments. Pursuant to these land and lot option agreements, we generally provide a deposit to the seller as consideration for the right to purchase land at different times in the future, usually at predetermined prices. These deposits are recorded as land purchase and land option deposits under real estate inventories not owned on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.
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We analyze each of our land and lot option agreements and other similar contracts under the provisions of Accounting Standards Topic 810 (“ASC 810”), Consolidation to determine whether the land seller is a VIE and, if so, whether we are the primary beneficiary. Although we do not have legal title to the underlying land, if we are determined to be the primary beneficiary of the VIE, we will consolidate the VIE in our financial statements and reflect its assets as real estate inventory not owned included in our real estate inventories, its liabilities as debt (nonrecourse) held by VIEs in accrued expenses and other liabilities and the net equity of the VIE owners as noncontrolling interests on our consolidated balance sheets. In determining whether we are the primary beneficiary, we consider, among other things, whether we have the power to direct the activities of the VIE that most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance. Such activities would include, among other things, determining or limiting the scope or purpose of the VIE, selling or transferring property owned or controlled by the VIE, or arranging financing for the VIE.
Creditors of the entities with which we have land and lot option agreements have no recourse against us. The maximum exposure to loss under our land and lot option agreements is generally limited to non-refundable option deposits and any capitalized pre-acquisition costs. In some cases, we have also contracted to complete development work at a fixed cost on behalf of the landowner and budget shortfalls and savings will be borne by us. Additionally, we have entered into land banking arrangements which require us to complete development work even if we terminate the option to procure land or lots.
The following provides a summary of our interests in land and lot option agreements (in thousands):
 March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
DepositsRemaining
Purchase
Price
Consolidated
Inventory
Held by VIEs
DepositsRemaining
Purchase
Price
Consolidated
Inventory
Held by VIEs
Unconsolidated VIEs$160,787 $1,300,115 N/A$159,164 $1,017,791 N/A
Other land option agreements17,170 210,703 N/A16,303 189,007 N/A
Total$177,957 $1,510,818 $ $175,467 $1,206,798 $ 
 
Unconsolidated VIEs represent land option agreements that were not consolidated because we were not the primary beneficiary. Other land option agreements were not with VIEs.
In addition to the deposits presented in the table above, our exposure to loss related to our land and lot option contracts consisted of capitalized pre-acquisition costs of $14.9 million and $9.5 million as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively. These pre-acquisition costs are included in real estate inventories as land under development on our consolidated balance sheets.
  

8.    Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, $139.3 million of goodwill is included in goodwill and other intangible assets, net on each of the consolidated balance sheets, which was recorded in connection with our merger with Weyerhaeuser Real Estate Company (“WRECO”) in 2014. In addition, as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, we have one intangible asset with a carrying amount of $17.3 million comprised of a Tri Pointe Homes trade name, which has an indefinite useful life and is non-amortizing, resulting from the acquisition of WRECO in 2014.
Goodwill and other intangible assets are evaluated for impairment on an annual basis, or more frequently if indicators of impairment exist.


9.    Other Assets
Other assets consisted of the following (in thousands):
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March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Prepaid expenses$10,030 $8,462 
Refundable fees and other deposits7,726 8,726 
Development rights, held for future use or sale1,192 1,192 
Deferred loan costs—loans payable4,716 5,089 
Operating properties and equipment, net65,338 66,284 
Lease right-of-use assets65,904 66,404 
Other3,733 936 
Total$158,639 $157,093 


10.    Accrued Expenses and Other Liabilities
Accrued expenses and other liabilities consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Accrued payroll and related costs$24,081 $68,575 
Warranty reserves (Note 13)
106,602 106,993 
Estimated cost for completion of real estate inventories124,550 108,175 
Customer deposits51,160 43,991 
Accrued income taxes payable54,705 23,138 
Accrued interest24,191 8,470 
Other tax liability3,451 2,976 
Lease liabilities78,049 78,782 
Other18,263 12,431 
Total$485,052 $453,531 


11.    Senior Notes and Loans Payable
Senior Notes
The Company’s outstanding senior notes (together, the “Senior Notes”) consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
5.875% Senior Notes due June 15, 2024
$450,000 $450,000 
5.250% Senior Notes due June 1, 2027
300,000 300,000 
5.700% Senior Notes due June 15, 2028
350,000 350,000 
Discount and deferred loan costs(4,808)(5,751)
Total$1,095,192 $1,094,249 
 
In June 2020, Tri Pointe issued $350 million aggregate principal amount of 5.700% Senior Notes due 2028 (the “2028 Notes”) at 100.00% of their aggregate principal amount. Net proceeds of this issuance were $345.2 million, after debt issuance costs and discounts. The 2028 Notes mature on June 15, 2028 and interest is paid semiannually in arrears on June 15 and December 15 of each year until maturity.
In June 2017, Tri Pointe issued $300 million aggregate principal amount of 5.250% Senior Notes due 2027 (the “2027 Notes”) at 100.00% of their aggregate principal amount. Net proceeds of this issuance were $296.3 million, after debt issuance costs and discounts. The 2027 Notes mature on June 1, 2027 and interest is paid semiannually in arrears on June 1 and December 1 of each year until maturity.
Tri Pointe and its wholly owned subsidiary, Tri Pointe Homes Holdings, Inc., are co-issuers of the $450 million aggregate principal amount 5.875% Senior Notes due 2024 (the “2024 Notes”). The 2024 Notes were issued at 98.15% of their aggregate principal amount in June of 2014. The net proceeds from the offering of the 2024 Notes was $429.0 million, after
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debt issuance costs and discounts. The 2024 Notes mature on June 15, 2024, with interest payable semiannually in arrears on June 15 and December 15 of each year until maturity.
As of March 31, 2024, there were $4.6 million of capitalized debt financing costs, included in senior notes, net on our consolidated balance sheet, related to the Senior Notes that will amortize over the lives of the Senior Notes. Accrued interest related to the Senior Notes was $18.8 million and $3.2 million as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively.
Loans Payable
The Company’s outstanding loans payable consisted of the following (in thousands):
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Term loan facility$250,000 $250,000 
Seller financed loans38,337 38,337 
Total$288,337 $288,337 
On December 15, 2023, we entered into a Fourth Modification Agreement (the “Fourth Modification”) to our Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement dated as of March 29, 2019 (the “Credit Agreement”). The Fourth Modification, among other things, amends the Credit Agreement to exclude (i) certain indebtedness of the Company’s financial services subsidiaries for purposes of calculating the Company’s “Leverage Ratio” (as defined in the Credit Agreement), and (ii) the Company’s financial services subsidiaries from the determination of “Consolidated EBITDA” (as defined in the Credit Agreement), as well as any interest obligations of the Company’s financial services subsidiaries, for purposes of calculating the Company’s “Interest Coverage Ratio” (as defined in the Credit Agreement). The Credit Facility (as defined below), consists of a $750 million revolving credit facility (the “Revolving Facility”) and a $250 million term loan facility (the “Term Facility” and together with the Revolving Facility, the “Credit Facility”). Both the Revolving Facility and the Term Facility mature on June 29, 2027. We may increase the Credit Facility to not more than $1.2 billion in the aggregate, at our request, upon satisfaction of specified conditions. We may borrow under the Revolving Facility in the ordinary course of business to repay senior notes and fund our operations, including our land acquisition, land development and homebuilding activities. Borrowings under the Revolving Facility will be governed by, among other things, a borrowing base. Interest rates under the Revolving Facility will be based on the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), plus a spread ranging from 1.25% to 1.90%, depending on the Company’s leverage ratio. Interest rates under the Term Facility will be based on SOFR, plus a spread ranging from 1.10% to 1.85%, depending on the Company’s leverage ratio.
As of March 31, 2024, we had no outstanding debt under the Revolving Facility and there was $703.2 million of availability after considering the borrowing base provisions and outstanding letters of credit. As of March 31, 2024, we had $250 million of outstanding debt under the Term Facility with an interest rate of 6.51%. As of March 31, 2024, there were $4.7 million of capitalized debt financing costs, included in other assets on our consolidated balance sheet, related to the Credit Facility that will amortize over the remaining term of the Credit Facility. Accrued interest, including loan commitment fees, related to the Credit Facility was $1.8 million and $1.6 million as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively.
At March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, we had outstanding letters of credit of $46.8 million and $52.3 million, respectively. These letters of credit were issued to secure various financial obligations. We believe it is not probable that any outstanding letters of credit will be drawn upon.
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, we had $38.3 million outstanding related to two seller-financed loans. All seller-financed loans are to acquire lots for the construction of homes. Principal on these loans are expected to be fully paid by the end of fiscal year 2024, provided certain achievements are met. One of the seller-financed loans, representing $37.4 million of the total balance as of both March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively, accrues interest at an imputed interest rate of 4.50% per annum. The second seller-financed loan represented $910,000 of the total balance as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively.
Interest Incurred
During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company incurred interest of $36.2 million and $37.5 million, respectively, related to all debt and land banking arrangements. Included in interest incurred are amortization of deferred financing and Senior Note discount costs of $1.3 million and $1.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. Accrued interest related to all outstanding debt at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 was $24.2 million and $8.5 million, respectively. 
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Covenant Requirements
The Senior Notes contain covenants that restrict our ability to, among other things, create liens or other encumbrances, enter into sale and leaseback transactions, or merge or sell all or substantially all of our assets. These limitations are subject to a number of qualifications and exceptions.
Under the Credit Facility, the Company is required to comply with certain financial covenants, including those relating to consolidated tangible net worth, leverage, liquidity or interest coverage, and a spec unit inventory test. The Credit Facility also requires that at least 95.0% of consolidated tangible net worth must be attributable to the Company and its guarantor subsidiaries, subject to certain grace periods.
The Company was in compliance with all applicable financial covenants as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.

12.    Fair Value Disclosures
Fair Value Measurements
ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, defines “fair value” as the price that would be received for selling an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at measurement date and requires assets and liabilities carried at fair value to be classified and disclosed in the following three categories:
Level 1—Quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets
Level 2—Quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are inactive; and model-derived valuations in which all significant inputs and significant value drivers are observable in active markets at measurement date
Level 3—Valuations derived from techniques where one or more significant inputs or significant value drivers are unobservable in active markets at measurement date
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
A summary of assets and liabilities at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, related to our financial instruments, measured at fair value on a recurring basis, is set forth below (in thousands):
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
HierarchyBook ValueFair ValueBook ValueFair Value
Senior Notes(1)
Level 2$1,099,766 $1,085,910 $1,099,489 $1,066,835 
Term loan(2)
Level 2$250,000 $250,000 $250,000 $250,000 
Seller financed loans(3)
Level 2$38,337 $38,337 $38,337 $38,337 
 __________
(1)The book value of the Senior Notes is net of discounts, excluding deferred loan costs of $4.6 million and $5.2 million as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively. The estimated fair value of the Senior Notes at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 is based on quoted market prices.
(2)The estimated fair value of the Term Loan Facility as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 approximated book value due to the variable interest rate terms of this loan.
(3)The estimated fair value of our seller financed loans as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023 approximated book value due to the short term nature of these loans.

At March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the carrying value of cash and cash equivalents and receivables approximated fair value due to their short-term nature.
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Fair Value of Nonfinancial Assets
Nonfinancial assets include items such as real estate inventories and long-lived assets that are measured at fair value on a nonrecurring basis when events and circumstances indicating the carrying value is not recoverable. The following table presents impairment charges and the remaining net fair value for nonfinancial assets that were measured during the periods presented (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31, 2024Year Ended December 31, 2023
HierarchyImpairment
Charge
Fair Value
Net of
Impairment
Impairment
Charge
Fair Value
Net of
Impairment
Real estate inventories (1)
Level 3$ $ $11,500 $39,970 
__________
(1) Fair value of real estate inventories, net of impairment charges represents only those assets whose carrying values were adjusted to fair value in the respective periods presented. Fair Value Net of Impairment represents the fair value of the real estate inventories, net of the impairment charge, as of the date that the fair value measurements were made. The carrying value for these real estate inventories subsequently changed from the fair value reflected due to activity that occurred since the measurement date.
The impairment charge recorded during the year ended December 31, 2023 related to one community in the West reporting segment where the carrying value exceeded the fair value based on a discounted cash flow analysis. For further details, see Note 5, Real Estate Inventories.

13.    Commitments and Contingencies
Legal Matters
Lawsuits, claims and proceedings have been and may be instituted or asserted against us in the normal course of business, including actions brought on behalf of various classes of claimants. We are also subject to local, state and federal laws and regulations related to land development activities, house construction standards, sales practices, employment practices, environmental protection and financial services. As a result, we are subject to periodic examinations or inquiry by agencies administering these laws and regulations.
We record a reserve for potential legal claims and regulatory matters when they are probable of occurring and a potential loss is reasonably estimable. We accrue for these matters based on facts and circumstances specific to each matter and revise these estimates when necessary. In view of the inherent difficulty of predicting outcomes of legal claims and related contingencies, we generally cannot predict their ultimate resolution, related timing or eventual loss. Accordingly, it is possible that the ultimate outcome of any matter, if in excess of a related accrual or if no accrual was made, could be material to our financial statements. For matters as to which the Company believes a loss is probable and reasonably estimable, we had zero legal reserves as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively.
Warranty
Warranty reserves are accrued as home deliveries occur. Our warranty reserves on homes delivered will vary based on product type and geographic area and also depending on state and local laws. The warranty reserve is included in accrued expenses and other liabilities on our consolidated balance sheets and represents expected future costs based on our historical experience over previous years. Estimated warranty costs are charged to cost of home sales in the period in which the related home sales revenue is recognized.
We maintain general liability insurance designed to protect us against a portion of our risk of loss from warranty and construction defect-related claims. We also generally require our subcontractors and design professionals to indemnify us for liabilities arising from their work, subject to various limitations. However, such indemnity is significantly limited with respect to certain subcontractors that are added to our general liability insurance policy. 
Our warranty reserve and related estimated insurance recoveries are based on actuarial analysis that uses our historical claim and expense data, as well as industry data to estimate these overall costs and related recoveries. Key assumptions used in developing these estimates include claim frequencies, severities and resolution patterns, which can occur over an extended period of time. Our warranty reserve may also include an estimate of future fit and finish warranty claims to the extent not contemplated in the actuarial analysis. These estimates are subject to variability due to the length of time between the delivery of a home to a homebuyer and when a warranty or construction defect claim is made, and the ultimate resolution of such claim;
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uncertainties regarding such claims relative to our markets and the types of product we build; and legal or regulatory actions and/or interpretations, among other factors. Due to the degree of judgment involved and the potential for variability in these underlying assumptions, our actual future costs could differ from those estimated. There can be no assurance that the terms and limitations of the limited warranty will be effective against claims made by homebuyers, that we will be able to renew our insurance coverage or renew it at reasonable rates, that we will not be liable for damages, cost of repairs, and/or the expense of litigation surrounding possible construction defects, soil subsidence or building related claims or that claims will not arise out of uninsurable events or circumstances not covered by insurance and not subject to effective indemnification agreements with certain subcontractors.
We also record expected recoveries from insurance carriers based on actual insurance claims made and actuarially determined amounts that depend on various factors, including the above-described reserve estimates, our insurance policy coverage limits for the applicable policy years and historical recovery rates. Because of the inherent uncertainty and variability in these assumptions, our actual insurance recoveries could differ significantly from amounts currently estimated. Outstanding warranty insurance receivables was $66.0 million as of both March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023. Warranty insurance receivables are recorded in receivables on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.
Warranty reserve activity consisted of the following (in thousands):
 
 Three Months Ended March 31,
 20242023
Warranty reserves, beginning of period$106,993 $104,375 
Warranty reserves accrued7,900 5,902 
Warranty expenditures(8,291)(8,750)
Warranty reserves, end of period$106,602 $101,527 
 
Performance Bonds
We obtain surety bonds in the normal course of business to ensure completion of certain infrastructure improvements of our projects. The beneficiaries of the bonds are various municipalities. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the Company had outstanding surety bonds totaling $677.5 million and $697.2 million, respectively. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, our estimated cost to complete obligations related to these surety bonds was $423.5 million and $435.9 million, respectively.
Lease Obligations
Under ASC 842 we recognize a right-of-use lease asset and a lease liability for contracts deemed to contain a lease at the inception of the contract. Our lease population is fully comprised of operating leases, which are now recorded at the net present value of future lease obligations existing at each balance sheet date. At the inception of a lease, or if a lease is subsequently modified, we determine whether the lease is an operating or financing lease. Key estimates involved with ASC 842 include the discount rate used to measure our future lease obligations and the lease term, where considerations include renewal options and intent to renew. Lease right-of-use assets are included in other assets and lease liabilities are included in accrued expenses and other liabilities on our consolidated balance sheet.
Operating Leases
We lease certain property and equipment under non-cancelable operating leases. Office leases are for terms of up to ten years and generally provide renewal options. In most cases, we expect that, in the normal course of business, leases that expire will be renewed or replaced by other leases. Equipment leases are typically for terms of three to four years.
Ground Leases
In 1987, we obtained two 55-year ground leases of commercial property that provided for three renewal options of ten years each and one 45-year renewal option. We exercised the three 10-year extensions on one of these ground leases to extend the lease through 2071. The commercial buildings on these properties have been sold and the ground leases have been sublet to the buyers.
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For one of these leases, we are responsible for making lease payments to the landowner, and we collect sublease payments from the buyers of the buildings. This ground lease has been subleased through 2041 to the buyers of the commercial buildings. For the second lease, the buyers of the buildings are responsible for making lease payments directly to the landowner, however, we have guaranteed the performance of the buyers/lessees. See below for additional information on leases (dollars in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31, 2024Three Months Ended March 31, 2023
Lease Cost
Operating lease cost (included in SG&A expense)$2,854 $2,845 
Ground lease cost (included in other operations expense)765 663 
Sublease income, operating leases  
Sublease income, ground leases (included in other operations revenue)(776)(673)
Net lease cost$2,843 $2,835 
Other information
Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities:
Operating lease cash flows (included in operating cash flows)$2,502 $2,429 
Ground lease cash flows (included in operating cash flows)$846 $663 
Right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for new operating lease liabilities$1,890 $1,927 
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Weighted-average discount rate:
Operating leases4.9 %4.9 %
Ground leases10.2 %10.2 %
Weighted-average remaining lease term (in years):
Operating leases6.06.3
Ground leases44.144.4
The future minimum lease payments under our operating leases are as follows (in thousands):
Property, Equipment and Other Leases
Ground Leases (1)
Remaining in 2024$8,468 $2,428 
202510,783 3,237 
20269,574 3,237 
20278,232 3,237 
20287,857 3,237 
Thereafter13,667 75,403 
Total lease payments$58,581 $90,779 
Less: Interest8,463 62,848 
Present value of operating lease liabilities$50,118 $27,931 
 __________
(1)    Ground leases are fully subleased through 2041, representing $56.9 million of the $90.8 million future ground lease obligations.
14.    Stock-Based Compensation
2022 Long-Term Incentive Plan
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On April 20, 2022, our stockholders approved the Tri Pointe Homes, Inc. 2022 Long-Term Incentive Plan (the “2022 Plan”), which had been previously approved by our board of directors. The 2022 Plan replaced the Company’s prior stock compensation plan, the TRI Pointe Group, Inc. Amended and Restated 2013 Long-Term Incentive Plan (the “2013 Plan”). The 2022 Plan provides for the grant of equity-based awards, including options to purchase shares of common stock, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock, restricted stock units, bonus stock and performance awards. The 2022 Plan will automatically expire on the tenth anniversary of its effective date. Our board of directors may terminate or amend the 2022 Plan at any time, subject to any requirement of stockholder approval required by applicable law, rule or regulation.
The number of shares of our common stock that may be issued under the 2022 Plan is 7,500,000 shares. No new awards have been or will be granted under the 2013 Plan from and after February 23, 2022. Any awards outstanding under the 2013 Plan will remain subject to and be paid under the 2013 Plan, and any shares subject to outstanding awards under the 2013 Plan that subsequently expire, terminate, or are surrendered or forfeited for any reason without issuance of shares will automatically become available for issuance under the 2022 Plan.

To the extent that shares of our common stock subject to an outstanding option, stock appreciation right, stock award or performance award granted under the 2022 Plan are not issued or delivered by reason of the expiration, termination, cancellation or forfeiture of such award or the settlement of such award in cash, then such shares of our common stock generally will again be available under the 2022 Plan. However, the 2022 Plan prohibits us from re-using shares that are tendered or surrendered to pay the exercise cost or tax obligation for stock options and SARs.
As of March 31, 2024, there were 5,337,358 shares available for future grant under the 2022 Plan.
The following table presents compensation expense recognized related to all stock-based awards (in thousands):
 
 Three Months Ended March 31,
 20242023
Total stock-based compensation$6,679 $3,861 
 
Stock-based compensation is charged to general and administrative expense on the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. As of March 31, 2024, total unrecognized stock-based compensation expense related to all stock-based awards was $62.5 million and the weighted average term over which the expense was expected to be recognized was 1.7 years.
Summary of Stock Option Activity
The following table presents a summary of stock option awards for the three months ended March 31, 2024:
OptionsWeighted
Average
Exercise
Price
Per Share
Weighted
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Life
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
(in thousands)
Options outstanding at December 31, 202366,043 $15.76 0.2$1,297 
Granted  — — 
Exercised(66,043)$15.76 — — 
Forfeited $ — — 
Options outstanding at March 31, 2024 $ $— $ 
Options exercisable at March 31, 2024 $ $— $ 
 
The intrinsic value of each stock option award outstanding or exercisable is the difference between the fair market value of the Company’s common stock at the end of the period and the exercise price of each stock option award to the extent it is considered “in-the-money”. A stock option award is considered to be “in-the-money” if the fair market value of the Company’s stock is greater than the exercise price of the stock option award. The aggregate intrinsic value of options outstanding and options exercisable represents the value that would have been received by the holders of stock option awards had they exercised their stock option award on the last trading day of the period and sold the underlying shares at the closing price on that day.

Summary of Restricted Stock Unit Activity
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The following table presents a summary of time-based and performance-based RSUs for the three months ended March 31, 2024:
Restricted
Stock
Units
Weighted
Average
Grant Date
Fair Value
Per Share
Nonvested RSUs at December 31, 20233,889,380 $22.71 
Granted1,089,680 $35.51 
Vested(1,187,914)$19.65 
Forfeited(225,326)$19.05 
Nonvested RSUs at March 31, 20243,565,820 $27.64 

On February 21, 2024, the Company granted an aggregate of 430,887 time-based RSUs to certain employees and officers. The RSUs granted vest in equal installments annually on the anniversary of the grant date over a three-year period. The fair value of each RSU granted on February 21, 2024 was measured using a price of $35.51 per share, which was the closing stock price on the date of grant. Each award will be expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period.

On February 21, 2024, the Company granted an aggregate of 656,844 performance-based RSUs to the Company’s Chief Executive Officer, Chief Operating Officer and President, Chief Financial Officer, General Counsel, Chief Marketing Officer, Chief Human Resources Officer and division presidents. These performance-based RSUs are allocated to two separate performance metrics, as follows: (i) 50% to homebuilding revenue of the applicable Company division, and (ii) 50% to pre-tax earnings of the applicable Company division. The vesting, if at all, of these performance-based RSUs may range from 0% to 100% and will be based on the applicable Company division’s percentage attainment of specified threshold, target and maximum performance goals. The performance period for these performance-based RSUs is January 1, 2024 to December 31, 2026. The fair value of these performance-based RSUs was measured using a price of $35.51 per share, which was the closing stock price on the date of grant. Each award will be expensed over the requisite service period.

The Company granted an aggregate of 1,949 time-based RSUs to certain employees in March, 2024. The RSUs granted vest in equal installments annually beginning on anniversary of the grant date over a three-year period. The fair value of the RSUs granted were measured using prices of $35.04 and $36.59 per share, respectively, which were the closing stock prices on the applicable date of each grant. Each award will be expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period.

On February 22, 2023, the Company granted an aggregate of 504,551 time-based RSUs to certain employees and officers. The RSUs granted vest in equal installments annually on the anniversary of the grant date over a three-year period. The fair value of each RSU granted on February 22, 2023 was measured using a price of $23.21 per share, which was the closing stock price on the date of grant. Each award will be expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period.

On February 22, 2023, the Company granted an aggregate of 704,408 performance-based RSUs to the Company’s Chief Executive Officer, Chief Operating Officer and President, Chief Financial Officer, General Counsel, Chief Marketing Officer, Chief Human Resources Officer and division presidents. These performance-based RSUs are allocated to two separate performance metrics, as follows: (i) 50% to homebuilding revenue of the applicable Company division, and (ii) 50% to pre-tax earnings of the applicable Company division. The vesting, if at all, of these performance-based RSUs may range from 0% to 100% and will be based on the applicable Company division’s percentage attainment of specified threshold, target and maximum performance goals. The performance period for these performance-based RSUs is January 1, 2023 to December 31, 2025. The fair value of these performance-based RSUs was measured using a price of $23.21 per share, which was the closing stock price on the date of grant. Each award will be expensed over the requisite service period.

On May 1, 2023, the Company granted an aggregate of 29,150 time-based RSUs to the non-employee members of its board of directors. The RSUs granted to the non-employee directors vest in their entirety on the day immediately prior to the Company’s 2024 annual meeting of stockholders. The fair value of each RSU granted on May 1, 2023 was measured using a price of $28.30 per share, which was the closing stock price on the date of grant. Each award will be expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period.

On December 26, 2023, the Company granted an aggregate of 364,215 time-based RSUs to the Company’s Chief Executive Officer, Chief Operating Officer and President, Chief Financial Officer, General Counsel, Chief Marketing Officer, and Chief Human Resources Officer. The RSUs granted vest in equal installments annually on the anniversary of the grant date over a three-year period. The fair value of each RSU granted on December 26, 2023 was measured using a price of $35.83 per
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share, which was the closing stock price on the date of grant. Each award will be expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period.

For the twelve months ended December 31, 2023, the Company granted an aggregate of 6,787 time-based RSUs to certain employees not described above. The RSUs granted vest in equal installments annually beginning on anniversary of the grant date over a three-year period. The fair value of the RSUs granted were measured using the closing stock prices on the applicable date of each grant. Each award will be expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period.
As RSUs vest for employees, a portion of the shares awarded is generally withheld to cover employee tax withholdings. As a result, the number of RSUs vested and the number of shares of Tri Pointe common stock issued will differ.

15.    Income Taxes
We account for income taxes in accordance with ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes (“ASC 740”), which requires an asset and liability approach for measuring deferred taxes based on temporary differences between the financial statements and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates for the years in which taxes are expected to be paid or recovered. Each quarter we assess our deferred tax asset to determine whether all or any portion of the asset is more likely than not unrealizable under ASC 740. We are required to establish a valuation allowance for any portion of the asset we conclude is more likely than not to be unrealizable. Our assessment considers, among other things, the nature, frequency and severity of our current and cumulative losses, forecasts of our future taxable income, the duration of statutory carryforward periods and tax planning alternatives.
We had net deferred tax assets of $38.0 million as of both March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023. We had a valuation allowance related to those net deferred tax assets of $3.4 million as of both March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023. The Company will continue to evaluate both positive and negative evidence in determining the need for a valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets. Changes in positive and negative evidence, including differences between the Company’s future operating results and the estimates utilized in the determination of the valuation allowance, could result in changes in the Company’s estimate of the valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets. The accounting for deferred taxes is based upon estimates of future results. Differences between the anticipated and actual outcomes of these future results could have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated results of operations or financial position. Also, changes in existing federal and state tax laws and tax rates could affect future tax results and the valuation allowance against the Company’s deferred tax assets.
Our provision for income taxes totaled $31.6 million and $27.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. The Company classifies any interest and penalties related to income taxes assessed by jurisdiction as part of income tax expense. The Company did not have any uncertain tax positions recorded as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023. The Company has not been assessed interest or penalties by any major tax jurisdictions related to prior years. 
The Company files income tax returns in the U.S., including federal and multiple state and local jurisdictions. We are
currently under examination by California for the 2020 and 2021 tax years. The outcome of this examination is not yet determinable.

16.    Related Party Transactions
We had no related party transactions for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023.

17.    Supplemental Disclosure to Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
The following are supplemental disclosures to the consolidated statements of cash flows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:
Interest paid (capitalized), net$(17,024)$(15,866)
Income taxes paid, net$ $329 
Supplemental disclosures of noncash activities:
Increase in share repurchase excise tax accrual$217 $211 
Amortization of senior note discount capitalized to real estate inventory$277 $259 
Amortization of deferred loan costs capitalized to real estate inventory$1,026 $986 
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Item 2.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
CAUTIONARY NOTE CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains “forward-looking” statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). These forward-looking statements are based on our current intentions, beliefs, expectations and predictions for the future, and you should not place undue reliance on these statements. These statements use forward-looking terminology, are based on various assumptions made by us, and may not be accurate because of risks and uncertainties surrounding the assumptions that are made.
Factors listed in this section—as well as other factors not included—may cause actual results to differ significantly from the forward-looking statements included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. There is no guarantee that any of the events anticipated by the forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q will occur, or if any of the events occurs, there is no guarantee what effect it will have on our operations, financial condition, or share price.
We undertake no, and hereby disclaim any, obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, unless required by law. However, we reserve the right to make such updates or revisions from time to time by press release, periodic report, or other method of public disclosure without the need for specific reference to this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. No such update or revision shall be deemed to indicate that other statements not addressed by such update or revision remain correct or create an obligation to provide any other updates or revisions.
Forward-Looking Statements
Forward-looking statements that are included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are generally accompanied by words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “future,” “goal,” “intend,” “likely,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” or other words that convey the uncertainty of future events or outcomes. These forward-looking statements may include, but are not limited to, statements regarding our strategy, projections and estimates concerning the timing and success of specific projects and our future production, land and lot sales, the outcome of legal proceedings, the anticipated impact of natural disasters or contagious diseases on our operations, operational and financial results, including our estimates for growth, financial condition, sales prices, prospects and capital spending.
Risks, Uncertainties and Assumptions
The major risks and uncertainties—and assumptions that are made—that affect our business and may cause actual results to differ from these forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:
the effects of general economic conditions, including employment rates, housing starts, interest rate levels, home affordability, inflation, consumer sentiment, availability of financing for home mortgages and strength of the U.S. dollar;
market demand for our products, which is related to the strength of the various U.S. business segments and U.S. and international economic conditions;
the availability of desirable and reasonably priced land and our ability to control, purchase, hold and develop such parcels;
access to adequate capital on acceptable terms;
geographic concentration of our operations;
levels of competition;
the successful execution of our internal performance plans, including restructuring and cost reduction initiatives;
the prices and availability of supply chain inputs, including raw materials, labor and home components;
oil and other energy prices;
the effects of U.S. trade policies, including the imposition of tariffs and duties on homebuilding products and retaliatory measures taken by other countries;
the effects of weather, including the occurrence of drought conditions in parts of the western United States;
the risk of loss from earthquakes, volcanoes, fires, floods, droughts, windstorms, hurricanes, pest infestations and other natural disasters, and the risk of delays, reduced consumer demand, and shortages and price increases in labor or materials associated with such natural disasters;
the risk of loss from acts of war, terrorism, civil unrest or public health emergencies, including outbreaks of contagious disease, such as COVID-19;
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transportation costs;
federal and state tax policies;
the effects of land use, environment and other governmental laws and regulations;
legal proceedings or disputes and the adequacy of reserves;
risks relating to any unforeseen changes to or effects on liabilities, future capital expenditures, revenues, expenses, earnings, synergies, indebtedness, financial condition, losses and future prospects;
changes in accounting principles;
risks related to unauthorized access to our computer systems, theft of our homebuyers’ confidential information or other forms of cyber-attack; and
other factors described in “Risk Factors” included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023 and in other filings we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related condensed notes thereto contained elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. The information contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q is not a complete description of our business or the risks associated with an investment in our securities. We urge investors to review and consider carefully the various disclosures made by us in this report and in our other reports filed with the SEC, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023 and subsequent reports on Form 8-K, which discuss our business in greater detail. The section entitled “Risk Factors” set forth in Item 1A of our Annual Report on Form 10-K, and similar disclosures in our other SEC filings, discuss some of the important risk factors that may affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. Investors should carefully consider those risks, in addition to the information in this report and in our other filings with the SEC, before deciding to invest in, or maintain an investment in, our common stock.
Overview and Outlook
We maintain a positive outlook on several key aspects of our business fundamentals, including the encouraging trends of positive household formations, heightened demand from both Millennial and Gen-Z buyers, and a more stable production environment. Furthermore, buyer demand has shown steady strength and incremental improvement, allowing for a reduction in incentive activity. The ongoing supply and demand dynamics continue to bolster our confidence, as new home demand appears to be structurally supported by the prevailing lack of supply. While sales of existing homes remain depressed compared to historical levels, the percentage of new home sales by homebuilders relative to aggregate sales continues to grow. Despite a higher interest rate environment, consumers have exhibited remarkable resilience, which extends to the momentum experienced within the homebuilding market.
While numerous macroeconomic factors continue to provide support to our industry, inflation remains a pivotal determinant of the sustainability of such favorable conditions, and its impact on consumer strength remains unknown. As significant unmet demand for housing persists, we believe continued diligence and strategic planning will be required to effectively navigate the evolving landscape, overcome any hurdles posed by inflation and elevated interest rates, and capitalize on the opportunities that are presented by this unique housing environment and the undersupply of existing homes in the resale market.
Highlights of the quarter include 1,814 net new home orders at a monthly absorption rate of 3.9 orders per average selling community. This activity represents a 12% increase in net new home orders compared to the prior-year period, as market conditions continued to normalize, with additional support from the lack of resale supply. During the quarter, we opened 20 new communities across the nation, and expanded our active community count to 156. Our home sales revenue was $918.4 million, as we delivered 1,393 new homes at an average sales price of $659,000. Our homebuilding gross margin percentage for the quarter was 23.0% and our sales and marketing and general and administrative (“SG&A”) expense as a percentage of home sales revenue was 11.1%. These factors led to net income available to common stockholders of $99.1 million, or diluted earnings per share of $1.03. In addition, we ended the quarter with total liquidity of $1.6 billion, including cash and cash equivalents of $944.0 million and $703.2 million of availability under our Credit Facility, as described below. Further, our ratio of debt-to-capital was 31.2% as of March 31, 2024, a record for the Company. We believe our strong balance sheet and favorable outlook for earnings and cash flow generation will continue to support strategic initiatives.
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Consolidated Financial Data (in thousands, except per share amounts):
 
 Three Months Ended March 31,
 20242023
Homebuilding:  
Home sales revenue$918,353 $768,405 
Land and lot sales revenue7,068 1,706 
Other operations revenue787 674 
Total revenues926,208 770,785 
Cost of home sales707,304 588,118 
Cost of land and lot sales5,757 1,443 
Other operations expense765 665 
Sales and marketing50,224 41,862 
General and administrative51,328 46,366 
Homebuilding income from operations110,830 92,331 
Equity in income of unconsolidated entities57 227 
Other income, net15,226 7,604 
Homebuilding income before income taxes126,113 100,162 
Financial Services:
Revenues13,194 8,876 
Expenses8,727 5,831 
Financial services income before income taxes4,467 3,045 
Income before income taxes130,580 103,207 
Provision for income taxes(31,584)(27,350)
Net income98,996 75,857 
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests59 (1,115)
Net income available to common stockholders$99,055 $74,742 
Earnings per share 
Basic$1.04 $0.74 
Diluted$1.03 $0.73 
Three Months Ended March 31, 2024 Compared to Three Months Ended March 31, 2023
Net New Home Orders, Average Selling Communities and Monthly Absorption Rates by Segment
 
 Three Months Ended March 31, 2024Three Months Ended March 31, 2023Percentage Change
Net New
Home
Orders
Average
Selling
Communities
Monthly
Absorption
Rates
Net New
Home
Orders
Average
Selling
Communities
Monthly
Absorption
Rates
Net New
Home
Orders
Average
Selling
Communities
Monthly
Absorption
Rates
West1,030 73.5 4.7 954 78.2 4.1 %(6)%15 %
Central530 63.5 2.8 355 39.8 3.0 49 %60 %(6)%
East254 16.8 5.0 310 18.0 5.7 (18)%(7)%(12)%
Total1,814 153.8 3.9 1,619 136.0 4.0 12 %13 %(1)%
 
Net new home orders for the three months ended March 31, 2024 increased by 195, or 12%, to 1,814, compared to 1,619 during the prior-year period. The increase in net new home orders was due to a 13% increase in average selling communities, offset by a 1% decrease in monthly absorption rate. The current-year period experienced strong demand, with the resale market still operating below normal levels, which has increased the market share of homebuilders, while also helping to drive strong absorption rates across most of our markets.
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Our West segment reported an 8% increase in net new home orders due to a 15% increase in monthly absorption rates. This positive trend was partially offset by a 6% decrease in average selling communities. The increase in monthly absorption rates to 4.7 demonstrates strong demand in excess of normal seasonal levels, with particularly strong absorption rates in our Washington, Nevada, and Inland Empire markets. The 6% decrease in average selling communities reflects a lower starting point to begin the current-year period. Notably, current-year community openings of 13 outpaced the prior-year period, during which we opened 7 new communities. Our Central segment reported a 49% increase in net new home orders due to a 60% increase in average selling communities, offset by a 6% decrease in monthly absorption rates. The 60% increase in average selling communities was due to significant growth in each of our Austin, Dallas-Fort Worth, Houston and Colorado markets. While the monthly absorption rate dipped slightly by 6% year-over-year, demand remained healthy in Texas, with softer market conditions observed in Colorado. Our East segment reported an 18% decrease in net new home orders due to a 12% decrease in monthly absorption rates and a 7% decrease in average selling communities. Despite the lower absorption rate compared to the previous year, demand in the East remains strong, exceeding seasonal expectations with a 5.0 absorption rate. The decrease in average selling communities was due entirely to a decrease in Charlotte, where strong sales activity has resulted in selling through communities faster than we are bringing new communities onto the market.
Backlog Units, Dollar Value and Average Sales Price by Segment (dollars in thousands)
 As of March 31, 2024As of March 31, 2023Percentage Change
Backlog
Units
Backlog
Dollar
Value
Average
Sales
Price
Backlog
Units
Backlog
Dollar
Value
Average
Sales
Price
Backlog
Units
Backlog
Dollar
Value
Average
Sales
Price
West1,488 $1,154,130 $776 1,200 $963,560 $803 24 %20 %(3)%
Central802 478,974 597 433 271,897 628 85 %76 %(5)%
East451 317,486 704 393 267,925 682 15 %18 %%
Total2,741 $1,950,590 $712 2,026 $1,503,382 $742 35 %30 %(4)%
 
Backlog units reflect the number of homes, net of actual cancellations experienced during the period, for which we have entered into a sales contract with a homebuyer but for which we have not yet delivered the home. Homes in backlog are generally delivered within seven to ten months from the time the sales contract is entered into, although we may experience cancellations of sales contracts prior to delivery. Our cancellation rate of homebuyers who contracted to buy a home but cancelled prior to delivery of the home (as a percentage of overall orders) was 7% and 10% during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. The dollar value of backlog was $2.0 billion as of March 31, 2024 compared to $1.5 billion as of March 31, 2023. The average sales price in backlog decreased 4% to $712,000 as of March 31, 2024, compared to $742,000 at March 31, 2023. This decline in average sales price can be attributed to a combination of factors, including variations in the geographical market mix. Despite the continuation of a higher mortgage interest rate environment, we have experienced some relative strength in pricing and have been able to more efficiently utilize incentives as mortgage rates continue to normalize at higher levels and while consumer strength persists.
Backlog dollar value in our West segment increased 20% due to a 24% increase in backlog units, offset by a 3% decrease in average sales price. The increase in backlog units was largely due to a higher backlog balance leading into the current-year period, in addition to stronger order growth in the current-year period. Backlog dollar value in our Central segment increased by 76% due to an 85% increase in backlog units, offset by a 5% decrease in average sales price. The increase in backlog units is due largely to the higher backlog leading into the current-year period. Backlog dollar value in our East segment increased by 18% due to a 15% increase in backlog units and a 3% increase in average sales price. Similar to our West and Central segments, the increase in backlog units is due largely to the higher backlog leading into the current-year period.
New Homes Delivered, Homes Sales Revenue and Average Sales Price by Segment (dollars in thousands)
 Three Months Ended March 31, 2024Three Months Ended March 31, 2023Percentage Change
New
Homes
Delivered
Home
Sales
Revenue
Average
Sales
Price
New
Homes
Delivered
Home
Sales
Revenue
Average
Sales
Price
New
Homes
Delivered
Home
Sales
Revenue
Average
Sales
Price
West720 $547,422 $760 590 $478,733 $811 22 %14 %(6)%
Central482 272,538 565 254 165,968 653 90 %64 %(13)%
East191 98,393 515 221 123,704 560 (14)%(20)%(8)%
Total1,393 $918,353 $659 1,065 $768,405 $722 31 %20 %(9)%
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 Home sales revenue increased $149.9 million to $918.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to the prior-year period. The increase was comprised of $236.7 million related to a 328-unit increase in new homes delivered in the three months ended March 31, 2024, offset by an $86.7 million decrease related to a $62,000 decrease in average sales price for the three months ended March 31, 2024. We experienced significantly stronger order demand in the second half of 2023 compared to 2022, which helped propel our backlog units and dollar value by 58% and 38%, respectively, heading into the current-year period compared to the prior-year period. This increased backlog elevated our delivery potential in the current-year period, and our seasonally strong backlog conversion ratio of 60% helped drive our delivery and home sales revenue growth.
Home sales revenue in our West segment increased 14% due to a 22% increase in new homes delivered, offset by a 6% decrease in average sales price during the current-year period. The increase in new homes delivered was due to an increase in backlog units to start the current-year period compared to the prior-year period. The decrease in average sales price was due to market and product mix factors, most notably in our San Diego market where the prior-year activity was positively impacted by some higher end communities in which the last unit closed late in 2023. Home sales revenue in our Central segment increased 64% due to a 90% increase in new homes delivered, offset by a 13% decrease in average sales price. The increase in new homes delivered was due to a significant increase in backlog units to start the current-year period compared to the prior-year period. The average sales price of homes delivered decreased due primarily to a change in our product mix within our Houston market. Home sales revenue in our East segment decreased by 20% due to a 14% decrease in new homes delivered and an 8% decrease in average sales price. Although the units in backlog within our East segment were up entering the current-year period compared the prior-year period, our conversion of backlog declined in the current-year period. The composition of our deliveries was the primary driver of the 8% decrease in average sales price, as a smaller percentage of deliveries in the current-year period came from our DC Metro market.
Homebuilding Gross Margins (dollars in thousands)
 Three Months Ended March 31,
 2024%2023%
Home sales revenue$918,353 100.0 %$768,405 100.0 %
Cost of home sales707,304 77.0 %588,118 76.5 %
Homebuilding gross margin211,049 23.0 %180,287 23.5 %
Add:  interest in cost of home sales30,649 3.3 %20,226 2.6 %
Add:  impairments and lot option abandonments402 0.0 %717 0.1 %
Adjusted homebuilding gross margin(1)
$242,100 26.4 %$201,230 26.2 %
Homebuilding gross margin percentage23.0 % 23.5 % 
Adjusted homebuilding gross margin percentage(1)
26.4 % 26.2 % 
__________
(1)Non-GAAP financial measure (as discussed below).

Our homebuilding gross margin percentage decreased to 23.0% for the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to 23.5% for the prior-year period. This decline is primarily due to a combination of market and community mix. As mortgage rates have remained higher over a longer period, we have observed a gradual decrease in the need for incentives over the past several months, which positively impacts gross margins. Further, despite facing higher rates and lower affordability in the prior-year period, our delivery mix included a number of homes sold prior to the surge in mortgage rates, which supported the prior-year margin. Excluding interest, impairments and lot option abandonments in cost of home sales, adjusted homebuilding gross margin percentage was 26.4% for the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to 26.2% for the prior-year period.
Adjusted homebuilding gross margin is a non-GAAP financial measure. We believe this information is meaningful as it isolates the impact that leverage and noncash charges have on homebuilding gross margin and permits investors to make better comparisons with our competitors, who adjust gross margins in a similar fashion. Because adjusted homebuilding gross margin is not calculated in accordance with GAAP, it may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures of other companies and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for, or superior to, financial measures prepared in accordance with GAAP. See the table above reconciling this non-GAAP financial measure to homebuilding gross margin, the most directly comparable GAAP measure.
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Sales and Marketing, General and Administrative Expense (dollars in thousands)
Three Months Ended March 31,As a Percentage of
Home Sales Revenue
 2024202320242023
Sales and marketing$50,224 $41,862 5.5 %5.4 %
General and administrative (G&A)51,328 46,366 5.6 %6.0 %
Total sales and marketing and G&A$101,552 $88,228 11.1 %11.5 %
Total SG&A expense as a percentage of home sales revenue decreased to 11.1% for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to 11.5% in the prior-year period. Total SG&A expense increased $13.3 million to $101.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 from $88.2 million in the prior-year period.
Sales and marketing expense as a percentage of home sales revenue increased to 5.5% for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to 5.4% for the prior-year period. This increase was largely due to higher broker expense as a percentage of home sales revenue in the current-year period, as broker participation has recently trended higher as the resale market continues to demonstrate low supply. Sales and marketing expense increased to $50.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to $41.9 million for the prior-year period, largely driven by an increase in broker commissions, along with internal commissions and advertising expense. Given that many components of sales and marketing expense bear a variable relationship to home sales revenue, which increased by 20% compared to the prior-year period, such increase in absolute dollars is expected.
General and administrative (“G&A”) expense as a percentage of home sales revenue decreased to 5.6% of home sales revenue for the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to 6.0% for the prior-year period. This decrease was due primarily to higher leverage on our fixed components of G&A expenses, which is directly associated with the higher home sales revenue in the current-year period. G&A expense increased to $51.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to $46.4 million for the prior-year period, largely driven by an increase in incentive compensation-related costs.
Interest
Interest, which we incurred principally to finance land acquisitions, land development and home construction, totaled $36.2 million and $37.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. All interest incurred in both periods was capitalized.
Other Income, Net
Other income, net for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 was income of $15.2 million and $7.6 million, respectively. The increase was primarily due to higher interest income stemming from the higher interest rates realized on our existing cash balances
Income Tax
For the three months ended March 31, 2024, we recorded a tax provision of $31.6 million based on an effective tax rate of 24.2%. For the three months ended March 31, 2023, we recorded a tax provision of $27.4 million based on an effective tax rate of 26.5%. The decrease in our effective tax rate was primarily due to an increase in excess tax benefits related to stock-based compensation.
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Financial Services Segment
Income before income taxes from our financial services operations increased to $4.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 compared to $3.0 million for the prior-year period. 
Lots Owned or Controlled by Segment
Lots owned or controlled include our share of lots controlled by our unconsolidated land development joint ventures. Investments in joint ventures are described in Note 6, Investments in Unconsolidated Entities, of the notes to our unaudited consolidated financial statements included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. The table below summarizes our lots owned or controlled by segment as of the dates presented:
 March 31,Increase
(Decrease)
 20242023Amount%
Lots Owned    
West10,991 12,131 (1,140)(9)%
Central5,872 4,824