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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to .

Commission file number 001-31922
TEMPUR SEALY INTERNATIONAL, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware33-1022198
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 1000 Tempur Way
Lexington, Kentucky 40511
(Address of registrant’s principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (800) 878-8889
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par valueTPXNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes o No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. o Yes No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes o No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§229.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes o No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large Accelerated filer  Accelerated filer o Non-Accelerated filer o Smaller Reporting Company Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes o No
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. o
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.): Yes No
The aggregate market value of the common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant on June 30, 2023, computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of the registrants most recently completed second fiscal quarter was approximately $6,647,994,376.
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s common stock as of February 12, 2024 was 173,604,315 shares.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for the 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which is to be filed subsequent to the date hereof, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
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When used in this Report, except as specifically noted otherwise, the term "Tempur Sealy International" refers to Tempur Sealy International, Inc. only, and the terms "Tempur Sealy," "Company," "we," "our," "ours" and "us" refer to Tempur Sealy International, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries. When used in this Report, the term "Tempur" may refer to Tempur-branded products and the term "Sealy" may refer to Sealy-branded products or to Sealy Corporation and its historical subsidiaries, in all cases as the context requires. In addition, when used in this Report,"2023 Credit Agreement" refers to the Company's senior credit facility entered into in 2023; "2019 Credit Agreement" refers to the Company's prior senior credit facility entered into in 2019; "2023 Senior Notes" refers to the 5.625% senior notes due 2023 issued in 2015; "2026 Senior Notes" refers to the 5.50% senior notes due 2026 issued in 2016; "2029 Senior Notes" refers to the 4.00% senior notes due 2029 issued in 2021; and "2031 Senior Notes" refers to the 3.875% senior notes due 2031 issued in 2021. In addition, when used in this Report, "Danish Tax Matter" refers to the Company's dispute with the Danish Tax Authority ("SKAT") regarding the royalty paid by a U.S. subsidiary of Tempur Sealy International to a Danish subsidiary for tax years 2012 through 2022.
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Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
 
This Annual Report on Form 10-K (the "Report"), including the information incorporated by reference herein, contains "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the "Securities Act"), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act"), which includes information concerning one or more of our plans; objectives; goals; strategies and other information that is not historical information. Many of these statements appear, in particular, under the heading "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in Part II, ITEM 7 of this Report. When used in this Report, the words "assumes," "estimates," "expects," "guidance," "anticipates," "might," "projects," "predicts," "plans," "proposed," "targets," "intends," "believes," "will," "may," "could," and variations of such words or similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are based upon our current expectations and beliefs and various assumptions. There can be no assurance that we will realize our expectations or that our beliefs will prove correct.
Numerous factors, many of which are beyond the Company's control, could cause actual results to differ materially from any that may be expressed herein as forward-looking statements in this Report. These risk factors include the impact of the macroeconomic environment in both the U.S. and internationally on our business segments including its impact on consumer behavior and expectations regarding growth of the mattress industry; changes in economic conditions, including inflationary trends in the price of raw materials; uncertainties arising from global events (including the Russia-Ukraine conflict and the conflict in the Middle East), natural disasters or pandemics, and their impact on raw material prices, labor costs and other employment-related costs; loss of suppliers and disruptions in the supply of raw materials; competition in our industry; the effects of strategic investments on our operations, including our efforts to expand our global market share and actions taken to increase sales growth; the ability to develop and successfully launch new products; expectations regarding the pending Mattress Firm acquisition, including the related regulatory approval process; the ability to realize all synergies and benefits of acquisitions (including the pending acquisition of Mattress Firm); our reliance on information technology and the associated risks involving potential security lapses and/or cyber-based attacks; deterioration in labor relations; the possibility of exposure of product liability and premises liability claims; our ability to protect our intellectual property; disruptions to the implementation of our strategic priorities and business plan caused by changes in our executive management team; changes in interest rates; effects of changes in foreign exchange rates on our reported earnings; expectations regarding our target leverage and our share repurchase program; compliance with regulatory requirements and the possible exposure to liability for failures to comply with these requirements; the outcome of pending tax audits or other tax, regulatory or investigation proceedings and pending litigation; changes in foreign tax rates and changes in tax laws generally, including the ability to utilize tax loss carryforwards; and our capital structure and debt level, including our ability to meet financial obligations and continue to comply with the terms and financial ratio covenants of our credit facilities.
Other potential risk factors include the factors discussed under the heading "Risk Factors" under Part I, ITEM 1A of this Report. There may be other factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements.
All forward-looking statements attributable to us apply only as of the date of this Report and are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements included in this Report. Except as may be required by law, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any of the forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.

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PART I
 
ITEM 1. BUSINESS    

General
 
We are committed to improving the sleep of more people, every night, all around the world. As a leading designer, manufacturer, distributor and retailer of bedding products, we know how crucial a good night of sleep is to overall health and wellness. Utilizing over a century of knowledge and industry-leading innovation, we deliver award-winning products that provide breakthrough sleep solutions to consumers in over 100 countries.

Our highly recognized brands include Tempur-Pedic®, Sealy® and Stearns & Foster® and our non-branded offerings include private label and original equipment manufacturer ("OEM") products. Our distinct brands allow for complementary merchandising strategies at a range of price points.

Our powerful distribution model operates through an omni-channel strategy. Our products are sold through third-party retailers, our more than 750 company-owned stores and our e-commerce platforms. We have a global manufacturing footprint with approximately 12,000 employees around the world. Tempur Sealy has a strong competitive presence in the bedding marketplace with a leadership position that comes from product and service quality, culture, strategy and people, backed with financial strength and a disciplined approach to returning value to shareholders.

Our long-term strategy is to drive earnings growth with high return on invested capital and strong free cash flow, which is a non-GAAP financial measure. In order to achieve our long-term strategy, we focus on developing the most innovative bedding products in all the markets we serve, making significant investments in our iconic global brands and optimizing our worldwide omni-channel distribution. We also intend to generate earnings growth through ongoing investments in research and development and productivity initiatives, which will improve our profitability and create long-term stockholder value.

We have a balanced approach to capital allocation that includes investments in our operations to facilitate long-term growth and returning capital to shareholders via quarterly cash dividends and share repurchases. From time to time, we also look at acquisition opportunities that could complement and strengthen our core business. When doing so, we seek to balance our assessment of the industry environment, our business outlook and the potential for further strategic expansion, while also prudently managing our business.

We operate in two segments: North America and International. Corporate operating expenses are not included in either of the segments and are presented separately as a reconciling item to consolidated results. These segments are strategic business units that are managed separately based on geography. Our North America segment consists of manufacturing, distribution and retail subsidiaries and licensees located in the U.S., Canada and Mexico. Our International segment consists of manufacturing, distribution and retail subsidiaries, joint ventures and licensees located in Europe, Asia-Pacific and Latin America (other than Mexico).

Our principal executive office is located at 1000 Tempur Way, Lexington, Kentucky 40511 and our telephone number is (800) 878-8889. Tempur Sealy International, Inc. was incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in September 2002. Our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to such reports filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC") pursuant to Sections 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, are available free of charge on our website at www.tempursealy.com as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are electronically filed with the SEC. Our website and its contents are not incorporated by reference into this Report.

The SEC also maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The website of the SEC is www.sec.gov.
 
Our Products and Brands

We have a comprehensive offering of products that appeal to a broad range of consumers, some of which are covered by one or more patents and/or patent applications. We also routinely introduce new mattress models, launch new products and update our existing mattress products in each of our segments.

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In order to achieve our goal to improve the sleep of more people, every night, all around the world, one of our strategic initiatives is to leverage and strengthen our comprehensive portfolio of iconic brands and products. Our portfolio of product brands includes many highly recognized brands, including Tempur-Pedic®, Sealy® and Stearns & Foster®, which are described below:

Tempur-Pedic® - Founded in 1991, the Tempur brand is our specialty innovation category leader designed to provide life changing sleep for our wellness-seeking consumers. Our proprietary Tempur material precisely adapts to the shape, weight and temperature of the consumer and creates fewer pressure points, reduces motion transfer and provides personalized comfort and support. Tempur-Pedic was awarded #1 in Customer Satisfaction for the online mattress segment in the J.D. Power 2023 Mattress Satisfaction Report. This is the third consecutive year winning the online mattress category and the fifth consecutive year winning at least one J.D. Power award.

Stearns & Foster® - The Stearns & Foster brand offers our consumers high quality mattresses built by certified craftsmen who have been specially trained. Founded in 1846, the brand is designed and built with precise engineering and relentless attention to detail and fuses new innovative technologies with time-honored techniques, creating supremely comfortable beds.

Sealy® - The Sealy brand originated in 1881 in Sealy, Texas, and for over a century has focused on offering trusted comfort, durability and excellent value while maintaining contemporary styles and great support. The Sealy Posturepedic® brand, introduced in 1950, was engineered to provide all-over support and body alignment to allow full relaxation and deliver a comfortable night's sleep. Sealy was voted America's most-trusted mattress brand by American shoppers in the 2021 American Brand Trust Study. Sealy was also the #1 best-selling mattress brand according to Furniture Today's 2021 Top 20 U.S. Bedding Producers methodology, which includes Stearns & Foster®.

Cocoon by SealyTM - The Cocoon by Sealy brand, introduced in 2016, is our offering in the below $1,000 e-commerce space, made with the high quality materials that consumers expect from Sealy, sold online at www.cocoonbysealy.com and delivered in a box directly to consumers' doorsteps.

Non-Branded - Our non-branded product offerings include private label and OEM products, including mattresses, pillows and other bedding products and components at a wide range of price points. The addition of non-branded offerings expands our capabilities to service third-party retailers to capture manufacturing profits from bedding brands outside our own.

Our portfolio of retail brands includes Tempur-Pedic® retail stores, Sleep Outfitters®, Sleep Solutions Outlet®, Dreams®, SOVA and a variety of other retail brands internationally, which operate in various countries. The retail brands named above are described below:

Tempur-Pedic® retail stores - Tempur-Pedic® retail stores are designed for the consumers that prefer to purchase directly from the manufacturer, and for those seeking a more personalized and educational sales experience. These retail boutiques are strategically located in high traffic, premium retail centers with customer demographics that closely align to the Tempur-Pedic® customer profile.

Sleep Outfitters® - Sleep Outfitters is a regional bedding retailer with locations across five states in the U.S. Sleep Outfitters is a specialty mattress retailer that serves consumers across a wide range of price points with its extensive selection of Tempur-Pedic®, Sealy® and Stearns & Foster® products.

Sleep Solutions Outlet® - Sleep Solutions Outlet stores serve as a channel of high-quality comfort returns, as well as discontinued or factory close-out mattresses and bases. There are a limited number of stores across the U.S. that sell these products, which reduces our disposal costs, and helps reduce the volume of products disposed of via landfill, thereby favorably impacting the environment.

Dreams® - Dreams is the leading specialty bedding retailer in the United Kingdom ("U.K."). As a multi-branded retailer, Dreams sells a variety of products across a range of price points. In addition to operating over 200 brick-and-mortar stores and an e-commerce channel throughout the U.K., Dreams also manufacturers the majority of the bedding products it sells in-house.

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SOVA - SOVA is a highly respected and well-established premium bedding chain in Sweden. Our stores are connected to the urban areas of Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. The assortment primarily focuses on premium to ultra-premium brands and well trained sales staff targeting to sell quality beds with a very high average selling price.

In 2024, we are launching a new portfolio of Tempur-Pedic® Adapt mattresses in our North America segment. This next-generation technology sets the standard for support, pressure relief and motion cancellation with Tempur material precisely responding to your body's weight, shape, and temperature in a way no other mattress does. This collection was designed to complement the Tempur-Pedic® Breeze collection and Tempur-Ergo® Smart Bases launched in 2023 and finishes the complete reset of our core Tempur lineup.

In our International segment in 2024, we plan to complete the rollout of the new line of Tempur® products in over 90 markets through our wholly-owned subsidiaries and third-party distributors. This new line of products will broaden Tempur®'s price range, with the super-premium price point ceiling maintained and the floor expanded into the premium category to expand our global addressable market.

Omni-Channel Distribution

Our primary selling channels are Wholesale and Direct. These channels align to the operating margin characteristics of our business and our marketplace.

One of Tempur Sealy's long-term initiatives is to be wherever the consumer wants to shop, and our wholesale business strategy brings this key business initiative to life by growing our share with existing customers, gaining new business and expanding into new channels of distribution. In 2023, we continued to drive this initiative, as we increased the number of wholesale doors retailing our products and expanded our company-owned store footprint around the world.
    
We are continuing to expand our Direct channel to strengthen our distribution footprint and provide alternatives to allow the customer to shop on their preferred terms - whether online or in-store. Our Direct channel includes company-owned stores, online and call centers and represented 23.9% of net sales in 2023. The Direct channel growth rate has surpassed the Wholesale growth rate over the last few years, and we anticipate the Direct channel will continue to grow as a percentage of net sales in future years. Our expanded direct channel distribution complements our wholesale business, and we believe this balanced approach enhances the overall global sales potential and profitability of Tempur Sealy.

For consumers that prefer to purchase directly from the manufacturer and are seeking a more personalized and educational sales experience, we have over 750 retail stores worldwide, including our retail stores owned through our international joint venture operations.

As of December 31, 2023, we had over 100 Tempur-Pedic® retail stores throughout the U.S. that provide a low-pressure environment to explore the comprehensive line up of our Tempur-Pedic® products. Each showroom features knowledgeable Brand Ambassadors who educate potential customers on Tempur-Pedic® products in a relaxed, comfortable environment. Going forward, we expect our strategy for opening additional locations of Tempur-Pedic® retail stores to continue targeting high traffic, premium locations that complement our existing distribution.

In addition to our high-end Tempur-Pedic® retail stores, we operate Sleep Outfitters®, a regional bedding retailer that had over 100 stores in 2023. Sleep Outfitters is a specialty mattress retailer that serves consumers across all price points with its extensive selection of Tempur-Pedic®, Sealy® and Stearns & Foster® products. We also operate Dreams®, which has developed a successful multi-channel sales strategy, with over 200 brick and mortar retail locations in the U.K., an industry-leading online channel, as well as manufacturing and delivery assets.

Our third-party retailers, Tempur-Pedic® retail stores, Dreams® and Sleep Outfitters®, and our other company-owned store concepts reach the vast majority of consumers who still prefer to touch and feel a mattress and speak to a retail sales associate prior to making a purchase decision. However, our consumer insights also demonstrate that there is a growing segment of the population that prefers to purchase products online and, to a lesser degree, via a call center. As such, having an omni-channel presence is more important than ever, with most customers completing research and shopping both online and in-stores before making their purchase decision.

For customers that prefer the convenience of making purchases online and having their bedding products delivered right to their front door, we have evolved our distribution model to include multiple online options to reach those that want to
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purchase our products without the need to go into a brick-and-mortar store. We further expanded this initiative in 2022 with the opening of direct-to-consumer e-commerce platforms for Sealy® and Stearns & Foster® in the U.S.

Marketing

Our overall marketing strategy is to drive consumer demand through the use of effective marketing. We invest across multiple media platforms to build brand awareness and drive consumer interest in our products. The majority of our advertising programs are created on a centralized basis through our in-house marketing team. We plan to drive net sales through continued investments in new products, marketing and other initiatives.

We advertise nationally on television, digitally and through consumer and trade print. In addition, we participate in cooperative advertising on a shared basis with some of our retail customers. Throughout the year, we invested in a series of strategic marketing initiatives, which included new product introductions, advertising and in-store marketing investments.

Seasonality

We believe that sales of products to furniture and bedding stores are typically subject to modest seasonality inherent in the bedding industry, with sales expected to be generally lower in the second and fourth quarters. Sales in a particular quarter can also be impacted by competitive industry dynamics and global macroeconomic conditions. Additionally, the U.S. bedding industry generally experiences increases in sales around holidays and promotional periods.

Operations
 
Manufacturing and Distribution

In 2023, we opened our newest and largest state-of-the-art manufacturing facility in Crawfordsville, Indiana. The new facility has the capabilities to manufacture a wide variety of bedding products and components for branded and non-branded operations. The facility's Midwest location enables us to balance manufacturing and distribution in the region, allowing us to more efficiently service our customers and capture the projected long-term demand to support our rapidly growing OEM business.
    
Our products are currently manufactured and distributed through our global network of facilities. For a list of our principal manufacturing and distribution facilities, please refer to ITEM 2, "Properties".

Suppliers

We obtain the raw materials used to produce our pressure-relieving Tempur® material and components used in the manufacture of Tempur-Pedic® products from third-party sources. We currently acquire chemicals and proprietary additives for Tempur-Pedic® products as well as other components such as textiles from a number of suppliers with manufacturing locations around the world. These supplier relationships may be modified in order to maintain quality, cost and delivery expectations. All critical components are purchased under supply agreements. We do not consider ourselves to be dependent in the long term upon any single outside vendor as a source of supply to our bedding business, and we believe over time that sufficient alternate sources of supply for the same, similar or alternate components will become available.

Raw materials for Sealy® and non-branded products consist mainly of polyurethane foam, textiles and steel innerspring components that we purchase from various suppliers. In the U.S. and Canada, we source the majority of our requirements for polyurethane foam components and spring components for our Sealy and Stearns & Foster mattress units from key suppliers for each component. We also purchase a significant portion of our Sealy foundation parts from third-party sources.

Additionally, we source our adjustable bed bases and foundations from third-party manufacturers. These are purchased under supply agreements from a limited number of key suppliers. These products are dependent on components supply chains originating in China. We believe over time that sufficient alternate sources of supply for the same or similar components will be available outside of China from our current or alternate suppliers. For further information regarding the loss of suppliers and disruptions in the supply of our raw materials and components on the Company, please refer to "Risk Factors" in ITEM 1A of Part I of this Report.

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Research and Development

We have four research and development centers, three in the U.S. and one in Denmark, that conduct technology and product development. Additionally, we have a product testing facility that conducts hundreds of consumer tests annually. We believe our consumer-research driven approach to innovation results in best-in-class products that benefit the consumer.

Industry and Competition

We compete in the global bedding industry. The bedding industry is comprised of mattresses and foundations, pillows and accessories. The mattress category is comprised of traditional innerspring mattresses and non-innerspring mattresses, which includes visco-elastic and foam mattresses, innerspring/foam hybrid mattresses, airbeds and latex mattresses. The foundation category is comprised of traditional foundations and adjustable foundations. Additionally, the pillow market is comprised of traditional foam and feather pillows, as well as pillows made of visco-elastic, latex, foam, gel, rubber and down. The primary distribution channels for bedding products are retail furniture and bedding stores, big-box retailers and online.
    
We encounter competition from a number of bedding manufacturers in both the highly concentrated domestic and highly fragmented international markets. Participants in each of these markets compete primarily on price, quality, brand name recognition, product availability and product performance. Mattress and pillow manufacturers and retailers are seeking to increase their channels of distribution and are looking for new ways to reach the consumer, including the expansion in the number of U.S. and international companies pursuing online direct-to-consumer models for mattresses. In addition, retailers both in the U.S. and internationally are increasingly seeking to offer their own private label products.

The international market is served by a large number of manufacturers, primarily operating on a regional and local basis. These manufacturers offer a broad range of mattress and pillow products. Entry-level bedding imports from Asia began to significantly increase during 2018 and are competing against certain of our products in the U.S. market. In September 2018 and again in December 2019, petitions were filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission and the U.S. Department of Commerce, alleging that many of these imports were being dumped into the U.S. market at prices less than fair value. As a result of the petitions, the U.S. Department of Commerce issued anti-dumping duty orders on December 16, 2019 for the 2018 petition and on May 14, 2021 for the 2019 petition and the U.S. International Trade Commission affirmed a range of tariffs on these imports.

Intellectual Property

Patents, Trademarks and Licensing
 
We hold U.S. and foreign patents and patent applications regarding certain elements of the design and function of many of our mattress and pillow products.
 
As of December 31, 2023, we held hundreds of trademark registrations worldwide, which we believe have significant value and are important to the marketing of our products to retailers and consumers. Tempur®, Tempur-Pedic®, Sealy®, Sealy Posturpedic® and Stearns & Foster® are our primary trademarks registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, as are many other of our registered trademarks and pending applications. Each U.S. trademark registration is renewable indefinitely as long as the trademark remains in use. We also own numerous trademarks, trade names, service marks, logos and design marks in the U.S. and a number of other countries, including Dreams and SOVA.
    
We derive income from royalties by licensing Sealy®, Stearns & Foster® and Tempur® brands, technology and trademarks to other manufacturers. Under the license arrangements, licensees have the right to use certain trademarks and current proprietary and/or patented technology in designated jurisdictions. We also provide our licensees with product specifications, research and development, statistical services and marketing programs. For the year ended December 31, 2023, our licensing activities as a whole generated royalties of approximately $32.3 million.

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Governmental Regulation
 
Our operations are subject to international, federal, state and local consumer protection and other regulations, primarily relating to the mattress and pillow industry. These regulations vary among the states, countries and localities in which we do business. The regulations generally impose requirements as to the proper labeling of bedding merchandise, restrictions regarding the identification of merchandise as "new" or otherwise, controls as to chemical and other substances, hygiene and other aspects of product safety, handling, marketing and sale and penalties for violations. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission ("CPSC") has adopted rules relating to fire retardancy standards for the mattress industry. Many foreign jurisdictions also regulate fire retardancy standards. Future changes to these standards may require modifications to our products to comply with such changes. For example, the UK is seeking to implement new regulations in October 2024, which will include measures to reduce the use of chemical fire retardants. We are also subject to environmental and health and safety requirements with regard to the manufacture of our products and the conduct of our operations and facilities. We have made and will continue to make expenditures necessary to comply with these requirements. Currently these expenditures are immaterial to our financial results. For a discussion of the risks associated with our compliance programs in connection with these regulations, please refer to "Risk Factors" under Part I, ITEM 1A of this Report.

Our principal waste products are foam and fabric scraps, wood, cardboard and other non-hazardous materials derived from product component supplies and packaging. We also periodically dispose of small amounts of used machine lubricating oil and air compressor waste oil, primarily by recycling. In the U.S., we are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to environmental health and safety, including the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the Clean Air Act and the Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act. We are subject to similar requirements in Canada, the EU and other jurisdictions, with further waste management and prevention, and other environmental protection regulations coming into effect both this year and over the next few years. We believe that we are in compliance with all applicable international, federal, state and local environmental statutes and regulations. We do not expect that compliance with international, federal, state or local provisions that have been enacted or adopted regulating the discharge of materials into the environment, or otherwise relating to the protection of the environment, will have a material effect upon our capital expenditures, earnings or competitive position. We are not aware of any pending international or federal environmental legislation that would have a material impact on our operations, and have not been required to make, and do not expect to make, any material capital expenditures for environmental control facilities or other regulatory requirements in the foreseeable future.

In connection with sales of our products and operation of our business, we collect and process personal data from our customers and employees. As such, we are subject to certain laws and regulations relating to IT security and personal data protection and privacy. For example, the European Union ("EU") adopted the General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR"). The GDPR imposed ongoing compliance requirements on companies, including us, that process personal data from citizens resident in the EU. In addition, there are country-specific data privacy laws in Europe that impose additional requirements on data controllers and several of these laws are more stringent than the GDPR. In recent years, several U.S. states have adopted legislation offering similar protections for resident citizens, such as the California Privacy Rights Act (which amends the California Consumer Privacy Act ("CCPA")), the Virginia Consumer Data Protection Act, the Colorado Privacy Act, the Connecticut Data Privacy Act and the Utah Consumer Privacy Act (together the "U.S. state privacy laws"). Several other states have recently introduced similar state privacy laws. These U.S. state privacy laws grant consumers new rights over their personal information, such as access to and deletion of their personal information, placing strict data collection requirements on businesses, including ours. In the Asia-Pacific region, several data privacy laws regulate the processing of personal data of resident citizens and compliance requirements vary widely. For example, the People's Republic of China consolidated its data privacy laws into one overarching regime with the introduction of the Personal Information Protection Law ("PIPL"). The PIPL is widely considered one of the strictest personal data protection laws in the world, with significant restrictions placed on the transfer of personal information outside of China or use without separate citizen consent. In response, we have implemented a global compliance system, appointed dedicated resources and have put measures in place to facilitate adherence to the continuing compliance requirements of applicable worldwide data privacy laws.

Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance ("ESG")

We recognize that as a corporate citizen we have a responsibility to protect our communities and environment. Our executive leadership and board members believe that our success as an organization must be inclusive of our impact on our communities, employees, customers and environment. The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee of our Board of Directors oversees our practices and positions relating to ESG issues. Executive officers are held accountable for the Company's ESG performance through the Company's performance-based long-term equity incentive plan.

We believe that sound ESG practices can help identify, manage and mitigate risks while contributing to the financial success of our business. Below are some highlights of the progress we made on certain of our ESG initiatives in 2023:

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Environment

Achieved zero waste to landfill status at our Canadian and Mexican manufacturing operations and maintained our zero waste to landfill status at our U.S. and European manufacturing operations
Achieved zero waste to landfill status at 75% of our corporate offices and R&D labs, in line with our goal to achieve zero landfill waste at our corporate offices and R&D labs by 2025
Progressed towards our goal of achieving carbon neutrality by 2040 through reducing greenhouse gas emissions at our wholly owned manufacturing and logistics operations by 4%* compared to the prior year
Summarized and published our approach to comprehensive chemical supply management in a Chemical Safety Policy

*This excludes the impact of new facilities opened in the trailing twelve-month period. Including the impact of new facilities, we reduced greenhouse gas emissions at our wholly owned manufacturing and logistics operations by 1% compared to the prior year.

Purpose

Continued to bring industry-leading innovation to market that provides consumers with access to higher quality sleep at a variety of price points, including the new U.S. product launches of Tempur-Breeze®, Tempur-Ergo® Smart Base, and Stearns & Foster®, and the new international launches of Tempur® products
Contributed approximately $0.8 million through the Tempur Sealy Foundation and donated more than 12,100 mattresses worth approximately $16.9 million, bringing our ten-year donation total to over $100 million

People

Increased transparency and expanded disclosures around Employee Health & Safety, Ethics Line, and Employee Satisfaction & Engagement
Embedded ESG performance as a factor in executive leadership's 2023 compensation program

Human Capital Management
 
As a global organization, our workforce is important to us. We believe a key driver of long-term success is the strength of our workforce and we are committed to investing in our workforce. As part of our commitment to our workforce, we focus on the following key areas noted below:

Diversity, Equity and Inclusion

We have a diverse global workforce that includes a range of skill sets, perspectives, backgrounds, ethnicity, genders and qualifications. We are committed to fostering a culture that is inclusive and representative of the communities where we operate. As an Equal Employment Opportunity Employer, we are committed to providing opportunities to all employees and applicants and prohibiting discrimination and harassment. The following are some of the actions that we take to realize our commitment to equal opportunity employment:

Promote the consideration of a diverse slate of qualified candidates during the hiring process
Employ a uniform, global process for determining compensation based on experience and skill sets to remove potential biases
Conduct outreach with organizations in each of our local communities to increase the flow of minority, female, veteran and disabled applicants for employment
Analyze gender and minority pay equity regularly and adjust as warranted
Participate in external, community-based activities sponsored by local organizations, including those that assist women, minorities and veterans

As part of ongoing efforts to provide transparency regarding initiatives to promote, track and measure our diversity, equity and inclusion efforts within our employee population, we disclosed additional metrics in our 2024 Corporate Social Values Report located on the Tempur Sealy Investor website at http://investor.tempursealy.com. Our website and the 2024 Corporate Social Values Report are not incorporated by reference into this Report.

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People Development and Training

Our goal is to design and offer development opportunities that improve Company performance and meet employees' individual learning and development needs and ultimately strengthen our culture by reinforcing Company values. We use the 70/20/10 learning and development model. This approach gives employees the opportunity to develop their skills through a combination of job experience (70%), mentoring (20%) and formal training (10%). Training at Tempur Sealy includes, but is not limited to, formal training programs, leadership development mentorships, professional and industry conferences, and education assistance.

We offer employees access to a learning management system where they can take courses on a variety of individual and leadership development topics. All our professional employees have access to this system, and there are thousands of individual modules offered through our partnership with Skillsoft.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
 
The following risk factors and other information included in this Report should be carefully considered. Please also see "Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements" on page 3.

Risks related to our Business and Economic Environment

We operate in a highly competitive industry and if we are unable to compete successfully, we may lose customers and our sales may decline.

Participants in the mattress and pillow industries compete primarily on price, quality, brand name recognition, product availability and product performance across a range of distribution channels.

A number of our significant competitors offer mattress and pillow products that compete directly with our products. The effectiveness of our competition relative to our performance, including by established manufacturers or new entrants into the market, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and/or operating results. For example, market participants continue to improve their channels of distribution to optimize their reach to the consumer, including by pursuing online direct-to-consumer models. In addition, retailers in the U.S. and internationally have integrated vertically in the furniture and bedding industries, and it is possible that such vertical integration may provide conditions that would negatively impact our net sales and results of operations. The pillow industry in particular is characterized by a large number of competitors, none of which is dominant. As such, conditions that substantially increase a single participant's market share could be detrimental to our financial performance. The highly competitive nature of the mattress and pillow industries means we are continually subject to the risk of loss of market share, loss of significant customers, reductions in margins, and the inability to acquire new customers.

Loss of suppliers and disruptions in the supply of our raw materials and components has increased and may continue to increase our costs of sales and reduce our ability to compete effectively.

We acquire raw materials and components from a number of suppliers with manufacturing locations around the world. If we were unable to obtain raw materials and components from these suppliers for any reason, we would have to find replacement suppliers. Any substitute arrangements for raw materials and components might not be on terms as favorable to us. We maintain relatively small supplies of our raw materials and components at our manufacturing facilities, and any disruption in the shipment of supplies could interrupt production of our products, which in turn could result in a decrease of our sales or could cause an increase in our cost of sales, either of which could decrease our liquidity and profitability.

If a key supplier for an applicable component failed to supply components in the amount we require, this could significantly interrupt production of our products and increase our production costs in the near term. We have experienced and may continue to experience disruptions for a variety of reasons, including disruptions in international trade routes, changes in international trade duties and other aspects of international trade policy, labor shortages, natural disasters or climate-change related events (including severe weather events), pandemics and political events. If we are not able to successfully mitigate such supply chain risks, we could experience disruptions in production or increased costs, which may result in a decrease in our gross margin or reduced sales, and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.



Changes in economic conditions, including inflationary trends in the price of our input costs, such as raw materials, due to, among other things, current geopolitical events, have adversely affected our business and financial results and could continue to do so in the future.

The bedding industry is subject to volatility in the price of petroleum-based and steel products, which affects the cost of polyurethane foam, polyester and steel innerspring component parts. The price and availability of these raw materials are subject to market conditions affecting supply and demand. Given the significance of the cost of these materials to our products, volatility in the prices of the underlying commodities has and will significantly affect profitability.

The global economy continues to experience high rates of inflation, and inflationary pressure and price uncertainty may continue in 2024. We have experienced, and may continue to experience, volatility and increases in the price of certain of these raw materials as a result of global market and supply chain disruptions and the broader inflationary environment related to the ongoing macroeconomic conditions. Interest rates remain relatively high and may continue to remain at such levels. To the extent we are unable to absorb higher costs, or pass any such higher costs to our customers, our gross margin could be negatively affected, which could result in a decrease in our liquidity and profitability. In addition, monetary policies to counter inflation could negatively affect our borrowing costs and those of our customers and suppliers, as well as exchange rates and other macroeconomic factors.

Geopolitical developments, such as trade wars, the Russia-Ukraine conflict, the Israel-Hamas conflict and wider Middle East developments (including disruptions to the Red Sea passage or such conflicts spreading further in the relevant regions), have adversely impacted and could continue to adversely impact, among other things, our raw material, energy and transportation costs, certain of our suppliers, distributors, customers and local markets, global and local macroeconomic conditions, and cause further supply chain disruptions (including by delaying the delivery times of raw materials needed for our business or our products to customers).

In order to consummate the previously disclosed, pending merger with Mattress Firm, we and Mattress Firm must obtain certain governmental approvals, and if such approvals are not granted or are granted with conditions, consummation of the merger may be jeopardized, may not occur or may be delayed, or the anticipated benefits of the merger may not be achieved.

On May 9, 2023, we entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (the "Merger Agreement") to acquire Mattress Firm Group Inc. ("Mattress Firm"). Although we and Mattress Firm have agreed to use reasonable best efforts to make certain governmental filings and obtain the required governmental approvals, including from the Federal Trade Commission ("FTC"), and to observe the expiration and termination of relevant waiting periods under the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976, as amended, (the "HSR Act"), there can be no assurance that the relevant approvals will be obtained. In the fourth quarter of 2023, we announced that we certified substantial compliance with the FTC’s second request for documents pursuant to the HSR Act, in connection with the merger. The governmental entities from which these approvals are required have broad discretion in administering the governing laws and regulations, and may take into account various facts and circumstances in their consideration of the merger. These governmental entities may initiate proceedings seeking to prevent, or otherwise seek to prevent, the merger. As a condition to approving the merger, these governmental entities may impose conditions, terms, obligations or restrictions or require divestitures or place restrictions on the conduct of our business after consummation of the merger. As further described in the Merger Agreement, we have agreed to take certain divestiture actions and agree to certain other obligations or commitments in connection with the consummation of the merger if reasonably likely to permit consummation of the merger, provided that we are not required to take any divestiture actions in excess of an agreed amount specified in the Merger Agreement or if such actions, commitments and divestitures individually or in the aggregate would or would reasonably be expected to have a material and adverse impact on our business or the business of Mattress Firm or the anticipated benefits to the Company of the merger. While we are pursuing the divestiture of certain of our and Mattress Firm’s stores, the progress of such process may change and there can be no assurance that we will successfully complete this process on the expected timing or at all.

There can be no assurance that governmental entities will not impose the aforementioned divestiture obligations, conditions, terms, obligations or restrictions and that such divestiture obligations, conditions, terms, obligations or restrictions will not have the effect of delaying or preventing consummation of the merger or imposing additional material costs on or limiting the benefits of the merger to the Company, or otherwise adversely affecting, including to a material extent, our business, results of operations and financial condition after consummation of the merger. If we are required to divest assets or businesses, there can be no assurance that we will be able to negotiate such divestitures expeditiously or on favorable terms or that the governmental entities will approve the terms of such divestitures. We can provide no assurance that these divestiture obligations, conditions, terms, obligations or restrictions will not result in the abandonment of the merger and termination of the Merger Agreement.

Risks related to operating our business

The performance of our business depends on our ability to implement strategic initiatives and actions taken to increase sales growth may not be effective.

The performance of our business depends upon a number of factors, including the following:

our ability to continuously improve our products to offer new and enhanced consumer benefits and better quality;
the ability of our current and future product launches to increase net sales;
the effectiveness of our advertising campaigns and other marketing programs to build product and brand awareness, driving traffic to our distribution channels and increasing sales;
our ability to successfully launch new products;
our ability to compete in the mattress and pillow industry;
our ability to continue to expand into new distribution channels and optimize our existing channels;
our ability to continue to successfully execute our strategic initiatives;
our ability to manage growth and limit cannibalization associated with new or expanded supply agreements;
our ability to reduce costs, including the level of consumer acceptance of our products at optimal price points;
our ability to successfully mitigate the impact of headwinds facing our business, including increased commodity prices and the influx of low-end, imported beds that compete with certain of our products;
our ability to pursue, successfully integrate and capture the synergies from potential acquisition opportunities, including the pending Mattress Firm acquisition; and
general economic factors that impact consumer confidence, disposable income or the availability of consumer financing.

Our new product launches may not be successful due to development delays, failure of new products to achieve anticipated levels of market acceptance and significant costs associated with failed product introductions, which could adversely affect our revenues and profitability.

Each year we invest significant time and resources in research and development to improve our product offerings and launch new products. In 2023, we launched our refreshed Stearns & Foster® product line and a new line of Tempur® mattresses internationally. We also launched a new portfolio of Tempur-Pedic® Breeze mattresses and Tempur-Ergo® Smart Bases in 2023. We expect to complete the multi-year refresh of Tempur-Pedic® products in 2024 with a new portfolio of Tempur-Pedic® Adapt mattresses and accessories in North America in 2024. This collection was designed to complement the Tempur-Pedic® Breeze collection and Tempur-Ergo® Smart Bases launched in 2023 and finishes the complete reset of our core Tempur lineup. There are a number of risks that are inherent in our new product line introductions, including that the anticipated level of market acceptance may not be realized, which could negatively impact our sales. Further, introduction costs and manufacturing inefficiencies may be greater than anticipated, while the rollout of the product could be delayed, each of which could impact profitability.

Because we depend on certain significant customers, a decrease or interruption in their business with us would reduce our sales and results of operations.

Our top five customers, collectively, accounted for approximately 32% of our net sales in 2023, and Mattress Firm contributed over 15%. If we are successful in closing the pending Mattress Firm acquisition, our significant customer concentration will be significantly reduced. There have been signs of deterioration in the U.S. retail sector, both nationally and regionally, including among our competitors. Some additional retailers that carry our products, as well as some of our competitors, may consolidate, undergo restructurings or reorganizations, may be acquired, experience financial difficulty or bankruptcy, or realign their affiliations, any of which could decrease the number of stores that carry our products, increase the ownership concentration in the retail industry or otherwise negatively impact the credit and retail environments in which we operate. An increase in the concentration of our sales to large customers may negatively affect our profitability due to the impact of volume and other incentive programs related to these customers. Furthermore, if sales to our large customers grow, our credit exposure to these customers may also increase. Some of these retailers may decide to carry only a limited number of brands of mattress products, which could affect our ability to sell products to them on favorable terms, if at all. A substantial decrease or interruption in business from these significant customers could result in the loss of future business and could reduce revenue, liquidity and profitability.

We rely significantly on information technology ("IT") and we have experienced and in the future could experience cyber-based attacks which have and in the future could harm our ability to effectively operate our business.

We rely on IT systems to operate and manage our business and to process, maintain and safeguard information essential to our business as well as information relating to third-parties, including our customers, suppliers and employees. These systems are vulnerable to events beyond our reasonable control, including cyberattacks and security breaches. Such events have resulted in and in the future could result in operational slowdowns, shutdowns or other difficulties; loss of sales, revenues or market share; compromise or loss of sensitive or proprietary information, including the misappropriation of our customers' or employees' personal information; destruction or corruption of data, including valuable business data; costs of remediation, upgrades, repair or recovery; breaches of obligations to third parties under privacy laws or contracts; exhaustion of insurance coverage and increased insurance premiums; fines or lawsuits; or other damage to our reputation or customer relationships; each of which, depending on the extent or duration of the event, could materially and adversely impact our business, operating results or financial condition.

We have been, and may in the future be, subject to cybersecurity incidents. As these attacks increase and become more sophisticated, the risks associated with such an event continue to increase, particularly as our digital business footprint expands. Our security measures and internal controls are designed to protect personal data, business information, including intellectual property, and other confidential information, to prevent data loss, and to prevent or detect security breaches. However, such measures and controls do not provide absolute security in preventing these cybersecurity events from occurring, particularly given that techniques used to access, disable or degrade service, or sabotage systems change frequently.

Moreover, we rely on third-party technology service providers in ordinary course operations of our Direct channel, such as website hosting, payment systems and digital advertising. Our third-party service providers may be victims to cybersecurity events from time to time, and failure to prevent, detect or remediate such events may disrupt our operations and could cause financial or reputational harm, including if insurance coverage is insufficient to cover all losses or all types of claims that may arise.

As previously disclosed, we identified a cybersecurity event on July 23, 2023 affecting certain of our data and IT systems, which resulted in the temporary interruption of our operations when we proactively shut down certain of our systems. This cybersecurity event, as well as any other breach of our network or databases, or those of our third-party providers, have resulted and may in the future result in the risks discussed herein.

Furthermore, we are subject to a constantly evolving regulatory landscape of laws and regulations relating to IT security and personal data protection and privacy, including but not limited to the EU's GDPR and the CCPA, each of which have imposed new and expanded compliance requirements on companies, including us, that process personal data from citizens living in applicable jurisdictions. Any failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations relating to data security and privacy, due to various factors within or outside of our control, could result in costly investigations from regulators and litigation, expose us to potentially significant penalties, and result in negative publicity that could damage our reputation and credibility.

Deterioration in labor relations could disrupt our business operations and increase our costs, which could decrease our liquidity and profitability.

As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 12,000 full-time employees. Our joint ventures also employ approximately 1,500 full-time employees. Approximately 15% of our employees are represented by various labor unions with separate collective bargaining agreements or government labor union contracts for certain international locations. Our North American collective bargaining agreements, which are typically three years in length, expire at various times during any given three year period. Due to the large number of collective bargaining agreements, we are periodically in negotiations with certain of the unions representing our employees. We may at some point be subject to work stoppages by some of our employees and, if such events were to occur, there may be a material adverse effect on our operations and profitability. Further, we may not be able to renew our various collective bargaining agreements on a timely basis or on favorable terms, or at all. Any significant increase in our labor costs could decrease our liquidity and profitability and any deterioration of employee relations, slowdowns or work stoppages at any of our locations, whether due to union activities, employee turnover or otherwise, could result in a decrease in our net sales or an increase in our costs, either of which could decrease our liquidity and profitability.

We may face exposure to product liability claims and premises liability claims, which could reduce our liquidity and profitability and reduce consumer confidence in our products.

We face an inherent business risk of exposure to product liability claims if the use of any of our products results in personal injury or property damage. In the event that any of our products prove to be defective or otherwise fail to meet safety standards, we may be required to recall, redesign or even discontinue those products. We maintain insurance against product liability claims, but such coverage may not continue to be available on terms acceptable to us or be adequate for liabilities actually incurred. A successful claim brought against us in excess of available insurance coverage could impair our liquidity and profitability, and any claim or product recall that results in significant adverse publicity against us could result in consumers purchasing fewer of our products, which would also impair our liquidity and profitability.

We also face inherent business risks by operating physical stores that are open to the public. By opening retail stores, we have increased our exposure to premises liability claims. We maintain insurance against premises liability claims, but such coverage may not continue to be available on terms acceptable to us or be adequate for liabilities actually incurred. A successful claim brought against us in excess of available insurance coverage could impair our liquidity and profitability, and any claim or product recall that results in significant adverse publicity against us could adversely affect our reputation or result in consumers purchasing fewer of our products, which would also impair our liquidity and profitability.

If we are not able to protect our trade secrets or maintain our trademarks, patents and other intellectual property, we may not be able to prevent competitors from developing similar products or from marketing in a manner that capitalizes on our intellectual property rights, and this loss of a competitive advantage could decrease our profitability and liquidity.

We rely on patents and trade secrets to protect the design, technology and function of our products. To date, we have not sought U.S. or international patent protection for our principal product formula for Tempur® material and certain of our manufacturing processes. Accordingly, we may not be able to prevent others from developing certain visco-elastic material and products that are similar to or competitive with our products. Our ability to compete effectively with other companies also depends, to a significant extent, on our ability to maintain the proprietary nature of our owned and licensed intellectual property. We own a significant number of patents or have patent applications pending on some aspects of our products and certain manufacturing processes. However, the principal product formula and manufacturing processes for our Tempur® material are not patented and we must maintain these as trade secrets in order to protect this intellectual property. We own U.S. and foreign registered trademarks and service marks and have applications for the registration of trademarks and service marks pending domestically and abroad. We also license certain intellectual property rights from third parties.

Certain of our trademarks are currently registered in the U.S. and are registered or pending in foreign jurisdictions. Certain other trademarks are the subject of protection under common law. However, those rights could be circumvented, or violate the proprietary rights of others, or we could be prevented from using them if challenged. A challenge to our use of our trademarks could result in a negative ruling regarding our use of our trademarks, their validity or their enforceability, or could prove expensive and time consuming in terms of legal costs and time spent defending against such a challenge. Any loss of trademark protection could result in a decrease in sales or cause us to spend additional amounts on marketing, either of which could decrease our liquidity and profitability. In addition, if we incur significant costs defending our trademarks, that could also decrease our liquidity and profitability. In addition, we may not have the financial resources necessary to enforce or defend our trademarks. Furthermore, our patents may not provide meaningful protection and patents may never issue from pending applications. It is also possible that others could bring claims of infringement against us, as our principal product formula and manufacturing processes are not patented, and that any licenses protecting our intellectual property could be terminated. If we were unable to maintain the proprietary nature of our intellectual property and our significant current or proposed products, this loss of a competitive advantage could result in decreased sales or increased operating costs, either of which would decrease our liquidity and profitability.

In addition, the laws of certain foreign countries may not protect our intellectual property rights and confidential information to the same extent as the laws of the U.S. or the EU. Third parties, including competitors, may assert intellectual property infringement or invalidity claims against us that could be upheld. Intellectual property litigation, which could result in substantial cost to and diversion of effort by us, may be necessary to protect our trade secrets or proprietary technology, or for us to defend against claimed infringement of the rights of others and to determine the scope and validity of others' proprietary rights. We may not prevail in any such litigation, and if we are unsuccessful, we may not be able to obtain any necessary licenses on reasonable terms or at all.

The loss of the services of any members of our executive management team could impair our ability to execute our business strategy and as a result, reduce our sales and profitability.

We depend on the continued services of our executive management team, whose average tenure with the Company is 15 years. Our executive team's leadership experience provides us with a competitive advantage, as the team sets clear initiatives for the organization and enhances high-performing teams by empowering them to act quickly, especially during challenging periods. The loss of key personnel could have a material adverse effect on our ability to execute our business strategy and on our financial condition and results of operations. We do not maintain key-person insurance for members of our executive management team.

Regulatory, Legal and Financial Risks

We may be adversely affected by fluctuations in exchange rates, which could affect our results of operations, the costs of our products and our ability to sell our products in foreign markets.

Approximately 27.7% of our net sales were generated outside of the U.S. in 2023. We conduct our business in a wide variety of currencies and are therefore subject to market risk relating to changes in foreign exchange rates. If the U.S. dollar strengthens relative to the Euro or other foreign currencies where we have operations, for example, there will be a negative impact on our operating results upon translation of those foreign operating results into the U.S. dollar. In 2023, foreign currency exchange rate changes positively impacted our net income by approximately 1.5% and positively impacted adjusted EBITDA, which is a non-GAAP financial measure, by approximately 0.8%. Changes in foreign currency exchange rates could have an adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Except for the use of foreign exchange forwards contracts described immediately below, we do not hedge the translation of foreign currency operating results into the U.S. dollar.

We use foreign exchange forward contracts to manage a portion of the exposure to the risk of the eventual net cash inflows and outflows resulting from foreign currency denominated transactions among certain subsidiaries. These hedging transactions may not succeed or may be only partially successful in managing our foreign currency exchange rate risk.

Refer to "Management's Discussion and Analysis" included in Part II, ITEM 7 of this Report and "Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk" included in Part II, ITEM 7A of this Report for further discussion on the impact of foreign exchange rates on our operations.

Our leverage affects how we manage our business and may limit our flexibility.

We operate in the ordinary course of our business with a certain amount of leverage. Our degree of leverage could have important consequences, such as:

increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic, industry or competitive developments;
requiring a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on our indebtedness, thereby reducing our ability to use our cash flow to fund our operations, capital expenditures and other business opportunities;
making it more difficult for us to satisfy the obligations related to our indebtedness;
restricting us from making strategic acquisitions or investments or causing us to make non-strategic divestitures;
limiting our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, product development, debt service requirements, acquisitions, including the pending Mattress Firm acquisition, and general corporate or other purposes;
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business or the industry in which we operate;
exposing us to variability in interest rates, as a substantial portion of our indebtedness is and will be at variable rates; and
limiting our ability to return capital to our stockholders, including through share repurchases and dividends.

In addition, the instruments governing our debt contain customary financial and other restrictive covenants, which limit our operating flexibility and could prevent us from taking advantage of business opportunities and reduce our flexibility to respond to changing business and economic conditions. Failure to comply with our debt covenants may result in a default or event of default under the related credit document. If such default or event of default is not cured or waived, as applicable, we may suffer adverse effects on our operations, business or financial condition, including acceleration of the maturity date of all amounts outstanding under our debt facilities. For further discussion regarding our debt covenants and compliance, refer to "Management's Discussion and Analysis" included in Part II, ITEM 7 of this Report and Note 6, "Debt," in our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, ITEM 8 of this Report.

We are subject to risks from our international operations, such as complying with U.S. and foreign laws, foreign exchange exposure, tariffs, increased costs, political risks, geopolitical conflicts and our ability to expand in certain international markets, which could impair our ability to compete and our profitability.

We are a global company, selling our products in approximately 100 countries worldwide. We generated approximately 27.7% of our net sales outside of the U.S. in the year ended December 31, 2023. We operate through multiple wholly owned subsidiaries and we also participate in international license and joint venture arrangements with independent third parties.

Our international operations are subject to the customary risks of operating in an international environment, including complying with U.S. laws affecting operations outside of the U.S. such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act; complying with foreign laws and regulations, including disparate anti-corruption laws and regulations; and the potential imposition of trade or foreign exchange restrictions, tariffs and other tax increases, inflation, unstable political situations, labor issues and geopolitical conflicts (including the Russia-Ukraine conflict, the Israel-Hamas conflict and wider Middle East developments). We are also limited in our ability to independently expand in certain international markets where we have granted licenses to manufacture and sell Sealy® bedding products. Fluctuations in the rate of exchange between currencies in which we do business may affect our financial condition or results of operations. Additionally, changes in international trade duties and other aspects of international trade policy, both in the U.S. and abroad, could materially impact our business.

We are subject to various regulatory requirements, including, but not limited to, trade, environmental, health and safety requirements, any violation of which may require costly expenditures and expose us to liability.

We, and our products, are subject to extensive regulation in the U.S. by various federal, state and local regulatory authorities, including the FTC, the Consumer Product Safety Commission ("CPSC") and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and by similar international regulatory regimes. We are subject to various health and environmental provisions, such as California Proposition 65 (the Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986) and in our international jurisdictions we are subject to the medical devices regulatory authorities such as the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency ("MHRA") and the International Chamber of Commerce Advertising and Marketing Communications Code. We are subject to laws and regulations both in the U.S. and internationally, relating to pollution, environmental protection and occupational health and safety, such as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, and Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals ("REACH"), amongst others. As a manufacturer of bedding and related products, we are subject to regulations governing the environment. Any violation or failure to comply with any of these regulatory requirements may result in liability exposure and costly expenditures to remediate or pay for liabilities. For example, if a release of hazardous substances occurs on or from our properties or any associated offsite disposal location, or if contamination from prior activities is discovered at any of our properties, we may be held liable if there has been a violation of the regulatory requirement, and the amount of such liability could be material. Further, any of the rules and regulatory requirements we are subject to may change from time to time, or may conflict. For example, our operations could be impacted by a number of pending legislative and regulatory proposals to address greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. and other countries, including the Kyoto Protocol.

We may not be in complete compliance with any such requirements, or at all times, and though we have made and will continue to make expenditures to comply these regulatory requirements, violation of any of them or failure to comply could expose us to liability, subject us to monetary liabilities and could harm our business, reputation and financial condition.

Our pension plans are currently underfunded and we may be required to make cash payments to the plans, reducing our available cash.

We contribute to multi-employer pension plans according to collective bargaining agreements that cover certain union-represented employees. Participating in these multi-employer plans exposes us to potential liabilities if the multi-employer plan is unable to pay its underfunded obligations or we trigger a withdrawal event. The withdrawal liability is an exit fee for employers who cease contributions to multi-employer defined benefit pension plans with unfunded vested benefits. We participate in several plans which are in the Red Zone for 2023. A plan is in the Red Zone (Critical) if it has a current funded percentage of less than 65.0%. The following risks of participating in these multi-employer plans differ from single employer pension plan risks:

Employer contributions to a multi-employer plan may be used to provide benefits to employees of other participating employers.
If a participating employer stops contributing to a multi-employer plan, the remaining participating employers assume the unfunded obligations of the plan.
If the multi-employer plan becomes significantly underfunded or is unable to pay its benefits, we may be required to contribute additional amounts in excess of the rate required by the collective bargaining agreements.

For more information, refer to Note 8, "Retirement Plans," in our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, ITEM 8 of this Report.

Challenges to our pricing or promotional allowance policies or practices could adversely affect our operations.

Certain of our retail pricing and promotional allowance policies or practices are subject to antitrust and consumer protection regulations in the U.S. and abroad. If regulators or private parties in any jurisdiction in which we do business initiate investigations or claims that challenge our pricing or promotional allowance policies or practices, our efforts to respond could force us to divert management resources and we could incur significant unanticipated costs. If such an investigation or claim were to result in a charge that our practices or policies were in violation of applicable antitrust, consumer protection or other laws or regulations, we could be subject to significant additional costs of defending such charges in a variety of venues and, ultimately, if there were a finding that we were in violation of antitrust, consumer protection or other laws or regulations, there could be an imposition of fines, and damages for persons injured, as well as injunctive or other relief. Any requirement that we pay fines or damages (which, under the laws of certain jurisdictions, may be trebled) could decrease our liquidity and profitability, and any investigation or claim that requires significant management attention or causes us to change our business practices could disrupt our operations or increase our costs, also resulting in a decrease in our liquidity and profitability. An antitrust or consumer protection class action or individual suit against us could result in potential liabilities, substantial costs, treble damages, and the diversion of our management’s attention and resources, regardless of the outcome.

Climate change and related environmental issues could have a material adverse impact on us.

Climate-related events, such as an increase in frequency and severity of storms, floods, wildfires, droughts, hurricanes, freezing conditions and other natural disasters, may have a long-term impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, such climate-related events could result in, among other things, physical damage to and complete or partial closure of one or more of our facilities, temporary or long-term disruption in the supply of products, increased insurance costs or loss of coverage, legal liability and reputational harm. While we seek to mitigate our business risks associated with climate events, we recognize that there are inherent climate-related risks regardless of where we conduct our business. Current or future insurance arrangements may not provide protection for costs that may arise from such events, particularly if such events are catastrophic in nature or occur in combination.

Further, the long-term effects of climate change on general economic conditions and the mattress and pillow industries in particular are unclear, and changes in the supply, demand or available sources of energy and the regulatory and other costs associated with energy production and other impacts of climate-related events may affect the availability or cost of goods and services, including natural resources and raw materials, necessary to run our business. While we continue to focus on strategies and systems to address the long-term risks posed by climate change, such as reducing our greenhouse gas emissions and packaging waste, there can be no assurance that such strategies and systems will adequately protect against such risks. Any disruption in our operations or additional expenses caused by the long-term effects of climate change could have a material adverse effect on our operations.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

There can be no assurance as to the declaration or amount of future dividends.

We recently announced an increase in our quarterly dividend to $0.13 per share, effective for the first quarter of 2024. Any decision to declare and pay dividends, and the amount of any such dividends, will be dependent on a variety of factors, including compliance with Section 170 of the Delaware General Corporation Law; changes to our capital allocation policies; our results of operations, liquidity and cash flows; contractual restrictions in our debt agreements; economic conditions, including the impact of geopolitical uncertainty and related macroeconomic impacts on our business and financial condition; and other factors the Board of Directors may deem relevant. There can be no assurance that we will declare dividends in any particular amounts or at all, and changes in our dividend policy could adversely affect the market price for our stock.

Our share repurchase program is subject to suspension or termination at any time, and may not enhance long-term stockholder value.

Our Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program in 2016 pursuant to which we are authorized to repurchase shares of our common stock. The share repurchase program may be suspended or terminated at any time. From 2016 through December 31, 2023, we had repurchased an aggregate of 55.3 million shares for approximately $2,388.9 million under our share repurchase program. For the year ended and as of December 31, 2023, we repurchased an aggregate of $5.0 million of shares under our share repurchase program and had approximately $774.5 million remaining under the share repurchase authorization. Upon the announcement of our pending acquisition of Mattress Firm, we suspended our share repurchase program. Shares may be repurchased from time to time, in the open market or through private transactions, subject to market conditions, in compliance with applicable state and federal securities laws. The timing and amount of repurchases, if any, will depend upon several factors, including market and business conditions, restrictions in our debt agreements, the trading price of our common stock and the nature of other investment opportunities. Repurchases of our common stock pursuant to our share repurchase program could affect the market price of our common stock or increase its volatility. Although our share repurchase program is intended to enhance long-term stockholder value, there is no assurance that it will do so and short-term stock price fluctuations could reduce the program's effectiveness.

Delaware law and our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain anti-takeover provisions, any of which could delay or discourage a merger, tender offer or assumption of control of the Company not approved by our Board of Directors that some stockholders may consider favorable.

Provisions of Delaware law and our certificate of incorporation and by-laws could hamper a third party's acquisition of us, or discourage a third party from attempting to acquire control of us. You may not have the opportunity to participate in these transactions. These provisions could also limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock. These provisions include:

our ability to issue preferred stock with rights senior to those of the common stock without any further vote or action by the holders of our common stock;
the requirements that our stockholders provide advance notice and certain disclosures when nominating our directors; and
the inability of our stockholders to convene a stockholders' meeting without the chairperson of the Board of Directors, the president, or a majority of the Board of Directors first calling the meeting.

Our Board of Directors could determine in the future that adoption of a stockholder rights agreement is in the best interest of our stockholders and any such stockholder rights agreement, if adopted, could render more difficult, or discourage, a merger, tender offer, or assumption of control of the Company that is not approved by our Board of Directors.
    
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
 
None.

11

ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY

Cybersecurity Incident Impact

We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, cyber threats and incidents. As previously disclosed, on July 23, 2023, we experienced a cybersecurity incident affecting certain of our data and IT systems. As a result of the cybersecurity incident, we incurred $14.3 million of costs in connection with this event. Following a forensic investigation in connection with the incident, we concluded there was no material impact to our financial results for the year ended 2023.

We also implemented additional security measures following the incident, such as stronger privileged access policies and enhanced and expanded multi-factor authentication to help prevent unauthorized access to our systems. We face ongoing risks from certain cybersecurity threats, and we cannot provide assurance that, if those risks materialize, our business strategy, results of operations or financial condition will not be materially affected in the future. See "Risk Factors" in ITEM 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more information on our cybersecurity related risks.

Risk Management and Strategy

Enterprise Risk Management. We utilize an enterprise risk management process undertaken on an ongoing basis pursuant to which we seek to identify various enterprise risks related to product safety and regulatory, global environmental exposure, site environmental matters, IT system interruption and cybersecurity, supply chain matters, business continuity, health and safety incidents, and other matters. We have an enterprise risk management group that manages this process, which includes our executive leadership team. Their activities include assessing the risks, prioritizing the risks, measuring the risks, implementing mitigation plans, and auditing the results.

Cybersecurity Risk Management. We maintain a comprehensive process for assessing, identifying and managing material risks from cybersecurity threats, including risks relating to disruption of business operations or financial reporting systems, intellectual property theft; fraud; violation of privacy laws and other litigation and legal risk; and reputational risk, as part of our overall risk management system and processes. We address cybersecurity risks and threats through a strategic program based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Cybersecurity Framework. Our dedicated cybersecurity team oversees and implements our cybersecurity management program, compliance with applicable legal and third-party data protection and data privacy requirements, and our incident response and crisis management plans.

Incident Response and Recovery Planning. We have established an information security policy and incident response and crisis management plans. We continue to regularly test and evaluate the effectiveness of those plans. Our incident response and crisis management plans address and guide our employees, management and the Board on our response to a cybersecurity incident.

Education and Awareness. Our cybersecurity team provides ongoing information security awareness education, including simulated phishing training, and cybersecurity training for our employees.

External Advisors. We, along with our Board and its committees, engage outside advisors where appropriate to assist in the identification, oversight, evaluation and management of the risks facing our business, including cybersecurity risks. Advisors may be engaged either on a regular basis to inform the Board or management of ongoing risks, or occasionally to advise on specific topics. Such advisors include law firms, cybersecurity experts and other consultants.

External Assessments. Our cybersecurity policies, standards, processes and practices are regularly assessed by consultants. Cybersecurity processes are adjusted based on the information provided from these assessments. In addition to annual attack and vulnerability testing, we engage a third-party cybersecurity provider for managed detection and response and as a managed security operation center.

Governance

Board Oversight. Our Board of Directors is ultimately responsible for overseeing and reviewing with management the Company’s cybersecurity risks and the policies and practices established to manage such risks. In that effort, the Board delegates these responsibilities to the Audit Committee. The Audit Committee receives a cybersecurity update at each of its quarterly meetings from our Senior Vice President, Chief Information Officer ("CIO") or management. These updates address a range of topics, including updates on technology trends, policies and practices, and specific and ongoing efforts to prevent, detect and respond to internal and external critical threats.
12

Management's Role. Our CIO, as the leader of our IT organization, is responsible for executing enterprise, product and manufacturing cybersecurity programs with a focus on security architecture, vulnerability testing, cyber risk management, incident response, vulnerability management, intelligence, awareness and training and governance. Our CIO and IT management team meet regularly to develop and oversee strategies to protect our data, systems and technology across the organization. These strategies include reviewing security performance metrics, identifying security risks and assessing the status of approved security enhancements. Our CIO receives regular updates from our IT management team on cybersecurity matters, results of mitigation efforts and cybersecurity incident response and remediation. The IT organization also makes recommendations on security policies and procedures, security service requirements and risk mitigation strategies.

Our CIO has worked in the information technology industry since 1997 and has led our IT function since 2016. The IT management team responsible for developing and executing our cybersecurity policies is comprised of individuals with extensive experience working in the fields of information technology and cybersecurity, formal education and degrees in information technology and cybersecurity and industry certifications such as Certified Information Systems Security Professional, Certified Information Security Manager and Certified Information System Auditor. Our CIO and IT management team also receive regular training and education on cybersecurity-related topics.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

The following table sets forth certain information regarding our principal facilities by segment, which have been aggregated by principal manufacturing entity, at December 31, 2023.
NameLocation

Type of Facility
North America
Sealy Mattress Manufacturing Company, LLCUnited StatesManufacturing
Tempur Production USA, LLC United StatesManufacturing
Sherwood BeddingUnited StatesManufacturing
Comfort Revolution, LLCUnited StatesManufacturing
Sealy Canada, Ltd.CanadaManufacturing
Tempur Sealy Mattress Mexico, S. de R.L. de C.V. MexicoManufacturing
International
Dan-Foam ApSDenmarkManufacturing
Dreams LimitedUnited KingdomManufacturing

In addition to the properties listed above, we have other facilities in the U.S. and other countries, the majority under leases with one to ten year terms. We lease the land that our manufacturing facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico is located, as part of the related industrial revenue bond financing. We have an option to repurchase the land for one dollar upon termination of the lease.

We believe that our existing properties are suitable for the conduct of our business, are adequate for our present needs and will be adequate to meet our future needs.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

Information regarding legal proceedings can be found in Note 12, "Commitments and Contingencies," of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part II, ITEM 8 of this Report, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," and is incorporated herein by reference.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
 
None.

PART II
 
13

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity

Our sole class of common equity is our $0.01 par value common stock, which trades on the New York Stock Exchange ("NYSE") under the symbol "TPX." Trading of our common stock commenced on the NYSE on December 18, 2003. Prior to that time, there was no public trading market for our common stock.
 
As of February 12, 2024, we had approximately 60 stockholders of record of our common stock.

Dividends

In February 2024, our Board of Directors declared a cash dividend of $0.13 per share on our common stock. The dividend is payable on March 7, 2024 to shareholders of record on the close of business February 22, 2024. However, payment of future dividends, and the timing and amount thereof, will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on our earnings, operating and financial condition, capital requirements, legal requirements and other factors that our Board of Directors deems relevant. Further, we are subject to certain customary restrictions on dividends under our 2023 Credit Agreement and Indentures. See Note 6, "Debt," in our Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Part II, ITEM 8 of this Report, for a discussion of the 2023 Credit Agreement and Indentures.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Our Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program in 2016 pursuant to which we were authorized to repurchase shares of our common stock, and the Board of Directors has authorized increases to this authorization from time to time. During the year ended December 31, 2023, we had repurchased 0.1 million shares, under the share repurchase program, for approximately $5.0 million and had approximately $774.5 million remaining under the program.

Share repurchases under this program may be made through open market transactions, negotiated purchases or otherwise, at times and in such amounts as management deems appropriate. The timing and actual number of shares repurchased will depend on a variety of factors including price, financing, regulatory requirements and other market conditions. The program does not require the repurchase of any minimum number of shares and may be suspended, modified or discontinued at any time without prior notice. Repurchases may be made under a Rule 10b5-1 plan, which would permit shares to be repurchased when we might otherwise be precluded from doing so under federal securities laws.

    The following table sets forth purchases of our common stock for the three months ended December 31, 2023:
Period (a) Total number of shares purchased (b) Average price paid per share (c) Total number of shares purchased as part of publicly announced plans or programs 
(d) Maximum number of shares (or approximate dollar value of shares) that may yet be purchased under the plans or programs
(in millions)
October 1, 2023 - October 31, 2023 

$—$774.5
November 1, 2023 - November 30, 2023 $—$774.5
December 1, 2023 - December 31, 2023 

$—$774.5
 Total      


Equity Compensation Plan Information

Equity compensation plan information required by this Item is incorporated by reference from Part III, ITEM 12 of this Report.

14

Performance Graph

The following Performance Graph and related information shall not be deemed to be "soliciting material" or to be "filed" with the Securities and Exchange Commission, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference into any future filing under the Securities Act or Exchange Act, except to the extent that the Company specifically incorporates it by reference into such filing.

The following table compares cumulative stockholder returns for us over the last five years to the Standard & Poor’s ("S&P") 500 Stock Composite Index, the S&P 400 Consumer Discretionary Sector and a custom peer group. We believe the custom peer group discussed below closely reflects our business and, as a result, provides a meaningful comparison of stock performance.

The peer issuers included in this graph are set forth below in the table. Each year we assess our peer group and evaluate if they meet our market capitalization criteria. In 2023, Capri Holdings Limited, Levi Strauss & Corporation, PVH Corporation, and Skechers U.S.A., Incorporated were added to the peer group, while Herman Miller, Incorporated, La-Z-Boy Incorporated, and Steelcase Incorporated were removed since they no longer meet our market capitalization criteria.

2023 Peer Group
Brunswick Corporation (BC)Hasbro, Inc. (HAS)Skechers U.S.A., Inc. (SKX)
Capri Holdings Limited (CPRI)Leggett & Platt, Incorporated (LEG)Sleep Number Corporation (SNBR)
Carter's, Inc. (CRI)Levi Strauss & Co. (LEVI)Tapestry, Inc. (TPR)
Columbia Sportswear Company (COLM)Polaris Industries Inc. (PII)Under Armour, Inc. (UA)
Deckers Outdoor Corporation (DECK)PVH Corp. (PVH)Williams-Sonoma, Inc. (WSM)
Gildan Activewear Inc. (GIL)Ralph Lauren Corporation (RL)
Hanesbrands Inc. (HBI)RH (RH)
2022 Peer Group
Brunswick Corporation (BC)Hasbro, Inc. (HAS)RH (RH)
Carter's, Inc. (CRI)Herman Miller, Inc. (MLHR)Sleep Number Corporation (SNBR)
Columbia Sportswear Company (COLM)La-Z-Boy Incorporated (LZB)Steelcase Inc. (SCS)
Deckers Outdoor Corporation (DECK)Leggett & Platt, Incorporated (LEG)
Tapestry, Inc. (TPR)
Gildan Activewear Inc. (GIL)Polaris Industries Inc. (PII)Under Armour, Inc. (UA)
Hanesbrands Inc. (HBI)
Ralph Lauren Corporation (RL)
Williams-Sonoma, Inc. (WSM)

15

3838
12/31/201812/31/201912/31/202012/31/202112/31/202212/31/2023
Tempur Sealy International, Inc.$100.00 $210.29 $260.87 $458.08 $339.18 $509.01 
S&P 500100.00 131.49 155.68 200.37 164.08 207.21 
S&P 400 Consumer Discretionary100.00 126.57 165.80 211.70 167.18 207.78 
2022 Peer Group100.00 124.19 132.04 161.94 118.89 143.77 
2023 Peer Group100.00 124.18 130.37 162.79 121.36 145.99 

ITEM 6. [RESERVED]

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the audited Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying notes thereto included elsewhere in this Report. Unless otherwise noted, all of the financial information in this Report is consolidated financial information for the Company. The forward-looking statements in this discussion regarding the mattress and pillow industries, our expectations regarding our future performance, liquidity and capital resources and other non-historical statements in this discussion are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties. See "Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements" and Part I, ITEM 1A of this Report. Our actual results may differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. For results of operations comparisons relating to years ending December 31, 2022 and 2021, refer to our annual report on Form 10-K, Part II, ITEM 7: Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 17, 2023.

In this discussion and analysis, we discuss and explain the consolidated financial condition and results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, including the following topics:

an overview of our business and strategy;
results of operations, including our net sales and costs in the periods presented as well as changes between periods;
expected sources of liquidity for future operations; and
our use of certain non-GAAP financial measures.
    
16

Business Overview

General

We are committed to improving the sleep of more people, every night, all around the world. As a leading designer, manufacturer, distributor and retailer of bedding products worldwide, we know how crucial a good night of sleep is to overall health and wellness. Utilizing over a century of knowledge and industry-leading innovation, we deliver award-winning products that provide breakthrough sleep solutions to consumers in over 100 countries.

We operate in two segments: North America and International. These segments are strategic business units that are managed separately based on geography. Our North America segment consists of manufacturing and distribution subsidiaries and licensees located in the U.S., Canada and Mexico. Our International segment consists of manufacturing and distribution subsidiaries, joint ventures and licensees located in Europe, Asia-Pacific and Latin America (other than Mexico). Corporate operating expenses are not included in either of the segments and are presented separately as a reconciling item to consolidated results. We evaluate segment performance based on net sales, gross profit and operating income. For additional information refer to Note 15, "Business Segment Information," included in Part II, ITEM 8 "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data", of this Report.

Our highly recognized brands include Tempur-Pedic®, Sealy® and Stearns & Foster® and our non-branded offerings consist of value-focused private label and OEM products. Our products allow for complementary merchandising strategies and are sold through third-party retailers, our more than 750 company-owned and joint venture operated retail stores worldwide and our e-commerce channel.

Our distribution model operates through an omni-channel strategy. We distribute through two channels in each operating business segment: Wholesale and Direct. Our Wholesale channel consists of third-party retailers, including third-party distribution, hospitality and healthcare. Our Direct channel includes company-owned stores, online and call centers.

General Business and Economic Conditions

We believe the bedding industry is structured for sustained growth, driven by product innovation, sleep technology advancements, consumer confidence, housing formations and population growth. The industry is no longer engaged in uneconomical retail store expansion, startups have shifted from uneconomical strategies to becoming profitable and legacy retailers and manufacturers have become skilled in producing profitable online sales.

Over the last decade, consumers have made the connection between a good night's sleep and overall health and wellness. As consumers make this connection, they are willing to invest more in their bedding purchases, which positions us well for long-term growth.

In 2024, we expect a continuation of the current macroeconomic environment, which includes the impact of inflation and interest rate pressures on the consumer. The global bedding industry was challenged in 2023 due to these macroeconomic pressures on the consumer. Ongoing geopolitical conflicts may introduce further uncertainty for the consumer. However, we expect consumer confidence to stabilize in 2024.

Definitive Agreement with Mattress Firm.

On May 9, 2023, Tempur Sealy International and Mattress Firm entered into the Merger Agreement for a pending business acquisition in which Tempur Sealy International, through a wholly-owned subsidiary, will acquire Mattress Firm in a transaction valued at approximately $4.0 billion. The transaction is expected to be funded by approximately $2.7 billion of cash consideration and the issuance of 34.2 million shares of the Company's common stock, resulting in a total stock consideration value of $1.3 billion based on a closing share price of $37.62 as of May 8, 2023.

We expect the transaction to close in the second half of 2024, subject to the satisfaction of customary closing conditions, including applicable regulatory approvals. Following the close of the transaction, Mattress Firm is expected to operate as a separate business unit.

17

Product Launches
    
In 2024, we are launching a new portfolio of Tempur-Pedic® Adapt mattresses in our North America segment. This next-generation technology sets the standard for support, pressure relief, and motion cancellation with Tempur material precisely responding to your body's weight, shape, and temperature in a way no other mattress does. This collection was designed to complement the Tempur-Pedic® Breeze collection and Tempur-Ergo® Smart Bases launched in 2023 and finishes the complete reset of our core Tempur lineup.
    
In our International segment in 2024, we plan to complete the rollout of the new line of Tempur® products in over 90 markets through our wholly-owned subsidiaries and third-party distributors. This new line of products will broaden Tempur®'s price range, with the super-premium price point ceiling maintained and the floor expanded into the premium category to expand our global addressable market.

Omni-Channel Distribution Expansion

We have a diversified group of strong retail partners and a rapidly growing direct business. The largest pillar of our omni-channel distribution strategy is our distribution across tens of thousands of third-party retail doors. This broad footprint ensures that consumers can easily find and experience our products in person. While we are well represented at third-party retailers in the U.S. today, there are opportunities to both increase the presence of our brands with existing retail partners and to sell into certain key retailers that do not have our products on their floors today.

We have been focused on building our direct channel, both online and company-owned retail stores. The development of our online business has been particularly important as consumers have grown more comfortable shopping for bedding products online. The direct channel growth rate has surpassed the wholesale growth rate over the last few years, and we anticipate the direct channel to continue to grow as a percentage of net sales in future years.

We currently operate over 750 retail stores globally through our wholly-owned and joint venture operations, led by over 200 Tempur-Pedic and Sleep Outfitters retail stores in the U.S. and over 200 Dreams locations in the U.K. We believe these retail stores complement our existing third-party retail partners by increasing our products' brand awareness in the local markets.

We expanded our presence into the OEM market in 2020 by offering non-branded products, including mattresses, pillows and other bedding products and components at a wide range of price points. The addition of non-branded offerings expands our capabilities to service third-party retailers and creates opportunity to capture manufacturing profits from bedding brands outside our own. We made significant progress growing our OEM business in 2023 and continue to target obtaining a meaningful share of the OEM market in the long-term.

Cybersecurity Event

On July 31, 2023, we disclosed a cybersecurity event identified on July 23, 2023 affecting certain of our data and IT systems. Upon discovery of the event, we activated our incident response and business continuity plans designed to contain the incident. This included proactively shutting down certain of our IT systems, resulting in the temporary interruption of our operations. We engaged legal counsel, a cybersecurity forensic firm and other incident response professionals to advise on the matter. We also notified law enforcement authorities.

We incurred $14.3 million of costs in connection with this event, primarily consisting of $10.1 million of manufacturing and network disruption costs incurred to ensure business continuity and $4.2 million primarily related to professional fees incurred for incident response, containment measures and stabilization of the Company's information systems. Following the forensic investigation, we concluded there was no material impact to our financial results for the year ended 2023. Our cybersecurity insurance policy provides coverage for certain losses not to exceed $5.0 million over the annual term of the policy, and we have not yet submitted a claim for this incident.

2023 Results of Operations
 
A summary of our results for the year ended December 31, 2023 include:

Total net sales increased 0.1% to $4,925.4 million as compared to $4,921.2 million in 2022.

18

Gross margin was 43.2% as compared to 41.6% in 2022. Adjusted gross margin, which is a non-GAAP financial measure, was 43.7% as compared to 42.0% in 2022.

Operating income decreased 10.8% to $607.2 million as compared to $680.6 million in 2022. Adjusted operating income, which is a non-GAAP financial measure, decreased 2.4% to $695.1 million as compared to $712.0 million in 2022.
Net income decreased 19.2% to $368.1 million as compared to $455.7 million in 2022. Adjusted net income, which is a non-GAAP financial measure, decreased 9.0% to $425.6 million as compared to $467.9 million in 2022.

EPS decreased 17.8% to $2.08 as compared to $2.53 in 2022. Adjusted EPS, which is a non-GAAP financial measure, decreased 7.7% to $2.40 as compared to $2.60 in 2022.

For a discussion and reconciliation of non-GAAP financial measures as discussed above to the corresponding GAAP financial results, refer to the non-GAAP financial information set forth below under the heading "Non-GAAP Financial Information."

We may refer to net sales or earnings or other historical financial information on a "constant currency basis," which is a non-GAAP financial measure. These references to constant currency basis do not include operational impacts that could result from fluctuations in foreign currency rates. To provide information on a constant currency basis, the applicable financial results are adjusted based on a simple mathematical model that translates current period results in local currency using the comparable prior corresponding period’s currency conversion rate. This approach is used for countries where the functional currency is the local country currency. This information is provided so that certain financial results can be viewed without the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency rates, thereby facilitating period-to-period comparisons of business performance. Constant currency information is not recognized under GAAP, and it is not intended as an alternative to GAAP measures. Refer to Part II, ITEM 7A of this Report for a discussion of our foreign currency exchange rate risk.

19

The following table sets forth the various components of our Consolidated Statements of Income and expresses each component as a percentage of net sales:
(in millions, except percentages andYear Ended December 31,
per common share amounts)20232022
Net sales$4,925.4 100.0 %$4,921.2 100.0 %
Cost of sales2,796.7 56.8 2,871.6 58.4 
Gross profit2,128.7 43.2 2,049.6 41.6 
Selling and marketing expenses1,063.4 21.6 992.5 20.2 
General, administrative and other expenses481.1 9.8 397.6 8.1 
Equity income in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates(23.0)(0.5)(21.1)(0.4)
Operating income607.2 12.3 680.6 13.8 
Other expense, net:
Interest expense, net129.9 2.6 103.0 2.1 
Loss on extinguishment of debt3.2 0.1 — — 
Other expense, net— — 0.4 — 
Total other expense, net133.1 2.7 103.4 2.1 




Income from continuing operations before income taxes474.1 9.6 577.2 11.7 
Income tax provision(103.4)(2.1)(119.0)(2.4)
Income from continuing operations370.7 7.5 458.2 9.3 
Loss from discontinued operations, net of tax— — (0.4)— 
Net income before non-controlling interest370.7 7.5 457.8 9.3 
Less: Net income attributable to non-controlling interest2.6 0.1 2.1 — 
Net income attributable to Tempur Sealy International, Inc.$368.1 7.5 %$455.7 9.3 %
Earnings per common share:
Basic
Earnings per share for continuing operations$2.14 $2.61 
Loss per share for discontinued operations— — 
Earnings per share$2.14 $2.61 
Diluted
Earnings per share for continuing operations$2.08 $2.53 
Loss per share for discontinued operations— — 
Earnings per share$2.08 $2.53 
Weighted average common shares outstanding:
Basic172.2 174.9 
Diluted177.3 180.3 



20

NET SALES
Year Ended December 31,
ConsolidatedNorth AmericaInternational
(in millions)202320222023202220232022
Net sales by channel
Wholesale $3,746.1 $3,772.5 $3,348.2 $3,390.1 $397.9 $382.4 
Direct1,179.3 1,148.7 507.3 496.0 672.0 652.7 
Total net sales$4,925.4 $4,921.2 $3,855.5 $3,886.1 $1,069.9 $1,035.1 

    Net sales increased 0.1% (including on a constant currency basis). The change in net sales was driven by the following:

North America net sales decreased $30.6 million, or 0.8%. Net sales in the Wholesale channel decreased $41.9 million, or 1.2%, primarily driven by macroeconomic pressures impacting U.S. consumer behavior. Net sales in our Direct channel increased $11.3 million, or 2.3%.

International net sales increased $34.8 million, or 3.4%, primarily driven by the success of new Tempur® product introductions. On a constant currency basis, our International net sales increased 3.7%. Net sales in the Wholesale channel increased 4.4% on a constant currency basis. Net sales in the Direct channel increased 3.4% on a constant currency basis.

GROSS PROFIT
Year Ended December 31,
20232022Margin Change
(in millions, except percentages)Gross ProfitGross MarginGross ProfitGross Margin2023 vs 2022
North America$1,537.5 39.9 %$1,487.3 38.3 %1.6 %
International591.2 55.3 %562.3 54.3 %1.0 %
Consolidated gross margin$2,128.7 43.2 %$2,049.6 41.6 %1.6 %

    Costs associated with net sales are recorded in cost of sales and include the costs of producing, shipping, warehousing, receiving and inspecting goods during the period, as well as depreciation and amortization of long-lived assets used in the manufacturing process.

    Our gross margin is primarily impacted by the relative amount of net sales contributed by our premium or value products. Our value products have a significantly lower gross margin than our premium products. If sales of our value priced products increase relative to sales of our premium products, our gross margins will be negatively impacted in both our North America and International segments.

    Our gross margin is also impacted by fixed cost leverage based on manufacturing unit volumes; the cost of raw materials; operational efficiencies due to the utilization in our manufacturing facilities; product, brand, channel and geographic mix; foreign exchange fluctuations; volume incentives offered to certain retail accounts; participation in our retail cooperative advertising programs; and costs associated with new product introductions. Future changes in raw material prices could have a significant impact on our gross margin. Our margins are also impacted by the growth in our Wholesale channel as sales in our Wholesale channel are at wholesale prices whereas sales in our Direct channel are at retail prices.

    Gross margin improved 160 basis points. The principal factors impacting gross margin for each segment are discussed below.

21

North America gross margin improved 160 basis points. The improvement in gross margin was primarily driven by normalizing commodity costs of 220 basis points and pricing actions of 120 basis points. These improvements were offset by product launch costs of 50 basis points, expense deleverage of 50 basis points and operational headwinds. Additionally, in 2023, we incurred $10.2 million of operational start-up costs related to capacity expansion of our manufacturing and distribution facilities in the U.S. and $10.1 million of costs associated with the cybersecurity event identified on July 23, 2023, which partially offset the improvement in gross margin.

International gross margin improved 100 basis points. The improvement in gross margin was primarily driven by favorable mix of 80 basis points and pricing actions of 60 basis points. These improvements were offset by product launch costs of 60 basis points.

OPERATING EXPENSES

Selling and marketing expenses include advertising and media production associated with the promotion of our brands, other marketing materials such as catalogs, brochures, videos, product samples, direct customer mailings and point of purchase materials, and sales force compensation. We also include in selling and marketing expense certain new product development costs, including market research and new product testing.
General, administrative and other expenses include salaries and related expenses, information technology, professional fees, depreciation and amortization of long-lived assets not used in the manufacturing process, expenses for administrative functions and research and development costs.

Year Ended December 31,
20232022202320222023202220232022
(in millions)ConsolidatedNorth AmericaInternationalCorporate
Operating expenses:
Advertising$469.0 $448.0 $389.9 $375.1 $79.1 $72.9 $— $— 
Other selling and marketing594.4 544.5 319.9 288.6 254.0 234.8 20.5 21.1 
General, administrative and other481.1 397.6 184.6 181.2 110.2 88.5 186.3 127.9 
Total operating expense$1,544.5 $1,390.1 $894.4 $844.9 $443.3 $396.2 $206.8 $149.0 

    Operating expenses increased $154.4 million, or 11.1%, and increased 320 basis points as a percentage of net sales. The primary drivers of changes in operating expenses by segment are discussed below.

North America operating expenses increased $49.5 million, or 5.9%, and increased 150 basis points as a percentage of net sales. The increase in operating expenses was primarily driven by investments in advertising and growth initiatives.
International operating expenses increased $47.1 million, or 11.9% and increased 310 basis points as a percentage of net sales. The increase in operating expenses was primarily driven by investments in growth initiatives and product launch costs.

Corporate operating expenses increased $57.8 million, or 38.8%. The increase in operating expenses was primarily driven by $49.0 million of transaction costs related to the pending acquisition of Mattress Firm and a fair value remeasurement of $11.0 million related to a strategic investment in a product innovation initiative.

    Research and development expenses for the year ended December 31, 2023 were $30.6 million compared to $29.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, an increase of $1.4 million, or 4.8%.

22

OPERATING INCOME
Year Ended December 31,
20232022Margin Change
(in millions, except percentages)Operating IncomeOperating MarginOperating IncomeOperating Margin2023 vs 2022
North America$643.1 16.7 %$642.4 16.5 %0.2 %
International170.9 16.0 %187.2 18.1 %(2.1)%
814.0 829.6 
Corporate expenses(206.8)(149.0)
Total operating income$607.2 12.3 %$680.6 13.8 %(1.5)%

    Operating income decreased $73.4 million and operating margin declined 150 basis points. The decrease was driven by the following:

North America operating income increased $0.7 million and operating margin improved 20 basis points. The improvement in operating margin was primarily driven by the improvement in gross margin of 160 basis points, offset by operating expense deleverage of 160 basis points.
    
International operating income decreased $16.3 million and operating margin declined 210 basis points. The decline in operating margin was primarily driven by operating expense deleverage of 330 basis points, offset by the improvement in gross margin of 100 basis points.

Corporate operating expenses increased $57.8 million, which negatively impacted our consolidated operating margin.

INTEREST EXPENSE, NET
Year Ended December 31,Percent change
(in millions, except percentages)202320222023 vs 2022
Interest expense, net$129.9 $103.0 26.1 %

Interest expense, net, increased $26.9 million, or 26.1%. The increase in interest expense, net, was primarily driven by higher interest rates on our variable rate debt.

INCOME TAX PROVISION
Year Ended December 31,Percent change
(in millions, except percentages)202320222023 vs 2022
Income tax provision$103.4 $119.0 (13.1)%
Effective tax rate21.8 %20.6 %1.2 %

Income tax provision includes income taxes associated with taxes currently payable and deferred taxes, and includes the impact of net operating losses for certain of our foreign operations.

Our income tax provision decreased $15.6 million due to a decrease in income before income taxes and the favorable impact of discrete items. Our 2023 effective tax rate increased 120 basis points as compared to 2022. The 2023 effective tax rate as compared to the U.S. federal statutory tax rate included a net favorable impact of discrete items, primarily related to excess tax benefits from the vesting of certain stock awards under our incentive stock compensation plan and a benefit related to the final settlement of the Danish Tax Matter. The 2022 effective tax rate, as compared to the U.S. federal statutory tax rate, also included the impact of net favorable discrete items related to our incentive stock compensation plan and the Danish Tax Matter.

Refer to Note 13, "Income Taxes," in our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, ITEM 8 of this Report for further information.

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Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
Liquidity
Our principal sources of funds are cash flows from operations, supplemented with borrowings made pursuant to our credit facilities and cash and cash equivalents on hand. Principal uses of funds consist of payments of principal and interest on our debt facilities, share repurchases, capital expenditures and working capital needs.

As of December 31, 2023, we had net working capital of $195.0 million, including cash and cash equivalents of $74.9 million, as compared to working capital of $214.0 million, including cash and cash equivalents of $69.4 million, as of December 31, 2022. The amount of cash and cash equivalents held by subsidiaries outside of the U.S. and not readily convertible into the U.S. Dollar or other major foreign currencies is not material to our overall liquidity or financial position.

Cash Provided by (Used in) Continuing Operations

The table below presents net cash provided by (used in) operating, investing and financing activities from continuing operations for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022.
Year Ended December 31,
(in millions)20232022
Net cash provided by (used in) continuing operations:
Operating activities$570.3 $378.8 
Investing activities(187.8)(315.3)
Financing activities(384.3)(279.1)
Cash provided by operating activities from continuing operations increased $191.5 million in 2023 as compared to 2022. The increase in cash provided by operating activities was driven by a $260.1 million increase in cash provided by changes in operating assets and liabilities, primarily due to decreases in inventory, prepaid expenses and other assets, and income taxes receivable, which were offset by increases in accrued expenses and other liabilities. The changes in operating assets and liabilities were primarily offset by a decrease in net income of $87.1 million.

Cash used in investing activities from continuing operations decreased $127.5 million in 2023 as compared to 2022. The decrease in cash used in investing activities was driven by decreased capital expenditures related to our manufacturing capacity expansion projects nearing completion in 2023.

Cash used in financing activities from continuing operations increased $105.2 million in 2023 as compared to 2022. In 2023, we had net repayments of $250.8 million as compared to net borrowings of $474.5 million in 2022 from our credit facilities. Additionally, we repurchased shares of our common stock for $36.0 million in 2023 as compared to $667.4 million in 2022.

Capital Expenditures

Capital expenditures were $185.4 million and $306.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. We currently expect our 2024 capital expenditures to decrease to approximately $150 million, which includes maintenance capital expenditures of $110 million.

Indebtedness

Our total debt decreased to $2,593.6 million as of December 31, 2023 from $2,830.8 million as of December 31, 2022. Total availability under our revolving senior secured credit facility was $966.4 million as of December 31, 2023.

On October 10, 2023, we entered into the 2023 Credit Agreement, which provides for a $1.15 billion revolving credit facility, a $500.0 million term loan facility and an incremental facility for additional borrowings. Refer to Note 6, "Debt" in our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, ITEM 8 for further discussion of the accordion feature of the 2023 Credit Agreement. We used the proceeds under these facilities to refinance outstanding borrowings under the 2019 Credit Agreement and terminated the existing revolving credit commitments. As of October 10, 2023, the terms of the 2023 Credit Agreement replaced the terms of the 2019 Credit Agreement.
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On February 6, 2024, we and certain other parties thereto entered into an amendment to the 2023 Credit Agreement which provides for a $625.0 million delayed draw term loan and a $40.0 million increase in availability on the existing incremental revolving loan. Once drawn, the instruments will have the same terms and conditions as our existing term loans and revolving loans, respectively, under the 2023 Credit Agreement. This amendment was executed in connection with our financing strategy for the pending acquisition of Mattress Firm expected to close in the second half of 2024.

As of December 31, 2023, our ratio of consolidated indebtedness less netted cash to adjusted EBITDA, which is a non-GAAP financial measure defined in the 2023 Credit Agreement, was 2.87 times. This ratio is within the terms of the financial covenants for the maximum consolidated total net leverage ratio as set forth in the 2023 Credit Agreement, which limits this ratio to 5.00 times. As of December 31, 2023, we were in compliance with all of the financial covenants in our debt agreements, and we do not anticipate material issues under any debt agreements based on current facts and circumstances.

Our debt agreements contain certain covenants that limit restricted payments, including share repurchases and dividends. The 2023 Credit Agreement, 2029 Senior Notes and 2031 Senior Notes contain similar limitations which, subject to other conditions, allow unlimited restricted payments at times when the ratio of consolidated indebtedness less netted cash to adjusted EBITDA remains below 3.75 times in the case of the 2023 Credit Agreement and remains below 3.50 times in the cases of the 2029 Senior Notes and 2031 Senior Notes. In addition, these agreements permit limited restricted payments under certain conditions when the ratio of consolidated indebtedness less netted cash to adjusted EBITDA is above 3.75 times in the case of the 2023 Credit Agreement and above 3.50 times in the cases of the 2029 Senior Notes and 2031 Senior Notes. The limit on restricted payments under the 2023 Credit Agreement, 2029 Senior Notes and 2031 Senior Notes is in part determined by a basket that grows at 50% of adjusted net income each quarter, reduced by restricted payments that are not otherwise permitted. 

For additional information, refer to "Non-GAAP Financial Information" below for the calculation of the ratio of consolidated indebtedness less netted cash to adjusted EBITDA calculated in accordance with our 2023 Credit Agreement. Both consolidated indebtedness and adjusted EBITDA as used in discussion of the 2023 Credit Agreement are terms that are not recognized under GAAP and do not purport to be alternatives to net income as a measure of operating performance or total debt.

Share Repurchase Program

Our Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program in 2016 pursuant to which we were authorized to repurchase shares of our common stock, and the Board of Directors has authorized increases to this authorization from time to time. For the year ended December 31, 2023, we repurchased 0.1 million shares under our share repurchase program for approximately $5.0 million and had approximately $774.5 million remaining under our share repurchase program.

Share repurchases under this program may be made through open market transactions, negotiated purchases or otherwise, at times and in such amounts as management deems appropriate. These repurchases may be funded by operating cash flows and/or borrowings under our debt arrangements. The timing and actual number of shares repurchased will depend on a variety of factors including price, financing and regulatory requirements and other market conditions. The program is subject to certain limitations under our debt agreements. The program does not require the purchase of any minimum number of shares and may be suspended, modified or discontinued at any time without prior notice. Repurchases may be made under a Rule 10b5-1 plan, which would permit shares to be repurchased when we might otherwise be precluded from doing so under federal securities laws.    

In 2024, we will manage our share repurchase program based on current and expected cash flows, share price and alternative investment opportunities. As a result of the pending Mattress Firm acquisition, we have temporarily suspended our repurchase of shares in advance of closing the transaction. For a complete description of our share repurchase program, please refer to ITEM 5 under Part II, "Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities," of this Report.

Future Liquidity Sources and Uses

As of December 31, 2023, we had $1,041.3 million of liquidity, including $74.9 million of cash on hand and $966.4 million available under our revolving senior secured credit facility. We believe that cash flow from operations, availability under our existing credit facilities and arrangements, current cash balances and the ability to obtain other financing, if
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necessary, will provide adequate cash funds for our foreseeable working capital needs, necessary capital expenditures, debt service obligations and dividend payments.

Our capital allocation strategy follows a balanced approach focused on supporting the business, returning shareholder value through strategic acquisition opportunities that enhance our global competitiveness, as well as quarterly dividends and opportunistic share repurchases.

The Board of Directors declared a dividend of $0.13 per share for the first quarter of 2024. The dividend is payable on March 7, 2024 to shareholders of record as of February 22, 2024.

As of December 31, 2023, we had $2,593.6 million in total debt outstanding and consolidated indebtedness less netted cash, which is a non-GAAP financial measure, of $2,518.7 million. Leverage based on the ratio of consolidated indebtedness less netted cash to adjusted EBITDA, which is a non-GAAP financial measure, was 2.87 times for the year ended December 31, 2023. As a result of the pending Mattress Firm acquisition, we expect our leverage ratio in 2024 to be between 3.0 and 3.25 times. We currently expect to close the transaction in the second half of 2024 and expect our target leverage ratio to return to 2.0 to 3.0 times in the first twelve months following the close of the transaction.

Our debt service obligations could, under certain circumstances, have material consequences to our stockholders. Similarly, our cash requirements are subject to change as business conditions warrant and opportunities arise. The timing and size of any new business ventures or acquisitions that we may complete may also impact our cash requirements and debt service obligations.


Material Cash Requirements
 
Our material cash requirements as of December 31, 2023 are summarized below:
(in millions)Payment Due By Period
Contractual Obligations20242025202620272028Thereafter Total
Obligations
Debt (1)
$29.7 $182.6 $25.0 $25.0 $583.0 $1,656.2 $2,501.5 
Letters of credit28.1 — — — — — 28.1 
Interest payments (2)
111.7 101.7 97.2 95.5 93.7 161.9 661.7 
Operating lease obligations147.8 135.6 117.1 102.2 85.5 239.4 827.6 
Finance lease obligations (3)
14.6 13.7 14.3 13.5 12.2 23.8 92.1 
Pension obligations1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.6 25.7 32.6 
Total (4)
$333.1 $434.9 $255.0 $237.6 $776.0 $2,107.0 $4,143.6 

(1)Debt excludes finance lease obligations and deferred financing costs.
(2)Interest payments represent obligations under our debt outstanding as of December 31, 2023, applying December 31, 2023 interest rates and assuming scheduled payments are paid as contractually required through maturity.
(3)The payments due for finance lease obligations excludes $17.5 million in future payments for interest.
(4)Uncertain tax positions are excluded from this table given the timing of payments cannot be reasonably estimated.

Non-GAAP Financial Information

We provide information regarding adjusted net income, adjusted EPS, adjusted gross profit, adjusted gross margin, adjusted operating income (expense), adjusted operating margin, EBITDA, adjusted EBITDA, consolidated indebtedness and consolidated indebtedness less netted cash, which are not recognized terms under GAAP and do not purport to be alternatives to net income, earnings per share, gross profit, gross margin, operating income (expense) and operating margin as a measure of operating performance or an alternative to total debt as a measure of liquidity. We believe these non-GAAP financial measures provide investors with performance measures that better reflect our underlying operations and trends, providing a perspective not immediately apparent from net income, gross profit, gross margin, operating income (expense) and operating margin. The adjustments we make to derive the non-GAAP financial measures include adjustments to exclude items that may cause short-term fluctuations in the nearest GAAP financial measure, but which we do not consider to be the fundamental attributes or primary drivers of our business.

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We believe that exclusion of these items assists in providing a more complete understanding of our underlying results from continuing operations and trends, and we use these measures along with the corresponding GAAP financial measures to manage our business, to evaluate our consolidated and business segment performance compared to prior periods and the marketplace, to establish operational goals and to provide continuity to investors for comparability purposes. Limitations associated with the use of these non-GAAP financial measures include that these measures do not present all of the amounts associated with our results as determined in accordance with GAAP. These non-GAAP financial measures should be considered supplemental in nature and should not be construed as more significant than comparable financial measures defined by GAAP. Because not all companies use identical calculations, these presentations may not be comparable to other similarly titled measures of other companies. For more information about these non-GAAP financial measures and a reconciliation to the nearest GAAP financial measure, please refer to the reconciliations on the following pages.

Key Highlights
Year Ended December 31,
(in millions, except percentages and per common share amounts)20232022% Change
Net sales$4,925.4 $4,921.2 0.1 %
Net income$368.1 $455.7 (19.2)%
Adjusted net income (1)
$425.6 $467.9 (9.0)%
EPS$2.08 $2.53 (17.8)%
Adjusted EPS (1)
$2.40 $2.60 (7.7)%
(1)Non-GAAP financial measure. Please refer to the reconciliations in the following tables.

Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted EPS

A reconciliation of reported net income to adjusted net income and the calculation of adjusted EPS is provided below. We believe that the use of these non-GAAP financial measures provides investors with additional useful information with respect to the impact of various adjustments as described in the footnotes below.

The following table sets forth the reconciliation of our reported net income to adjusted net income and the calculation of adjusted EPS for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022.
Year Ended December 31,
(in millions, except per common share amounts)20232022
Net income$368.1 $455.7 
Transaction costs (1)
49.0 — 
Cybersecurity event (2)
14.3 — 
Fair value remeasurement (3)
11.0 — 
Operational start-up costs (4)
10.4 6.5 
ERP system transition (5)
3.2 15.5 
Loss on extinguishment of debt (6)
3.2 — 
Restructuring costs (7)
— 10.0 
Loss from discontinued operations, net of tax (8)
— 0.4 
Danish tax matter (9)
(10.2)(12.3)
Adjusted income tax provision (10)
(23.4)(7.9)
Adjusted net income$425.6 $467.9 
Adjusted earnings per share, diluted$2.40 $2.60 
Diluted shares outstanding177.3 180.3 

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(1)We recorded $49.0 million of transaction costs, primarily related to legal and professional fees associated with the pending acquisition of Mattress Firm in the year ended 2023.
(2)We recorded $14.3 million of costs associated with the cybersecurity event identified on July 23, 2023 in the year ended 2023. Cost of sales included $10.1 million of manufacturing and network disruption costs incurred to ensure business continuity in the year ended 2023. Operating expenses included $4.2 million, primarily related to professional fees incurred for incident response, containment measures and stabilization of our information systems in the year ended 2023.
(3)In the year ended 2023, we recorded a fair value remeasurement of $11.0 million primarily related to a strategic investment in a product innovation initiative.
(4)
We recorded $10.4 million of operational start-up costs related to the capacity expansion of its manufacturing and distribution facilities in the U.S. in the year ended 2023. Cost of sales included personnel and facility related costs of $10.2 million in the year ended 2023. We recorded $6.5 million of operational start-up costs related to the capacity expansion of its manufacturing and distribution facilities in the U.S. in the year ended 2022, including $0.4 million of other expense for the year ended 2022. Cost of sales and operating expenses included personnel and facility related costs of $5.8 million and $0.3 million, respectively.
(5)
We recorded $3.2 million of charges related to the transition of its ERP system in the year ended 2023. We recorded $15.5 million of charges related to the transition of its ERP system in the year ended 2022. Cost of sales included $11.1 million of manufacturing facility ERP system transition costs, including labor, logistics, training and travel in the year ended 2022, respectively. Operating expenses included $4.4 million, primarily related to professional fees for the year ended 2022.
(6)In the year ended 2023, we recognized $3.2 million of loss on extinguishment of debt associated with the refinancing of our senior secured credit facilities.
(7)In the year ended December 31, 2022, we recorded $10.0 million of restructuring costs, primarily associated with professional fees and headcount reductions related to organizational changes, including $0.2 million of other expense.
(8)Certain subsidiaries in the International business segment were accounted for as discontinued operations and had been designated as unrestricted subsidiaries in the 2019 Credit Agreement. Therefore, these subsidiaries were excluded from our adjusted financial measures for covenant compliance purposes.
(9)We recorded an income tax benefit, on a net basis, of $10.2 million and $12.3 million related to its Danish tax matter in the years ended 2023 and 2022, respectively. In December 2022, the Danish tax authority ("DTA") and the IRS agreed on a preliminary framework to conclude its Danish tax matter for the years 2012 through 2022. In October 2023, the DTA and the IRS formally concluded the matter.
(10)
Adjusted income tax provision represents the tax effects associated with the aforementioned items, excluding the income tax benefit for the Danish tax matter.

Adjusted Gross Profit and Gross Margin and Adjusted Operating Income (Expense) and Operating Margin

A reconciliation of gross profit and gross margin to adjusted gross profit and adjusted gross margin, respectively, and operating income (expense) and operating margin to adjusted operating income (expense) and adjusted operating margin, respectively, are provided below. We believe that the use of these non-GAAP financial measures provides investors with additional useful information with respect to the impact of various adjustments as described in the footnotes below.

The following table sets forth the reconciliation of our reported gross profit and operating income (expense) to the calculation of adjusted gross profit and adjusted operating income (expense) for the year ended December 31, 2023.
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FULL YEAR 2023
(in millions, except percentages) Consolidated Margin North America Margin International Margin Corporate
Net sales$4,925.4 $3,855.5 $1,069.9 $— 
Gross profit$2,128.7 43.2 %$1,537.5 39.9 %$591.2 55.3 %$— 
Adjustments:
Operational start-up costs (1)
10.2 10.2 — — 
Cybersecurity event (2)
10.1 10.1 — — 
ERP system transition (3)
3.2 3.2 — — 
Total adjustments23.5 23.5 — — 
Adjusted gross profit$2,152.2 43.7 %$1,561.0 40.5 %$591.2 55.3 %$— 
Operating income (expense)$607.2 12.3 %$643.1 16.7 %$170.9 16.0 %$(206.8)
Adjustments:
Transaction costs (4)
49.0 — — 49.0 
Cybersecurity event (2)
14.3 10.5 1.1 2.7 
Fair value remeasurement (5)
11.0 — — 11.0 
Operational start-up costs (1)
10.4 10.4 — — 
ERP system transition (3)
3.2 3.2 — — 
Total adjustments87.9 24.1 1.1 62.7 
Adjusted operating income (expense)$695.1 14.1 %$667.2 17.3 %$172.0 16.1 %$(144.1)
(1)We recorded $10.4 million of operational start-up costs related to the capacity expansion of our manufacturing and distribution facilities in the U.S. in the year ended 2023. Cost of sales and operating expenses included personnel and facility related costs of $10.2 million and $0.2 million, respectively.
(2)We recorded $14.3 million of costs associated with the cybersecurity event identified on July 23, 2023 in the year ended 2023. Cost of sales included $10.1 million of manufacturing and network disruption costs incurred to ensure business continuity in the year ended 2023. Operating expenses included $4.2 million, primarily related to professional fees incurred for incident response, containment measures and stabilization of our information systems in the year ended 2023.
(3)We recorded $3.2 million of charges related to the transition of our ERP system in the year ended 2023. Cost of sales included $3.2 million of manufacturing facility ERP system transition costs, including labor, logistics, training and travel.
(4)We recorded $49.0 million of transaction costs, primarily related to legal and professional fees associated with the pending acquisition of Mattress Firm in the year ended 2023.
(5)In the year ended 2023, we recorded a fair value remeasurement of $11.0 million primarily related to a strategic investment in a product innovation initiative.
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The following table sets forth the reconciliation of our reported gross profit and operating income (expense) to the calculation of adjusted gross profit and adjusted operating income (expense) for the year ended December 31, 2022.
FULL YEAR 2022
(in millions, except percentages)ConsolidatedMarginNorth AmericaMarginInternationalMarginCorporate
Net sales$4,921.2 $3,886.1 $1,035.1 $— 
Gross profit$2,049.6 41.6 %$1,487.3 38.3 %$562.3 54.3 %$— 
Adjustments:
ERP system transition (1)
11.1 11.1 — — 
Operational start-up costs (2)
5.8 5.8 — — 
Total adjustments16.9 16.9 — — 
Adjusted gross profit$2,066.5 42.0 %$1,504.2 38.7 %$562.3 54.3 %$— 
Operating income (expense)$680.6 13.8 %$642.4 16.5 %$187.2 18.1 %$(149.0)
Adjustments:
ERP system transition (1)
15.5 14.3 — 1.2 
Restructuring costs (3)
9.8 1.8 1.3 6.7 
Operational start-up costs (2)
6.1 6.1 — — 
Total adjustments31.4 22.2 1.3 7.9 
Adjusted operating income (expense)$712.0 14.5 %$664.6 17.1 %$188.5 18.2 %$(141.1)
(1)
We recorded $15.5 million of charges related to the transition of our ERP system in the year ended 2022. Cost of sales included $11.1 million of manufacturing facility ERP system transition costs, including labor, logistics, training and travel. Operating expenses included $4.4 million, primarily related to professional fees.
(2)
We recorded $6.5 million of operational start-up costs related to the capacity expansion of our manufacturing and distribution facilities in the U.S. in the year ended 2022, including $0.4 million of other expense. Cost of sales and operating expenses included personnel and facility related costs of $5.8 million and $0.3 million, respectively.
(3)
We recorded $10.0 million of restructuring costs in the year ended 2022. These costs were primarily associated with professional fees and headcount reductions related to organizational changes, including $0.2 million of other expense.

EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA and Consolidated Indebtedness Less Netted Cash

    The following reconciliations are provided below:

Net income to EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA
Ratio of consolidated indebtedness less netted cash to adjusted EBITDA
Total debt, net to consolidated indebtedness less netted cash

    We believe that presenting these non-GAAP measures provides investors with useful information with respect to our operating performance, cash flow generation and comparisons from period to period, as well as general information about our progress in reducing our leverage.

The 2023 Credit Agreement provides the definition of adjusted EBITDA. Accordingly, we present adjusted EBITDA to provide information regarding our compliance with requirements under the 2023 Credit Agreement.

The following table sets forth the reconciliation of our reported net income to the calculations of EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022:
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Year Ended
(in millions)December 31, 2023December 31, 2022
Net income$368.1$455.7
Interest expense, net129.9103.0
Loss on extinguishment of debt (1)
3.2
Income tax provision103.4119.0
Depreciation and amortization184.8182.0
EBITDA$789.4$859.7
Adjustments:
Transaction costs (2)
49.0
Cybersecurity event (3)
14.3
Fair value remeasurement (4)
11.0
Operational start-up costs (5)
10.46.5
ERP system transition (6)
3.215.5
Restructuring costs (7)
10.0
Loss from discontinued operations, net of tax (8)
0.4
Adjusted EBITDA$877.3$892.1
Consolidated indebtedness less netted cash$2,518.7$2,762.6
Ratio of consolidated indebtedness less netted cash to adjusted EBITDA2.87  times3.10  times
(1)In the year ended 2023, we recognized $3.2 million of loss on extinguishment of debt associated with the refinancing of our senior secured credit facilities.
(2)We recorded $49.0 million of transaction costs, primarily related to legal and professional fees associated with the pending acquisition of Mattress Firm in the year ended 2023.
(3)We recorded $14.3 million of costs associated with the cybersecurity event identified on July 23, 2023 in the year ended 2023. Cost of sales included $10.1 million of manufacturing and network disruption costs incurred to ensure business continuity in the year ended 2023. Operating expenses included $4.2 million, primarily related to professional fees incurred for incident response, containment measures and stabilization of our information systems in the year ended 2023.
(4)In the year ended 2023, we recorded a fair value remeasurement of $11.0 million primarily related to a strategic investment in a product innovation initiative.
(5)We recorded $10.4 million and $6.5 million of operational start-up costs related to the capacity expansion of our manufacturing and distribution facilities in the U.S in the year ended 2023 and 2022, respectively.
(6)
We recorded $3.2 million and $15.5 million of charges related to the transition of our ERP system in the year ended 2023 and 2022, respectively.
(7)We recorded $10.0 million of restructuring costs primarily associated with professional fees and headcount reductions related to organization changes in the year ended 2022.
(8)Certain subsidiaries in the International business segment were accounted for as discontinued operations and had been designated as unrestricted subsidiaries in the 2019 Credit Agreement. Therefore, these subsidiaries were excluded from our adjusted financial measures for covenant compliance purposes.
    
On October 10, 2023, our 2023 Credit Agreement replaced our 2019 Credit Agreement. Under the 2023 Credit Agreement, the definition of adjusted EBITDA contains certain restrictions that limit adjustments to net income when calculating adjusted EBITDA. For the year ended December 31, 2023, our adjustments to net income when calculating adjusted EBITDA did not exceed the allowable amount under the 2023 Credit Agreement.
    
The ratio of consolidated indebtedness less netted cash to adjusted EBITDA was 2.87 times for the trailing twelve months ended December 31, 2023. The 2023 Credit Agreement requires us to maintain a ratio of consolidated indebtedness less netted cash to adjusted EBITDA of less than 5.00 times.
    
The following table sets forth the reconciliation of our reported total debt to the calculation of consolidated indebtedness less netted cash as of December 31, 2023 and 2022. "Consolidated Indebtedness" and "Netted Cash" are terms used in the 2023 Credit Agreement for purposes of certain financial covenants.
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(in millions)December 31, 2023December 31, 2022
Total debt, net$2,571.9 $2,810.3 
Plus: Deferred financing costs (1)
21.7 20.5 
Consolidated indebtedness2,593.6 2,830.8 
Less: Netted cash (2)
74.9 68.2 
Consolidated indebtedness less netted cash$2,518.7 $2,762.6 
(1)We present deferred financing costs as a direct reduction from the carrying amount of the related debt in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. For purposes of determining total debt for financial covenant purposes, we added these costs back to total debt, net as calculated per the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
(2)Netted cash includes cash and cash equivalents for domestic and foreign subsidiaries designated as "Restricted Subsidiaries" in the 2023 Credit Agreement.

Critical Accounting Estimates
Our management is responsible for our financial statements and has evaluated the accounting policies to be used in their preparation. Our management believes these policies are reasonable and appropriate. The following discussion identifies those accounting policies that we believe are critical in the preparation of our financial statements, the judgments and uncertainties affecting the application of those policies and the possibility that materially different amounts will be reported under different conditions or using different assumptions.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires that management make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of commitments and contingencies at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Our actual results could differ from those estimates.

Revenue Recognition. Sales of product are recognized when the performance obligations under the terms of the contract with the customer are satisfied, which is generally when control of the product has transferred to the customer. Transferring control of each product sold is considered a separate performance obligation. We transfer control and recognize a sale when the product ships to the customer or when the customer receives the product based upon agreed shipping terms. Each unit sold is considered an independent, unbundled performance obligation. We do not have any additional performance obligations other than product sales that are material in the context of the contract. We extend volume discounts to certain customers and reflect these amounts as a reduction of net sales as variable consideration.

We allow product returns through certain sales channels and on certain products. The accrued sales returns in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheet, which include a current balance in accrued expenses and other current liabilities and a non-current balance in other non-current liabilities, was $43.7 million and $40.5 million as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Estimated sales returns are provided at the time of sale based on historical sales channel return rates. Estimated future obligations related to these products are provided by a reduction of sales in the period in which the revenue is recognized. We considered the impact of recoverable salvage value on sales returns by product in determining its estimate of future sales returns. We recognized a return asset for the right to recover the goods returned by the customer. The right of return asset is recognized on a gross basis outside of the accrued sales returns and is not material to our Consolidated Balance Sheets. Our level of sales returns differs by channel, with our Direct channel typically experiencing a higher rate of returns. In the event future sales returns claims are higher than our historical experiences, such as a 50 basis point increase, the impact would not be material to the Consolidated Financial Statements.

The allowance for credit losses is our best estimate of the amount of estimated lifetime credit losses in our accounts receivable. The allowance for credit losses included in accounts receivable, net in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets was $66.9 million and $62.4 million as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. We regularly review the adequacy of our allowance for credit losses. We estimate losses over the contractual life using assumptions to capture the risk of loss, even if remote, based principally on how long a receivable has been outstanding. Account balances are charged off against the allowance for credit losses after all reasonable means of collection have been exhausted and the potential for recovery is considered remote. As of December 31, 2023, our accounts receivable were substantially current. Other factors considered include historical write-off experience, current economic conditions and also factors such as customer credit, past transaction history with the customer and changes in customer payment terms.

The credit environment in which our customers operate has been relatively stable over the past few years. Historically, less than 1.0% of net sales ultimately prove to be uncollectible. Total bad debt expense was $8.2 million in 2023, $6.7 million in 2022 and $2.7 million in 2021. If circumstances change, for example, due to the occurrence of higher-than-expected defaults or a significant adverse change in a major customer’s ability to meet our financial obligations such as bankruptcies, estimates of the recoverability of receivable amounts due could be reduced.

We have not made any material changes in the accounting methodology we use to measure the estimated liability for sales returns or allowance for credit losses during the past three fiscal years.

We do not believe there is a reasonable likelihood that there will be a material change in the future estimates or assumptions we use to establish the liability for sales returns and credit losses. However, if actual results are not consistent with our estimates or assumptions which are based on our historical experiences, we may be exposed to losses or gains that could be material.

Income Taxes. Accounting for income taxes requires recognition of deferred tax liabilities and assets for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements or tax returns. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities.

We recognize deferred tax assets in our Consolidated Balance Sheets, and these deferred tax assets typically represent items deducted currently from operating income in the financial statements that will be deducted in future periods in tax returns. A valuation allowance is recorded against certain deferred tax assets to reduce the consolidated deferred tax asset to an amount that will, more likely than not, be realized in future periods. At December 31, 2023 the valuation allowance of $49.5 million was primarily related to certain tax attributes both domestically and in various foreign jurisdictions. The valuation allowance is based, in part, on our estimate of future taxable income, the expected utilization of foreign and state tax loss carryforwards, and credits and the expiration dates of such tax loss carryforwards.

We did not recognize tax benefits from uncertain tax positions within the provision for income taxes. We may recognize a tax benefit only if it is more likely than not the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such positions are then measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon settlement. At December 31, 2023, our estimated gross unrecognized tax benefits were $4.5 million which, if recognized, would favorably impact our future earnings. Due to uncertainties in any tax audit outcome, our estimates of the ultimate settlement of our unrecognized tax positions may change and the actual tax benefits may differ significantly from the estimates.

We had previously been involved in a dispute with SKAT regarding the Danish Tax Matter for tax years 2012 through 2022. The matter was formally resolved in the three months ended December 31, 2023 with terms of the final resolution substantially identical as those preliminarily agreed to in the three months ended December 31, 2022. As a result of the resolution of the matter, there is no uncertain tax position reflected in our Consolidated Balance Sheet at December 31, 2023 related to the Danish Tax Matter. The resolution of this matter is discussed in Note 13, "Income Taxes" in our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, ITEM 8 of this Report.

Goodwill and Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets. Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are evaluated for impairment annually as of October 1 and whenever events or circumstances make it more likely than not that impairment may have occurred or when required by accounting standards.

We test goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level. Our reporting units are our North America segment, our International segment (excluding Dreams) and Dreams. We test individual indefinite-lived intangible assets at the brand level. These assessments may be performed quantitatively or qualitatively.

Using the quantitative approach, we make various estimates and assumptions in determining the estimated fair value of each reporting unit using a combination of discounted cash flow models and valuations based on earnings multiples for guideline public companies in each reporting unit’s industry peer group, when externally quoted market prices are not readily available. Discounted cash flow models are reliant on various assumptions, including projected business results, long-term growth factors and weighted-average cost of capital. Management judgement is involved in estimating these variables, and they include inherent uncertainties as they are forecasting future events. We perform sensitivity analyses by using a range of inputs to confirm the reasonableness of the long-term growth rate and weighted average cost of capital. Additionally, we compare the indicated equity value to our market capitalization and evaluate the resulting implied control premium/discount to determine if the estimated enterprise value is reasonable compared to external market indicators.

Under the qualitative approach, we review macroeconomic conditions, industry and market conditions and entity specific factors, including strategies and financial performance for potential indicators of impairment.

In 2023, we did not make any changes to our reporting units or the accounting methodology we use to assess impairment loss on goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets, which included an assessment of the impairment of goodwill for our reporting units and indefinite-lived intangible assets using a quantitative approach. The results indicated that the fair values of each of our reporting units and indefinite-lived intangible assets were substantially in excess of their carrying values. Subsequent to our October 1, 2023 annual impairment test, no indications of impairment were identified.

We do not believe there is a reasonable likelihood that there will be a material change in the future estimates or assumptions we use to test for impairment losses on goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets. However, if actual results are not consistent with our estimates or assumptions, we may be exposed to an impairment charge that could be material.

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
 
Interest Rate Risk
 
Our primary exposure to interest rate risk is due to our variable-rate debt agreements, including our 2023 Credit Agreement. These variable-rate debt agreements use Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("SOFR"), which is subject to fluctuation and uncertainty. As of December 31, 2023, the value of our variable-rate debt was $901.5 million. Based on our balance sheet position as of December 31, 2023, the annualized effect of a 10% percentage point increase in floating interest rates on our variable-rate debt obligations would cause an estimated reduction on income before income taxes of $9.0 million.

Foreign Currency Exchange Risk

We hedge a portion of our currency exchange exposure relating to foreign currency transactions with foreign exchange forward contracts. A sensitivity analysis indicates the potential loss in fair value on foreign exchange forward contracts outstanding at December 31, 2023, resulting from a hypothetical 10.0% adverse change in all foreign currency exchange rates against the U.S. dollar, is approximately $1.7 million. Such losses would be largely offset by gains from the revaluation or settlement of the underlying assets and liabilities that are being protected by the foreign exchange forward contracts.


ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
 
32


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and Board of Directors of Tempur Sealy International, Inc. and Subsidiaries

Opinion on the Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Tempur Sealy International, Inc. and Subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, stockholders' equity (deficit) and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes and financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15(a) (collectively referred to as the "consolidated financial statements"). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework), and our report dated February 16, 2024, expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

Basis for Opinion

These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of the critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the account or disclosure to which it relates.

Impairment analysis of goodwill for the Dreams reporting unit
Description of the MatterAt December 31, 2023, the Company had $324.6 million of goodwill related to its Dreams reporting unit, which was included in the International reportable segment. As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company performs its annual impairment test on goodwill as of the first day of the fourth quarter, and more frequently if the Company believes indicators of impairment exist. Management performed its impairment test by comparing the fair value of the Dreams reporting unit to its carrying amount to determine if there is a potential indicator of impairment. Management used an income approach (a discounted cash flow analysis) and a market approach (guideline public company analysis) in its quantitative impairment tests.

Auditing the annual goodwill impairment test for the Dreams reporting unit was especially challenging due to the judgments required in determining the fair value. In particular, the discounted cash flow model involved judgmental assumptions, including projected business results, long-term growth factors and the weighted-average cost of capital, which all include inherent uncertainties as they are affected by expectations about future market or economic conditions and reporting unit specific risk factors.
How We Addressed the Matter in Our AuditWe obtained an understanding, evaluated the design, and tested the operating effectiveness of controls over the Company’s goodwill impairment process, including controls over management’s review of significant inputs and assumptions used in determining the fair value of the Dreams reporting unit.

To test the estimated fair value of the Dreams reporting unit, we performed audit procedures that included, among others, assessing the fair value methodologies and testing the significant assumptions used in the discounted cash flow models, including projected business results, long-term growth factors and the weighted-average cost of capital. As it pertains to the projected business results, we assessed the reasonableness of the Company’s assumptions by comparing those assumptions to recent historical performance, current economic and industry trends, and financial forecasts. We also assessed the reasonableness of estimates of the projected business results and the long-term growth factors by evaluating how such assumptions compared to economic, industry, and peer expectations. We performed various sensitivity analyses around these significant assumptions to understand the impact on the fair value calculation. In addition, we involved our valuation specialists to assist with our evaluation of the fair value methodologies used by the Company and significant assumptions, including, the weighted average cost of capital based on the projected business results. Specifically, we evaluated the components of the weighted average cost of capital assumptions by performing an independent corroborative calculation with the involvement of our valuation specialists.

/s/ Ernst & Young LLP        
We have served as the Company's auditor since 2002.
Louisville, Kentucky
February 16, 2024

33

TEMPUR SEALY INTERNATIONAL, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
(in millions, except per common share amounts)
Year Ended December 31,
202320222021
Net sales$4,925.4 $4,921.2 $4,930.8 
Cost of sales2,796.7 2,871.6 2,772.1 
Gross profit2,128.7 2,049.6 2,158.7 
Selling and marketing expenses1,063.4 992.5 923.1 
General, administrative and other expenses481.1 397.6 353.9 
Equity income in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates(23.0)(21.1)(30.6)
Operating income607.2 680.6 912.3