10-K 1 trmk-20231231.htm 10-K 10-K
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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission file number 000-3683

img233989071_0.jpg 

TRUSTMARK CORPORATION

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

Mississippi

 

64-0471500

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

(IRS Employer Identification Number)

 

 

 

248 East Capitol Street, Jackson, Mississippi

 

39201

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

(Zip Code)

 

 

 

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:

 

(601) 208-5111

 

 

 

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

 

 

Common Stock, no par value

TRMK

Nasdaq Global Select Market

(Title of Class)

(Trading Symbol)

(Name of Exchange on Which Registered)

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No ☐

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act.) Yes ☐ No

Based on the closing sales price at June 30, 2023, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the shares of common stock held by nonaffiliates of the registrant was approximately $698.8 million.

As of January 31, 2024, there were issued and outstanding 61,084,299 shares of the registrant’s Common Stock.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Proxy Statement for Trustmark’s 2024 Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held April 23, 2024 are incorporated by reference into Part III of the Form 10-K report.

 


 

TRUSTMARK CORPORATION

ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PART I

PAGE

Item 1.

Business

3

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

16

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

28

Item 1C.

Cybersecurity

28

Item 2.

Properties

29

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

29

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

29

PART II

 

Item 5.

Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

29

Item 6.

Selected Financial Data

32

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

33

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

66

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

68

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

144

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

144

Item 9B.

Other Information

144

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

144

PART III

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers of the Registrant and Corporate Governance

145

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

145

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

145

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

145

Item 14.

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

145

PART IV

 

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

145

Item 16.

Summary

146

SIGNATURES

150

 

2


 

Forward-Looking Statements

Certain statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K constitute forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. You can identify forward-looking statements by words such as “may,” “hope,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “project,” “potential,” “seek,” “continue,” “could,” “would,” “future” or the negative of those terms or other words of similar meaning. You should read statements that contain these words carefully because they discuss our future expectations or state other “forward-looking” information. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements relating to anticipated future operating and financial performance measures, including net interest margin, credit quality, business initiatives, growth opportunities and growth rates, among other things, and encompass any estimate, prediction, expectation, projection, opinion, anticipation, outlook or statement of belief included therein as well as the management assumptions underlying these forward-looking statements. You should be aware that the occurrence of the events described under the caption Item 1A. Risk Factors in this report could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. Should one or more of these risks materialize, or should any such underlying assumptions prove to be significantly different, actual results may vary significantly from those anticipated, estimated, projected or expected.

Risks that could cause actual results to differ materially from current expectations of Management include, but are not limited to, changes in the level of nonperforming assets and charge-offs, an increase in unemployment levels and slowdowns in economic growth, actions by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (FRB) that impact the level of market interest rates, local, state and national economic and market conditions, conditions in the housing and real estate markets in the regions in which Trustmark operates and the extent and duration of the current volatility in the credit and financial markets, levels of and volatility in crude oil prices, changes in our ability to measure the fair value of assets in our portfolio, material changes in the level and/or volatility of market interest rates, the impacts related to or resulting from bank failures and other economic and industry volatility, including potential increased regulatory requirements and costs and potential impacts to macroeconomic conditions, the performance and demand for the products and services we offer, including the level and timing of withdrawals from our deposit accounts, the costs and effects of litigation and of unexpected or adverse outcomes in such litigation, our ability to attract noninterest-bearing deposits and other low-cost funds, competition in loan and deposit pricing, as well as the entry of new competitors into our markets through de novo expansion and acquisitions, economic conditions, including the potential impact of issues related to the European financial system and monetary and other governmental actions designed to address credit, securities, and/or commodity markets, the enactment of legislation and changes in existing regulations or enforcement practices or the adoption of new regulations, changes in accounting standards and practices, including changes in the interpretation of existing standards, that affect our consolidated financial statements, changes in consumer spending, borrowings and savings habits, technological changes, changes in the financial performance or condition of our borrowers, changes in our ability to control expenses, greater than expected costs or difficulties related to the integration of acquisitions or new products and lines of business, cyber-attacks and other breaches which could affect our information system security, natural disasters, environmental disasters, pandemics or other health crises, acts of war or terrorism, and other risks described in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

Although we believe that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are reasonable, we can give no assurance that such expectations will prove to be correct. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise any of this information, whether as the result of new information, future events or developments or otherwise.

 

PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

The Corporation

Description of Business

Trustmark Corporation (Trustmark), a Mississippi business corporation incorporated in 1968, is a bank holding company headquartered in Jackson, Mississippi. Trustmark’s principal subsidiary is Trustmark National Bank (TNB), initially chartered by the State of Mississippi in 1889. At December 31, 2023, TNB had total assets of $18.720 billion, which represented approximately 99.99% of the consolidated assets of Trustmark.

Through TNB and its subsidiaries, Trustmark operates as a financial services organization providing banking and other financial solutions through offices and 2,757 full-time equivalent associates (measured at December 31, 2023) located in the states of Alabama (includes the Georgia Loan Production Office (LPO), which are collectively referred to herein as Trustmark's Alabama market region), Florida (primarily in the northwest or “Panhandle” region of that state, which is referred to herein as Trustmark’s Florida market), Mississippi, Tennessee (in the Memphis and Northern Mississippi regions, which are collectively referred to herein as Trustmark’s

3


 

Tennessee market), and Texas (primarily in Houston, which is referred to herein as Trustmark’s Texas market). The principal products produced and services rendered by TNB and Trustmark’s other subsidiaries are as follows:

Trustmark National Bank

Commercial Banking – TNB provides a full range of commercial banking services to corporations and other business customers. Loans are provided for a variety of general corporate purposes, including financing for commercial and industrial projects, income producing commercial real estate, owner-occupied real estate and construction and land development. TNB also provides deposit services, including checking, savings and money market accounts and certificates of deposit as well as treasury management services.

Consumer Banking – TNB provides banking services to consumers, including checking, savings, and money market accounts as well as certificates of deposit and individual retirement accounts. In addition, TNB provides consumer customers with installment and real estate loans and lines of credit.

Mortgage Banking – TNB provides mortgage banking services, including construction financing, production of conventional and government insured mortgages, secondary marketing and mortgage servicing.

Insurance – TNB provides a competitive array of insurance solutions for business and individual risk management needs. Business insurance offerings include services and specialized products for medical professionals, construction, manufacturing, hospitality, real estate and group life and health plans. Individual customers are also provided life and health insurance, and personal line policies. TNB provides these services through Fisher Brown Bottrell Insurance, Inc. (FBBI), a Mississippi corporation and a wholly-owned subsidiary of TNB, which is based in Jackson, Mississippi.

Wealth Management and Trust Services – TNB offers specialized services and expertise in the areas of wealth management, trust, investment and custodial services for corporate and individual customers. These services include the administration of personal trusts and estates as well as the management of investment accounts for individuals, employee benefit plans and charitable foundations. TNB also provides corporate trust and institutional custody, securities brokerage, financial and estate planning and retirement plan services.

New Market Tax Credits (NMTC) – TNB provides an intermediary vehicle for the provision of loans or investments in Low-Income Communities (LICs) through its subsidiary Southern Community Capital, LLC (SCC). SCC is a Mississippi single member limited liability company, a certified Community Development Entity (CDE) and a wholly-owned subsidiary of TNB. The primary mission of SCC is to provide investment capital for LICs, as defined by Section 45D of the Internal Revenue Code, or for Low-Income Persons (LIPs). As a certified CDE, SCC is able to apply to the Community Development Financial Institutions Fund (CDFI Fund) to receive NMTC allocations to offer investors in exchange for equity investments in qualified projects.

Capital Trust

Trustmark Preferred Capital Trust I (the Trust) is a Delaware trust affiliate and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Trustmark formed in 2006 to facilitate a private placement of $60.0 million in trust preferred securities. As defined in applicable accounting standards, the Trust is considered a variable interest entity for which Trustmark is not the primary beneficiary. Accordingly, the accounts of the Trust are not included in Trustmark’s consolidated financial statements.

Strategy

Trustmark seeks to be a premier diversified financial services company in its markets, providing a broad range of banking, wealth management and insurance solutions to its customers. Trustmark’s products and services are designed to strengthen and expand customer relationships and enhance the organization’s competitive advantages in its markets as well as to provide cross-selling opportunities that will enable Trustmark to continue to diversify its revenue and earnings streams.

4


 

The following table sets forth summary data regarding Trustmark’s securities, loans, assets, deposits, equity and revenue over the past three years ($ in thousands):

 

December 31,

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Securities

 

$

3,189,157

 

 

$

3,518,596

 

 

$

3,581,414

 

Total securities growth (decline)

 

$

(329,439

)

 

$

(62,818

)

 

$

1,051,527

 

Total securities growth (decline)

 

 

-9.4

%

 

 

-1.8

%

 

 

41.6

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Loans held for investment (LHFI)

 

$

12,950,524

 

 

$

12,204,039

 

 

$

10,247,829

 

Total loans growth (decline)

 

$

746,485

 

 

$

1,956,210

 

 

$

423,305

 

Total loans growth (decline)

 

 

6.1

%

 

 

19.1

%

 

 

4.3

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assets

 

$

18,722,189

 

 

$

18,015,478

 

 

$

17,595,636

 

Total assets growth (decline)

 

$

706,711

 

 

$

419,842

 

 

$

1,043,796

 

Total assets growth (decline)

 

 

3.9

%

 

 

2.4

%

 

 

6.3

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deposits

 

$

15,569,763

 

 

$

14,437,648

 

 

$

15,087,160

 

Total deposits growth (decline)

 

$

1,132,115

 

 

$

(649,512

)

 

$

1,038,396

 

Total deposits growth (decline)

 

 

7.8

%

 

 

-4.3

%

 

 

7.4

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Equity

 

$

1,661,847

 

 

$

1,492,268

 

 

$

1,741,311

 

Total equity growth (decline)

 

$

169,579

 

 

$

(249,043

)

 

$

194

 

Total equity growth (decline)

 

 

11.4

%

 

 

-14.3

%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenue *

 

$

759,836

 

 

$

699,852

 

 

$

640,261

 

Total revenue growth (decline)

 

$

59,984

 

 

$

59,591

 

 

$

(60,869

)

Total revenue growth (decline)

 

 

8.6

%

 

 

9.3

%

 

 

-8.7

%

* Consistent with Trustmark’s audited financial statements, revenue is defined as net interest income plus noninterest income.

For additional information regarding the general development of Trustmark’s business, see Part II. Item 6. – Selected Financial Data and Item 7. – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of this report.

Overview of Lending Business

Trustmark categorizes loans on its balance sheet into two categories. These categories are described in more detail in Note 1 – Significant Accounting Policies included in Part II. Item 8. - Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this report.

Loans Held for Investment (LHFI) – Loans originally underwritten by Trustmark that do not constitute loans held for sale or acquired loans.
Loans Held for Sale (LHFS) – Mortgage loans purchased from wholesale customers or originated in Trustmark’s General Banking Segment, other than mortgage loans that are retained in the LHFI portfolio based on banking relationships or certain investment strategies.

The following discussion briefly summarizes Trustmark’s lending business by focusing on LHFI and LHFS and includes a discussion of the risks inherent in these loans, Trustmark’s underwriting policies for its loans and the characteristics of the real estate loan component of these loans.

As a general matter, extending credit to businesses and consumers exposes Trustmark to credit risk, which is the risk that the principal balance and any related interest may not be collected according to the original terms due to the inability or unwillingness of the borrower to repay the loan. Trustmark mitigates credit risk through a set of internal controls, which includes adherence to conservative lending practices and underwriting guidelines, collateral monitoring, and oversight of its borrower’s financial performance and collateral. The risks inherent in specific subsets of lending are discussed below.

LHFI Secured by Construction, Land Development, and Other Land – Construction and land development loans include loans for both commercial and residential properties to builders/developers, other commercial borrowers and consumers. This category also includes loans secured by vacant land, except land known to be used or usable for agricultural purposes, such as crop and livestock production. Repayment is normally derived from the sale of the underlying property or from permanent financing, which refinances Trustmark’s

5


 

initial loan. Trustmark’s engagement in this type of lending is generally extended to those builders and developers exhibiting the highest credit quality with significant equity invested in the project and is primarily restricted to projects within Trustmark’s geographic markets. The underwriting process for these loans includes analysis of the financial position and strength of both the borrower and guarantor, experience with similar projects in the past, market demand and prospects for successful completion of the proposed project within the established budget and schedule, values of underlying collateral and availability of permanent financing. Risk within this portfolio is mitigated through adherence to policies and lending limits, periodic target credit reviews of the different segments of this portfolio, inspection of projects throughout the life of the loan and routine monitoring of financial information and collateral values as they are updated.

Inherent in real estate construction lending is the risk that the full value of the collateral does not exist at the time the loan is granted. Construction lending also inherently includes the risk associated with a borrower’s ability to successfully complete a proposed project on time and within budget. Further, adverse changes in the market occurring between the start of construction and completion of the projects can result in slower sales or rental rates and lower sales prices than originally anticipated which could impact the underlying real estate collateral values and timely and full repayment of these loans. Rising interest rates can adversely affect the cost of construction and the financial viability of real estate projects. Higher interest rates may also result in higher capitalization rates, thereby reducing a property’s value. As a result of this risk profile, LHFI secured by construction, land development and other land are considered to be higher risks than other real estate loans.

LHFI and LHFS Secured by Residential Properties – Residential real estate loans consist of first and junior liens on residential properties that are extended in the geographic markets in which Trustmark operates as well as mortgage products, originated and purchased, that are underwritten to secondary market standards. Credit underwriting standards include evaluation of the borrower’s credit history and repayment capacity, including verification of income and valuation of collateral. Portfolio performance is continuously evaluated through monitoring of repayment performance.

Credit performance of consumer residential real estate loans is highly dependent on housing values and household income which, in turn are highly dependent on national, regional and local economic factors. Rising interest rates, rising unemployment rates and other adverse changes in these economies may have a negative effect on the ability of Trustmark’s borrowers to repay these loans and negatively affect value of the underlying residential real estate collateral.

LHFI Secured by Nonfarm, Nonresidential Properties (NFNR LHFI) – Trustmark provides financing for both owner-occupied commercial real estate as well as income-producing commercial real estate. Trustmark seeks to maintain a balance of owner-occupied and income-producing real estate loans that moderates its risk to the specific risks of each type of loan. Commercial real estate term loans are typically collateralized by liens on real property. Both types of commercial real estate loans are underwritten to lending policies that include maximum loan-to-value ratios, minimum equity requirements, acceptable amortization periods and minimum debt service coverage requirements, based on property type. Income-producing commercial real estate loans also generally require substantial equity and are subject to exposure limits for a single project. All exceptions to established guidelines are subject to stringent internal review and require specific approval. As with commercial loans, the borrower’s financial strength and capacity to repay their obligations remain the primary focus of underwriting. Financial strength is evaluated based upon analytical tools that consider historical and projected cash flows and performance in addition to analysis of the proposed project for income-producing properties. Additional support offered by guarantors is also considered.

Risk for owner-occupied commercial real estate is driven by the creditworthiness of the underlying borrowers, particularly cash flow from the borrowers’ business operations as well as the risk of a shortfall in collateral. Credit performance of loans secured by commercial income-producing real estate can be negatively affected by national, regional and local economic conditions, which may result in deteriorating tenant credit profiles, tenant losses, reduced rental/lease rates and higher than anticipated vacancy rates, all contributing to declines in value or liquidity of the underlying real estate collateral. Other factors, such as increasing interest rates, may result in higher capitalization rates, thereby reducing a property’s value.

Commercial and Industrial LHFI – Commercial loans (other than commercial loans related to real estate assets, which are summarized above) are made to many types of businesses for various purposes, such as short-term working capital loans that are usually secured by accounts receivable and inventory, equipment and fixed asset purchases that are secured by those assets and term financing for those within Trustmark’s geographic markets. Trustmark’s credit underwriting process for commercial loans includes analysis of historical and projected cash flows and performance, evaluation of financial strength of both borrowers and guarantors as reflected in current and detailed financial information and evaluation of underlying collateral to support the credit. Credit risk within the commercial loan portfolio is managed through adherence to specific commercial lending policies and internally established lending authorities, diversification within the portfolio and monitoring of the portfolio on a continuing basis.

Credit risk in commercial and industrial loans can arise due to fluctuations in borrowers’ financial condition, deterioration in collateral values and changes in market conditions. The credit risk inherent in these loans depends on, to a significant degree, the general economic

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conditions of these areas. Further, credit risk can increase if Trustmark’s loans are concentrated to borrowers engaged in the same or similar activities, or to groups of borrowers who may be uniquely or disproportionately affected by market or economic conditions.

Consumer LHFI – Consumer credit includes loans to individuals for household and personal items, automobile purchases, unsecured loans, personal lines of credit and credit cards. All consumer loans are subject to a standardized underwriting process through Trustmark’s consumer loan center, with emphasis placed upon the borrower’s credit evaluation and historical performance, income evaluation and valuation of collateral (where applicable).

Similar to residential real estate loan portfolios, an inherent risk factor in consumer loans is that they are dependent on national, regional and local economic factors that affect employment in the markets where these loans are originated. Generally, consumer loan portfolios consist of a large number of relatively small-balance loans, some of which are originated as unsecured credit (credit cards and some personal lines of credit), and as such, do not have collateral as a secondary source of repayment. Consumer loans generally pose heightened risks of collectability and loss when compared to other loan types.

Other LHFI – Other loans primarily consist of loans to non-depository financial institutions, such as mortgage companies, finance companies and other financial intermediaries, loans to state and political subdivisions, and loans to non-profit and charitable organizations. These loans are underwritten based on the specific nature or purpose of the loan and underlying collateral with special consideration given to the specific source of repayment for the loan.

Similar to commercial and industrial loans, inherent risk in other loans can arise due to fluctuations in borrowers’ financial condition, deterioration in collateral values and changes in market and economic conditions. Loans to state and political subdivisions have the added inherent risk of being somewhat dependent on the ability and capacity of those entities to generate tax and other revenue to repay the loans. Loans to non-profit and charitable organizations are dependent on those organizations’ ability to generate revenue through their fundraising efforts and other forms of financial support, which can be susceptible to economic downturns.

Recent Economic and Industry Developments

Economic activity improved slightly during 2023; however, economic concerns remain as a result of the cumulative weight of uncertainty regarding the potential economic impact of geopolitical developments, such as the conflicts in Ukraine and the Middle East, inflation, the consequences of bank failures in the first half of 2023 and other economic and industry volatility, the 2024 political cycle in the United States, supply chain issues, higher energy prices and broader price pressures. Doubts surrounding the near-term direction of global markets and the potential impact on the United States economy are expected to persist for the near term. While Trustmark's customer base is wholly domestic, international economic conditions affect domestic economic conditions, and thus may have an impact upon Trustmark's financial condition or results of operations.

Market interest rates began to rise during 2022 after an extended period at historical lows. Starting in March 2022, the FRB began raising the target federal funds rate for the first time in three years and continued with multiple increases throughout 2022 and 2023, up to a range of 5.25% to 5.50% as of December 2023. In addition, the FRB increased the interest that it pays on reserves multiple times during 2022 and 2023 from 0.10% to 5.40% as of December 2023. As interest rates have increased, so have competitive pressures on the deposit cost of funds. This has been exacerbated by bank failures and the resulting heightened competition for deposits, which has also affected the interest that Trustmark pays on deposits. It is not possible to predict the pace and magnitude of changes in interest rates, or the impact rate changes will have on Trustmark's results of operations.

In the January 2024 “Summary of Commentary on Current Economic Conditions by Federal Reserve District,” the twelve Federal Reserve Districts’ reports suggested that economic activity during the reporting period (covering the period from November 18, 2023 through January 8, 2024) was mixed across Districts, with three Districts reporting modest increases in overall activity, eight Districts reporting little or no change and one District reporting a moderate decline. Reports by the twelve Federal Reserve Districts noted the following during the reporting period:

Consumer spending provided some seasonal relief over the holidays by meeting expectations in most Districts and exceeding expectations in three Districts. Several Districts noted increased leisure travel. Contacts in nearly all Districts reported decreases in manufacturing activity. Districts continued to note that high interest rates were limiting auto sales and real estate deals; however, the prospect of falling interest rates was cited by numerous contacts in various sectors as a source of optimism.
Concerns about the office market, weakening overall demand and the 2024 political cycle were often cited as sources of economic uncertainty. Overall, most Districts indicated that expectations of their firms for future growth were positive, had improved or both.

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Most Districts reported little or no net change in overall employment levels, while four Districts described the pace of job growth as modest to moderate. Several Districts reported ongoing challenges in recruiting and hiring skilled tradespeople. Nearly all Districts cited one or more signs of a cooling labor market, such as larger applicant pools, lower turnover rates, more selective hiring by firms and easing wage pressures. Wage growth remained modest to moderate in most Districts. Firms from many Districts expected wage pressures to ease and wage growth to fall further over the next year.
Prices increased at a slight to moderate pace overall. Some Districts noted that overall price increases had subsided to some degree from the prior reporting period. Firms in most Districts cited examples of steady or falling input prices, especially in the manufacturing and construction sectors and more discounting by auto dealers. Districts also noted that increased consumer price sensitivity had forced retailers to narrow their profit margins and to push back in turn on their suppliers' efforts to raise prices. Premium increases for property and casualty insurance and for health insurance continued to impact most firms.

Reports by the Federal Reserve’s Sixth District, Atlanta (which includes Trustmark’s Alabama, Florida and Mississippi market regions), Eighth District, St. Louis (which includes Trustmark’s Tennessee market region), and Eleventh District, Dallas (which includes Trustmark’s Texas market region), noted similar findings for the reporting period as those discussed above. The Federal Reserve’s Sixth District also noted lending increased during the reporting period, especially for multifamily and home equity loans; however, consumer lending contracted overall, alongside a rise in delinquencies in credit cards, auto loans and unsecured personal loans. The Federal Reserve's Sixth District reported that demand and large time deposit balances continued to increase as financial institutions paid higher interest rates on deposits; however, these higher funding costs have led to earnings concerns resulting in some banks restructuring securities portfolios and reinvesting proceeds into higher-yielding securities to protect margins. The Federal Reserve’s Eighth District also reported that loan growth slowed at a modest pace during the reporting period, but banking conditions and lending activity remained healthy. The Federal Reserve’s Eighth District also noted that commercial and industrial loan growth decreased slightly despite an increase in overall loan volume, demand for loans continues to be lower than the prior year and an ongoing modest decline in real estate loan growth. The Federal Reserve’s Eighth District also reported that total deposit growth increased modestly although faster than the national rate. The Federal Reserve’s Eleventh District also reported loan volumes stabilized during the reporting period and the pace of credit tightening decelerated, loan demand continued to decline, though at a slower pace, loan nonperformance continued to rise, still largely driven by consumer loans, and loan pricing continued to increase but at a slower rate. The Federal Reserve’s Eleventh District also noted that bankers reported increased core deposit volumes and although banking outlooks remain pessimistic and future business activity and loan demand are expected to decline, the rate of decline is anticipated to be milder than prior expectations.

The rising interest rate environment during 2022 and 2023, the resulting industry-wide reduction in the fair value of securities portfolios and the bank runs that led to the failures of some financial institutions in March 2023, among other events, have resulted in a current state of volatility and uncertainty with respect to the health of the United States banking system. There is heightened awareness around liquidity, uninsured deposits, deposit composition, unrecognized investment losses and capital.

For additional discussion of the impact of the current economic environment on the financial condition and results of operations of Trustmark and its subsidiaries, see Part II. Item 7. – Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of this report.

Competition

There is significant competition within the banking and financial services industry in the markets in which Trustmark operates. Changes in regulation, technology and product delivery systems have resulted in an increasingly competitive environment. Trustmark expects to continue to face increasing competition from online and traditional financial institutions seeking to attract customers by providing access to similar services and products.

Trustmark and its subsidiaries compete with national and state-chartered banking institutions of comparable or larger size and resources and with smaller community banking organizations. Trustmark has numerous local, regional and national nonbank competitors, including savings and loan associations, credit unions, mortgage companies, insurance companies, finance companies, financial service operations of major retailers, investment brokerage and financial advisory firms and mutual fund companies. Because nonbank financial institutions are not subject to the same regulatory restrictions as banks and bank holding companies, they can often operate with greater flexibility and lower cost structures. Currently, Trustmark does not face meaningful competition from international banks in its markets, although that could change in the future.

At June 30, 2023, Trustmark’s deposit market share ranked within the top three positions in 56.0% of the 55 counties served and within the top five positions in 69.0% of the counties served. The following table presents Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) deposit data regarding TNB’s deposit market share by state as of June 30, 2023. The FDIC deposit market share data presented below does not align with Trustmark’s reported geographic market regions, which in some instances cross state lines, and Trustmark’s

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geographic coverage within certain states presented below is not statewide (see the section captioned “Description of Business” above).

 

State

 

Deposit Market Share

 

Alabama

 

 

1.80

%

Florida

 

 

0.17

%

Mississippi

 

 

12.87

%

Tennessee

 

 

0.33

%

Texas

 

 

0.04

%

 

Services provided by the Wealth Management Segment face competition from many national, regional and local financial institutions. Companies that offer broad services similar to those provided by Trustmark, such as other banks, trust companies and full-service brokerage firms, as well as companies that specialize in particular services offered by Trustmark, such as investment advisors and mutual fund providers, all compete with Trustmark’s Wealth Management Segment.

Trustmark’s insurance subsidiary faces competition from local, regional and national insurance companies, independent insurance agencies as well as from other financial institutions offering insurance products.

Trustmark’s ability to compete effectively is a result of providing customers with desired products and services in a convenient and cost-effective manner. Customers for commercial, consumer and mortgage banking as well as wealth management and insurance services are influenced by convenience, quality of service, personal contacts, availability of products and services and competitive pricing. Trustmark continually reviews its products, locations, alternative delivery channels, and pricing strategies to maintain and enhance its competitive position. While Trustmark’s position varies by market, Management believes it can compete effectively as a result of the quality of Trustmark’s products and services, local market knowledge and awareness of customer needs.

Supervision and Regulation

The following discussion sets forth material elements of the regulatory framework applicable to bank holding companies and their subsidiaries and provides specific information relevant to Trustmark. The discussion is a summary of detailed statutes, regulations and policies. The descriptions are not intended to be complete summaries of the statutes, regulations and policies referenced therein. Such statutes, regulations and policies are continually under the review of the United States Congress and state legislatures as well as federal and state regulatory agencies. A change in statutes, regulations or policies could have a material impact on the business of Trustmark and its subsidiaries.

Regulation of Trustmark

Trustmark is a registered bank holding company under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (BHC Act). Trustmark and its nonbank subsidiaries are therefore subject to the supervision, examination, enforcement and reporting requirements of the BHC Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (FDI Act), the regulations of the FRB and certain of the requirements imposed by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act), as amended by the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act (EGRRCPA).

Federal Oversight Over Mergers and Acquisitions, Investments and Branching

The BHC Act requires every bank holding company to obtain the prior approval of the FRB before: (i) it may acquire direct or indirect ownership or control of any voting shares of any bank if, after such acquisition, the bank holding company will directly or indirectly own or control 5.0% or more of the voting shares of the bank; (ii) it or any of its subsidiaries, other than a bank, may acquire all or substantially all of the assets of any bank; or (iii) it may merge or consolidate with any other bank holding company. The BHC Act further requires the FRB to consider the competitive impact of the transaction, the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the bank holding companies and banks concerned and the convenience and needs of the community to be served, including the applicant’s record of performance under the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA). The FRB is also required to take into account in evaluating such a transaction the effectiveness of the parties in combating money laundering activities. Provisions of the FDI Act known as the Bank Merger Act impose similar approval standards for an insured depository institution to merge with another insured depository institution.

The BHC Act, as amended by the interstate banking provisions of the Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994 (Riegle-Neal Act), permits a bank holding company, such as Trustmark, to acquire a bank located in any other state, regardless of state law to the contrary, subject to certain deposit-percentage, aging requirements, and other restrictions, if the company is

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well-capitalized. The Riegle-Neal Act also generally permits national and state-chartered banks to branch interstate through acquisitions of banks in other states, if the resulting institution would be well-capitalized and well-managed.

In addition, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) has the authority to approve applications by national banks to establish de novo branches, including, under the Riegle-Neal Act, in states other than the bank’s home state if the law of the state in which the branch is located, or is to be located, would permit establishment of the branch if the bank were a state bank chartered by such state.

The BHC Act also generally requires FRB approval for a bank holding company’s acquisition of a company that is not an insured depository institution. Bank holding companies generally may engage, directly or indirectly, only in banking and such other activities as are determined by the FRB to be closely related to banking. Additionally, a provision of the BHC Act known as the Volcker Rule places limits on the ability of Trustmark and TNB to acquire or retain ownership interests in, or act as sponsor to, certain investment funds, including hedge funds and private equity funds, or to engage in proprietary trading (i.e., engaging as principal in any purchase or sale of one or more financial instruments for a trading account).

Certain acquisitions of Trustmark’s voting stock may be subject to regulatory approval or notice under federal law. Under the Change in Bank Control Act and BHC Act, a person or company that directly or indirectly acquires control of a bank holding company or bank must obtain the non-objection or approval of the institution’s appropriate federal banking agency in advance of the acquisition. For a publicly-traded bank holding company such as Trustmark, control for purposes of the Change in Bank Control Act is presumed to exist if the acquirer will have 10% or more of any class of the company’s voting securities.

Source of Strength

Under the FDI Act, Trustmark is expected to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to TNB. Under this policy, a bank holding company is expected to commit resources to support its bank subsidiary, including at times when the holding company may not be inclined or in a financial position to provide it.

Capital Adequacy

Bank holding companies and banks are subject to various regulatory capital requirements administered by state and federal bank regulatory agencies. Capital adequacy regulations involve quantitative measures of assets, liabilities, and certain off-balance sheet items calculated under regulatory accounting practices. Capital amounts and classifications are also subject to qualitative judgments by regulators about components, risk weighting and other factors. The FRB and the OCC, the primary regulators of Trustmark and TNB, respectively, have established substantially similar minimum risk-based capital ratio and leverage ratio requirements for bank holding companies and banks.

Under capital requirements applicable to Trustmark and TNB, Trustmark and TNB are required to meet a common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of at least 7.0% (a minimum of 4.5% plus a capital conservation buffer of 2.5%), a Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of at least 8.5% (a minimum of 6.0% plus a capital conservation buffer of 2.5%), a total capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of at least 10.5% (a minimum of 8.0% plus a capital conservation buffer of 2.5%), and a leverage ratio of Tier 1 capital to total consolidated assets of at least 4.0%.

For purposes of calculating the denominator of the risk-based capital ratios, a banking institution’s assets and some of its specified off-balance sheet commitments and obligations are assigned to various risk categories. For purposes of calculating the numerator of the capital ratios, capital, at both the holding company and bank level, is classified in one of three tiers depending on the “quality” and loss-absorbing features of the capital instrument. Common equity Tier 1 capital is predominantly comprised of common stock instruments (including related surplus) and retained earnings, net of treasury stock, and after making necessary capital deductions and adjustments. Tier 1 capital is comprised of common equity Tier 1 capital and additional Tier 1 capital, which includes non-cumulative perpetual preferred stock and similar instruments meeting specified eligibility criteria (including related surplus). Newly issued trust preferred securities and cumulative perpetual preferred stock may not be included in Tier 1 capital. Smaller depository institution holding companies (those with assets of less than $15 billion as of year-end 2009, including Trustmark) and most mutual holding companies are generally allowed to continue to count as Tier 1 capital most outstanding trust preferred securities and other non-qualifying securities that were issued prior to May 19, 2010 (up to a limit of 25% of Tier 1 capital, excluding non-qualifying capital instruments) rather than phasing such securities out of regulatory capital. However, a smaller depository institution holding company that has $15 billion or more in assets following an acquisition of another depository institution holding company generally is no longer allowed to count outstanding non-qualifying capital instruments toward its Tier 1 capital. Trustmark currently has outstanding trust preferred securities that are permitted to continue to count as Tier 1 capital up to the regulatory limit. Total capital is comprised of Tier 1 capital and Tier 2 capital, which includes certain subordinated debt with a minimum original maturity of five years (including related surplus) and a limited amount of allowance for loan losses. Newly issued trust preferred securities and cumulative perpetual preferred stock generally

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may be included in Tier 2 capital, provided they do not include features that are disallowed by the capital rules, such as the acceleration of principal other than in the event of a bankruptcy, insolvency, or receivership of the issuer.

Failure to meet minimum capital requirements could subject a bank to a variety of enforcement remedies, including issuance of a capital directive, the termination of deposit insurance by the FDIC and certain other restrictions on its business. An institution’s failure to exceed the capital conservation buffer with common equity Tier 1 capital would result in limitations on an institution’s ability to make capital distributions and discretionary bonus payments.

In addition, the FDI Act’s “prompt corrective action” framework identifies five capital categories for insured depository institutions: well-capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized and critically undercapitalized. For an insured depository institution to be “well-capitalized,” it must have a common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of at least 6.5%, a Tier 1 capital ratio of at least 8.0%, a total capital ratio of at least 10.0% and a leverage ratio of at least 5.0%, and must not be subject to any written agreement, order or capital directive or prompt corrective action directive issued by its primary federal regulator to meet and maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure. An insured depository institution is subject to differential regulation corresponding to the capital category within which the institution falls. For example, an insured depository institution is generally prohibited from making capital distributions, including paying dividends, or paying management fees to a holding company, if the institution would thereafter be undercapitalized.

At December 31, 2023, Trustmark exceeded its minimum capital requirements with common equity Tier 1 capital, Tier 1 capital and total capital equal to 10.04%, 10.44% and 12.29% of its total risk-weighted assets, respectively. At December 31, 2023, TNB also exceeded these requirements with common equity Tier 1 capital, Tier 1 capital and total capital equal to 10.58%, 10.58% and 11.61% of its total risk-weighted assets, respectively. At December 31, 2023, the leverage ratios for Trustmark and TNB were 8.62% and 8.75%, respectively. At December 31, 2023, TNB was well-capitalized based on the ratios and guidelines described above.

In December 2018, the federal banking agencies issued a final rule that allows institutions to elect to phase in the regulatory capital effects of the Current Expected Credit Losses (CECL) accounting standard over three years. In addition, as a result of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (the CARES Act) enacted on March 27, 2020 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the federal bank regulatory agencies issued rules that allow banking organizations that implemented CECL in 2020 to elect to mitigate the effects of the CECL accounting standard on their regulatory capital for two years. This two-year delay is in addition to the three-year transition period that the agencies had already made available. Trustmark elected to defer the regulatory capital effects of CECL in accordance with these rules, which largely delayed the effects of the adoption of CECL on its regulatory capital through December 31, 2021. The effects are being phased-in over a three-year period from January 1, 2022 through December 31, 2024.

Payment of Dividends and Stock Repurchases

Trustmark is limited in its ability to pay dividends or repurchase its stock by the FRB, including if doing so would be an unsafe or unsound banking practice. In addition, the FRB has adopted the policy that a bank holding company should pay cash dividends only to the extent that the company’s net income for the past year is sufficient to cover the cash dividends, and that the company’s rate of earning retention is consistent with the company’s capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition. In addition, a bank holding company is required to consult with or notify the FRB prior to purchasing or redeeming its outstanding equity securities in certain circumstances, including if the gross consideration for the purchase or redemption, when aggregated with the net consideration paid by the company for all such purchases or redemptions during the preceding twelve months, is equal to 10% or more of the company’s consolidated net worth. A bank holding company that is well-capitalized, well-managed and not the subject of any unresolved supervisory issues is exempt from this notice requirement.

Anti-Money Laundering (AML) Initiatives and Sanctions Compliance

Trustmark and TNB are subject to extensive laws and regulations aimed at combating money laundering and terrorist financing, including the USA Patriot Act of 2001 (USA Patriot Act) and the Bank Secrecy Act. Regulations implementing these statutes impose obligations on financial institutions to maintain appropriate policies, procedures and controls to detect, prevent and report money laundering and terrorist financing and to verify the identity of their customers and of beneficial owners of their legal entity customers. Failure of a financial institution to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing, or to comply with all of the relevant laws or regulations, could have serious legal and financial consequences for the institution. The federal Financial Crimes Enforcement Network of the Department of the Treasury, in addition to federal bank regulatory agencies, is authorized to impose significant civil money penalties for violations of these requirements, and has recently engaged in coordinated enforcement efforts with state and federal banking regulators, the U.S. Department of Justice, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), the Drug Enforcement Administration and the Internal Revenue Service. Violations of AML requirements can also lead to criminal penalties. In addition, the federal banking agencies are required to consider the effectiveness of a financial institution’s AML activities when reviewing proposed bank mergers and bank holding company acquisitions.

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The U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) is responsible for helping to ensure that U.S. entities do not engage in transactions with certain prohibited parties, as defined by various Executive Orders and Acts of Congress. OFAC administers and enforces economic and trade sanctions programs, including publishing lists of persons, organizations, and countries suspected of aiding, harboring or engaging in terrorist acts, known as Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons. OFAC regulations generally require either the blocking of accounts or other property of specified entities or individuals, but they may also require the rejection of certain transactions involving specified entities or individuals. Trustmark maintains policies, procedures and other internal controls designed to comply with these sanctions programs.

Other Federal Regulation of Trustmark

In addition to being regulated as a bank holding company, Trustmark is subject to regulation by the State of Mississippi under its general business corporation laws. Trustmark is also subject to the disclosure and other regulatory requirements of the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as administered by the SEC.

Regulation of TNB

TNB is a national bank and, as such, is subject to extensive regulation by the OCC and, to a lesser extent, by the FDIC. In addition, as a large provider of consumer financial services, TNB is subject to regulation, supervision, enforcement and examination by the CFPB. Almost every area of the operations and financial condition of TNB is subject to extensive regulation and supervision and to various requirements and restrictions under federal and state law including loans, reserves, investments, issuance of securities, establishment of branches, capital adequacy, liquidity, earnings, dividends, management practices and the provision of services. TNB is subject to supervision, examination, enforcement and reporting requirements under the National Bank Act, the Federal Reserve Act, the FDI Act, regulations of the OCC and certain of the requirements imposed by the Dodd-Frank Act. Trustmark and TNB are also subject to a wide range of consumer protection laws and regulations.

Restrictions on Lending, Insider Transactions and Affiliate Transactions

National banks are limited in the amounts they may lend to one borrower and the amount they may lend to insiders. These single counterparty and insider lending limits extend to loans, derivative transactions, repurchase agreements, reverse repurchase agreements and securities lending or borrowing transactions. In addition, the FDI Act imposes restrictions on insured depository institutions’ purchases of assets from insiders.

Under section 22 of the Federal Reserve Act, as implemented by the FRB’s Regulation O, restrictions also apply to extensions of credit by a bank to its executive officers, directors, principal shareholders and their related interests, and to similar individuals at the holding company or affiliates. In general, such extensions of credit (i) may not exceed certain dollar limitations, (ii) must be made on substantially the same terms, including interest rates and collateral, as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with third parties and (iii) must not involve more than the normal risk of repayment or present other unfavorable features.

Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act establish parameters for an insured bank to conduct “covered transactions” with its affiliates, generally (i) limiting the extent to which the bank or its subsidiaries may engage in “covered transactions” with any one affiliate to an amount equal to 10% of the bank’s capital stock and surplus, and limiting the aggregate of all such transactions with all affiliates to an amount equal to 20% of the bank’s capital stock and surplus, and (ii) requiring that all such transactions be on terms substantially the same, or at least as favorable, to the bank or subsidiary as those that would be provided to a non-affiliate. In addition, an insured bank’s loans to affiliates must be fully collateralized. The term “covered transaction” includes the making of loans to the affiliate, purchase of assets from the affiliate, issuance of a guarantee on behalf of the affiliate and several other types of transactions.

Payment of Dividends

The principal source of Trustmark’s cash revenue is dividends from TNB. There are various legal and regulatory provisions that limit the amount of dividends TNB can pay to Trustmark without regulatory approval. Under the National Bank Act, approval of the OCC is required if the total of all dividends declared in any calendar year exceeds the total of TNB’s net income for that year combined with its retained net income from the preceding two years. Also, under the National Bank Act, TNB may not pay any dividends in excess of undivided profits (retained earnings).

Community Reinvestment Act

The Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) requires an insured depository institution’s appropriate federal banking regulator to evaluate the institution's record of meeting the credit needs of its entire community, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods, and to

12


 

consider this record in its evaluation of certain applications to banking regulators, such as an application for approval of a merger or the establishment of a branch.

As of its last examination from the OCC, TNB received a CRA rating of “Needs to Improve.” The evaluation covered activities in the period from January 1, 2019 through December 31, 2021. TNB received performance ratings of “High Satisfactory” on each of the three individual components of the CRA examination. The TNB’s final overall rating, however, was downgraded from “Satisfactory” to “Needs to Improve” as a result of alleged discriminatory credit practices in the Memphis Metropolitan Statistical Area between 2014 and 2018. As previously disclosed on October 22, 2021, TNB entered into a consent order with the OCC and a separate consent order jointly with the U.S. Department of Justice and the CFPB, to resolve allegations that TNB previously violated the FHA, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Consumer Financial Protection Act within the Memphis Metropolitan Statistical Area. The OCC Performance Evaluation states that “Following the findings, the bank undertook significant corrective actions to address the impact of these practices and ensure that the conduct does not recur.”

A “Needs to Improve” rating adversely affects TNB’s ability to obtain regulatory approvals to engage in certain expansionary activities, including certain mergers and acquisitions and the establishment of bank branches. These limitations will remain in place until TNB receives a CRA rating of at least “Satisfactory” following a subsequent CRA examination. The precise timing of the completion of that examination and any results therefrom will not be known until later.

On October 24, 2023, the federal banking agencies released a final rule significantly revising the framework that the agencies use to evaluate banks’ records of meeting the credit needs of their entire communities under the CRA. Under the revised framework, banks with assets of at least $2 billion, including TNB, are considered large banks and, accordingly, will have their retail lending, retail services and products, community development financing and community development services subject to periodic evaluation under complex, multi-part standards. Large banks will be subject to enhanced data collection and reporting requirements, with additional data collection and reporting requirements applying to banks, such as TNB, with assets greater than $10 billion. Depending on a large bank’s geographic concentrations of lending, the evaluation of retail lending may include assessment areas in which the bank extends loans but does not operate any deposit-taking facilities, in addition to assessment areas in which the bank has deposit-taking facilities. The rule becomes effective April 1, 2024. Compliance with most provisions of the final rule will be required beginning January 1, 2026, and compliance with the remaining provisions will be required beginning January 1, 2027. Trustmark is evaluating the impact of the final rule.

Consumer Protection Laws

TNB is subject to a number of federal and state laws designed to protect customers and promote lending to various sectors of the economy and population. These consumer protection laws apply to a broad range of TNB’s activities and to various aspects of its business, and include laws relating to interest rates, fair lending, disclosures of credit terms and estimated transaction costs to consumer borrowers, debt collection practices, the use of and the provision of information to consumer reporting agencies and the prohibition of unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices in connection with the offer, sale or provision of consumer financial products and services. These laws include the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act and their state law counterparts. At the federal level, most consumer financial protection laws are administered by the CFPB, which supervises TNB. The CFPB also has authority to issue regulations and has proposed several rules that would restrict various fees that financial institutions can charge consumers, including credit card late fees, overdraft fees and certain insufficient funds (NSF) fees.

Violations of applicable consumer protection laws can result in significant potential liability, including actual damages, restitution and injunctive relief, from litigation brought by customers, state attorneys general and other plaintiffs, as well as enforcement actions by banking regulators and reputational harm.

Many states and local jurisdictions have consumer protection laws analogous, and in addition to, those listed above. While TNB’s activities are governed primarily by federal law, the Dodd-Frank Act potentially narrowed National Bank Act preemption of state consumer financial laws, thereby making TNB and other national banks potentially subject to increased state regulation. The Dodd-Frank Act also codified the Supreme Court’s decision in Cuomo v. Clearing House Association. As a result, State Attorneys General may enforce in a court action “an applicable law” against federally-chartered depository institutions like TNB. In addition, under the Dodd-Frank Act, state attorneys general are authorized to bring civil actions against federally-chartered institutions, like TNB, to enforce regulations prescribed by the CFPB or to secure other remedies.

Finally, the Dodd-Frank Act potentially expanded state regulation over banks by eliminating National Bank Act preemption for national bank operating subsidiaries, including operating subsidiaries of TNB.

13


 

Financial Privacy Laws and Cybersecurity

The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999 (GLB Act) imposed requirements related to the privacy of customer financial information. In accordance with the GLB Act, federal bank regulators adopted rules that limit the ability of banks and other financial institutions to disclose nonpublic information about consumers to nonaffiliated third parties. The GLB Act also requires disclosure of privacy policies to consumers and, in some circumstances, allows consumers to prevent disclosure of certain personal information to a nonaffiliated third party. The privacy provisions of the GLB Act affect how consumer information is transmitted through diversified financial companies and conveyed to outside vendors. Trustmark recognizes the need to comply with legal and regulatory requirements that affect its customers’ privacy.

In addition, the federal banking agencies pay close attention to the cybersecurity practices of banks, and the agencies include review of an institution’s information technology and its ability to thwart cyberattacks in their examinations. An institution’s failure to have adequate cybersecurity safeguards in place can result in supervisory criticism, monetary penalties and/or reputational harm. Additionally, banking organizations are required to notify their primary federal regulator of significant computer security incidents within 36 hours of determining that such an incident has occurred.

Debit Interchange Regulation

The FRB has issued rules under the Electronic Fund Transfer Act (EFTA), as amended by the Dodd-Frank Act, to limit interchange fees that an issuer with $10.0 billion or more in assets, such as TNB, may receive or charge for an electronic debit card transaction. Under the FRB’s rules, the maximum permissible interchange fee that an issuer may receive for an electronic debit transaction is the sum of 21 cents per transaction and five basis points multiplied by the value of the transaction. In addition, the FRB’s rules allow for an upward adjustment of no more than one cent to an issuer’s debit card interchange fee if the issuer develops and implements policies and procedures reasonably designed to achieve the fraud-prevention standards set out in the rule.

In October 2023, the FRB proposed changes to its EFTA rules that would decrease the maximum interchange fees that an issuer may receive for an electronic debit transaction to the sum of 14.4 cents and four basis points multiplied by the value of the transaction and increase the fraud prevention adjustment to 1.3 cents. Trustmark is evaluating the impact of this proposal.

The FRB also has established rules governing routing and exclusivity that require debt card issuers to offer two unaffiliated networks for routing transactions on each debit or prepaid product.

FDIC Deposit Insurance Assessments

The deposits of TNB are insured by the Deposit Insurance Fund (DIF), as administered by the FDIC, and, accordingly, are subject to deposit insurance assessments to maintain the DIF at minimum levels required by statute.

The FDIC uses a risk-based assessment system that imposes insurance premiums as determined by multiplying an insured bank’s assessment base by its assessment rate. A bank’s deposit insurance assessment base is generally equal to the bank’s total assets minus its average tangible equity during the assessment period.

The FDIC determines a bank’s assessment rate within a range of base assessment rates using a risk scorecard that takes into account the bank’s financial ratios and supervisory rating (the CAMELS composite rating), among other factors. The CAMELS rating system is a supervisory rating system developed to classify a bank’s overall condition by taking into account capital adequacy, assets, management capability, earnings, liquidity and sensitivity to market and interest rate risk. The methodology that the FDIC uses to calculate assessment amounts is also based on the FDIC’s designated reserve ratio, which is currently 2.0%. Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the amount of total estimated insured deposits has grown rapidly while the funds in the DIF have grown at a normal rate, causing the DIF reserve ratio to fall below the statutory minimum of 1.35%. The FDIC adopted a restoration plan in September 2020, which it amended in June 2022, to restore the DIF reserve ratio to at least 1.35% by September 30, 2028. On October 18, 2022, the FDIC adopted a final rule to increase initial base deposit insurance assessment rates for insured depository institutions by 2 basis points, which began with the first quarterly assessment period of 2023. The increased assessment rate schedules will remain in effect unless and until the DIF reserve ratio meets or exceeds 2.00%. As a result of this rule, the FDIC insurance costs of insured depository institutions, including TNB, have generally increased. TNB incurred an additional $2.6 million of FDIC assessment expense during 2023 as a result of this rule.

On November 16, 2023, the FDIC adopted a final rule implementing a special assessment to recover the loss to the FDIC’s DIF incurred in the receiverships of Silicon Valley Bank and Signature Bank. Under the final rule, the FDIC will collect special assessments at a quarterly rate of 3.36 basis points, or approximately 13.4 basis points annually, over eight quarterly assessment periods beginning with the first quarterly assessment period of 2024. The assessment base for the special assessment is equal to an insured depository

14


 

institution's estimated uninsured deposits, reported as of December 31, 2022, adjusted to exclude the first $5 billion in estimated uninsured deposits. The FDIC retained the ability to cease collection early, extend the special assessment collection period one or more quarters beyond the initial eight-quarter collection period to collect the difference between estimated or actual losses and the amounts collected, or impose a final shortfall special assessment on a one-time basis after the receiverships for Silicon Valley Bank and Signature Bank terminate. The special assessment is not expected to be material to Trustmark's financial condition or results of operations.

The FDIC may terminate the deposit insurance of any insured depository institution, including the TNB, if the FDIC determines after a hearing that the institution has engaged or is engaging in unsafe or unsound banking practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations or has violated any applicable law, regulation, order or any condition imposed by an agreement with the FDIC. The FDIC also may suspend deposit insurance temporarily during the hearing process for the permanent termination of insurance if the institution has no tangible capital.

In 2023, TNB’s expenses related to deposit insurance premiums totaled $13.5 million.

TNB Subsidiaries

TNB’s nonbanking subsidiaries are subject to a variety of state and federal laws and regulations. FBBI is subject to the insurance laws and regulations of the states in which it is active. SCC is subject to the supervision and regulation of the CDFI Fund and the State of Mississippi.

The GLB Act authorizes national banks to own or control a “financial subsidiary” that engages in activities that are not permissible for national banks to engage in directly. The GLB Act contains a number of provisions dealing with insurance activities by bank subsidiaries. Generally, the GLB Act affirms the role of the states in regulating insurance activities, including the insurance activities of financial subsidiaries of banks, but the GLB Act also preempts certain state laws. As a result of the GLB Act, TNB elected for predecessor subsidiaries that now constitute FBBI to become financial subsidiaries. This enables FBBI to engage in insurance agency activities at any location.

Available Information

Trustmark’s internet address is www.trustmark.com. Information contained on this website is not a part of this report. Trustmark makes available through this address, free of charge, its Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed, or furnished to, the SEC.

Employees

At December 31, 2023, Trustmark employed 2,757 full-time equivalent associates, none of which are represented by a collective bargaining agreement. Trustmark believes its employee relations to be satisfactory.

Information about Executive Officers of Trustmark

As of the filing date, the executive officers of Trustmark and its primary bank subsidiary, TNB, including their ages, positions and principal occupations for the last five years are as follows:

Gerard R. Host, 69

Trustmark Corporation

Chairman since May 2022

Executive Chairman from January 2021 to April 2022

Chairman from April 2020 to December 2020

President and Chief Executive Officer from January 2011 to December 2020

Trustmark National Bank

Chairman since May 2022

Executive Chairman from January 2021 to April 2022

Chairman from April 2020 to December 2020

Chief Executive Officer from January 2011 to December 2020

President from January 2011 to December 2019

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Duane A. Dewey, 65

Trustmark Corporation

President and Chief Executive Officer since January 2021

Trustmark National Bank

Chief Executive Officer since January 2021

President since January 2020

Chief Operating Officer from January 2019 to December 2020

George T. Chambers, Jr., 64

Trustmark Corporation

Principal Accounting Officer since March 2021

Trustmark National Bank

Executive Vice President and Chief Accounting Officer since March 2021

Senior Vice President and Controller from March 2009 to February 2021

Monica A. Day, 63

Trustmark National Bank

President – Institutional Banking since April 2019

Executive Vice President and Real Estate Banking Manager from May 2017 to April 2019

Robert Barry Harvey, 64

Trustmark National Bank

Chief Credit and Operations Officer since June 2021

Chief Credit Officer from March 2010 to May 2021

Executive Vice President since March 2010

Thomas C. Owens, 59

Trustmark Corporation

Treasurer and Principal Financial Officer since March 2021

Trustmark National Bank

Chief Financial Officer since March 2021

Bank Treasurer from September 2013 to February 2021

Executive Vice President since 2013

W. Arthur Stevens, 59

Trustmark National Bank

President – Retail Banking since September 2011

Maria Luisa "Ria" Sugay, 42

Trustmark National Bank

Bank Treasurer since March 2021

Bank Co-Treasurer from July 2020 to February 2021

Executive Vice President since July 2020

USAA

Director, Asset Liability Management from June 2016 to June 2020

Granville Tate, Jr., 67

Trustmark Corporation

Secretary since December 2015

Trustmark National Bank

Chief Administrative Officer since January 2021

Chief Risk Officer from June 2016 to November 2021

General Counsel from December 2015 to November 2021

Executive Vice President and Secretary since December 2015

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

Trustmark and its subsidiaries could be adversely impacted by various risks and uncertainties, which are difficult to predict. As a financial institution, Trustmark has significant exposure to market risks, including interest rate risk, liquidity risk and credit risk. This

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section includes a description of the risks, uncertainties and assumptions identified by Management that could, individually or in combination, materially affect Trustmark’s financial condition and results of operations, as well as the value of Trustmark’s financial instruments in general, and Trustmark common stock, in particular. Additional risks and uncertainties that Management currently deems immaterial or is unaware of may also impair Trustmark’s financial condition and results of operations. This report is qualified in its entirety by the risk factors that are identified below.

Risks Related to Trustmark’s Business

Interest Rate Risks

Trustmark’s largest source of revenue (net interest income) is subject to interest rate risk.

Trustmark’s profitability depends to a large extent on net interest income, which is the difference between income on interest-earning assets, such as loans and investment securities, and expense on interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowings. Trustmark is exposed to interest rate risk in its core banking activities of lending and deposit taking, since assets and liabilities reprice at different times and by different amounts as interest rates change. Trustmark is unable to predict changes in market interest rates, which are affected by many factors beyond Trustmark’s control, including inflation, recession, unemployment, money supply, domestic and international events and changes in the United States and other financial markets. Market interest rates began to rise during 2022 after an extended period at historical lows. Starting in March 2022, the FRB began raising the target federal funds rate for the first time in three years and continued with multiple increases throughout 2022 and 2023, up to a range of 5.25% to 5.50% as of December 2023. In addition, the FRB increased the interest that it pays on reserves multiple times during 2022 and 2023 from 0.10% to 5.40% as of December 2023. As interest rates have increased, so have competitive pressures on the deposit cost of funds. This has been exacerbated by the bank failures in the first half of 2023 and the resulting heightened competition for deposits, which has also affected the interest that Trustmark pays on deposits. It is not possible to predict the pace and magnitude of changes in interest rates, or the impact rate changes will have on Trustmark's results of operations.

Financial simulation models are the primary tools used by Trustmark to measure interest rate exposure. Using a wide range of scenarios, Management is provided with extensive information on the potential impact to net interest income caused by changes in interest rates. Models are structured to simulate cash flows and accrual characteristics of Trustmark’s balance sheet. Assumptions are made about the direction and volatility of interest rates, the slope of the yield curve and the changing composition of Trustmark’s balance sheet, resulting from both strategic plans and customer behavior. In addition, the model incorporates Management’s assumptions and expectations regarding such factors as loan and deposit growth, pricing, prepayment speeds and spreads between interest rates. Trustmark’s simulation model using static balances at December 31, 2023, estimated that in the event of a hypothetical 200 basis point increase in interest rates, net interest income may increase 0.5%, while a hypothetical 100 basis point increase in interest rates, may increase net interest income 0.3%. In the event of a hypothetical 100 basis point decrease in interest rates using static balances at December 31, 2023, it is estimated net interest income may decrease by 0.4%, while a hypothetical 200 basis point decrease in interest rates, may decrease net interest income 1.0%.

Net interest income is Trustmark’s largest revenue source, and it is important to discuss how Trustmark’s interest rate risk may be influenced by the various factors shown below:

In general, for a given change in interest rates, the amount of the change in value (positive or negative) is larger for assets and liabilities with longer remaining maturities. The shape of the yield curve may affect new loan yields, funding costs and investment income differently.
The remaining maturity of various assets or liabilities may shorten or lengthen as payment behavior changes in response to changes in interest rates. For example, if interest rates decline sharply, fixed-rate loans may pre-pay, or pay down, faster than anticipated, thus reducing future cash flows and interest income. Conversely, if interest rates increase, depositors may cash in their certificates of deposit prior to term (notwithstanding any applicable early withdrawal penalties) or otherwise reduce their deposits to pursue higher yielding investment alternatives. Repricing frequencies and maturity profiles for assets and liabilities may occur at different times. For example, in a falling rate environment, if assets reprice faster than liabilities, there will be an initial decline in earnings. Moreover, if assets and liabilities reprice at the same time, they may not be by the same increment. For instance, if the federal funds rate increased 50 basis points, rates on demand deposits may rise by 10 basis points, whereas rates on prime-based loans will instantly rise 50 basis points.

Financial instruments do not respond in a parallel fashion to rising or falling interest rates. This causes asymmetry in the magnitude of changes in net interest income, net economic value and investment income resulting from the hypothetical increases and decreases in interest rates. Therefore, Management monitors interest rate risk and adjusts Trustmark’s investment, funding and hedging strategies to mitigate adverse effects of interest rate shifts on Trustmark’s balance sheet.

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Trustmark utilizes derivative contracts to hedge the mortgage servicing rights (MSR) in order to offset changes in fair value resulting from changes in interest rate environments. In spite of Trustmark’s due diligence in regard to these hedging strategies, significant risks are involved that, if realized, may prove such strategies to be ineffective, which could adversely affect Trustmark’s financial condition or results of operations. Risks associated with these strategies include the risk that counterparties in any such derivative and other hedging transactions may not perform; the risk that these hedging strategies rely on Management’s assumptions and projections regarding these assets and general market factors, including prepayment risk, basis risk, market volatility and changes in the shape of the yield curve, and that these assumptions and projections may prove to be incorrect; the risk that these hedging strategies do not adequately mitigate the impact of changes in interest rates, prepayment speeds or other forecasted inputs to the hedging model; and the risk that the models used to forecast the effectiveness of hedging instruments may project expectations that differ from actual results. In addition, increased regulation of the derivative markets may increase the cost to Trustmark to implement and maintain an effective hedging strategy.

Trustmark closely monitors the sensitivity of net interest income and investment income to changes in interest rates and attempts to limit the variability of net interest income as interest rates change. Trustmark makes use of both on- and off-balance sheet financial instruments to mitigate exposure to interest rate risk.

Trustmark may be adversely affected by the transition from the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) as a reference rate.

In 2017, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), which regulates LIBOR, announced that after the end of 2021 it would no longer compel banks to submit the rates required to calculate LIBOR. On March 5, 2021, the FCA confirmed that the publication of most LIBOR term rates would end on June 30, 2023 (excluding one-week U.S. LIBOR and two-month U.S. LIBOR, the publication of which ended on December 31, 2021). The Alternative Reference Rates Committee (ARRC), a committee of U.S. financial market participants, identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) as the reference rate that represents best practice as the alternative to LIBOR for use in derivatives and other financial contracts that are currently indexed to USD-LIBOR. However, there are conceptual and technical differences between LIBOR and SOFR. The federal banking agencies encouraged banking organizations to cease entering into new contracts that use US$ LIBOR as a reference rate by no later than December 31, 2021, and to ensure existing contracts have robust fallback language that includes a clearly defined alternative reference rate.

On December 16, 2022, the FRB adopted a final rule that implemented the Adjustable Interest Rate (LIBOR) Act by identifying benchmark rates based on SOFR that will replace LIBOR in certain financial contracts after June 30, 2023. Following the LIBOR cessation date of June 30, 2023, the nationwide process for replacing LIBOR in financial contracts that mature thereafter and that do not provide for an effective means to replace LIBOR upon its cessation took effect pursuant to the Adjustable Interest Rate (LIBOR) Act. For contracts in which a party has the discretion to identify a replacement rate, the Adjustable Interest Rate (LIBOR) Act also provides a safe harbor to parties if they choose the SOFR-based benchmark replacement rate to be identified by the FRB. Trustmark transitioned to SOFR for new variable rate loans, derivative contracts, borrowings and other financial instruments as of January 1, 2022.

Trustmark had a significant number of loans, derivative contracts, borrowings and other financial instruments with attributes that were either directly or indirectly dependent on LIBOR. As of December 31, 2023, all of Trustmark’s LIBOR exposure was remediated or in the process of being remediated. The transition from LIBOR has resulted in and could continue to result in added costs and employee efforts and could present additional risk. Since alternative reference rates are calculated differently than LIBOR, payments under contracts referencing new alternative reference rates will differ from those referencing LIBOR. Trustmark cannot predict what the ultimate impact of the transition from LIBOR will be; however, Trustmark has implemented various measures to manage the transition and mitigate risks.

Credit and Lending Risks

Trustmark is subject to lending risk, which could impact the adequacy of the allowance for credit losses and results of operations.

There are inherent risks associated with Trustmark’s lending activities. If trends in the housing and real estate markets were to revert to or decline below recession levels, Trustmark may experience higher than normal delinquencies and credit losses. Moreover, if the United States economy returns to a recessionary state, Management expects that it could severely affect economic conditions in Trustmark’s market areas and that Trustmark could experience significantly higher delinquencies and credit losses. In addition, bank regulatory agencies periodically review Trustmark’s allowance for credit losses and may require an increase in the provision for credit losses or the recognition of further charge-offs, based on judgments different from those of Management. As a result, Trustmark may elect, or be required, to make further increases in its provision for credit losses in the future, particularly if economic conditions deteriorate.

Additionally, Trustmark may rely on information furnished by or on behalf of customers and counterparties in deciding whether to extend credit or enter into other transactions. This information could include financial statements, credit reports, business plans, and

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other information. Trustmark may also rely on representations of those customers, counterparties or other third parties, such as independent auditors, as to the accuracy and completeness of that information. Reliance on inaccurate or misleading financial statements, credit reports or other information could have a material adverse impact on Trustmark’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

Trustmark is subject to environmental liability risk associated with lending activities.

A significant portion of Trustmark’s loan portfolio is secured by real property. During the ordinary course of business, Trustmark forecloses on and takes title to properties securing certain loans. In doing so, there is a risk that hazardous or toxic substances could be found on these properties. If hazardous or toxic substances are found, Trustmark may be liable for remediation costs, as well as for personal injury and property damage, civil fines and criminal penalties regardless of when the hazardous conditions or toxic substances first affected any particular property. Environmental laws may require Trustmark to incur substantial expenses and may materially reduce the affected property’s value or limit Trustmark’s ability to use or ability to sell the affected property or to repay the indebtedness secured by the property. In addition, future laws or more stringent interpretations or enforcement policies with respect to existing laws may increase Trustmark’s exposure to environmental liability. Environmental reviews of nonresidential real estate before initiating foreclosure actions may not be sufficient to detect all potential environmental hazards. The remediation costs and any other financial liabilities associated with an environmental hazard could have a material adverse effect on Trustmark’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

Declines in asset values may result in credit losses and adversely affect the value of Trustmark’s investments.

Trustmark maintains an investment portfolio that includes, among other asset classes, obligations of states and municipalities, agency debt securities and agency mortgage-related securities. The market value of investments in Trustmark’s investment portfolio may be affected by factors other than interest rates or the underlying performance of the issuer of the securities, such as ratings downgrades, adverse changes in the business climate and a lack of pricing information or liquidity in the secondary market for certain investment securities. In addition, government involvement or intervention in the financial markets or the lack thereof or market perceptions regarding the existence or absence of such activities could affect the market and the market prices for these securities.

On a quarterly basis, Trustmark evaluates investments and other assets for expected credit losses. At December 31, 2023, gross unrealized losses on securities for which an allowance for credit losses has not been recorded totaled $196.1 million. Trustmark may be required to record credit loss expense if these investments suffer a decline in value that is the result of a credit loss. If Trustmark determines that a credit loss exists, the credit portion of the allowance would be measured using a discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis using the effective interest rate as of the security’s purchase date. The amount of credit loss Trustmark may record is limited to the amount by which the amortized cost exceeds the fair value, which could have a material adverse effect on results of operations in the period in which a credit loss, if any, occurs.

Liquidity Risk

Trustmark is subject to liquidity risk, which could disrupt its ability to meet its financial obligations.

Liquidity refers to Trustmark’s ability to ensure that sufficient cash flow and liquid assets are available to satisfy current and future financial obligations, including demand for loans and deposit withdrawals, funding operating costs and other corporate purposes. Liquidity risk arises whenever the maturities of financial instruments included in assets and liabilities differ or when assets cannot be liquidated at fair market value as needed. Trustmark obtains funding through deposits and various short-term and long-term wholesale borrowings, including federal funds purchased and securities sold under repurchase agreements, the Federal Reserve Discount Window (Discount Window) and Federal Home Loan Bank (FHLB) advances. Any significant restriction or disruption of Trustmark’s ability to obtain funding from these or other sources could have a negative effect on Trustmark’s ability to satisfy its current and future financial obligations, which could materially affect Trustmark’s financial condition or results of operations.

In addition to the risk that one or more of the funding sources may become constrained due to market conditions unrelated to Trustmark, there is the risk that Trustmark’s credit profile may decline such that one or more of these funding sources becomes partially or wholly unavailable to Trustmark.

Trustmark attempts to quantify such credit event risk by modeling bank specific and systemic scenarios that estimate the liquidity impact. Trustmark estimates such impact by attempting to measure the effect on available unsecured lines of credit, available capacity from secured borrowing sources and securitizable assets. To mitigate such risk, Trustmark maintains available lines of credit with the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta and the FHLB of Dallas that are secured by loans and investment securities. Management continuously monitors Trustmark’s liquidity position for compliance with internal policies.

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External and Market-Related Risks

Trustmark’s business may be adversely affected by conditions in the financial markets and economic conditions in general.

Economic activity improved slightly during 2023; however, economic concerns remain as a result of the cumulative weight of uncertainty regarding the potential economic impact of geopolitical developments, such as the conflicts in Ukraine and the Middle East, inflation, the consequences of bank failures and other economic and industry volatility, the 2024 political cycle in the United States, supply chain issues, higher energy prices and broader price pressures. Doubts surrounding the near-term direction of global markets, and the potential impact of these trends on the United States economy, are expected to persist for the near term. While Trustmark’s customer base is wholly domestic, international economic conditions affect domestic conditions, and thus may have an impact upon Trustmark’s financial condition or results of operations. Strategic risk, including threats to business models from rising rates and modest economic growth, remains high. Management’s ability to plan, prioritize and allocate resources in this environment will be critical to Trustmark’s ability to sustain earnings that will attract capital. Because of the complexities presented by current economic conditions, Management will continue to be challenged in identifying alternative sources of revenue, prudently diversifying assets, liabilities and revenue and effectively managing the costs of compliance.

Market interest rates began to rise during 2022 after an extended period at historical lows and continued to rise in 2023. As interest rates have increased, so have competitive pressures on the deposit cost of funds. This has been exacerbated by bank failures and the resulting heightened competition for deposits, which has also affected the interest that Trustmark pays on deposits. It is not possible to predict the pace and magnitude of changes to interest rates, or the impact rate changes will have on Trustmark’s results of operations.

Trustmark does not assume that current uncertain conditions in the economy will improve significantly in the near future. A weakened economy could affect Trustmark in a variety of substantial and unpredictable ways. In particular, Trustmark may face the following risks in connection with these events:

Market developments and the resulting economic pressure on consumers may affect consumer confidence levels and may cause increases in delinquencies and default rates, which, among other effects, could further affect Trustmark’s charge-offs and provision for credit losses.
Loan performance could experience a significantly extended deterioration or loan default levels could accelerate, foreclosure activity could significantly increase, or Trustmark’s assets (including loans and investment securities) could materially decline in value, any one of which, or any combination of more than one of which, could have a material adverse effect on Trustmark’s financial condition or results of operations.
Management’s ability to measure the fair value of Trustmark’s assets could be adversely affected by market disruptions that could make valuation of assets more difficult and subjective. If Management determines that a significant portion of its assets have values that are significantly below their recorded carrying value, Trustmark could recognize a material charge to earnings in the quarter during which such determination was made, Trustmark’s capital ratios would be adversely affected by any such charge, and a rating agency might downgrade Trustmark’s credit rating or put Trustmark on credit watch.

The rising interest rate environment during 2022 and 2023, the resulting industry-wide reduction in the fair value of securities portfolios and the bank runs that led to the failures of some financial institutions in March 2023, among other events, have resulted in a current state of volatility and uncertainty with respect to the health of the United States banking system. There is heightened awareness around liquidity, uninsured deposits, deposit composition, unrecognized investment losses and capital. It is difficult to predict the extent to which these challenging economic conditions will persist or whether recent progress in the economic recovery will instead shift to the potential for further decline. If the economy does weaken in the future, it is uncertain how Trustmark’s business would be affected and whether Trustmark would be able to successfully mitigate any such effects on its business. Accordingly, these factors in the United States (and, indirectly, global) economy could have a material adverse effect on Trustmark’s financial condition and results of operations.

Trustmark operates in a highly competitive financial services industry.

Trustmark faces substantial competition in all areas of its operations from a variety of different competitors, many of which are larger and may have greater financial resources. Such competitors primarily include banks, as well as community banks operating nationwide and regionally within the various markets in which Trustmark operates. Trustmark also faces competition from many other types of financial institutions, including savings and loans, credit unions, finance companies, brokerage firms, insurance companies, factoring companies and other financial intermediaries. Additionally, fintech developments, such as blockchain and other distributed ledger technologies, have the potential to disrupt the financial industry and change the way banks do business. The financial services industry could become even more competitive as a result of legislative, regulatory and technological changes and continued consolidation.

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Some of Trustmark’s competitors have fewer regulatory constraints and may have lower cost structures. Additionally, due to their size, many of Trustmark’s larger competitors may be able to achieve economies of scale and, as a result, may offer a broader range of products and services as well as better pricing for those products and services than Trustmark.

Trustmark’s ability to compete successfully depends on a number of factors, including: the ability to develop, maintain and build upon long-term customer relationships based on top quality service, high ethical standards and safe, sound assets; the ability to continue to expand Trustmark’s market position through organic growth and acquisitions; the scope, relevance and pricing of products and services offered to meet customer needs and demands; the rate at which Trustmark introduces new products and services relative to its competitors; and industry and general economic trends. Failure to perform in any of these areas could significantly weaken Trustmark’s competitive position, which could adversely affect Trustmark’s financial condition or results of operations.

The soundness of other financial institutions could adversely affect Trustmark.

Financial services institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty or other relationships. As a result, defaults by, or questions or rumors about, one or more financial services institutions or the financial services industry in general, could lead to market-wide liquidity problems, which could, in turn, lead to defaults or losses by Trustmark and by other institutions. Trustmark has exposure to many different industries and counterparties, and routinely executes transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including commercial banks, brokers and dealers, investment banks, mutual funds, and other institutional clients. Many of these transactions expose Trustmark to credit risk in the event of default of its counterparty or client. In addition, Trustmark’s credit risk may be exacerbated when the collateral it holds cannot be realized upon or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount of the credit or derivative exposure owed to Trustmark. Losses related to these credit risks could materially and adversely affect Trustmark’s results of operations.

Compliance and Regulatory Risks

Trustmark is subject to extensive government regulation and supervision and possible enforcement and other legal actions.

Trustmark, primarily through TNB and certain nonbank subsidiaries, is subject to extensive federal and state regulation and supervision, which vests a significant amount of discretion in the various regulatory authorities. Banking regulations are primarily intended to protect depositors’ funds, federal deposit insurance funds and the banking system as a whole, not security holders. These regulations and supervisory guidance affect Trustmark’s lending practices, capital structure, investment practices, dividend policy and growth, among other things. Congress and federal regulatory agencies continually review banking laws, regulations and policies for possible changes. Changes to statutes, regulations or regulatory policies or supervisory guidance, including changes in interpretation or implementation or statutes, regulations, policies and supervisory guidance, could affect Trustmark in substantial and unpredictable ways. Such changes could subject Trustmark to additional costs, limit the types of financial services and products Trustmark may offer and/or increase the ability of nonbanks to offer competing financial services and products, among other things. Failure to comply with laws, regulations, policies or supervisory guidance could result in enforcement and other legal actions by Federal or state authorities, including criminal and civil penalties, the loss of FDIC insurance, the revocation of a banking charter, civil money penalties, other sanctions by regulatory agencies and/or reputational damage. In this regard, government authorities, including bank regulatory agencies, continue to pursue enforcement agendas with respect to compliance and other legal matters involving financial activities, which heightens the risks associated with actual and perceived compliance failures. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on Trustmark’s financial condition or results of operations.

Trustmark is subject to numerous laws designed to protect consumers, including fair lending laws, and failure to comply with these laws could lead to a wide variety of sanctions.

The Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act and other fair lending laws and regulations impose nondiscriminatory lending requirements on financial institutions. The Department of Justice and other federal agencies are responsible for enforcing these laws and regulations. A successful regulatory challenge to an institution’s performance under fair lending laws and regulations could result in a wide variety of direct or indirect negative consequences, including damages and civil money penalties, injunctive relief, restrictions on mergers and acquisitions activity, restrictions on geographic expansion and restrictions on entering new business lines. Private parties may also have the ability to challenge an institution’s performance under fair lending laws in private class action litigation. Such actions could have a material adverse effect on Trustmark’s business, financial condition or results of operations. In 2021, TNB settled a fair lending enforcement action with the Department of Justice, the OCC and the CFPB and incurred a one-time settlement expense of $5.0 million and made other commitments to enhance credit opportunities to residents of majority-Black and Hispanic neighborhoods in the Memphis metropolitan statistical area. Trustmark and TNB could be subject to other enforcement actions in the future.

In addition, financial institutions face scrutiny on actions and policies that are deemed to adversely impact consumers under the Dodd-Frank Act’s prohibition against unfair, deceptive or abusive acts and practices and Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act’s

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prohibition against unfair or deceptive acts and practices. Bank regulators and the CFPB are responsible for enforcing these prohibitions against banking organizations. These prohibitions have been applied to prohibit perceived customer abuse in connection with a range of products, services, and practices, including account openings and fees charged where inadequate or no services are rendered for which charges were imposed, as well as other instances where consumers may have been misled through bank disclosures. In addition, the enforcement priorities of the agencies enforcing consumer protection laws have evolved over time and may continue to do so.

TNB's CRA rating of "Needs to Improve" could make it more difficult for Trustmark’s business to grow.

The performance of a bank under the CRA in meeting the credit needs of its community is a factor that must be taken into consideration when the federal banking agencies evaluate applications related to mergers and acquisitions, as well as branch opening and relocations. As of its last examination, TNB received a CRA rating of “Needs to Improve,” which is downgraded from its prior rating of “Satisfactory.” The rating of “Needs to Improve” adversely affects TNB’s ability to obtain regulatory approvals to engage in certain expansionary activities, including certain mergers and acquisitions and the establishment of bank branches. These limitations will remain in place until TNB receives a CRA rating of at least “Satisfactory” following a subsequent CRA examination. The precise timing of the completion of that examination and any results therefrom will not be known until later, and it is possible that TNB’s current CRA rating would not improve in the next examination.

Trustmark is subject to stringent capital requirements.

Under the regulatory capital rules of the FRB, OCC, and FDIC that implement a set of capital requirements issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision known as Basel III, Trustmark and TNB are required to maintain a common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of at least 7.0% (a minimum of 4.5% plus a capital conservation buffer of 2.5%), a Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of at least 8.5% (a minimum of 6.0% plus a capital conservation buffer of 2.5%), a total capital to risk-weighted assets ratio of at least 10.5% (a minimum of 8.0% plus a capital conservation buffer of 2.5%) and a leverage ratio of Tier 1 capital to total consolidated assets of at least 4.0%. In addition, for TNB to be “well-capitalized” under the banking agencies’ prompt corrective action framework, it must have a common equity Tier 1 capital ratio of at least 6.5%, a Tier 1 capital ratio of at least 8.0%, a total capital ratio of at least 10.0% and a leverage ratio of at least 5.0%, and must not be subject to any written agreement, order or capital directive, or prompt corrective action directive issued by its primary federal regulator to meet and maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure.

The capital rules also include stringent criteria for capital instruments to qualify as Tier 1 or Tier 2 capital. For instance, the rules effectively disallow newly issued trust preferred securities to be a component of a holding company’s Tier 1 capital. Trustmark will continue to count $60.0 million in outstanding trust preferred securities issued by the Trust as Tier 1 capital up to the regulatory limit, as permitted by a grandfather provision in the capital rules, but this grandfather provision may cease to apply if Trustmark consummates an acquisition of a depository institution holding company and the resulting organization has $15 billion of more in total assets.

Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standard Codification (ASC) Topic 326, “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses: Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments,” requires Trustmark to recognize all expected credit losses over the life of a loan based on historical experience, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts. FASB ASC Topic 326 generally is expected to result in earlier recognition of credit losses, which would increase reserves and decrease capital. Additionally, the allowance for credit losses model could be materially impacted by changes in current and forecasted macroeconomic conditions. It is not possible to predict the timing or magnitude of changes in macroeconomic conditions or the impact such changes could have on Trustmark’s allowance for credit losses; however, material changes in the allowance for credit losses could have a material impact on Trustmark’s reserves and capital.

The regulatory capital rules applicable to Trustmark and TNB may continue to evolve as a result of new requirements established by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision or legislative, regulatory or accounting changes in the United States. Management cannot predict the effect that any changes to current capital requirements would have on Trustmark and TNB.

Trustmark’s use of third-party service providers and Trustmark’s other ongoing third-party business relationships are subject to increasing regulatory requirements and attention.

Trustmark regularly uses third-party service providers and subcontractors as part of its business. Trustmark also has substantial ongoing business relationships with partners and other third-parties and relies on certain third-parties to provide products and services necessary to maintain day-to-day operations. These types of third-party relationships are subject to increasingly demanding regulatory requirements and attention by regulators, including the FRB, OCC, CFPB and FDIC. Under regulatory guidance, Trustmark is required to apply stringent due diligence, conduct ongoing monitoring and maintain effective control over third-party service providers and subcontractors and other ongoing third-party business relationships. These regulatory expectations may change, and potentially become more rigorous in certain ways, due to an interagency effort to replace existing guidance on the risk management of third-party

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relationships with new guidance. Trustmark expects that the regulators will hold Trustmark responsible for deficiencies in its oversight and control of its third-party relationships and in the performance of the parties with which Trustmark has these relationships. Trustmark maintains a system of policies and procedures designed to ensure adequate due diligence is performed and to monitor vendor risks. While Trustmark believes these policies and procedures effectively mitigate risk, if the regulators conclude that Trustmark has not exercised adequate oversight and control over third-party service providers and subcontractors or other ongoing third-party business relationships or that such third-parties have not performed appropriately, Trustmark could be subject to enforcement actions, including civil monetary penalties or other administrative or judicial penalties or fines as well as requirements for customer remediation.

Operational Risks

There may be risks resulting from the extensive use of models in Trustmark’s business.

Trustmark relies on statistical and quantitative models to measure risks and to estimate certain financial values. Models may be used in such processes as determining the pricing of various products, assessing potential acquisition opportunities, developing presentations made to market analysts and others, creating loans and extending credit, measuring interest rate and other market risks, predicting losses, assessing capital adequacy, calculating regulatory capital levels and estimating the fair value of financial instruments and balance sheet items. These models reflect assumptions that may not be accurate, particularly in times of market stress or other unforeseen circumstances. Even if these assumptions are adequate, the models may prove to be inadequate or inaccurate because of other flaws in their design or their implementation. If models for determining interest rate risk and asset-liability management are inadequate, Trustmark may incur increased or unexpected losses upon changes in market interest rates or other market measures. If models for determining expected credit losses are inadequate, the allowance for credit losses may not be sufficient to support future charge-offs. If models to measure the fair value of financial instruments are inadequate, the fair value of such financial instruments may fluctuate unexpectedly or may not accurately reflect what Trustmark could realize upon sale or settlement of such financial instruments. Any such failure in the analytical or forecasting models could have a material adverse effect on Trustmark’s financial condition or results of operations.

Also, information Trustmark provides to its regulators based on poorly designed or implemented models could be inaccurate or misleading. Certain decisions that the regulators make, including those related to capital distributions and dividends to Trustmark’s shareholders, could be adversely affected due to the regulator’s perception that the quality of Trustmark’s models used to generate the relevant information is insufficient.

Trustmark could be required to write down goodwill and other intangible assets.

If Trustmark consummates an acquisition, a portion of the purchase price would generally be allocated to goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets. The amount of the purchase price that is allocated to goodwill and other intangible assets is determined by the excess of the purchase price over the net identifiable assets acquired. At December 31, 2023, goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets were $387.2 million. Under current accounting standards, if Trustmark determines goodwill or intangible assets are impaired, Trustmark would be required to write down the carrying value of these assets. Trustmark’s annual goodwill impairment evaluation performed during the fourth quarter of 2023 indicated no impairment of goodwill for any reporting segment. Management cannot provide assurance, however, that Trustmark will not be required to take an impairment charge in the future. Any impairment charge would have an adverse effect on Trustmark’s shareholders’ equity and financial condition and could cause a decline in Trustmark’s stock price.

Trustmark holds other real estate and may acquire and hold significant additional amounts, which could lead to increased operating expenses and vulnerability to additional declines in real property values.

As business necessitates, Trustmark forecloses on and takes title to real estate serving as collateral for loans. At December 31, 2023, Trustmark held $6.9 million of other real estate. The amount of other real estate held by Trustmark may increase in the future as a result of, among other things, business combinations, increased uncertainties in the housing market or increased levels of credit stress in residential real estate loan portfolios. Increased other real estate balances could lead to greater expenses as Trustmark incurs costs to manage, maintain and dispose of real properties as well as to remediate any environmental cleanup costs incurred in connection with any contamination discovered on real property on which Trustmark has foreclosed and to which Trustmark has taken title. As a result, Trustmark’s earnings could be negatively affected by various expenses associated with other real estate owned, including personnel costs, insurance and taxes, completion and repair costs, valuation adjustments and other expenses associated with real property ownership, as well as by the funding costs associated with other real estate assets. The expenses associated with holding a significant amount of other real estate could have a material adverse effect on Trustmark’s financial condition or results of operations.

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If Trustmark is required to repurchase a significant number of mortgage loans that it had previously sold, such repurchases could negatively affect earnings.

One of Trustmark’s primary business operations is mortgage banking under which residential mortgage loans are sold in the secondary market under agreements that contain representations and warranties related to, among other things, the origination and characteristics of the mortgage loans. Trustmark may be required to either repurchase the outstanding principal balance of a loan or make the purchaser whole for the anticipated economic benefits of a loan if it is determined that the loan sold was in violation of representations or warranties made by Trustmark at the time of the sale, herein referred to as mortgage loan servicing putback expenses. Such representations and warranties typically include those made regarding loans that had missing or insufficient file documentation, loans that do not meet investor guidelines, loans in which the appraisal does not support the value and/or loans obtained through fraud by the borrowers or other third parties. Generally, putback requests may be made until the loan is paid in full. However, mortgage loans delivered to the Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC) on or after January 1, 2013 are subject to the Representations and Warranties Framework, which provides that FNMA and FHLMC will not exercise their remedies, including a putback request, for breaches of certain selling representations and warranties if the mortgage loans satisfy certain criteria, such as payment history or quality control review.

Changes in retail distribution strategies and consumer behavior may adversely impact Trustmark’s investments in premises, equipment, technology and other assets and may lead to increased expenditures to change its retail distribution channel.

Trustmark has significant investments in bank premises and equipment for its branch network. Advances in technology such as ecommerce, telephone, internet and mobile banking, and in-branch self-service technologies including interactive teller machines (ITMs) and other equipment, as well as an increasing customer preference for these other methods of accessing Trustmark’s products and services, could decrease the value of its branch network, technology, or other retail distribution physical assets and may cause Trustmark to change its retail distribution strategy, close and/or sell certain branches or parcels of land held for development and restructure or reduce its remaining branches and work force. These actions could lead to losses on these assets or could adversely impact the carrying value of any long-lived assets and may lead to increased expenditures to renovate, reconfigure or close a number of Trustmark’s remaining branches or to otherwise reform its retail distribution channel.

Trustmark may experience disruptions of its operating systems or breaches in its information system security.

Trustmark is dependent upon communications and information systems to conduct business as such systems are used to manage virtually all aspects of Trustmark’s business. Trustmark’s operations rely on the secure processing, storage and transmission of confidential and other information within its computer systems and networks. Any failure, interruption or breach in security of these systems could result in significant disruption to Trustmark's operations. Trustmark has taken protective measures, which are continuously monitored and modified as warranted; however, Trustmark’s computer systems, software and networks may fail to operate properly or become disabled or damaged as a result of a number of factors, including events that are wholly or partially beyond Trustmark’s control. There could be sudden increases in customer transaction volume; electrical, telecommunications or other major physical infrastructure outages; natural disasters; and events arising from local or larger scale political or social matters, including terrorist acts.

Further, Trustmark’s operational and security systems and infrastructure may be vulnerable to breaches and cybersecurity-related incidents including, but not limited to, attempts to access information, including customer and company information, malicious code, computer viruses and denial of service attacks that could result in unauthorized access, theft, misuse, loss, release or destruction of data (including confidential customer information), account takeovers, unavailability of service or other events. These types of threats may derive from human error, fraud or malice on the part of external or internal parties, or may result from accidental technological failure. If one or more of these events were to occur, Trustmark’s or its customers’ confidential and other information would be jeopardized, or such an event could cause interruptions or malfunctions in Trustmark’s or its customers’ or counterparties’ operations. Any failures related to upgrades and maintenance of Trustmark's technology and information systems could further increase its information and system security risk. Trustmark's increased use of cloud and other technologies, such as remote work technologies, also increases its risk of being subject to a cyber-attack. The risk of a security breach or disruption, particularly through cyber-attack or cyber intrusion, has increased as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. Trustmark may be required to expend significant additional resources to modify its protective measures or to investigate and remediate vulnerabilities or other exposures in its computer systems and networks, and Trustmark may be subject to litigation and financial losses that are either not insured against or not fully covered through any insurance maintained by Trustmark. Any such losses, which may be difficult to detect, could adversely affect Trustmark’s financial condition or results of operations. In addition, the occurrence of such a loss could expose Trustmark to reputational risk, the loss of customer business and additional regulatory scrutiny.

Security breaches in Trustmark’s internet and mobile banking activities (myTrustmark®) could further expose Trustmark to possible liability and reputational risk. Any compromise in security could deter customers from using Trustmark’s internet and mobile banking services that involve the transmission of confidential information. Trustmark relies on standard internet security systems to provide the

24


 

security and authentication necessary to effect secure transmission of data. However, these precautions may not protect Trustmark’s systems from compromise or breaches of security, which could result in significant legal liability and significant damage to Trustmark’s reputation and business.

Trustmark relies upon certain third-party vendors to provide products and services necessary to maintain day-to-day operations. Accordingly, Trustmark’s operations are exposed to the risk that these vendors might not perform in accordance with applicable contractual arrangements or service level agreements or that the security of the third-party vendors’ computer systems, software and networks may be vulnerable to compromises that could impact information system security. Trustmark maintains a system of policies and procedures designed to monitor vendor risks. While Trustmark believes these policies and procedures effectively mitigate risk, the failure of an external vendor to perform in accordance with applicable contractual arrangements or service level agreements or any compromise in the security of an external vendor’s information systems could be disruptive to Trustmark’s operations, which could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition or results of operations.

As of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, Trustmark has seen no material adverse impact on its business or operations from cyber-attacks or events. Trustmark's customers, employees and third parties that it does business with have been, and will continue to be, targeted by parties using fraudulent e-mails and other communications in attempts to misappropriate passwords, bank account information or other personal information or to introduce viruses or other malware programs to its information systems, the information systems of its merchants or third-party service providers and/or its customers' personal devices, which are beyond Trustmark's security control systems. Though Trustmark endeavors to mitigate these threats through product improvements, use of encryption and authentication technology and customer and employee education, such cyber-attacks against Trustmark, its merchants, third-party service providers and customers remain a serious issue and have been successful in the past.

Although Trustmark makes significant efforts to maintain the security and integrity of its information systems and has implemented various measures to manage the risks of a security breach or disruption, there can be no assurance that its security efforts and measures will be effective or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful or damaging. Even well protected information, networks, systems and facilities remain potentially vulnerable to attempted security breaches or disruptions because the techniques used in such attempts are constantly evolving and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, and in some cases are designed not to be detected and, in fact, may not be detected. Accordingly, Trustmark may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate security barriers or other preventative measures, and thus it is virtually impossible for Trustmark to entirely mitigate this risk. Furthermore, in the event of a cyber-attack, Trustmark may be delayed in identifying or responding to the attack, which could increase the negative impact of the cyber-attack on its business, financial condition and results of operations. A security breach or other significant disruption of Trustmark's information systems or those related to its customers, merchants or third-party vendors, including as a result of cyber-attacks, could (i) disrupt the proper functioning of its networks and systems and therefore its operations and/or those of its customers; (ii) result in the unauthorized access to, and destruction, loss, theft, misappropriation or release of confidential, sensitive or otherwise valuable information of Trustmark or its customers; (iii) result in a violation of applicable privacy, data breach and other laws, subjecting Trustmark to additional regulatory scrutiny and exposing it to civil litigation, enforcement actions, governmental fines and possible financial liability; (iv) require significant management attention and resources to remedy the damages that result; or (v) harm Trustmark's reputation or cause a decrease in the number of customers that choose to do business with Trustmark. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on Trustmark's business, financial condition and results of operations.

Trustmark must utilize new technologies to deliver its products and services, which could require significant resources and expose Trustmark to additional risks, including cyber-security risks.

In order to deliver new products and services and to improve the productivity of existing products and services, the banking industry relies on rapidly evolving technologies. Trustmark continues to invest in technology to facilitate the ability of its customers to engage in financial transactions, and otherwise enhance the customer experience with respect to its products and services. Trustmark’s ability to effectively utilize new technologies to address customer needs and create operating efficiencies could materially affect future prospects. Management cannot provide any assurances that Trustmark will be successful in utilizing such new technologies. Incorporation of new products and services, such as internet and mobile banking services, may require significant resources and expose Trustmark to additional risks, including cyber-security risks.

Trustmark’s controls and procedures may fail or be circumvented.

Trustmark’s internal controls, disclosure controls and procedures, and corporate governance policies and procedures are based in part on assumptions, and can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurances that the objectives of the system are met. Any failure or circumvention of Trustmark’s controls and procedures or failure to comply with regulations related to controls and procedures could have a material adverse effect on Trustmark’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

25


 

Trustmark may be subject to increased claims and litigation, which could result in legal liability and reputational damage.

Trustmark has been named from time to time as a defendant in litigation relating to its businesses and activities. Litigation may include claims for substantial compensatory or punitive damages or claims for indeterminate amounts of damages.

In recent years, a number of judicial decisions have upheld the right of borrowers to sue lending institutions on the basis of various evolving legal theories, collectively termed “lender liability.” Generally, lender liability is founded on the premise that a lender has either violated a duty, whether implied or contractual, of good faith and fair dealing owed to the borrower or has assumed a degree of control over the borrower resulting in the creation of a fiduciary duty owed to the borrower or its other creditors or shareholders.

Substantial legal liability against Trustmark, including its subsidiaries, could materially adversely affect Trustmark’s business, financial condition or results of operations, or cause significant harm to its reputation. TNB recently agreed to settlements relating to litigation involving the Stanford Financial Group and Adams/Madison Timber. For additional information regarding these settlements, see the section captioned “Legal Proceedings” in Note 16 - Commitments and Contingencies included in Part II. Item 8. - Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this report.

Damage to Trustmark’s reputation could have a significant negative impact on Trustmark’s business.

Trustmark’s ability to attract and retain customers, clients, investors, and highly-skilled management and employees is affected by its reputation. Significant harm to Trustmark’s reputation can also arise from other sources, including employee misconduct, actual or perceived unethical or illegal behavior, litigation or regulatory outcomes, failing to deliver minimum or required standards of service and quality, compliance failures, disclosure of confidential information, significant or numerous failures, interruptions or breaches of its information systems and the activities of its clients, customers and counterparties, including vendors. Actions by the financial services industry generally or by certain members or individuals in the industry may have a significant adverse effect on Trustmark’s reputation. Trustmark could also suffer significant reputational harm if it fails to properly identify and manage potential conflicts of interest. Management of potential conflicts of interests has become increasingly complex as Trustmark expands its business activities through more numerous transactions, obligations and interests with and among its clients. The actual or perceived failure to adequately address conflicts of interest could affect the willingness of clients to deal with Trustmark, which could adversely affect Trustmark’s businesses.

Risk Related to Acquisition Activity

Potential acquisitions by Trustmark may disrupt Trustmark’s business and dilute shareholder value.

Trustmark continuously monitors the market for merger or acquisition opportunities and, depending upon business and other considerations, may elect to pursue one or more such opportunities in the future. Any such merger or acquisition candidate would need to have a similar culture to Trustmark, have experienced management and possess either significant market presence or have potential for improved profitability through financial management, economies of scale or expanded services. Acquiring other banks, businesses, or branches involves various risks commonly associated with acquisitions, including: potential exposure to unknown or contingent liabilities of the target company, exposure to potential asset quality issues of the target company, difficulty and expense of integrating the operations and personnel of the target company, potential disruption to Trustmark’s business, potential diversion of Trustmark’s Management’s time and attention, the possible loss of key employees and customers of the target company, difficulty in estimating the value of the target company and potential changes in banking or tax laws or regulations that may affect the target company. Acquisitions may involve the payment of a premium over book and market values, and, therefore, some dilution of Trustmark’s tangible book value and net income per share of common stock may occur in connection with any future transaction. Furthermore, failure to realize the expected revenue projections, cost savings, increases in geographic or product presence, and/or other projected benefits from an acquisition could have a material adverse effect on Trustmark’s financial condition or results of operations.

General Risk Factors

The stock price of financial institutions, like Trustmark, can be volatile.

The volatility in the stock prices of companies in the financial services industry, such as Trustmark, may make it more difficult for shareholders to resell Trustmark common stock at attractive prices in a timely manner. Trustmark’s stock price can fluctuate significantly in response to a variety of factors, including factors affecting the financial industry as a whole, such as the bank failures in March 2023. The factors affecting financial stocks generally and Trustmark’s stock price in particular include:

actual or anticipated variations in earnings;
changes in analysts’ recommendations or projections;
operating and stock performance of other companies deemed to be peers;

26


 

perception in the marketplace regarding Trustmark, its competitors and/or the industry as a whole;
significant acquisitions or business combinations involving Trustmark or its competitors;
provisions in Trustmark’s by-laws and articles of incorporation that may discourage takeover attempts, which may make Trustmark less attractive to a potential purchaser;
changes in government regulation;
failure to integrate acquisitions or realize anticipated benefits from acquisitions; and
volatility affecting the financial markets in general.

General market fluctuations, the potential for breakdowns on electronic trading or other platforms for executing securities transactions, industry factors and general economic and political conditions could also cause Trustmark’s stock price to decrease regardless of operating results.

Changes in accounting standards may affect how Trustmark reports its financial condition and results of operations.

Trustmark’s accounting policies and methods are fundamental to how Trustmark records and reports its financial condition and results of operations. From time to time, the FASB changes the financial accounting and reporting standards that govern the preparation of Trustmark’s financial statements. The most recent economic recession resulted in increased scrutiny of accounting standards by regulators and legislators, particularly as they relate to fair value accounting principles. In addition, ongoing efforts to achieve convergence between generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and International Financial Reporting Standards may result in changes to GAAP. Any such changes can be difficult to predict and can materially affect how Trustmark records and reports its financial condition or results of operations. For additional details regarding recently adopted and pending accounting pronouncements, see Note 1 – Significant Accounting Policies included in Part II. Item 8. - Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this report.

Trustmark may not be able to attract or retain key employees.

Trustmark’s success depends substantially on its ability to attract and retain skilled, experienced personnel. Competition for qualified candidates in the activities and markets that Trustmark serves is intense. While Trustmark invests significantly in the training and development of its employees, it is possible that Trustmark may not be able to retain key employees. If Trustmark were unable to retain its most qualified employees, its performance and competitive positioning could be materially adversely affected.

Natural disasters, such as hurricanes, could have a significant negative impact on Trustmark’s business.

Many of Trustmark’s loans are secured by property or are made to businesses in or near the Gulf Coast regions of Alabama, Florida, Mississippi and Texas, which are often in the path of seasonal hurricanes. Natural disasters, such as hurricanes, could have a significant negative impact on the stability of Trustmark’s deposit base, the ability of borrowers to repay outstanding loans and the value of collateral securing loans, and could cause Trustmark to incur material additional expenses. Although Management has established disaster recovery policies and procedures, the occurrence of a natural disaster, especially if any applicable insurance coverage is not adequate to enable Trustmark’s borrowers to recover from the effects of the event, could have a material adverse effect on Trustmark’s financial condition or results of operations.

Expectations around Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) practices as well as climate change and related legislative and regulatory initiatives could adversely affect Trustmark’s business and results of operations, including indirectly through impact to its customers.

Companies are facing increased scrutiny from customers, regulators and other stakeholders with respect to their ESG practices and disclosures. Institutional investors, and investor advocacy groups, in particular, are increasingly focused on these matters and expectations in many of these areas can vary widely. In addition, increased ESG related compliance costs could result in increases to Trustmark’s overall operational costs. Failure to adapt to or comply with regulatory requirements or investor or stakeholder expectations and standards, and fluctuations in these standards, could negatively impact Trustmark’s reputation, ability to do business with certain partners and its stock price. New government regulations could also result in new or more stringent forms of ESG oversight and expanding mandatory and voluntary reporting, diligence and disclosure.

In addition to regulatory and investor expectations on environmental matters in general, the current and anticipated effects of climate change are creating an increasing level of concern for the state of the global environment. As a result, political and social attention to the issue of climate change has increased. In recent years, governments across the world have entered into international agreements to attempt to reduce global temperatures, in part by limiting greenhouse gas emissions. The United States Congress, state legislatures and

27


 

federal and state regulatory agencies have continued to propose and advance numerous legislative and regulatory initiatives seeking to mitigate the effects of climate change. These agreements and measures may result in the imposition of taxes and fees, the required purchase of emission credits and the implementation of significant operational changes, each of which may require businesses to expend significant capital and incur compliance, operating, maintenance and remediation costs. Consumers and businesses also may change their behavior on their own as a result of these concerns.

It is not possible to predict how climate change may impact Trustmark’s financial condition and operations; however, Trustmark operates in areas where its business and the activities of its customers could be impacted by the effects of climate change. The effects of climate change may include increased frequency or severity of weather-related events, such as severe storms, hurricanes, flooding and droughts and rising sea levels. These effects can disrupt business operations, damage property, devalue assets and change customer and business preferences, which may adversely affect borrowers, increase credit risk and reduce demand for Trustmark’s products and services. Trustmark and its customers will need to respond to new laws and regulations as well as consumer and business preferences resulting from climate change concerns. Trustmark and its customers may face cost increases, asset value reductions, operating process changes and the like. The impact to Trustmark’s customers will likely vary depending on their specific attributes, including reliance on or role in carbon intensive activities. In addition, Trustmark could face reductions in creditworthiness on the part of some customers or in the value of assets securing loans. Trustmark’s efforts to take these risks into account may not be effective in protecting it from the negative impact of new laws and regulations or changes in consumer or business behavior and could have a material adverse effect on Trustmark’s financial condition and results of operations.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None

ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY

Trustmark recognizes the critical importance of identifying, assessing and managing material risks from cybersecurity threats. Trustmark is committed to implementing and maintaining a comprehensive information security program to manage such risks and safeguard its systems and data.

Trustmark’s Board of Directors has ultimate oversight of cybersecurity-related risks and it is assisted in this role by the Enterprise Risk Committee and the Audit Committee. Processes for identifying, assessing and managing cybersecurity-related risks are integrated into Trustmark’s overall enterprise risk management process, which is overseen by the Enterprise Risk Committee. The Enterprise Risk Committee is responsible for monitoring risks that are being taken by Trustmark, understanding the enterprise-wide effect of those risks and reporting such risks to the Board. In fulfilling this role, the Enterprise Risk Committee has primary oversight responsibility over management’s efforts to manage and mitigate cybersecurity-related risk and reviews and approves Trustmark’s cybersecurity strategy for protecting Trustmark’s information assets and technology platforms. The Audit Committee oversees Trustmark’s Internal Audit Department, which conducts reviews and assessments related to information security. Management provides periodic reports to the Enterprise Risk Committee and the Audit Committee, both of which provide reports of their meetings to the full Board. These reports to the Board and its Committees address the threat environment, vulnerability assessments, specific cyber incidents and management’s efforts to monitor, detect and prevent cyber threats.

Trustmark’s information security program is primarily administered at the management level by the Information Security Department, which is led by Trustmark’s Chief Information Security Officer (CISO), and is supported by the Information Technology Department, which is led by Trustmark’s Chief Information Officer (CIO). The CISO reports to the CIO, who in turn reports to Trustmark’s Chief Credit and Operations Officer. Trustmark’s Information Security Department is responsible for day-to-day management of Trustmark’s information security program, including data loss prevention, access control, threat monitoring, incident response and employee education and training. The Information Security Department also maintains policies related to cybersecurity and data security that provide the required governance for the information security program. Additionally, Trustmark’s Information Technology Department maintains policies that govern technical aspects of Trustmark’s information security program. Each policy is reviewed and approved by the Enterprise Risk Committee at least every three years and is mapped to applicable regulatory guidance. The Cybersecurity Operations team within the Information Technology Department maintains and runs Trustmark’s security operations center and is responsible for cybersecurity event management and maintaining security tooling. Trustmark also maintains an Information Security / Cybersecurity Management Committee, which is comprised of representatives from the Information Security, Information Technology, Enterprise Risk, Corporate Security, Internal Audit and Legal departments and members of executive management. This committee meets quarterly to discuss and review Trustmark’s information security program and receives qualitative and quantitative update reports from the Information Security Department, Internal Audit Department and Information Technology Department.

Trustmark engages third party assessors, consultants and auditors in connection with its information security program, including to conduct external penetration testing, independent audits and risk assessments. Trustmark also utilizes third party service providers in

28


 

the ordinary course of business. The Information Security Department performs information security assessments for third party service providers that store or process Trustmark confidential data. These information security assessments include a review of any systems and organization control reports, proof of the vendor’s independent testing of their data protection controls, as well as a review of any exceptions noted and assessment of management responses, results of vulnerability and penetration testing, incident response processes and third party data protection controls (which can include, but is not limited to: access reviews and controls, backups, monitoring, encryption standards and disaster recovery). The review of these areas is taken into account in order to provide an overall information security conclusion and risk rating for the vendor.

As a regulated financial institution, Trustmark is also subject to financial privacy laws and its cybersecurity practices are subject to oversight by the federal banking agencies. For additional information, see “Supervision and Regulation – Financial Privacy Laws and Cybersecurity” included in Part I. Item 1 – Business of this report.

Although Trustmark has not, as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, experienced a cybersecurity threat or incident that materially affected its business strategy, results of operations or financial condition, there can be no guarantee that Trustmark will not experience such an incident in the future. For additional information regarding the risk Trustmark faces from cybersecurity threats, please see the risk factors titled “Trustmark may experience disruptions of its operating systems or breaches in its information system security” and “Trustmark must utilize new technologies to deliver its products and services, which could require significant resources and expose Trustmark to additional risks, including cyber-security risks” included in Part I. Item 1A. – Risk Factors of this report.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Trustmark’s principal offices are housed in its main office building located in downtown Jackson, Mississippi and owned by TNB. Trustmark’s main office building is primarily allocated for bank use with a small portion available for occupancy by tenants on a lease basis, although such incidental leasing activity is not material to Trustmark’s operations. At December 31, 2023, Trustmark, through TNB, operated 163 full-service branches, 7 limited-service branches and an automated teller machine (ATM) network, which included 131 ATMs and 128 ITMs at its branches and other locations. In addition, Trustmark operated 13 offices in various locations providing mortgage banking, wealth management and insurance services. Trustmark leases 32 of its branch and other office locations with the remainder being owned. Trustmark believes its properties are suitable and adequate to operate its financial services business.

Information required in this section is set forth under the heading “Legal Proceedings” of Note 16 – Commitments and Contingencies in Part II. Item 8. – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this report.

In accordance FASB ASC Subtopic 450-20, “Loss Contingencies,” Trustmark will establish an accrued liability for litigation matters when those matters present loss contingencies that are both probable and reasonably estimable. As a result of the entry into the Stanford Settlement relating to the litigation involving the Stanford Financial Group, Trustmark recognized a $100.0 million litigation settlement expense included in noninterest expense during 2022, plus an additional $750 thousand in related legal fees. As a result of the entry into the Adams/Madison Timber Settlement relating to the litigation involving Adams/Madison Timber, Trustmark recognized a $6.5 million litigation settlement expense included in noninterest expense during 2023. At the present time, Trustmark believes, based on its evaluation and the advice of legal counsel, that a loss in any currently pending legal proceeding is not probable and reasonably estimable. All matters will continue to be monitored for further developments that would make such loss contingency both probable and reasonably estimable. In view of the inherent difficulty of predicting the outcome of legal proceedings, Trustmark cannot predict the eventual outcomes of the currently pending matters or the timing of their ultimate resolution. Management currently believes, however, based upon the advice of legal counsel and Management’s evaluation and after taking into account its current insurance coverage, that the legal proceedings currently pending should not have a material adverse effect on Trustmark’s consolidated financial condition.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Common Stock Prices and Dividends

Trustmark’s common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Stock Market and is traded under the symbol “TRMK.”

29


 

Trustmark paid quarterly cash dividends to shareholders of $0.23 per share, or $0.92 per share annually, in 2023. As a component of return to common shareholders, Trustmark intends to pay cash dividends when corporate financial performance and capital strength allow it to do so. All dividend payments must be approved and declared by the Board of Directors of Trustmark and are required to be in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations.

At January 31, 2024, there were approximately 2,936 registered shareholders of record and approximately 15,952 beneficial account holders of shares in nominee name of Trustmark’s common stock. Other information required by this item can be found in Note 17 - Shareholders’ Equity included in Part II. Item 8. - Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this report.

Stock Repurchase Program

On January 28, 2020, the Board of Directors of Trustmark authorized a stock repurchase program, effective April 1, 2020, under which $100.0 million of Trustmark’s outstanding common stock could be acquired through December 31, 2021. Under this authority, Trustmark repurchased approximately 1.9 million shares of its outstanding common stock valued at $61.8 million during 2021.

On December 7, 2021, the Board of Directors of Trustmark authorized a stock repurchase program, effective January 1, 2022, under which $100.0 million of Trustmark’s outstanding common stock could be acquired through December 31, 2022. Under this authority, Trustmark repurchased approximately 789 thousand shares of its common stock value at $24.6 million during 2022.

On December 6, 2022, the Board of Directors of Trustmark authorized a stock repurchase program, effective January 1, 2023, under which $50.0 million of Trustmark's outstanding common stock could be acquired through December 31, 2023. No shares were repurchased under this authority.

On December 5, 2023, the Board of Directors of Trustmark authorized a new stock repurchase program, effective January 1, 2024, under which $50.0 million of Trustmark's outstanding common stock may be acquired through December 31, 2024. The repurchase program, which is subject to market conditions and management discretion, will be implemented through open market repurchases or privately negotiated transactions. No shares have been repurchased under this authority.

30


 

Performance Graph

The following graph compares Trustmark’s annual percentage change in cumulative total return on common shares over the past five years with the cumulative total return of companies comprising the Nasdaq market value index and the S&P 500 – Regional Banks index. The S&P 500 – Regional Banks index is an industry index published by S&P Dow Jones Indices, a division of S&P Global, and is comprised of stock in the S&P Total Market Index that are classified in the Global Industry Classification Standard regional banks sub-industry. This presentation assumes that $100 was invested in shares of the relevant issuers on December 31, 2018, and that dividends received were immediately invested in additional shares. The graph plots the value of the initial $100 investment at one-year intervals for the fiscal years shown.

 

img233989071_1.jpg 

 

Company

 

2018

 

 

2019

 

 

2020

 

 

2021

 

 

2022

 

 

2023

 

Trustmark

 

$

100.00

 

 

$

124.73

 

 

$

102.39

 

 

$

125.30

 

 

$

138.67

 

 

$

115.09

 

NASDAQ Composite-Total Return

 

 

100.00

 

 

 

136.69

 

 

 

198.10

 

 

 

242.03

 

 

 

163.28

 

 

 

236.17

 

S&P 500 - Regional Banks

 

 

100.00

 

 

 

135.42

 

 

 

129.28

 

 

 

181.68

 

 

 

135.32

 

 

 

106.07

 

Prepared by Zacks Investment Research, Inc. Used with permission. All rights reserved. Copyright 1980-2024.

Index Data: Copyright NASDAQ OMX, Inc. Used with permission. All rights reserved.

Index Data: Copyright Standard and Poor’s, Inc. Used with permission. All rights reserved.

31


 

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following unaudited consolidated financial data is derived from Trustmark’s audited financial statements as of and for the three years ended December 31, 2023 ($ in thousands, except per share data). The data should be read in conjunction with Part II. Item 7. - Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Item 8. – Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.

 

Years Ended December 31,

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Consolidated Statements of Income

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total interest income

 

$

878,832

 

 

$

541,833

 

 

$

442,511

 

Total interest expense

 

 

325,954

 

 

 

47,125

 

 

 

24,160

 

Net interest income

 

 

552,878

 

 

 

494,708

 

 

 

418,351

 

Provision for credit losses (PCL), LHFI

 

 

27,362

 

 

 

21,677

 

 

 

(21,499

)

PCL, off-balance sheet credit exposures

 

 

(2,781

)

 

 

1,215

 

 

 

(2,949

)

Noninterest income

 

 

206,958

 

 

 

205,144

 

 

 

221,910

 

Noninterest expense

 

 

537,919

 

 

 

603,213

 

 

 

489,296

 

Income before income taxes

 

 

197,336

 

 

 

73,747

 

 

 

175,413

 

Income taxes

 

 

31,847

 

 

 

1,860

 

 

 

28,048

 

Net Income

 

$

165,489

 

 

$

71,887

 

 

$

147,365

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Revenue (1)

 

$

759,836

 

 

$

699,852

 

 

$

640,261

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Per Share Data

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic earnings per share

 

$

2.71

 

 

$

1.17

 

 

$

2.35

 

Diluted earnings per share

 

 

2.70

 

 

 

1.17