Company Quick10K Filing
TPG Real Estate Finance Trust
Price20.34 EPS1
Shares74 P/E16
MCap1,508 P/FCF17
Net Debt-100 EBIT228
TEV1,408 TEV/EBIT6
TTM 2019-09-30, in MM, except price, ratios
10-K 2020-12-31 Filed 2021-02-24
10-Q 2020-09-30 Filed 2020-11-04
10-Q 2020-06-30 Filed 2020-07-29
10-Q 2020-03-31 Filed 2020-05-11
10-K 2019-12-31 Filed 2020-02-19
10-Q 2019-09-30 Filed 2019-10-28
10-Q 2019-06-30 Filed 2019-07-29
10-Q 2019-03-31 Filed 2019-04-29
10-K 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-02-26
10-Q 2018-09-30 Filed 2018-11-05
10-Q 2018-06-30 Filed 2018-08-06
10-Q 2018-03-31 Filed 2018-05-07
10-K 2017-12-31 Filed 2018-02-26
10-Q 2017-09-30 Filed 2017-11-06
10-Q 2017-06-30 Filed 2017-08-24
8-K 2020-11-04
8-K 2020-09-15
8-K 2020-07-29
8-K 2020-07-13
8-K 2020-06-30
8-K 2020-06-17
8-K 2020-06-03
8-K 2020-05-29
8-K 2020-05-11
8-K 2020-03-18
8-K 2020-02-18
8-K 2019-10-28
8-K 2019-07-29
8-K 2019-05-21
8-K 2019-04-29
8-K 2019-03-14
8-K 2019-03-07
8-K 2019-02-25
8-K 2018-11-29
8-K 2018-11-05
8-K 2018-08-07
8-K 2018-08-06
8-K 2018-06-15
8-K 2018-05-23
8-K 2018-05-07
8-K 2018-02-26
8-K 2018-02-14

TRTX 10K Annual Report

Part I
Item 1. Business.
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
Item 2. Properties.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure.
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures.
Item 9B. Other Information.
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance.
Item 11. Executive Compensation.
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence.
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services.
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.
EX-3 trtx-ex3_13.htm
EX-3..2 trtx-ex32_10.htm
EX-4.2 trtx-ex42_8.htm
EX-10.7B trtx-ex107b_1930.htm
EX-10.7H trtx-ex107h_1040.htm
EX-10.8G trtx-ex108g_1041.htm
EX-10.9J trtx-ex109j_1042.htm
EX-21.1 trtx-ex211_6.htm
EX-23..1 trtx-ex231_16.htm
EX-31.1 trtx-ex311_17.htm
EX-31.2 trtx-ex312_11.htm
EX-32.1 trtx-ex321_9.htm
EX-32.2 trtx-ex322_12.htm

TPG Real Estate Finance Trust Earnings 2020-12-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

trtx-10k_20201231.htm
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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020

OR

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM       TO      

Commission File Number 001-38156

 

 

 

TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its Charter)

 

 

Maryland

36-4796967

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

888 Seventh Avenue,

35th Floor

New York, New York

10106

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (212601-4700

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange

on which registered

Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share

 

TRTX

 

New York Stock Exchange

 

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

 

  

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the Registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  No 

As of June 30, 2020, the last business day of the Registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the Registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant was $740.4 million based on the closing sales price of the Registrant’s common stock as reported on the New York Stock Exchange. For purposes of this computation, all officers, directors and 10% beneficial owners of the Registrant’s common stock of which the Registrant is aware are deemed to be affiliates. Such determination should not be deemed to be an admission that such officers, directors or 10% beneficial owners are, in fact, affiliates of the Registrant.

As of February 22, 2021, there were 76,895,509 shares of the Registrant’s common stock, $0.001 par value per share, and 0 shares of the Registrant’s Class A common stock, $0.001 par value per share, outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K incorporates information by reference from the Registrant’s definitive proxy statement with respect to its 2021 annual meeting of stockholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the Registrant’s fiscal year.

 

 

 


 

 

Table of Contents

 

 

 

Page

PART I

 

 

Item 1.

Business

3

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

13

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

65

Item 2.

Properties

65

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

65

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

65

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

66

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

67

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

101

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

104

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

104

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

104

Item 9B.

Other Information

105

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

106

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

106

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

106

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

106

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

106

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

107

 

 

Certain Terms

 

Except where the context requires otherwise, the terms “Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc., a Maryland corporation, and its subsidiaries; the term “Manager” refers to our external manager, TPG RE Finance Trust Management, L.P., a Delaware limited partnership; the term “TPG” refers to TPG Global, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, and its affiliates; and the term “TPG Fund” refers to any partnership or other pooled investment vehicle, separate account, fund-of-one or any similar arrangement or investment program sponsored, advised or managed (including on a subadvisory basis) by TPG, whether currently in existence or subsequently established (in each case, including any related alternative investment vehicle, parallel or feeder investment vehicle, co-investment vehicle and any entity formed in connection therewith, including any entity formed for investments by TPG and its affiliates in any such vehicle, whether invested as a limited partner or through general partner investments).

 

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PART I

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), which reflect our current views with respect to, among other things, our operations and financial performance. You can identify these forward-looking statements by the use of words such as “outlook,” “believe,” “expect,” “potential,” “continue,” “may,” “should,” “seek,” “approximately,” “predict,” “intend,” “will,” “plan,” “estimate,” “anticipate,” the negative version of these words, other comparable words or other statements that do not relate strictly to historical or factual matters. By their nature, forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, are not statements of historical fact or guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks, uncertainties, assumptions or changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict or quantify. Our expectations, beliefs and projections are expressed in good faith, and we believe there is a reasonable basis for them. However, there can be no assurance that management’s expectations, beliefs and projections will occur or be achieved, and actual results may vary materially from what is expressed in or indicated by the forward-looking statements.

There are a number of risks, uncertainties and other important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-K. Such risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

the general political, economic and competitive conditions in the markets in which we invest;

 

the level and volatility of prevailing interest rates and credit spreads;

 

adverse changes in the real estate and real estate capital markets;

 

general volatility of the securities markets in which we participate;

 

changes in our business, investment strategies or target assets;

 

difficulty in obtaining financing or raising capital;

 

reductions in the yield on our investments and increases in the cost of our financing;

 

adverse legislative or regulatory developments, including with respect to tax laws;

 

acts of God such as hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, wildfires, mudslides, volcanic eruptions, and other natural disasters, acts of war and/or terrorism and other events that may cause unanticipated and uninsured performance declines and/or losses to us or the owners and operators of the real estate securing our investments;

 

the ultimate geographic spread, severity and duration of pandemics such as the coronavirus (“COVID-19”), actions that may be taken by governmental authorities to contain or address the impact of such pandemics, and the potential negative impacts of such pandemics on the global economy and our financial condition and results of operations;

 

changes in the availability of attractive loan and other investment opportunities, whether they are due to competition, regulation or otherwise;

 

deterioration in the performance of properties securing our investments that may cause deterioration in the performance of our investments, adversely impact certain of our financing arrangements and our liquidity, and potentially expose us to principal losses on our investments;

 

defaults by borrowers in paying debt service on outstanding indebtedness;

 

the adequacy of collateral securing our investments and declines in the fair value of our investments;

 

adverse developments in the availability of desirable investment opportunities;

 

difficulty in successfully managing our growth, including integrating new assets into our existing systems;

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the cost of operating our platform, including, but not limited to, the cost of operating a real estate investment platform and the cost of operating as a publicly traded company;

 

the availability of qualified personnel and our relationship with our Manager;

 

the potential unavailability of the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) after December 31, 2021;

 

conflicts with TPG and its affiliates, including our Manager, the personnel of TPG providing services to us, including our officers, and certain funds managed by TPG;

 

our qualification as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes and our ability to maintain our exemption or exclusion from registration under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”); and

 

authoritative U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (or “GAAP”) or policy changes from such standard-setting bodies such as the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”), the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”), the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE) and other authorities that we are subject to, as well as their counterparts in any foreign jurisdictions where we might do business.

There may be other risks, uncertainties or factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-K, including risks, uncertainties, and factors disclosed in Item 1A – “Risk Factors” and in Item 7 – “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” You should evaluate all forward-looking statements made in this Form 10-K in the context of these risks, uncertainties and other factors.

Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance, or achievements. We caution you that the risks, uncertainties and other factors referenced above may not contain all of the risks, uncertainties and other factors that are important to you. In addition, we cannot assure you that we will realize the results, benefits or developments that we expect or anticipate or, even if substantially realized, that they will result in the consequences or affect us or our business in the way expected. All forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K apply only as of the date made and are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements included in this Form 10-K and in other filings we make with the SEC. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements to reflect subsequent events or circumstances, except as required by law.

Item 1. Business.

Company and Organization

TPG RE Finance Trust, Inc. is a commercial real estate finance company externally managed by TPG RE Finance Trust Management, L.P., an affiliate of TPG. Our principal executive offices are located at 888 Seventh Avenue, 35th Floor, New York, New York 10106. We are organized as a holding company and conduct our operations primarily through our various subsidiaries. As of December 31, 2020, the Company conducted substantially all of its operations through a Delaware limited liability company, TPG RE Finance Trust Holdco, LLC (“Holdco”), and the Company’s other wholly-owned subsidiaries.

We conduct our operations as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. We generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income taxes on our taxable income to the extent that we annually distribute all of our net taxable income to stockholders and maintain our qualification as a REIT. We also operate our business in a manner that permits us to maintain an exemption or exclusion from registration under the Investment Company Act. We operate our business as one segment, which directly originates and acquires a diversified portfolio of commercial real estate-related assets consisting primarily of first mortgage loans and senior participation interests in first mortgage loans secured by institutional-quality properties in primary and select secondary markets in the United States. The Company has also in the past, invested in commercial real estate debt securities (“CRE debt securities”) (primarily investment-grade commercial mortgage-backed securities (“CMBS”)) and commercial real estate collateralized loan obligation securities (“CRE CLOs”).

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Manager

We are externally managed and advised by our Manager, which is responsible for administering our business activities, day-to-day operations, and providing us the services of our executive management team, investment team, and appropriate support personnel. TPG Real Estate, TPG’s real estate platform, includes TPG Real Estate Partners, TPG’s real estate equity investment platform, and us, TPG’s dedicated real estate debt investment platform. Collectively, TPG Real Estate managed more than $10.8 billion in real estate and real estate-related assets at September 30, 2020. TPG Real Estate’s teams work across TPG offices in New York, San Francisco and London, and representative offices in Atlanta and Chicago, and have 22 and 37 employees, respectively, between TPG’s real estate debt investment platform and TPG’s real estate equity platform.

Our president, chief financial officer, and other executive officers are senior TPG Real Estate professionals. None of our executive officers, our Manager, or other personnel supplied to us by our Manager is obligated to dedicate any specific amount of time to our business. Our Manager is subject to the supervision and oversight of our board of directors and has only such functions and authority as our board of directors delegates to it. Pursuant to a management agreement between our Manager and us (our “Management Agreement”), our Manager is entitled to receive a base management fee, an incentive fee, and certain expense reimbursements.

See Note 11 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Form 10-K for more detail on the terms of the Management Agreement.

Investment Strategy

We invest primarily in commercial mortgage loans and other commercial real estate-related debt instruments, including, but not limited to, the following:

 

Commercial Mortgage Loans. We focus on directly originating and selectively acquiring first mortgage loans. These loans are secured by a first mortgage lien on a commercial property or properties, may vary in duration, predominantly bear interest at a floating rate, may provide for regularly scheduled principal amortization and typically require a balloon payment of principal at maturity. These investments may encompass a whole commercial mortgage loan or may include a pari passu participation within a commercial mortgage loan.

 

Other Commercial Real Estate-Related Debt Instruments. From time to time we may selectively acquire or invest in other commercial real estate-related debt instruments, subject to maintaining our qualification as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes and exclusion or exemption from regulation under the Investment Company Act, including, but not limited to, subordinate mortgage interests, mezzanine loans, secured real estate securities, note financing, preferred equity and miscellaneous debt instruments. We have in the past invested in short-term, primarily investment grade CRE CLOs and CMBS (CMBS together with CRE CLOs, “CRE debt securities”).

The loans we target for origination and investment typically have the following characteristics:

 

Unpaid principal balance greater than $50.0 million;

 

As-is loan-to value (“LTV”) of less than 80% with respect to individual properties;

 

Floating rate loans tied to the one-month U.S. dollar-denominated LIBOR and spreads of 300 to 700 basis points over LIBOR;

 

Secured by properties that are: (1) primarily in the office, multifamily, mixed-use, hospitality, industrial, and retail real estate sectors; (2) expected to reach stabilization within 24 months of the origination or acquisition date; and (3) located in primary and select secondary markets in the U.S. with multiple demand drivers, such as growth in employment and household formation, medical infrastructure, universities, convention centers and attractive cultural and lifestyle amenities; and

 

Well-capitalized sponsors with substantial experience in particular real estate sectors and geographic markets.

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We believe that our current investment strategy provides significant opportunities to our stockholders for attractive risk-adjusted returns over time. However, to capitalize on investment opportunities and returns at different points in the economic and real estate investment cycle, we may modify, expand or change our investment strategy by targeting assets with debt characteristics, such as subordinate mortgage loans, mezzanine loans, preferred equity, real estate securities and note financings. We may also target assets with equity-linked characteristics, or forms of direct equity ownership of commercial real estate properties, in either case subject to any duties to offer to other funds managed by TPG. We believe that the flexibility of our strategy, supported by our Manager’s significant commercial real estate experience and the extensive resources of TPG and TPG Real Estate, will allow us to take advantage of continued changing market conditions to maximize risk-adjusted returns to our stockholders.

We believe that the diversification of our investment portfolio, our ability to actively manage those investments, and the flexibility of our strategy positions us to generate attractive returns for our stockholders in a variety of market conditions over the long term.

Investment Portfolio

As of December 31, 2020, our mortgage loan investment portfolio consisted of 56 first mortgage loans (or interests therein) and one mezzanine loan with total commitments of $4.9 billion, an aggregate unpaid principal balance of $4.5 billion, collectively having a weighted average credit spread of 3.2%, a weighted average all-in yield of 5.3%, a weighted average term to extended maturity (assuming all extension options are exercised by borrowers) of 3.1 years, and a weighted average LTV of 65.9%. As of December 31, 2020, 100.0% of the loan commitments in our portfolio consisted of floating rate loans, of which 99.3% were first mortgage loans or, in one instance a first mortgage loan and contiguous mezzanine loan both owned by us, and 0.7% was a mezzanine loan. We had $423.5 million of unfunded loan commitments as of December 31, 2020, our funding of which is subject to satisfaction of borrower milestones.

As of December 31, 2020, we had $99.2 million of real estate owned comprising 27 acres across two undeveloped commercially-zoned land parcels on the Las Vegas Strip (the “Property”) acquired pursuant to a negotiated deed-in-lieu of foreclosure. This Property is held for investment and reflected on our consolidated balance sheets at its estimate of fair value at the time of acquisition.

As of December 31, 2020, we did not own any CRE debt securities.

Loan Portfolio

The following table details overall statistics for our loan portfolio as of December 31, 2020 (dollars in thousands):

 

 

 

Balance Sheet Portfolio

 

 

Total Loan

Portfolio

 

Number of loans

 

 

57

 

 

 

58

 

Floating rate loans

 

 

100.00

%

 

 

100.00

%

Total loan commitment(1)

 

$

4,943,511

 

 

$

5,075,511

 

Unpaid principal balance(2)

 

$

4,524,725

 

 

$

4,524,725

 

Unfunded loan commitments(3)

 

$

423,487

 

 

$

423,487

 

Amortized cost

 

$

4,516,400

 

 

$

4,516,400

 

Weighted average credit spread(4)

 

 

3.2

%

 

 

3.2

%

Weighted average all-in yield(4)

 

 

5.3

%

 

 

5.3

%

Weighted average term to extended maturity (in years)(5)

 

 

3.1

 

 

 

3.1

 

Weighted average LTV(6)

 

 

65.9

%

 

 

65.9

%

 

(1)

In certain instances, we create structural leverage through the co-origination or non-recourse syndication of a senior loan interest to a third-party. In either case, the senior mortgage loan (i.e., the non-consolidated senior interest) is not included on our balance sheet. When we create structural leverage through the co-origination or non-recourse syndication of a senior loan interest to a third-party, we retain on our balance sheet a mezzanine loan. Total loan commitment encompasses the entire loan portfolio we originated, acquired and financed. At December 31, 2020, we had non-consolidated senior interests outstanding of $132.0 million. See Item 7 – “Management’s Discussion and

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Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations–Investment Portfolio Financing–Non-Consolidated Senior Interests” in this Form 10-K for additional information.

(2)

Unpaid principal balance includes PIK interest of $4.7 million as of December 31, 2020.

(3)

Unfunded loan commitments may be funded over the term of each loan, subject in certain cases to an expiration date or a force-funding date, primarily to finance property improvements or lease-related expenditures by our borrowers, to finance operating deficits during renovation and lease-up, and in limited instances to finance construction.

(4)

As of December 31, 2020, our floating rate loans were indexed to LIBOR. In addition to credit spread, all-in yield includes the amortization of deferred origination fees, purchase price premium and discount, loan origination costs and accrual of both extension and exit fees. Credit spread and all-in yield for the total portfolio assumes the applicable floating benchmark rate, inclusive of LIBOR floors, as of December 31, 2020 for weighted average calculations.

(5)

Extended maturity assumes all extension options are exercised by the borrower; provided, however, that our loans may be repaid prior to such date. As of December 31, 2020, based on the unpaid principal balance of our total loan exposure, 31.7% of our loans were subject to yield maintenance or other prepayment restrictions and 68.3% were open to repayment by the borrower without penalty.

(6)

Except for construction loans, LTV is calculated for loan originations and existing loans as the total outstanding principal balance of the loan or participation interest in a loan (plus any financing that is pari passu with or senior to such loan or participation interest) as of December 31, 2020, divided by the as-is appraised value of our collateral at the time of origination or acquisition of such loan or participation interest. For construction loans only, LTV is calculated as the total commitment amount of the loan divided by the as-stabilized value of the real estate securing the loan. The as-is or as-stabilized (as applicable) value reflects the Manager’s estimates, at the time of origination or acquisition of the loan or participation interest in a loan, of the real estate value underlying such loan or participation interest determined in accordance with the Manager’s underwriting standards and consistent with third-party appraisals obtained by the Manager.

The following presents, by loan commitment, the property types securing our balance sheet loan portfolio and the geographic distribution of our loan portfolio, each as of December 31, 2020:

 

 

 

Our loan portfolio consists of Bridge, Light Transitional, Moderate Transitional and Construction floating rate loans. These loan categories are utilized by us to classify, define, and assess our loan investments. Generally, loans are classified based on a percentage of deferred fundings of the total loan commitment. Bridge loans limit deferred fundings to less than 10%, while Light and Moderate Transitional loans limit deferred fundings to 10% to 20%, and over 20%, respectively. Construction loans involve ground-up construction and deferred fundings often represent the majority of the loan commitment amount. Deferred fundings are commonly conditioned on the borrower’s satisfaction of certain collateral performance tests, the completion of specified property improvements, or both.

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The following presents, by loan commitment, our loan portfolio by loan category and year of origination, as of December 31, 2020:

 

As of December 31, 2020, one loan secured by a retail property was placed on non-accrual status due to a borrower default in December 2020. The amortized cost of the loan was $31.1 million as of December 31, 2020. No loans were placed on non-accrual status as of December 31, 2019. Allowance for credit losses as of December 31, 2020 was $62.8 million.

The table below details our loan commitments and unpaid principal balance across the top 25 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (“MSA”) in descending order, as of December 31, 2020.

 

MSA Rank(1)

 

MSA Name (1)

 

Commitment

 

 

Unpaid Principal

Balance

 

 

Number of Loans

1

 

New York City

 

$

1,023,776

 

 

$

959,318

 

 

11

2

 

Los Angeles

 

 

364,400

 

 

 

335,418

 

 

5

7

 

Philadelphia

 

 

363,250

 

 

 

352,536

 

 

2

17

 

San Diego

 

 

280,100

 

 

 

233,929

 

 

2

5

 

Houston

 

 

279,800

 

 

 

267,780

 

 

3

6

 

Washington DC

 

 

276,285

 

 

 

203,913

 

 

3

9

 

Atlanta

 

 

273,000

 

 

 

215,595

 

 

2

11

 

San Francisco

 

 

247,222

 

 

 

215,100

 

 

4

14

 

Detroit

 

 

210,000

 

 

 

184,045

 

 

1

23

 

Orlando

 

 

206,500

 

 

 

204,085

 

 

1

22

 

Charlotte

 

 

165,000

 

 

 

165,000

 

 

1

10

 

Boston

 

 

141,468

 

 

 

136,525

 

 

2

4

 

Dallas

 

 

132,591

 

 

 

127,501

 

 

2

8

 

Miami

 

 

91,900

 

 

 

85,453

 

 

2

3

 

Chicago

 

 

88,151

 

 

 

88,451

 

 

1

18

 

Tampa/St. Petersburg

 

 

84,950

 

 

 

84,950

 

 

1

20

 

St. Louis

 

 

70,000

 

 

 

70,000

 

 

1

13

 

Riverside/San Bernardino

 

 

34,740

 

 

 

32,000

 

 

1

Other

 

 

 

 

610,378

 

 

 

563,126

 

 

12

Total

 

 

 

$

4,943,511

 

 

$

4,524,725

 

 

57

 

(1)

Based on rankings of MSA for 2010 according to the United States Census Bureau.

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Real Estate Owned

As of December 31, 2020, we had $99.2 million of real estate owned comprising 27 acres across two undeveloped commercially-zoned land parcels on the Las Vegas Strip acquired pursuant to a negotiated deed-in-lieu of foreclosure. This Property is held for investment and reflected on our consolidated balance sheets at its estimate of fair value at the time of acquisition.

CRE Debt Securities Portfolio

We have, in the past, invested in CRE debt securities (primarily investment-grade CMBS) and CRE CLOs. As of December 31, 2020, we did not own any CRE debt securities.

For additional information regarding our investment portfolio as of December 31, 2020, see Item 7 – “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this Form 10-K.

Financing Strategy

In addition to raising capital through public offerings of our equity and debt securities, our financing strategy includes a combination of secured credit facilities (formerly called secured revolving repurchase agreements, and including one mortgage warehouse facility), a mortgage loan payable, asset-specific financing arrangements, and collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”). In certain instances, we may create structural leverage and obtain matched-term financing through the co-origination or non-recourse syndication of a senior loan interest to a third party (a “non-consolidated senior interest”).  

We may in the future use other forms of leverage, including structured financing other than CLOs, derivative instruments, and public and private secured and unsecured debt issuances by us or our subsidiaries.

We generally seek to match-fund and match-index our investments by minimizing the differences between the durations and indices of our investments and those of our liabilities. This may be accomplished in certain instances using derivatives, although no such derivatives are currently used by us. Under certain circumstances, we may determine not to do so, or we may otherwise be unable to do so. We also seek to minimize our exposure to mark-to-market risk. At December 31, 2020, 63.5% of our loan portfolio financing contained no mark-to-market provisions, including one facility representing 7.2% of our loan portfolio financing, that contains no mark-to-market provisions that would trigger margin calls for two years from closing.

The following table details the principal balance amounts outstanding for our financing arrangements as of December 31, 2020 (dollars in thousands):  

 

 

 

Portfolio Financing

Outstanding

Principal Balance

 

 

 

December 31,

2020

 

Secured credit facilities - loans

 

$

1,522,859

 

Collateralized loan obligations

 

 

1,834,760

 

Mortgage loan payable

 

 

50,000

 

Total indebtedness(1)

 

$

3,407,619

 

 

(1)

Excludes deferred financing costs of $18.9 million at December 31, 2020.

The amount of leverage we employ for particular assets will depend upon our Manager’s assessment of the credit, liquidity, price volatility, and other risks of those assets and the financing counterparties, the availability of particular types of financing at the time, and the financial covenants under our financing arrangements. Our decision to use leverage to finance our assets and the amount of leverage we use will be at the discretion of our Manager and is not subject to the approval of our stockholders. We currently expect that our leverage, measured as the ratio of debt to equity, will generally range up to 3.5:1, subject to compliance with our financial covenants under our secured credit agreements and other contractual obligations. We reserve the right to adjust this range without advance notice to satisfy our corporate finance and risk management objectives.

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Floating Rate Portfolio

Our business model seeks to minimize our exposure to changing interest rates by matching the duration of our assets and liabilities and match-indexing our assets and liabilities using the same, or similar, benchmark indices, typically LIBOR. Accordingly, rising interest rates will generally increase our net interest income, while declining interest rates will generally decrease our net interest income, subject to the benefit of interest rate floors embedded in certain of our loans. At December 31, 2020, the weighted average LIBOR floor for our loan portfolio was 1.66%. As of December 31, 2020, 100.0% of our loans by unpaid principal balance earned a floating rate of interest and were financed with liabilities that require interest payments based on floating rates, which resulted in approximately $1.2 billion of net floating rate exposure, subject to the impact of interest rate floors on all of our floating rate loans and interest rate floors on only 11.7% of our liabilities. Due to the short remaining term to maturity and floating rate nature of our loan portfolio, we have elected not to employ interest rate derivatives (interest rate swaps, caps, collars or swaptions) to limit our exposure to increases in interest rates on such liabilities, but we may do so in the future.

We had no fixed rate loans outstanding as of December 31, 2020.

The following illustrates the impact on our net interest income of decreases in LIBOR throughout the year ended December 31, 2020, assuming our existing floating rate loan portfolio and related liabilities.

 

 

(1)

Based on portfolio composition as of December 31, 2020.

 

Investment Guidelines

Our board of directors has approved the following investment guidelines:

 

No investment will be made that would cause us to fail to maintain our qualification as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Internal Revenue Code”);

 

No investment will be made that would cause us or any of our subsidiaries to be required to be registered as an investment company under the Investment Company Act;

 

Our Manager will seek to invest our capital in our target assets;

 

Prior to the deployment of our capital into our target assets, our Manager may cause our capital to be invested in any short-term investments in money market funds, bank accounts, overnight repurchase

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agreements with primary Federal Reserve Bank dealers collateralized by direct U.S. government obligations and other instruments or investments determined by our Manager to be of high quality;

 

Not more than 25% of our Equity (as defined in our Management Agreement) may be invested in any individual investment without the approval of a majority of our independent directors (it being understood, however, that for purposes of the foregoing concentration limit, in the case of any investment that is comprised (whether through a structured investment vehicle or other arrangement) of securities, instruments or assets of multiple portfolio issuers, such investment for purposes of the foregoing limitation will be deemed to be multiple investments in such underlying securities, instruments and assets and not the particular vehicle, product or other arrangement in which they are aggregated); and

 

Any investment in excess of $300 million requires the approval of a majority of our independent directors.

These investment guidelines may be amended, supplemented or waived pursuant to the approval of our board of directors (which must include a majority of our independent directors) from time to time, but without the approval of our stockholders.

Competition

We operate in a competitive market for the origination and acquisition of attractive investment opportunities. We compete with a variety of institutional investors, including other REITs, debt funds, specialty finance companies, savings and loan associations, banks, mortgage bankers, insurance companies, mutual funds, institutional investors, investment banking firms, financial institutions, private equity and hedge funds, governmental bodies and other entities and may compete with other TPG Funds. Many of our competitors are substantially larger and have considerably greater financial, technical and marketing resources than we do. Several of our competitors, including other REITs, have recently raised, or are expected to raise, significant amounts of capital and may have investment objectives that overlap with our investment objectives, which may create additional competition for lending and other investment opportunities. Some of our competitors may have a lower cost of funds and access to funding sources that may not be available to us or are only available to us on substantially less attractive terms. Many of our competitors are not subject to the operating constraints associated with REIT tax compliance or maintenance of an exclusion or exemption from the Investment Company Act. In addition, some of our competitors may have higher risk tolerances or different risk assessments, which could allow them to consider a wider variety of investments and establish more lending relationships than we do. Competition may result in realizing fewer investments, higher prices, acceptance of greater risk, greater defaults, lower yields or a narrower spread of yields over our borrowing costs. In addition, competition for attractive investments could delay the investment of our capital.

In the face of this competition, we have access to our Manager’s professionals through TPG and TPG Real Estate, and their industry expertise, which provides us with a competitive advantage in competing effectively for attractive investment opportunities, helps us assess risks and determine appropriate pricing for certain potential investments, and affords us access to capital with low costs and other attractive attributes. However, we may not be able to achieve our business goals or expectations due to the competitive risks that we face. For additional information concerning these competitive risks, see Item 1A - “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Lending and Investment Activities—We operate in a competitive market for the origination and acquisition of attractive investment opportunities and competition may limit our ability to originate or acquire attractive investments in our target assets, which could have a material adverse effect on us.”

Employees

We do not have any employees, nor do we expect to have employees in the future. We are externally managed and are advised by our Manager pursuant to our Management Agreement between our Manager and us. All of our executive officers and certain of our directors are employees of our Manager or its affiliates.

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Our success depends to a significant extent upon the ongoing efforts, experience, diligence, skill, and network of business contacts of our executive officers and the other key personnel of TPG provided to our Manager and its affiliates. These individuals evaluate, negotiate, execute, and monitor our loans, other investments and our capitalization, and advise us regarding maintenance of our REIT status and exclusion or exemption from regulation under the Investment Company Act. Our success depends on their skills and management expertise and continued service with our Manager and its affiliates.

Government Regulation

Our operations are subject, in certain instances, to supervision and regulation by U.S. and other governmental authorities, and may be subject to various laws and judicial and administrative decisions imposing various requirements and restrictions, which among other things: (i) regulate credit-granting activities; (ii) establish maximum interest rates, finance charges and other charges; (iii) require disclosures to customers; (iv) govern secured transactions; and (v) set collection, foreclosure, repossession and claims-handling procedures and other trade practices. We are also required to comply with certain provisions of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act that are applicable to commercial loans. We intend to conduct our business so that neither we nor any of our subsidiaries are required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act.

In our judgment, existing statutes and regulations have not had a material adverse effect on our business. In recent years, legislators in the United States and in other countries have said that greater regulation of financial services firms is needed, particularly in areas such as risk management, leverage, and disclosure. While we expect that additional new regulations in these areas may be adopted and existing ones may change in the future, it is not possible at this time to forecast the exact nature of any future legislation, regulations, judicial decisions, orders or interpretations, nor their impact upon our future business, financial condition, or results of operations or prospects.

Operating and Regulatory Structure

REIT Qualification

We made an election to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, commencing with our initial taxable year ended December 31, 2014. We generally must distribute annually at least 90% of our net taxable income, subject to certain adjustments and excluding any net capital gain, in order for us to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. To the extent that we satisfy this distribution requirement but distribute less than 100% of our net taxable income, we will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on our undistributed taxable income. In addition, we will be subject to a 4% nondeductible excise tax if the actual amount that we pay out to our stockholders in a calendar year is less than a minimum amount specified under U.S. federal tax laws. Our qualification as a REIT also depends on our ability to meet various other requirements imposed by the Internal Revenue Code, which relate to organizational structure, diversity of stock ownership, and certain restrictions with regard to the nature of our assets and the sources of our income. Even if we qualify as a REIT, we may be subject to certain U.S. federal excise taxes and state and local taxes on our income and assets. If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, we will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at regular corporate rates, and applicable state and local taxes, and will not be able to qualify as a REIT for the subsequent four years.

Furthermore, we have multiple taxable REIT subsidiaries (“TRSs”), which when active, pay U.S. federal, state, and local income tax on their net taxable income. See Item 1A – “Risk Factors – Risks Related to our REIT Status and Certain Other Tax Items” for additional tax status information.

Investment Company Act Exclusion or Exemption

We conduct, and intend to continue to conduct, our operations so that neither we nor any of our subsidiaries are required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act. Complying with provisions that allow us to avoid the consequences of registration under the Investment Company Act may at times require us to forego otherwise attractive opportunities and limit the manner in which we conduct our operations. We conduct our operations so that we are not an “investment company” as defined in Section 3(a)(1)(A) or Section 3(a)(1)(C) of the Investment Company Act. We believe we are not an investment company under Section 3(a)(1)(A) of the Investment Company Act because we do not engage primarily, or hold ourselves out as being engaged primarily, in the business of investing, reinvesting or trading in securities. Rather, through our wholly-owned or majority-owned subsidiaries,

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we are primarily engaged in non-investment company businesses related to real estate. In addition, we intend to conduct our operations so that we do not come within the definition of an investment company under Section 3(a)(1)(C) of the Investment Company Act because less than 40% of the value of our total assets (exclusive of U.S. government securities and cash items) on an unconsolidated basis will consist of “investment securities.” Excluded from the term “investment securities” (as that term is defined in the Investment Company Act) are securities issued by majority-owned subsidiaries that are themselves not investment companies and are not relying on the exclusions from the definition of investment company set forth in Section 3(c)(1) or Section 3(c)(7) of the Investment Company Act. Our interests in wholly-owned or majority-owned subsidiaries that qualify for the exclusion pursuant to Section 3(c)(5)(C), as described below, or another exclusion or exception under the Investment Company Act (other than Section 3(c)(1) or Section 3(c)(7) thereof), do not constitute “investment securities.”

We hold our assets primarily through direct or indirect wholly-owned or majority-owned subsidiaries, certain of which are excluded from the definition of investment company pursuant to Section 3(c)(5)(C) of the Investment Company Act. We will classify our assets for purposes of certain of our subsidiaries’ Section 3(c)(5)(C) exemption from the Investment Company Act based upon positions set forth by the SEC staff. Based on such positions, to qualify for the exclusion pursuant to Section 3(c)(5)(C), each such subsidiary generally is required to hold at least (i) 55% of its assets in “qualifying” real estate assets and (ii) at least 80% of its assets in “qualifying” real estate assets and real estate-related assets.

As a consequence of our seeking to avoid the need to register under the Investment Company Act on an ongoing basis, we and/or our subsidiaries may be restricted from making certain investments or may structure investments in a manner that would be less advantageous to us than would be the case in the absence of such requirements. In particular, a change in the value of any of our assets could negatively affect our ability to avoid the need to register under the Investment Company Act and cause the need for a restructuring of our investment portfolio. For example, these restrictions may limit our and our subsidiaries’ ability to invest directly in mortgage-backed securities that represent less than the entire ownership in a pool of senior mortgage loans, debt and equity tranches of securitizations and certain asset-backed securities, non-controlling equity interests in real estate companies or in assets not related to real estate; however, we and our subsidiaries may invest in such securities to a certain extent. In addition, seeking to avoid the need to register under the Investment Company Act may cause us and/or our subsidiaries to acquire or hold additional assets that we might not otherwise have acquired or held or dispose of investments that we and/or our subsidiaries might not have otherwise disposed of, which could result in higher costs or lower proceeds to us than we would have paid or received if we were not seeking to comply with such requirements. Thus, avoiding registration under the Investment Company Act may hinder our ability to operate solely on the basis of maximizing profits.

If we were required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act, we would become subject to substantial regulation with respect to our capital structure (including our ability to use borrowings), management, operations, transactions with affiliated persons (as defined in the Investment Company Act) and portfolio composition, including disclosure requirements and restrictions with respect to diversification and industry concentration and other matters. Compliance with the Investment Company Act would, accordingly, limit our ability to make certain investments and require us to significantly restructure our business plan, which could materially and adversely affect our ability to pay distributions to our stockholders.

Available Information

We maintain a website at www.tpgrefinance.com. We are providing the address to our website solely for the information of investors. The information on our website is not a part of, nor is it incorporated by reference into this report. Through our website, we make available, free of charge, our annual proxy statement, annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish them to, the SEC.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors.

The following is a summary of the principal risks and uncertainties that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. This summary should be read together with the more detailed risk factors contained below.

Risks Related to Our Lending and Investment Activities

 

Our success depends on the availability of attractive investment opportunities and our Manager’s ability to model, identify, structure, consummate, leverage, manage and realize returns on our investments.

 

Our commercial mortgage loans and other commercial real estate-related debt instruments expose us to risks associated with real estate investments generally.

 

We operate in a competitive market for the origination and acquisition of attractive investment opportunities and competition may limit our ability to originate or acquire attractive investments in our target assets.

 

Real estate valuation is inherently subjective and uncertain. Our reserves for loan losses may prove inadequate.

 

Interest rate, prepayment, concentration, liquidity, collateral and credit risk may adversely affect our financial performance. There are no assurances that the U.S. or global financial systems will remain stable.

 

We may not have control over certain of our investments which may adversely affect our lack of sole decision-making authority and subject us to additional risks associated with investments in the form of loan participation interests.

 

Any credit ratings assigned to our investments will be subject to ongoing evaluations and revisions, and we cannot assure you that those ratings will not be downgraded.

Risks Related to Our Financing

 

We have a significant amount of debt, which subjects us to increased risk of loss or default of certain covenants. Interest rate fluctuations on our debt could materially and adversely affect our financial performance. Our financing arrangements may also require us to provide additional collateral or repay debt, due to margin calls triggered primarily by changes in the value of collateral securing the loans we pledge to support certain of our borrowings. We are subject to counterparty risk associated with our debt obligations.

 

There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain or utilize additional financing arrangements in the future on similar or more favorable terms, or at all.

Risks Related to Our Relationship with Our Manager and its Affiliates

 

We depend on our Manager and the personnel of TPG provided to our Manager for our success. We may not find a suitable replacement for our Manager if our Management Agreement is terminated, or if key personnel cease to be employed by TPG or otherwise become unavailable to us.

 

Our Manager manages our portfolio pursuant to very broad investment guidelines and is not required to seek the approval of our board of directors for each investment, financing, asset allocation or hedging decision made by it, which may result in our making riskier loans and other investments.

Risks Related to Our Company

 

Our investment, asset allocation and financing strategies may be changed without stockholder consent and we may not be able to operate our business successfully or implement our operating policies and investment strategy.

 

TPG and our Manager may not be able to hire and retain qualified loan originators or grow and maintain our relationships with key borrowers and loan brokers. We also depend on a third-party service provider

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for asset management services. We may not find a suitable replacement if our agreement is terminated, or if key personnel cease to be employed or otherwise become unavailable to us.

 

Rapid changes in the market value or income potential of our assets may make it more difficult for us to maintain our qualification as a REIT or our exclusion or exemption from regulation under the Investment Company Act.

 

The due diligence process undertaken by our Manager in regard to our investment opportunities may not reveal all facts relevant to an investment and, as a result, we may experience losses.

 

Failure to obtain, maintain or renew required licenses and authorizations necessary to operate our mortgage-related activities.

 

Changes in and non-compliance with laws or regulations governing our operations, changes in the interpretation thereof or newly enacted laws or regulations.

 

Actions of the U.S. government, including its affiliated bodies to stabilize or reform the financial markets may not achieve the intended effect.

 

Operational risks, including the risks of cyberattacks and the proposed transition from LIBOR to an alternate rate, may disrupt our businesses, result in losses or limit our growth.

Risks Related to our REIT Status and Certain Other Tax Items

 

Failure to comply with REIT requirements could subject us to higher taxes and additional liquidity issues, which would reduce the amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders.

 

Dividends payable by REITs do not qualify for the reduced tax rates available for some dividends.

 

Compliance with the REIT requirements may hinder our ability to grow.

 

We may choose to make distributions to our stockholders in our own common stock, in which case our stockholders could be required to pay income taxes in excess of the cash dividends they receive.

 

Liquidation of assets may jeopardize our REIT qualification or create additional tax liability for us.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

 

We have not established a minimum distribution payment level and we cannot assure you of our ability to pay distributions in the future.

 

The authorized but unissued shares of our common stock and preferred stock may prevent a change in our control. Ownership limitations may delay, defer or prevent a transaction or a change in our control that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interest of our stockholders.

 

Our charter contains provisions that make removal of our directors difficult, which makes it more difficult for our stockholders to effect changes to our management and may prevent a change in control of our company that is in the best interests of our stockholders.

Risks Related to COVID-19

 

The market and economic disruptions caused by COVID-19 have negatively impacted our business and our borrowers’ financial condition potentially limiting our ability to grow our business and make distributions to our stockholders and could cause us to default on certain financial covenants contained in our financing arrangements.

General Risks