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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-Q
 
   
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2024
- OR -
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission file number:
001-37470
 
TransUnion
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
Delaware 61-1678417
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
 
555 West Adams,Chicago,Illinois60661
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip code)
312-985-2000
(Registrants’ telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.01 par valueTRUNew York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
YesNo
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
YesNo
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:


Large Accelerated FilerAccelerated Filer
Non-Accelerated FilerSmaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
YesNo
 
As of March 31, 2024, there were 194.2 million shares of TransUnion common stock outstanding.




TRANSUNION
QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q
QUARTER ENDED MARCH 31, 2024
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
3

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. UNAUDITED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
TRANSUNION AND SUBSIDIARIES
Consolidated Balance Sheets (Unaudited)
(in millions, except per share data)
March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$433.6 $476.2 
Trade accounts receivable, net of allowance of $17.6 and $16.4
774.6 723.0 
Other current assets214.7 275.9 
Total current assets1,422.9 1,475.1 
Property, plant and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation and amortization of $822.5 and $804.4
189.9 199.3 
Goodwill5,170.4 5,176.0 
Other intangibles, net of accumulated amortization of $2,814.1 and $2,719.8
3,450.0 3,515.3 
Other assets791.5 739.4 
Total assets$11,024.7 $11,105.1 
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
Current liabilities:
Trade accounts payable$281.3 $251.3 
Short-term debt and current portion of long-term debt77.5 89.6 
Other current liabilities502.2 661.8 
Total current liabilities861.0 1,002.7 
Long-term debt5,253.1 5,250.8 
Deferred taxes566.7 592.9 
Other liabilities166.7 153.2 
Total liabilities6,847.5 6,999.6 
Stockholders’ equity:
Common stock, $0.01 par value; 1.0 billion shares authorized at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, 200.6 million and 200.0 million shares issued at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively, and 194.2 million and 193.8 million shares outstanding as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively
2.0 2.0 
Additional paid-in capital2,450.5 2,412.9 
Treasury stock at cost, 6.4 million and 6.2 million shares at March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively
(313.5)(302.9)
Retained earnings2,199.1 2,157.1 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(262.8)(260.9)
Total TransUnion stockholders’ equity4,075.3 4,008.2 
Noncontrolling interests101.9 97.3 
Total stockholders’ equity4,177.2 4,105.5 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$11,024.7 $11,105.1 

See accompanying notes to unaudited consolidated financial statements.
4

TRANSUNION AND SUBSIDIARIES
Consolidated Statements of Operations (Unaudited)
(in millions, except per share data)
Three Months Ended March 31,
 20242023
Revenue$1,021.2 $940.3 
Operating expenses
Cost of services (exclusive of depreciation and amortization below)406.3 380.8 
Selling, general and administrative305.6 284.6 
Depreciation and amortization134.0 129.7 
Restructuring18.2  
Total operating expenses864.1 795.1 
Operating income157.2 145.2 
Non-operating income and (expense)
Interest expense(68.7)(71.8)
Interest income5.4 5.8 
Earnings from equity method investments4.7 3.1 
Other income and (expense), net(15.7)(6.8)
Total non-operating income and (expense)(74.1)(69.6)
Income from continuing operations before income taxes83.0 75.6 
Provision for income taxes(13.0)(18.6)
Income from continuing operations70.0 57.0 
Discontinued operations, net of tax (0.1)
Net income70.0 56.9 
Less: net income attributable to the noncontrolling interests(4.9)(4.3)
Net income attributable to TransUnion$65.1 $52.6 
Basic earnings per common share from:
Income from continuing operations attributable to TransUnion$0.34 $0.27 
Discontinued operations, net of tax  
Net income attributable to TransUnion$0.34 $0.27 
Diluted earnings per common share from:
Income from continuing operations attributable to TransUnion$0.33 $0.27 
Discontinued operations, net of tax  
Net income attributable to TransUnion$0.33 $0.27 
Weighted-average shares outstanding:
Basic194.1 193.0 
Diluted195.3 193.9 

As a result of displaying amounts in millions, and for the calculation of earnings per share, rounding differences may exist in the table above. See accompanying notes to unaudited consolidated financial statements.
5

TRANSUNION AND SUBSIDIARIES
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Unaudited)
(in millions)
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 20242023
Net income$70.0 $56.9 
Other comprehensive income:
         Foreign currency translation:
               Foreign currency translation adjustment(10.6)38.0 
               Benefit (provision) for income taxes0.1 (0.7)
         Foreign currency translation, net(10.5)37.3 
         Hedge instruments:
               Net change on interest rate swap11.1 (47.4)
               (Provision) benefit for income taxes(2.8)11.8 
         Hedge instruments, net8.3 (35.6)
Total other comprehensive (loss) income, net of tax(2.2)1.7 
Comprehensive income67.8 58.6 
Less: comprehensive income attributable to noncontrolling interests(4.6)(3.7)
Comprehensive income attributable to TransUnion$63.2 $54.9 

See accompanying notes to unaudited consolidated financial statements.

6

TRANSUNION AND SUBSIDIARIES
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (Unaudited)
(in millions)
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net income$70.0 $56.9 
Less: Discontinued operations, net of tax (0.1)
Income from continuing operations70.0 57.0 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization134.0 129.7 
Loss on repayment of loans0.7 1.0 
Deferred taxes(27.1)(27.4)
Stock-based compensation24.1 22.1 
Gain on investments(4.7) 
Other3.5 (0.1)
Changes in assets and liabilities:
Trade accounts receivable(60.7)(56.7)
Other current and long-term assets43.7 (12.2)
Trade accounts payable28.7 44.9 
Other current and long-term liabilities(158.2)(80.9)
Cash provided by operating activities
54.0 77.4 
Cash flows from investing activities:
Capital expenditures(62.4)(66.5)
Proceeds from sale/maturities of other investments  17.5 
Purchases of other investments (23.1)
Investments in nonconsolidated affiliates(1.2)(31.9)
Other1.2 0.4 
Cash used in investing activities(62.4)(103.6)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Proceeds from Term Loans264.1  
Repayments of Term Loans(257.1) 
Repayments of debt(14.6)(103.6)
Debt financing fees(4.7) 
Proceeds from issuance of common stock and exercise of stock options12.4 9.8 
Dividends to shareholders(20.8)(20.6)
Employee taxes paid on restricted stock units recorded as treasury stock(10.6)(7.6)
Cash used in financing activities(31.3)(122.0)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash and cash equivalents(2.9)1.9 
Net change in cash and cash equivalents(42.6)(146.3)
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period476.2 585.3 
Cash and cash equivalents, end of period$433.6 $439.0 

See accompanying notes to unaudited consolidated financial statements.
7

TRANSUNION AND SUBSIDIARIES
Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity (Unaudited)
(in millions)
 Common StockPaid-In
Capital
Treasury
Stock
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Noncontrolling
Interests
Total
SharesAmount
Balance, December 31, 2022192.7 $2.0 $2,290.3 $(284.5)$2,446.6 $(284.5)$99.5 $4,269.4 
Net income— — — — 52.6 — 4.3 56.9 
Other comprehensive income (loss)— — — — — 2.3 (0.6)1.7 
Stock-based compensation— — 20.7 — — — — 20.7 
Employee share purchase plan0.2  10.7 — — — — 10.7 
Exercise of stock options0.1  0.5 — — — — 0.5 
Vesting of restricted stock units and performance stock units0.3 — — — — — — — 
Treasury stock purchased(0.1)— — (7.6)— — — (7.6)
Dividends to shareholders— — — — (20.8)— — (20.8)
Balance, March 31, 2023193.2 $2.0 $2,322.3 $(292.1)$2,478.4 $(282.2)$103.2 $4,331.5 
 Common StockPaid-In
Capital
Treasury
Stock
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Noncontrolling
Interests
Total
SharesAmount
Balance, December 31, 2023193.8 $2.0 $2,412.9 $(302.9)$2,157.1 $(260.9)$97.3 $4,105.5 
Net income— — — — 65.1 — 4.9 70.0 
Other comprehensive income (loss)— — — — — (1.9)(0.3)(2.2)
Stock-based compensation— — 22.9 — — — — 22.9 
Employee share purchase plan0.2  14.7 — — — — 14.7 
Vesting of restricted stock units and performance stock units0.4 — — — — — — — 
Treasury stock purchased(0.1)— — (10.6)— — — (10.6)
Dividends to shareholders— — — — (23.1)— — (23.1)
Balance, March 31, 2024194.3 $2.0 $2,450.5 $(313.5)$2,199.1 $(262.8)$101.9 $4,177.2 

See accompanying notes to unaudited consolidated financial statements.
8

TRANSUNION AND SUBSIDIARIES
Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements
(Tabular amounts in millions, except per share amounts)
1. Significant Accounting and Reporting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements of TransUnion and subsidiaries have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) for interim financial statements and, in our opinion, include all adjustments of a normal recurring nature necessary for a fair statement of the interim periods presented. All significant intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated. As a result of displaying amounts in millions, rounding differences may exist in the financial statements and footnote tables. The interim results presented are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year ending December 31, 2024. The Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheet data for the year ended December 31, 2023 was derived from audited financial statements. Therefore, these unaudited consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with our audited financial statements and related notes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on February 28, 2024.
During the quarter ended March 31, 2024, we have reorganized our operations to merge our Consumer Interactive operating segment with our U.S. Markets operating segment. This change aligns with our transformation plan for an integrated U.S. business with increased cross-selling activities and common enabling functions to achieve greater cost efficiencies.
In addition, we have changed the responsibility for certain international operations previously managed within the U.S. Markets segment to certain regions within the International segment.
As a result, we have two operating segments, U.S. Markets and International, which are consistent with our reportable segments, and reflect the structure of the Company’s internal organization, the method by which the Company’s resources are allocated and the manner in which the chief operating decision maker assesses the Company’s performance.
The reporting of certain revenue from the acquisition of Argus Information and Advisory Services, Inc. and Commerce Signals, Inc. (collectively, “Argus”), which was previously reported within our Financial Services vertical, is now reported in Emerging Verticals in the U.S. Markets operating segment. While this change does not impact our operating segments, it does impact our disaggregated revenue disclosures.
We have recast our historical financial information present in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q to reflect these changes and conform to our current operating structure.
Unless the context indicates otherwise, any reference in this report to the “Company,” “we,” “our,” “us,” and “its” refers to TransUnion and its consolidated subsidiaries, collectively.
For the periods presented, TransUnion does not have any material assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses or operations of any kind other than its ownership investment in TransUnion Intermediate Holdings, Inc.
Revision of Previously Issued Financial Statements
During 2023, the Company identified errors in the classification of certain costs between cost of services and selling, general and administrative in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. The errors resulted in an understatement of cost of services and an overstatement of selling, general and administrative in equal and offsetting amounts to previously issued quarterly and year-to-date financial statements in 2023, with no impact to total operating expenses, operating income or net income, and no impact on the Consolidated Balance Sheets, Consolidated Statement of Comprehensive Income, Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows or the Consolidated Statements of Stockholder’s Equity for any of those periods. The Company concluded that, while the expense classification errors were not material to any of its financial statements taken as a whole, it should revise the Consolidated Statements of Operations for the periods impacted. Accordingly, the Company has revised the previously issued Consolidated Statements of Operations for the three months ended March 31, 2023 to correct for the errors as reflected in this Form 10-Q. The Company will also correct previously reported financial information for this error in its future filings, as applicable. A summary of the corrections to the impacted financial statement line items to the Company’s previously issued Consolidated Statements of Income for each affected period is presented in Note 19, “Revision of Previously Issued Financial Statements.”
9

Principles of Consolidation
The consolidated financial statements of TransUnion include the accounts of TransUnion and all of its controlled subsidiaries. Investments in nonmarketable unconsolidated entities in which the Company is able to exercise significant influence are accounted for using the equity method. Investments in nonmarketable unconsolidated entities in which the Company is not able to exercise significant influence, our “Cost Method Investments,” are accounted for at our initial cost, minus any impairment, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for the identical or a similar investment of the same issuer.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements and related disclosures in accordance with GAAP requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the amounts reported. We believe that the estimates used in preparation of the accompanying consolidated financial statements are reasonable, based upon information available to management at this time. These estimates and judgments affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the balance sheet date, as well as the amounts of revenue and expense during the reporting period. Estimates are inherently uncertain and actual results could differ materially from the estimated amounts.
Trade Accounts Receivable
We base our allowance for doubtful accounts estimate on our historical loss experience, our current expectations of future losses, current economic conditions, an analysis of the aging of outstanding receivables and customer payment patterns, and specific reserves for customers in adverse financial condition or for existing contractual disputes.
The following is a roll-forward of the allowance for doubtful accounts for the periods presented:
 Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Beginning balance$16.4 $11.0 
Provision for losses on trade accounts receivable4.7 1.3 
Write-offs, net of recovered accounts(3.5)(1.1)
Ending balance$17.6 $11.2 
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
There are no recent accounting pronouncements that have been adopted by TransUnion in the first quarter of 2024.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
On November 27, 2023, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2023-07, Segment Reporting (Topic 280), Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures. This ASU updates the requirements for segment reporting to include, among other things, disaggregating and quantifying significant segment expenses that are regularly provided to the chief operating decision maker (“CODM”) and included in the measure of segment profit, describing the nature of amounts not separately disaggregated, allowing for additional measures of a segment's profit or loss used by the CODM when deciding how to allocate resources, and extending nearly all annual segment reporting requirements to quarterly reporting requirements. The update is effective for annual periods for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024, and requires retrospective application. While we are assessing the impact this guidance will have on our disclosures, we do not expect to early adopt this guidance.
On December 14, 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-09, Income Taxes (Topic 740), Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures. This ASU requires income tax disclosures to include consistent categories and greater disaggregation of information in the rate reconciliations and the disaggregation of income taxes paid by federal, state and foreign, and also for individual jurisdictions that are greater than 5% of total income taxes paid. The update is effective for annual periods for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024 on a prospective basis. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently assessing the impact of adopting the updated provisions.
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2. Other Current Assets
Other current assets consisted of the following:
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Prepaid expenses$146.9 $145.4 
Marketable securities (Note 15)2.6 2.7 
Other (Note 17)65.2 127.8 
Total other current assets$214.7 $275.9 
The decrease in other is due primarily to cash received for indemnification and insurance receivables for certain legal matters.
3. Goodwill
Goodwill is allocated to our reporting units, which are an operating segment or one level below an operating segment. We test goodwill for impairment on an annual basis in the fourth quarter and monitor throughout the year for impairment triggering events that indicate that the carrying value of one or more of our reporting units exceeds its fair value.
As discussed above in Note 1, “Significant Accounting and Reporting Policies,” we have reorganized certain operations of our business during the quarter ended March 31, 2024, which has resulted in changes to the expected cash flows for certain reporting units. As a result, we have reallocated all of the goodwill from the Consumer Interactive segment to the U.S. Markets segment and have also reallocated a portion of the goodwill from the U.S. Markets segment to certain reporting units in the International segment, including the United Kingdom reporting unit, using the relative fair value allocation approach as reflected in the tables below. We have assessed the recoverability of the goodwill of the impacted reporting units before and after the reallocation and have concluded there was no impairment to goodwill for any of the reporting units impacted by the reorganization.
Goodwill allocated to our reportable segments and changes in the carrying amount of goodwill during the three months ended March 31, 2024, consisted of the following:
U.S. MarketsInternational
Consumer Interactive
Total
Balance, December 31, 2023$3,602.8 $894.1 $679.1 $5,176.0 
Reallocation of goodwill from segment reorganization
655.6 23.5 (679.1) 
Foreign exchange rate adjustment(0.4)(5.2) (5.6)
Balance, March 31, 2024$4,258.0 $912.4 $ $5,170.4 
During the first quarter of 2024, aside from the reorganization discussed above, there were no triggering events that required us to re-evaluate whether any of our reporting units were impaired. As of March 31, 2024, the fair value of our United Kingdom reporting unit is marginally greater than its carrying value as a result of the impairment recorded in the three months ended September 30, 2023 and the re-allocation from the segment change discussed above. We believe the assumptions that we used in our impairment assessment in the three months ended March 31, 2024 for our United Kingdom reporting unit are reasonable and consistent with assumptions that would be used by other marketplace participants. However, such assumptions are inherently uncertain, and a change in assumptions could change the estimated fair value of our United Kingdom reporting unit. Therefore, future impairments of our United Kingdom reporting unit could be required, which could be material to the consolidated financial statements.
The gross and net goodwill balances at each period were as follows:
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Gross Goodwill
Accumulated Impairment
Net Goodwill
Gross Goodwill
Accumulated Impairment
Net Goodwill
U.S Markets
$4,258.0 $ $4,258.0 $3,602.8 $ $3,602.8 
International
1,326.4 (414.0)912.4 1,308.1 (414.0)894.1 
Consumer Interactive
   679.1  679.1 
Total
$5,584.4 $(414.0)$5,170.4 $5,590.0 $(414.0)$5,176.0 
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4. Intangible Assets
Intangible assets are initially recorded at their acquisition cost, or fair value if acquired as part of a business combination, and amortized over their estimated useful lives. Intangible assets consisted of the following:
 March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
GrossAccumulated
Amortization
NetGrossAccumulated
Amortization
Net
Customer relationships$2,057.8 $(479.1)$1,578.7 $2,060.2 $(451.6)$1,608.6 
Internal use software2,240.5 (1,281.9)958.5 2,204.5 (1,239.7)964.8 
Database and credit files1,367.7 (850.0)517.7 1,372.2 (829.2)543.0 
Trademarks, copyrights and patents587.7 (192.5)395.1 587.7 (188.8)398.9 
Noncompete and other agreements10.5 (10.5) 10.5 (10.5) 
Total intangible assets$6,264.1 $(2,814.1)$3,450.0 $6,235.1 $(2,719.8)$3,515.3 
Changes in the carrying amount of intangible assets between periods consisted of the following: 
GrossAccumulated AmortizationNet
Balance, December 31, 2023$6,235.1 $(2,719.8)$3,515.3 
Developed internal use software50.3  50.3 
Amortization (111.1)(111.1)
Disposals and retirements(10.9)10.8 (0.1)
Foreign exchange rate adjustment(10.4)6.1 (4.3)
Balance, March 31, 2024$6,264.1 $(2,814.1)$3,450.0 
All amortizable intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis, which approximates the pattern of benefit, over their estimated useful lives.
5. Other Assets
Other assets consisted of the following:
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Investments in affiliated companies (Note 6)$302.8 $291.4 
Right-of-use lease assets103.9 98.9 
Interest rate swaps (Notes 10 and 15)173.4 162.3 
Note receivable (Note 15)83.3 82.0 
Other128.2 104.8 
Total other assets$791.5 $739.4 
6. Investments in Affiliated Companies
Investments in affiliated companies represent our investment in non-consolidated domestic and foreign entities. These entities are in businesses similar to ours.
For equity method investments, we adjust the carrying value for our proportionate share of the affiliates’ earnings, losses and distributions, as well as for purchases and sales of our ownership interest.
For our Cost Method Investments, we adjust the carrying value for any purchases or sales of our ownership interests. We record any dividends received from these investments as other income in non-operating income and expense.
We have elected to account for our investment in a limited partnership, which is not material, using the net asset value fair value practical expedient. Gains and losses on this investment, which are not material, are included in other income and expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
12

Investments in affiliated companies consisted of the following:
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Cost Method Investments$239.2 $233.8 
Equity method investments
59.8 53.9 
Limited partnership investment
3.8 3.7 
Total investments in affiliated companies (Note 5)
$302.8 $291.4 
These balances are included in other assets in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The increase in Cost Method Investments includes a $4.7 million gain on a Cost Method Investment in our International segment.
There were no dividends from equity method investments during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023. Earnings from equity method investments, which are included in other non-operating income and expense, and dividends received from equity method investments consisted of the following:
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Earnings from equity method investments (Note 16)
$4.7 $3.1 
7. Other Current Liabilities
Other current liabilities consisted of the following:
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Accrued payroll and employee benefits$99.4 $216.2 
Accrued legal and regulatory matters (Note 17)105.2 147.8 
Deferred revenue (Note 12)138.4 125.1 
Accrued restructuring (Note 8)48.6 64.9
Operating lease liabilities24.6 26.2 
Income taxes payable7.4 10.2 
Other78.6 71.5 
Total other current liabilities$502.2 $661.8 
The decrease in accrued payroll and employee benefits is due primarily to bonus, commissions and salaries paid during the first quarter of 2024 that were earned in 2023. The decrease in accrued legal and regulatory was due primarily to payments made for certain legal and regulatory expenses.

8. Restructuring
On November 12, 2023, our Board of Directors (“Board”) approved a transformation plan to optimize our operating model and continue to advance our technology. The transformation plan includes an operating model optimization program that will reduce our global workforce, transition certain job responsibilities to global capability centers, and reduce our facility footprint. The Company expects to record pre-tax expenses associated with the operating model optimization program of approximately $155.0 million from the fourth quarter of 2023 through the end of 2025, consisting of approximately $110.0 million of employee separation expenses and $45.0 million of facility exit expenses, with a majority of the expenses to be incurred by the end of 2024. To date, we have incurred a total of $93.5 million, including $18.2 million recorded in the first quarter of 2024.


13

The following table summarizes the expenses recorded in the first quarter of 2024.
Three Months Ended March 31, 2024
Employee separation
$16.8 
Facility exit1
1.4 
Total restructuring expenses
$18.2 

1 Consists of impairments of lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets.

The following table summarizes the changes in the accrued restructuring reserve during the three months ended March 31, 2024, which are included in other current liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Employee Separation Costs
Balance, December 31, 2023$64.9 
   Restructuring expense
16.8 
   Cash payments
(33.0)
   Foreign exchange rate adjustment
(0.1)
Balance, March 31, 2024 (Note 7)$48.6 

All restructuring expenses have been recorded in the Corporate unit, as these initiatives are predominantly centrally directed and controlled and are not included in internal measures of segment operating performance.

9. Other Liabilities
Other liabilities consisted of the following:
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Operating lease liabilities$89.8 $81.8 
Unrecognized tax benefits, net of indirect tax effects (Note 14)41.0 40.2 
Deferred revenue (Note 12)16.8 15.1 
Other19.2 16.1 
Total other liabilities$166.7 $153.2 

14

10. Debt
Debt outstanding consisted of the following:
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Senior Secured Term Loan B-5, payable in quarterly installments through November 15, 2026, with periodic variable interest at Term SOFR plus a credit spread adjustment, or alternate base rate, plus applicable margin (7.18% at March 31, 2024 and 7.21% at December 31, 2023), net of original issue discount and deferred financing fees of $1.8 million and $4.3 million, respectively, at March 31, 2024, and of $1.9 million and $4.6 million, respectively, at December 31, 2023
$2,173.5 $2,179.4 
Senior Secured Term Loan A-4, payable in quarterly installments through October 27, 2028, with periodic variable interest at Term SOFR plus a credit spread adjustment, or alternate base rate, plus applicable margin (6.93% at March 31, 2024 and 6.96% at December 31, 2023), net of original issue discount and deferred financing fees of $0.4 million and $3.2 million, respectively, at March 31, 2024, and of $0.4 million and $3.4 million, respectively, at December 31, 2023
1,288.2 1,296.1 
Senior Secured Term Loan B-7, payable in quarterly installments through December 1, 2028, with periodic variable interest at Term SOFR plus a credit spread adjustment, or alternate base rate, plus applicable margin (7.33% at March 31, 2024), net of original issue discount and deferred financing fees of $7.8 million and $18.3 million at March 31, 2024
1,868.9  
Senior Secured Term Loan B-6, refinanced in the three months ended March 31, 2024 with B-7 loans, with periodic variable interest at Term SOFR plus a credit spread adjustment, or alternate base rate, plus applicable margin (7.72% at December 31, 2023) and original issue discount and deferred financing fees of $3.5 million and $20.0 million, respectively, at December 31, 2023
 1,864.8 
Finance leases 0.1 
Senior Secured Revolving Credit Facility  
Total debt5,330.6 5,340.4 
Less short-term debt and current portion of long-term debt(77.5)(89.6)
Total long-term debt$5,253.1 $5,250.8 
Senior Secured Credit Facility
On June 15, 2010, we entered into a Senior Secured Credit Facility with various lenders. This facility has been amended several times and currently consists of the Senior Secured Term Loan B-7, Senior Secured Term Loan B-5, Senior Secured Term Loan A-4 (collectively, the “Senior Secured Term Loans”), and the Senior Secured Revolving Credit Facility.
On October 27, 2023, we executed Amendment No. 21 to the Senior Secured Credit Facility, pursuant to which we entered into Senior Secured Term Loan A-4 with an aggregate principal amount of $1.3 billion, the proceeds of which were used to repay Senior Secured Term Loan A-3 in full, repay $300.0 million of Senior Secured Term Loan B-6, and pay the related financing fees and expenses. In addition, we increased the borrowing capacity on the Senior Secured Revolving Credit Facility from $300.0 million to $600.0 million and extended the maturity date from December 10, 2024 to October 27, 2028.
On February 8, 2024, we executed Amendment No. 22 to the Senior Secured Credit Facility, pursuant to which we entered into Senior Secured Term Loan B-7 with an aggregate principal amount of $1.9 billion, the proceeds of which were used to repay Senior Secured Term Loan B-6 in full and pay the related financing fees and expenses. In connection with the refinancing, we incurred incremental deferred financing fees of $4.7 million that will be amortized over the new loan term. Senior Secured Term Loan B-7 is a syndicated debt instrument. As a result of the refinancing, we repaid $257.1 million of principal to lenders and received $264.1 million of proceeds from lenders.
We expensed $3.1 million of the unamortized original discount, deferred financing fees, and other related fees to other income and expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations for the quarter ended March 31, 2024.
During the three months ended March 31, 2023, we expensed $1.1 million of our unamortized original issue discount and deferred financing fees to other income and expense in our Consolidated Statements of Operations due to the prepayment of $75.0 million of our Senior Secured Term Loan B-6, funded from our cash-on-hand. We did not make any debt prepayments during the three months ended March 31, 2024.
As of March 31, 2024, we had no outstanding balance under the Senior Secured Revolving Credit Facility and $1.2 million of outstanding letters of credit, and could have borrowed up to the remaining $598.8 million available.
15

TransUnion also has the ability to request incremental loans on the same terms under the Senior Secured Credit Facility up to the sum of the greater of $1,000.0 million and 100% of Consolidated EBITDA, minus the amount of secured indebtedness and the amount incurred prior to the incremental loan, and may incur additional incremental loans so long as the senior secured net leverage ratio does not exceed 4.25-to-1, subject to certain additional conditions and commitments by existing or new lenders to fund any additional borrowings.
With certain exceptions, the Senior Secured Credit Facility obligations are secured by a first-priority security interest in substantially all of the assets of Trans Union LLC, including its investment in subsidiaries. The Senior Secured Credit Facility contains various restrictions and nonfinancial covenants, along with a senior secured net leverage ratio test. The nonfinancial covenants include restrictions on dividends, investments, dispositions, future borrowings and other specified payments, as well as additional reporting and disclosure requirements. The senior secured net leverage test must be met as a condition to incur additional indebtedness, make certain investments, and may be required to make certain restricted payments. The senior secured net leverage ratio must not exceed 5.5-to-1 at any such measurement date. Under the terms of the Senior Secured Credit Facility, TransUnion may make dividend payments up to the greater of $100 million or 10.0% of Consolidated EBITDA per year, or an unlimited amount provided that no default or event of default exists and so long as the total net leverage ratio does not exceed 4.75-to-1. As of March 31, 2024, we were in compliance with all debt covenants.
Interest Rate Hedging
On November 16, 2022, we entered into interest rate swap agreements with various counterparties that effectively fix our variable interest rate exposure on a portion of our Senior Secured Term Loan or similar replacement debt. The swaps commenced on December 30, 2022, and expire on December 31, 2024, with a current aggregate notional amount of $1,295.0 million that amortizes each quarter. The swaps require us to pay fixed rates varying between 4.3380% and 4.3870% in exchange for receiving a variable rate that matches the variable rate on our loans. We have designated these swap agreements as cash flow hedges.
On December 23, 2021, we entered into interest rate swap agreements with various counterparties that effectively fix our variable interest rate exposure on a portion of our Senior Secured Term Loan or similar replacement debt. The swaps commenced on December 31, 2021, and expire on December 31, 2026, with a current aggregate notional amount of $1,564.0 million that amortizes each quarter. The swaps require us to pay fixed rates varying between 1.3800% and 1.3915% in exchange for receiving a variable rate that matches the variable rate on our loans. We have designated these swap agreements as cash flow hedges.
On March 10, 2020, we entered into two interest rate swap agreements with various counterparties that effectively fix our variable interest rate exposure on a portion of our Senior Secured Term Loans or similar replacement debt. The first swap commenced on June 30, 2020, and expired on June 30, 2022. The second swap commenced on June 30, 2022, and expires on June 30, 2025, with a current aggregate notional amount of $1,075.0 million that amortizes each quarter after it commences. The second swap requires us to pay fixed rates varying between 0.8680% and 0.8800% in exchange for receiving a variable rate that matches the variable rate on our loans. We have designated these swap agreements as cash flow hedges.
The change in the fair value of our hedging instruments, included in our assessment of hedge effectiveness, is recorded in other comprehensive income, and reclassified to interest expense when the corresponding hedged debt affects earnings.
The net change in the fair value of the swaps resulted in an unrealized gain of $11.1 million ($8.3 million, net of tax) and an unrealized loss of $47.4 million ($35.6 million, net of tax) for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively, recorded in other comprehensive income. Interest income on the swaps was $31.1 million ($23.3 million, net of tax) and $22.6 million ($16.9 million, net of tax) for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. We expect to recognize a gain of approximately $116.5 million as a reduction to interest expense due to our expectation that the variable rate that we receive will exceed the fixed rates of interest over the next twelve months.
Fair Value of Debt
As of March 31, 2024, the fair value of our Senior Secured Term Loan B-7, excluding original issue discounts and deferred fees was approximately $1,895.0 million. As of December 31, 2023, the fair value of our Senior Secured Term Loan B-6, excluding original issue discounts and deferred fees was approximately $1,895.1 million. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the fair value of our Senior Secured Term Loan B-5, excluding original issue discounts and deferred fees was approximately $2,182.2 million and $2,191.5 million, respectively. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the fair value of our Senior Secured Term Loan A-4, excluding original issue discounts and deferred fees, was approximately $1,283.8 million and $1,291.9 million, respectively. The fair values of our variable-rate term loans are determined using Level 2 inputs, based on quoted market prices for the publicly traded instruments.
16

11. Stockholders’ Equity
Common Stock Dividends
In the first quarters of 2024 and 2023, we paid dividends of $0.105 per share totaling $20.8 million and $20.8 million, respectively. Dividends declared accrue to outstanding restricted stock units and are paid to employees as dividend equivalents when the restricted stock units vest.
Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our Board and will depend on a number of factors, including our liquidity, results of operations, financial condition, contractual restrictions, restrictions imposed by applicable law and other factors our Board deems appropriate. We currently have capacity and intend to continue to pay a quarterly dividend, subject to approval by our Board.
Treasury Stock
On February 13, 2017, our Board authorized the repurchase of up to $300.0 million of our common stock over the next 3 years. Our Board removed the three-year time limitation on February 8, 2018. To date, we have repurchased $133.5 million of our common stock and have the ability to repurchase the remaining $166.5 million.
We have no obligation to repurchase additional shares. Any determination to repurchase additional shares will be at the discretion of management and will depend on a number of factors, including our liquidity, results of operations, financial condition, contractual restrictions, restrictions imposed by applicable law, market conditions, the cost of repurchasing shares, the availability of alternative investment opportunities, and other factors management deems appropriate. Any repurchased shares will have the status of treasury shares and may be used, if and when needed, for general corporate purposes.
For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, 0.4 million and 0.3 million outstanding employee restricted stock units vested and became taxable to the employees, respectively. Employees satisfy their payroll tax withholding obligations in a net share settlement arrangement with the Company.
Preferred Stock
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, we had 100.0 million shares of preferred stock authorized, and no preferred stock issued or outstanding.
12. Revenue
We have contracts with two general groups of performance obligations: Stand Ready Performance Obligations and Other Performance Obligations. Our Stand Ready Performance Obligations include obligations to stand ready to provide data, process transactions, access our databases, software-as-a-service and direct-to-consumer products, provide rights to use our intellectual property and other services. Our Other Performance Obligations include the sale of certain batch data sets and various professional and other services.
Most of our Stand Ready Performance Obligations consist of a series of distinct goods and services that are substantially the same and have the same monthly pattern of transfer to our customers. We consider each month of service in this time series to be a distinct performance obligation and, accordingly, recognize revenue over time. For a majority of these Stand Ready Performance Obligations, the total contractual price is variable because our obligation is to process an unknown quantity of transactions, as and when requested by our customers, over the contract period. We allocate the variable price to each month of service using the time-series concept and recognize revenue based on the most likely amount of consideration to which we will be entitled, which is generally the amount we have the right to invoice. This monthly amount can be based on the actual volume of units delivered or a guaranteed minimum, if higher. Occasionally we have contracts where the amount we will be entitled to for the transactions processed is uncertain, in which case we estimate the revenue based on what we consider to be the most likely amount of consideration we will be entitled to and adjust any estimates as facts and circumstances evolve.
For all contracts that include a Stand Ready Performance Obligation with variable pricing, we are unable to estimate the variable price attributable to future performance obligations because the number of units to be purchased is not known. As a result, we use the exception available to forgo disclosures about revenue attributable to the future performance obligations where we recognize revenue using the time-series concept as discussed above, including those qualifying for the right to invoice practical expedient. We also use the exception available to forgo disclosures about revenue attributable to contracts with expected durations of one year or less.
Certain of our Other Performance Obligations, including certain batch data sets and certain professional and other services, are delivered at a point in time. Accordingly, we recognize revenue upon delivery once we have satisfied that obligation. For certain Other Performance Obligations, including certain professional and other services, we recognize revenue over time, based on an estimate of progress towards completion of that obligation. These contracts are not material.
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In certain circumstances we apply the revenue recognition guidance to a portfolio of contracts with similar characteristics. We use estimates and assumptions when accounting for a portfolio that reflect the size and composition of the portfolio of contracts.
Our contracts include standard commercial payment terms generally acceptable in each region, and do not include financing with extended payment terms. We have no significant obligations for refunds, warranties, or similar obligations. Our revenue does not include taxes collected from our customers.
Accounts receivable are shown separately on our balance sheet. Contract assets and liabilities result due to the timing of revenue recognition, billings and cash collections. Contract assets include our right to payment for goods and services already transferred to a customer when the right to payment is conditional on something other than the passage of time, for example, contracts pursuant to which we recognize revenue over time but do not have a contractual right to payment until we complete the contract. Contract assets are included in our other current assets and are not material as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.
As most of our contracts with customers have a duration of one year or less, our contract liabilities consist of deferred revenue that is primarily short-term in nature. Contract liabilities include current and long-term deferred revenue that is included in other current liabilities and other liabilities. We expect to recognize the December 31, 2023 current deferred revenue balance as revenue during 2024. The majority of our long-term deferred revenue, which is not material, is expected to be recognized in less than two years.
We have certain contracts that have a duration of more than one year. For these contracts, the transaction price allocable to the future performance obligations is primarily fixed but contains a variable component. As of March 31, 2024, the aggregate amount of transaction price attributable to future performance obligations for long-term, non-cancelable contracts, excluding variable components, totals approximately $680 million. We expect to recognize approximately 55% of this amount in the twelve months ending March 31, 2025, 30% in the twelve months ending March 31, 2026 and 15% thereafter.
For additional disclosures about the disaggregation of our revenue see Note 16, “Reportable Segments.”
13. Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per share represents income available to common stockholders divided by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the reported period. Diluted earnings per share reflects the effect of the increase in shares outstanding determined by using the treasury stock method for awards issued under our incentive stock plans.
As of March 31, 2024 and 2023, there were 0.8 million and 0.9 million anti-dilutive weighted stock-based awards outstanding, respectively. As of March 31, 2024 and 2023, there were approximately 0.2 million and 0.1 million, respectively, contingently-issuable performance-based stock awards outstanding that were excluded from the diluted earnings per share calculation, because the contingencies had not been met.
Income from continuing operations attributable to TransUnion and basic and diluted weighted average shares outstanding were as follows:
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Income from continuing operations$70.0 $57.0 
Less: income from continuing operations attributable to noncontrolling interests(4.9)(4.3)
Income from continuing operations attributable to TransUnion$65.1 $52.7 
Weighted-average shares outstanding:
Basic194.1 193.0 
Dilutive impact of stock based awards1.2 0.8 
Diluted195.3 193.9 

14. Income Taxes
For the three months ended March 31, 2024, we reported an effective tax rate of 15.7%, which was lower than the 21.0% U.S. federal corporate statutory rate due primarily to the impact of benefits on the remeasurement of deferred taxes due to changes in state apportionment rates, benefits from the foreign rate differential, and the research and development credit, partially offset by
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the impact of increases for foreign withholding taxes, nondeductible expenses primarily in connection with executive compensation limitations and uncertain tax positions.
For the three months ended March 31, 2023, we reported an effective tax rate of 24.6%, which was higher than the 21.0% U.S. federal corporate statutory rate due primarily to the impact of increases for foreign withholding taxes, uncertain tax positions, nondeductible expenses primarily in connection with executive compensation limitations, and excess tax expenses for stock-based compensation, partially offset by benefits from the foreign rate differential and the research and development credit.
The gross amount of unrecognized tax benefits, which excludes indirect tax effects, was $45.9 million as of March 31, 2024, and $45.0 million as of December 31, 2023. The amounts that would affect the effective tax rate if recognized were $35.2 million as of March 31, 2024, and $34.5 million as of December 31, 2023. We classify interest and penalties as income tax expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and their associated liabilities as other liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Interest and penalties on unrecognized tax benefits were $15.2 million as of March 31, 2024, and $14.0 million as of December 31, 2023. We are regularly audited by federal, state and foreign taxing authorities. Given the uncertainties inherent in the audit process, it is reasonably possible that certain audits could result in a significant increase or decrease in the total amounts of unrecognized tax benefits. An estimate of the range of the increase or decrease in unrecognized tax benefits due to audit results cannot be made at this time. Tax years 2009 and forward remain open for examination in some foreign jurisdictions, 2012 and forward for U.S. federal income tax purposes and 2015 and forward in some state jurisdictions.
15. Fair Value
The following table summarizes financial instruments measured at fair value, on a recurring basis, as of March 31, 2024:
TotalLevel 1Level 2Level 3
Assets
Interest rate swaps (Notes 5 and 10)$173.4 $ $173.4 $ 
Note receivable (Note 5)83.3  83.3  
Available-for-sale marketable securities (Note 2)
2.6  2.6  
Total$259.3 $ $259.3 $ 
The following table summarizes financial instruments measured at fair value, on a recurring basis, as of December 31, 2023:
TotalLevel 1Level 2Level 3
Assets
Interest rate swaps (Notes 5 and 10)$162.3 $ $162.3 $ 
Note receivable (Note 5)82.0  82.0  
Available-for-sale marketable securities (Note 2)
2.7  2.7  
Total$247.0 $ $247.0 $ 
Level 2 instruments consist of foreign exchange-traded corporate bonds, interest rate swaps and notes receivable. Foreign exchange-traded corporate bonds are available-for-sale debt securities valued at their current quoted prices. These securities mature between 2027 and 2033. Unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale debt securities, which are not material, are included in other comprehensive income. The interest rate swaps fair values are determined using the market standard methodology of discounting the future expected net cash receipts or payments that would occur if variable interest rates rise above or fall below the fixed rates of the swaps. The variable interest rates used in the calculations of projected receipts on the swaps are based on an expectation of future interest rates derived from observable market interest rate curves and volatilities. As discussed in Note 10, “Debt,” there are three tranches of interest rate swaps. In December 2022, we sold the non-core businesses of our VF acquisition. A portion of the consideration was in the form of a $72.0 million note receivable. The note receivable accrues interest semiannually at a per annum rate of 10.6% and is payable at maturity. The note matures on June 30, 2025, subject to an option of the note issuer to extend the maturity date for two successive terms of three months each, at an increased rate of interest at each extension. The note was initially recorded at fair value of $70.3 million using an income approach for fixed income securities, where contractual cash flows were discounted to present value at a risk-adjusted rate of return in a lattice model framework. The fair value of the note is determined each period by applying the same approach, considering changes to the risk-adjusted rate of return given observed changes to the interest rate environment, market pricing of credit risk, and issuer-specific credit risk.
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16. Reportable Segments
As discussed in Note 1, “Significant Accounting and Reporting Policies,” during the quarter ended March 31, 2024, we reorganized our operations and now have two operating segments, U.S. Markets and International, and the Corporate unit, which provides support services to each of the segments. The Company’s operating segments, which are consistent with its reportable segments, reflect the structure of the Company’s internal organization, the method by which the Company’s resources are allocated and the manner by which the CODM assesses the Company’s performance. Our CODM uses the profit measure of Adjusted EBITDA, on both a consolidated and a segment basis, to allocate resources and assess performance of our segments. We use Adjusted EBITDA as our profit measure because it eliminates the impact of certain items that we do not consider indicative of operating performance, which is useful to compare operating results between periods. Our Board and executive management team also use Adjusted EBITDA as a compensation measure for both segment and corporate management under our incentive compensation plans. Adjusted EBITDA is also a measure frequently used by securities analysts, investors and other interested parties in their evaluation of the operating performance of companies similar to ours.
The segment financial information below has been recast to conform to our current operating structure as discussed in Note 1, “Significant Accounting and Reporting Policies” and Note 3, “Goodwill.” The accounting policies of the segments are the same as described in Note 1, “Significant Accounting and Reporting Policies” and Note 12, “Revenue.”
The following is a more detailed description of our reportable segments and the Corporate unit:
U.S. Markets
The U.S. Markets segment provides consumer reports, actionable insights and analytics to businesses and consumers. Businesses use our services to acquire customers, assess consumers’ ability to pay for services, identify cross-selling opportunities, measure and manage debt portfolio risk, collect debt, verify consumer identities, mitigate fraud risk and respond to data breach events. Consumers use our services to manage their personal finances and take precautions against identity theft. We report disaggregated revenue of our U.S. Markets segment for Financial Services, Emerging Verticals and Consumer Interactive.
Financial Services: The Financial Services vertical consists of our Consumer Lending, Mortgage, Auto and Card and Payments lines of business. Our Financial Services clients consist of most banks, credit unions, finance companies, auto lenders, mortgage lenders, FinTechs, and other consumer lenders in the United States. We also distribute our solutions through most major resellers, secondary market players and sales agents. Beyond traditional lenders, we work with a variety of credit arrangers, such as auto dealers and peer-to-peer lenders. We provide solutions across every aspect of the lending lifecycle; customer acquisition and engagement, fraud and ID management, retention and recovery. Our products are focused on mitigating risk and include credit reporting, credit marketing, analytics and consulting, identity verification and authentication and debt recovery solutions.
Emerging Verticals: Emerging Verticals include Insurance, Tech, Retail and E-Commerce, Telecommunications, Media, Tenant & Employment Screening, Collections, and Public Sector. Our solutions in these verticals are also data-driven and address the entire customer lifecycle. We offer onboarding and transaction processing products, scoring and analytic products, marketing solutions, fraud and identity management solutions and customer retention solutions.
Consumer Interactive: Consumer Interactive provides solutions that help consumers manage their personal finances and take precautions against identity theft. Services include paid and free credit reports, scores and freezes, credit monitoring, identity protection and resolution, and financial management for consumers. This vertical also provides solutions that help businesses respond to data breach events. Our products are provided through user-friendly online and mobile interfaces and are supported by educational content and customer support. Our Consumer Interactive vertical serves consumers through both direct and indirect channels.
International
The International segment provides services similar to our U.S. Markets segment to businesses in select regions outside the United States. Depending on the maturity of the credit economy in each country, services may include credit reports, analytics and solutions services, and other value-added risk management services. In addition, we have insurance, business and automotive databases in select geographies. These services are offered to customers in a number of industries including financial services, insurance, automotive, collections, and communications, and are delivered through both direct and indirect channels. The International segment also provides consumer services similar to those offered by our Consumer Interactive vertical in our U.S. Markets segment that help consumers proactively manage their personal finances and take precautions against identity theft.
We report disaggregated revenue of our International segment for the following regions: Canada, Latin America, the United Kingdom, Africa, India, and Asia Pacific.

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Corporate
Corporate provides support services for each of the segments, holds investments, and conducts enterprise functions. Certain costs incurred in Corporate that are not directly attributable to one or more of the segments remain in Corporate. These costs are typically enterprise-level costs and are primarily administrative in nature.
Selected segment financial information and disaggregated revenue consisted of the following:
 Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Gross Revenue:
U.S. Markets:
Financial Services$351.7 $312.3 
Emerging Verticals297.5 285.1 
Consumer Interactive139.3 142.3 
Total U.S. Markets$788.6 $739.7 
International:
Canada$37.7 $31.7 
Latin America32.9 28.8 
United Kingdom54.2 52.1 
Africa15.1 14.6 
India71.1 54.7 
Asia Pacific25.3 21.7 
Total International$236.3 $203.6 
Total revenue, gross$1,024.9 $943.4 
Intersegment revenue eliminations:
U.S. Markets$(2.3)$(1.7)
International(1.5)(1.4)
Total intersegment eliminations$(3.7)$(3.1)
Total revenue as reported$1,021.2 $940.3 
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A reconciliation of Segment Adjusted EBITDA to income from continuing operations before income taxes for the periods presented is as follows:
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
U.S. Markets Adjusted EBITDA$285.2 $268.8 
International Adjusted EBITDA106.8 87.3 
Total$392.0 $356.1 
Adjustments to reconcile to income from continuing operations before income taxes:
Corporate expenses1
$(33.9)$(33.8)
Net interest expense(63.2)(66.0)
Depreciation and amortization(134.0)(129.7)
Stock-based compensation
(24.1)(22.2)
Operating model optimization program2
(24.4) 
Mergers and acquisitions, divestitures and business optimization3
(9.2)(8.9)
Accelerated technology investment4
(18.5)(19.7)
Net other5
(6.5)(4.6)
Net income attributable to non-controlling interests4.9 4.3 
Total adjustments$(309.0)$(280.5)
Income from continuing operations before income taxes$83.0 $75.6 
1.Certain costs that are not directly attributable to one or more of the segments remain in Corporate. These costs are typically enterprise-level costs and are primarily administrative in nature.
2.Consists of restructuring expenses as presented on our Consolidated Statements of Operations and other business process optimization expenses.
3.Mergers and acquisitions, divestitures and business optimization expenses consist of costs associated with exploratory or executed strategic transactions.
4.Accelerated technology investment represents expenses incurred in connection with the transformation of our technology infrastructure.
5.Net other expenses consist primarily of other non-operating income and expenses, primarily comprised of deferred loan fee expense from debt prepayments and refinancing, currency remeasurement on foreign operations, and other debt financing expenses.

Earnings from equity method investments included in non-operating income and expense was as follows:
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
U.S. Markets$0.1 $0.1 
International4.7 3.0 
Total (Note 6)
$4.7 $3.1 
17. Contingencies
Legal and Regulatory Matters
We are routinely named as defendants in, or parties to, various legal actions and proceedings relating to our current or past business operations. These actions generally assert claims for violations of federal or state credit reporting, consumer protection or privacy laws, or common law claims related to the unfair treatment of consumers, and may include claims for substantial or indeterminate compensatory or punitive damages, or injunctive relief, and may seek business practice changes. We believe that most of these claims are either without merit or we have valid defenses to the claims, and we vigorously defend these matters or seek non-monetary or small monetary settlements, if possible. However, due to the uncertainties inherent in litigation, we cannot predict the outcome of each claim in each instance.
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In the ordinary course of business, we also are subject to governmental and regulatory examinations, information-gathering requests, investigations and proceedings (both formal and informal), certain of which may result in adverse judgments, settlements, fines, penalties, injunctions or other relief. In connection with formal and informal investigations and inquiries by regulators, we sometimes receive civil investigative demands, requests, subpoenas and orders seeking documents, testimony, and other information in connection with various aspects of our activities.
In view of the inherent unpredictability of legal and regulatory matters, particularly where the damages sought are substantial or indeterminate or when the proceedings or investigations are in the early stages, we cannot determine with any degree of certainty the timing or ultimate resolution of legal and regulatory matters or the eventual loss, fines or penalties, if any, that may result from such matters. We establish reserves for legal and regulatory matters when those matters present loss contingencies that are both probable and can be reasonably estimated. However, for certain of the matters, we are not able to reasonably estimate our exposure because damages or penalties have not been specified and (i) the proceedings are in early stages, (ii) there is uncertainty as to the likelihood of a class being certified or the ultimate size of the class, (iii) there is uncertainty as to the outcome of similar matters pending against our competitors, (iv) there are significant factual issues to be resolved, and/or (v) there are legal issues of a first impression being presented. The actual costs of resolving legal and regulatory matters, however, may be substantially higher than the amounts reserved for those matters, and an adverse outcome in certain of these matters could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial statements in particular quarterly or annual periods. We accrue amounts for certain legal and regulatory matters for which losses were considered to be probable of occurring based on our best estimate of the most likely outcome. It is reasonably possible actual losses could be significantly different from our current estimates. In addition, there are some matters for which it is reasonably possible that a loss will occur, however we cannot estimate a range of the potential losses for these matters.
To reduce our exposure to an unexpected significant monetary award resulting from an adverse judicial decision, we maintain insurance that we believe is appropriate and adequate based on our historical experience. We regularly advise our insurance carriers of the claims, threatened or pending, against us in legal and regulatory matters and generally receive a reservation of rights letter from the carriers when such claims exceed applicable deductibles. We are not aware of any significant monetary claim that has been asserted against us, except for the lawsuit filed by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the “CFPB”) referenced below, that would not have some level of coverage by insurance after the relevant deductible, if any, is met.
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, we have accrued $105.2 million and $147.8 million, respectively, for legal and regulatory matters. These amounts were recorded in other accrued liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets and the associated expenses were recorded in selling, general and administrative expenses in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Legal fees incurred in connection with ongoing litigation are considered period costs and are expensed as incurred.
CFPB Matters
In June 2021, we received a Notice and Opportunity to Respond and Advise (“NORA”) letter from the CFPB, informing us that the CFPB’s Enforcement Division was considering whether to recommend that the CFPB take legal action against us and certain of our executive officers. The NORA letter alleged that we failed to comply with and timely implement a consent order issued by the CFPB in January 2017 (the “2017 Consent Order”), and further alleged additional violations related to Consumer Interactive’s marketing practices. On September 27, 2021, the Enforcement Division advised us that it had obtained authority to pursue an enforcement action. On April 12, 2022, after failed settlement negotiations with the CFPB related to the matter, the CFPB filed a lawsuit against us, Trans Union LLC, TransUnion Interactive, Inc. (collectively, the “TU Entities”) and the former President of Consumer Interactive, John Danaher, in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois seeking restitution, civil money penalties, and injunctive relief, among other remedies, and alleging that the TU Entities violated the 2017 Consent Order, engaged in deceptive acts and practices in marketing the TransUnion Credit Monitoring product, failed to obtain signed written authorizations from consumers before debiting their bank accounts for the TransUnion Credit Monitoring product and diverted consumers from their free annual file disclosure into paid subscription products. The CFPB further alleges that Mr. Danaher violated the 2017 Consent Order and that we and Trans Union LLC provided substantial assistance to TransUnion Interactive, Inc. in violating the 2017 Consent Order and the law. We continue to believe that our marketing practices are lawful and appropriate and that we have been, and remain, in compliance with the 2017 Consent Order, and we will vigorously defend against allegations to the contrary in such proceedings. We continue to be in active litigation on this matter.
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, we have accrued $56.0 million in connection with this matter and there is a reasonable possibility that a loss in excess of the amount accrued may be incurred, and such an outcome could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. However, any possible loss or range of loss in excess of the amount accrued is not reasonably estimable at this time. In addition, we have and will continue to incur increased costs litigating this matter.
In March 2024, we received a NORA letter from the CFPB, informing us that the CFPB’s Enforcement Division is considering whether to recommend that the CFPB take legal action against us related to our dispute handling practices and procedures. The
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NORA letter alleges that Trans Union LLC violated the Fair Credit Reporting Act’s requirements to conduct a reasonable reinvestigation of disputed information and follow reasonable procedures to assure maximum possible accuracy of the information in consumer reports, and the Consumer Financial Protection Act’s prohibition of unfair, deceptive, and abusive acts or practices. Should the CFPB commence an action against us, it may seek restitution, disgorgement, civil monetary penalties, injunctive relief or other corrective action. We cannot provide assurance that the CFPB will not ultimately commence a legal action against us in this matter, nor are we able to predict the likely outcome, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. As of March 31, 2024, we are not able to reasonably estimate our potential loss or range of loss related to this matter.
Argus Department of Justice Matter
We have cooperated with an investigation originating from the civil division of the United States Attorney’s Office for the Eastern District of Virginia related to Argus’s use of certain data it collected under certain government contracts. We acquired Argus in connection with our acquisition of Verisk Financial Services (“VF”) in April 2022. This matter pertained to alleged conduct that commenced before we acquired Argus. We have cooperated with Verisk Analytics, Inc. (the “Seller”) to respond to the Department of Justice’s (“DOJ”) investigation and, along with the Seller, finalized a $37.0 million settlement with the DOJ (the “Settlement”).
Under the stock purchase agreement Trans Union LLC entered into with the Seller pursuant to which we acquired VF, including Argus, the Seller agreed to indemnify us for certain losses with respect to this matter, including all losses directly resulting from any settlement agreement with the DOJ in connection with this matter, including civil money penalties, remediation costs and fees and expenses. During the three months ended March 31, 2024, the Settlement was paid in full to the DOJ and the indemnification receivable was collected.

18. Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
The following tables set forth the changes in each component of accumulated other comprehensive loss, net of tax, as of March 31, 2024 and 2023:

Foreign Currency
Translation
Adjustment
Net Unrealized
(Loss)/Gain
On Hedges
Net Unrealized
Gain/(Loss) On 
Available-for-sale
Securities
Accumulated Other
Comprehensive Loss
Balance, December 31, 2023
$(383.4)$122.0 $0.2 $(260.9)
Change(10.2)8.3  (1.9)
Balance, March 31, 2024
$(393.6)$130.3 $0.2 $(262.8)

Foreign Currency
Translation
Adjustment
Net Unrealized
(Loss)/Gain
On Hedges
Net Unrealized
Gain/(Loss) On 
Available-for-sale
Securities
Accumulated Other
Comprehensive Loss
Balance, December 31, 2022
$(463.5)$178.6 $0.2 $(284.5)
Change37.9 (35.6) 2.3 
Balance, March 31, 2023
$(425.6)$143.0 $0.2 $(282.2)


19. Revision of Previously Issued Financial Statements
As discussed in Note 1, “Significant Accounting and Reporting Policies,” the Company identified errors in the classification of certain expenses between cost of services and selling, general and administrative in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. A summary of the corrections to the impacted financial statement line items of the Company’s previously issued Consolidated Statement of Operations filed in its unaudited Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the period ended March 31, 2023 and the period ended June 30,2023, and in Amendment No. 1 to the Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q/A for the period ended September 30, 2023, are as follows:
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Three Months Ended March 31, 2023
As Reported
AdjustmentAs Revised
Cost of services (exclusive of depreciation and amortization)$324.9 $55.9 $380.8 
Selling, general and administrative340.5 (55.9)284.6 
Total operating expenses795.1  795.1 
Three Months Ended June 30, 2023
Six Months Ended June 30, 2023
As Reported
AdjustmentAs Revised
As Reported
AdjustmentAs Revised
Cost of services (exclusive of depreciation and amortization)$365.5 $21.5 $387.0 $728.2 $39.6 $767.8 
Selling, general and administrative314.0 (21.5)292.5 616.7 (39.6)577.1 
Total operating expenses809.6  809.6 1,604.7  1,604.7 
Three Months Ended September 30, 2023
Nine Months Ended September 30, 2023
As Reported
AdjustmentAs Revised
As Reported
AdjustmentAs Revised
Cost of services (exclusive of depreciation and amortization)$344.8 $24.0 $368.8 $1,073.2 $63.6 $1,136.8 
Selling, general and administrative314.8 (24.0)290.8 931.3 (63.6)867.7 
Total operating expenses1,205.0  1,205.0 2,809.6  2,809.6 


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ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of TransUnion’s financial condition and results of operations is provided as a supplement to, and should be read in conjunction with, TransUnion’s audited consolidated financial statements, the accompanying notes, “Risk Factors,” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, as well as the unaudited consolidated financial statements and the related notes presented in Part I, Item 1, of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
In addition to historical data, this discussion contains forward-looking statements about our business, operations and financial performance based on current expectations that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions. Our actual results may differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including but not limited to those discussed in “Cautionary Notice Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” and Part II, Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”
References in this discussion and analysis to the “Company,” “we,”, “us,” and “our” refer to TransUnion and its direct and indirect subsidiaries, including TransUnion Intermediate Holdings, Inc., collectively.
Overview
TransUnion is a leading global information and insights company that makes trust possible between businesses and consumers, helping people around the world access opportunities that can lead to a higher quality of life. That trust is built on TransUnion’s ability to deliver safe, innovative solutions with credibility and consistency. We call this Information for Good.
Grounded in our heritage as a credit reporting agency, we have built robust and accurate databases of information for a large portion of the adult population in the markets we serve. We use our identity resolution methodology to link and match our expanding high-quality datasets. We use this enriched data and analytics, combined with our expertise, to continuously develop more insightful solutions for our customers, all while maintaining compliance with global laws and regulations. Because of our work, organizations can better understand consumers in order to make more informed decisions, and earn consumer trust through great, personalized experiences, and the proactive extension of the right opportunities, tools and offers. In turn, we believe consumers can be confident that their data identities will result in better offers and opportunities.
We provide solutions that enable businesses to manage and measure credit risk, market to new and existing customers, verify consumer identities, mitigate fraud, and effectively manage call center operations. Businesses embed our solutions into their process workflows to deliver critical insights and enable effective actions. Consumers use our solutions to view their credit profiles, access analytical tools that help them understand and manage their personal financial information and take precautions against identity theft. We have deep domain expertise across a number of attractive industries, which we also refer to as verticals, including Financial Services, Emerging Verticals and Consumer Interactive. Emerging Verticals consists of Insurance, Tech, Retail and E-Commerce, Telecommunications, Media, Tenant & Employment Screening, Collections, and Public Sector. We have a global presence in over 30 countries and territories across North America, Latin America, Europe, Africa, India and Asia Pacific.
Our addressable market includes the global data and analytics market, which continues to grow as companies around the world increasingly recognize the benefits of data and analytics-based decision making, and as consumers recognize the important role that their data identities play in their ability to procure goods and services. There are several underlying trends supporting this market growth, including the proliferation of data, advances in technology and analytics that enable data to be processed more quickly and efficiently to provide business insights, and growing demand for these business insights across industries and geographies. Leveraging our established position as a leading provider of information and insights, we have grown our business by expanding the breadth and depth of our data, strengthening our analytics capabilities, expanding into complementary adjacent and vertical markets, deepening our solution suite in fraud mitigation and marketing, building out our geographic portfolio, investing in technology infrastructure, and enhancing our global operating model. As a result, we believe we are well positioned to expand our share within the markets we currently serve and capitalize on the larger data and analytics opportunity.
Segments
As discussed in Part 1, Item 1, “Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements - Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements,” Note 1, “Significant Accounting and Reporting Policies,” the Company reorganized its operations to merge its Consumer Interactive operating segment with its U.S. Markets operating segment. In addition, we have changed the responsibility for certain international operations previously managed within the U.S. Markets segment to certain regions within the International segment. We now report two operating segments, U.S. Markets and International, which are consistent with our reportable segments, and reflect the structure of the Company’s internal organization, the method by which the Company’s resources are allocated and the manner by which the chief operating decision maker (“CODM”) assesses the Company’s performance. The reporting of certain revenue from the acquisition of Argus Information and Advisory Services, Inc. and Commerce Signals, Inc. (collectively, “Argus”), which was previously reported within our Financial Services vertical, is now
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reported in Emerging Verticals in the U.S. Markets operating segment. While this change does not impact our operating segments, it does impact our disaggregated revenue disclosures. See Part I, Item 1 “Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements,” Note 16, “Reportable Segments” for additional information about our operating segments.
U.S. Markets
The U.S. Markets segment provides consumer reports, actionable insights and analytics to businesses and consumers. Businesses use our services to acquire customers, assess consumers’ ability to pay for services, identify cross-selling opportunities, measure and manage debt portfolio risk, collect debt, verify consumer identities, mitigate fraud risk and respond to data breach events. Consumers use our services to manage their personal finances and take precautions against identity theft.
International
The International segment provides services similar to our U.S. Markets segment to businesses in select regions outside the United States. Depending on the maturity of the credit economy in each country, services may include credit reports, analytics and technology solutions services and other value-added risk management services. We also have insurance, business and automotive databases in select geographies. These services are offered to customers in a number of industries including financial services, retail credit, insurance, automotive, collections, public sector and communications, and are delivered through both direct and indirect channels. The International segment also provides consumer services similar to those offered by our Consumer Interactive vertical within our U.S. Markets segment that help consumers proactively manage their personal finances and take precautions against identity theft.
Corporate
Corporate provides support services for each of the segments, holds investments, and conducts enterprise functions. Certain costs incurred in Corporate that are not directly attributable to one or more of the segments remain in Corporate. These costs are typically enterprise-level costs and are primarily administrative in nature.
Factors Affecting Our Results of Operations
The following are certain key factors that affect, or have recently affected, our results of operations:
Macroeconomic and Industry Trends
Our revenues and results of operations have been and can be significantly influenced by general macroeconomic conditions, including but not limited to, interest rates, inflation, housing demand, the availability of credit and capital, employment levels, and consumer confidence.
During the first three months of 2024, the U.S. economy and labor market remained resilient with solid GDP growth, low unemployment, and rising wages, despite the Federal Reserve maintaining higher interest rates in the face of subsiding but still elevated inflation. The relative macroeconomic strength of the U.S. was also reflected in broad strength in our emerging markets and improved indicators in the U.K. The U.K. is beginning to show signs of recovery driven by falling inflation leading to support levels of real income and a recovery in economic activity. Additionally, our International segment began to see a slight positive impact from foreign exchange rates. In the U.S., the impact of higher interest rates has slowed demand for consumer loans and auto loans, and has been more pronounced in the housing sector, where higher borrowing rates impact both home affordability, driving down purchase activity, and demand for mortgage loan refinancing. The impact of continued elevated interest rates on slowing aggregate demand is expected to result in a mild increase in unemployment levels over the next year, which is likely to reduce consumer credit activity. At the same time, a slowdown in economic activity and job growth could prompt the Federal Reserve to begin lowering interest rates, which could spur increased demand for rate-sensitive lending products, in particular mortgage loans. These dynamics impact the comparability of our results of operations, including our revenue and expense, between the periods presented below.

The ongoing uncertainty and the unpredictable nature of the macroeconomic environment could have a material adverse impact on various aspects of our business in the future, including our stock price, results of operations and financial condition, including the carrying value of our long-lived assets such as goodwill and intangible assets.
Effects of Inflation
We believe that inflation has had and we expect will continue to have a negative impact on our business and results of operations, including decreased demand for our services resulting from the Federal Reserve and other central banks raising rates. While central banks have paused rate increases and current conditions indicate that they may begin to cautiously lower rates from the higher interest rates established to combat inflation, rates that remain higher may result in slowing consumer spending on non-essential goods and services, and consequently lower demand for credit. The impact of elevated but subsiding levels of inflation and the resulting response by the Federal Reserve and other central banks to maintain higher but decreasing interest rates could have a material adverse impact on various aspects of our business in the future.
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Developments that Impact Comparability Between Periods
The following developments impact the comparability of our balance sheets, results of operations and cash flows between periods:
On November 12, 2023, our Board of Directors (“Board”) approved a transformation plan to optimize our operating model and continue to advance our technology. We expect to recognize one-time pre-tax expenses associated with this transformation plan of $355.0 to $375.0 million from the fourth quarter of 2023 through the end of 2025, with the majority of costs to be incurred by the end of 2024. All pre-tax expenses will be cash expenditures, other than approximately $15.0 to $20.0 million of non-cash, facility exit costs. In addition, we anticipate capital expenditures to increase to approximately 9% of revenue in 2024 and then return to approximately 8% of revenue for 2025 due to investment in our technology infrastructure in connection with this transformation plan. Upon completion of this plan, we expect to generate annual savings of $120.0 to $140.0 million and reduce our capital expenditures from 8% of revenue to 6%, based on 2023 revenue. The following summarizes initiatives under the transformation plan.
The operating model optimization program will reduce our global workforce, transition certain job responsibilities to our Global Capability Centers, which we expect will improve productivity, reduce costs, fund growth, optimize business processes and reduce our facility footprint. We expect to incur total one-time, pre-tax expenses of $205.0 to $215.0 million, including employee separation expenses of approximately $110.0 million, facility exit expenses of approximately $45.0 million, and business optimization expenses of approximately $55.0 million.
The incremental investment to advance our technology is the final phase of our accelerated technology investment. We expect to incur one-time, pre-tax expenses of $150.0 to $160.0 million, including approximately $65.0 million in 2024 related to the final year of Project Rise, and approximately $90.0 million of incremental expenses during 2024 and 2025 to streamline our product delivery platforms and leverage the cloud-based infrastructure being established with Project Rise. The accelerated technology investment will fundamentally transform our technology infrastructure by implementing a global, cloud-based approach to streamline product development, increase the efficiency of ongoing operations and maintenance, enable a continuous improvement approach, and provide a single global platform for fulfillment of our product lines. Project Rise was announced in February 2020 and expanded in February 2022, and is expected to be completed in 2024 with a total estimated expense of approximately $240.0 million, including approximately $65.0 million to be incurred in 2024, as discussed above.
For the three months ended March 31, 2024, we incurred total expenses associated with the transformation plan of $24.4 million, comprised of restructuring expenses of $16.8 million for employee separation and $1.4 million for non-cash impairment charges associated with leased facilities, as well as $6.2 million of other business optimization expenses. Employee separation costs and non-cash impairment charges are included in Restructuring expenses in our Consolidated Statements of Operations. Since the inception of the operating model optimization program, we have incurred cumulative expenses of $102.0 million.
We have accrued liabilities for payment of employee separation costs of $48.6 million and $64.9 million as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively. See Part I, Item 1, “Financial Information - Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements,” Note 8, “Restructuring.”
On February 8, 2024, we executed Amendment No. 22 to the Senior Secured Credit Facility, pursuant to which we entered into Senior Secured Term Loan B-7 with an aggregate principal amount of $1.9 billion, the proceeds of which were used to repay Senior Secured Term Loan B-6 in full and pay the related financing fees and expenses.
On October 27, 2023, we executed Amendment No. 21 to the Senior Secured Credit Facility, pursuant to which we entered into Senior Secured Term Loan A-4 with an aggregate principal amount of $1.3 billion, the proceeds of which were used to repay Senior Secured Term Loan A-3 in full, repay $300.0 million of Senior Secured Term Loan B-6, and pay the related financing fees and expenses. In addition, we increased the borrowing capacity on the Senior Secured Revolving Credit Facility from $300.0 million to $600.0 million and extended the maturity date from December 10, 2024 to October 27, 2028.
During 2023, we prepaid $250.0 million of our Senior Secured Term Loan B-6, funded from cash-on-hand. These transactions affect the comparability of interest expense between 2024 and 2023, as further discussed in “Results of Operations – Non-Operating Income and (Expense) – Interest Expense” below.
Key Components of Our Results of Operations
Revenue
We report revenue for our two reportable segments, U.S. Markets and International. Within the U.S. Markets segment, we report and disaggregate revenue by vertical, which consists of our Financial Services, Emerging and Consumer Interactive
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verticals. Within the International segment, we disaggregate revenue by regions, which consists of Canada, Latin America, the United Kingdom, Africa, India, and Asia Pacific.
Cost of Services
Costs of services include data acquisition and royalty fees, personnel costs related to our databases and software applications, consumer and call center support costs, hardware and software maintenance costs, telecommunication expenses and occupancy costs associated with the facilities where these functions are performed.
Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general and administrative expenses include personnel-related costs for sales, administrative and management employees, costs for professional and consulting services, advertising and occupancy and facilities expense of these functions.
Non-Operating Income and Expense
Non-operating income and expense includes interest expense, interest income, earnings from equity-method investments, dividends from Cost Method Investments, fair-value adjustments of equity-method and Cost Method Investments, if any, expenses related to successful and unsuccessful business acquisitions, loan fees, debt refinancing expenses, certain acquisition-related gains and losses and other non-operating income and expenses.
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Results of Operations —Three Months Ended March 31, 2024 and 2023
(Tabular amounts in millions, except per share amounts)
For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, our results of operations were as follows:
Three Months Ended March 31,Change
2024 vs. 2023
 20242023
$
%
Revenue$1,021.2 $940.3 $81.0 8.6 %
Operating expenses
Cost of services (exclusive of depreciation and amortization below)1
406.3 380.8 25.5 6.7 %
Selling, general and administrative1
305.6 284.6 21.0 7.4 %
Depreciation and amortization134.0 129.7 4.3 3.3 %
Restructuring
18.2 — 18.2 nm
Total operating expenses864.1 795.1 69.0 8.7 %
Operating income
157.2 145.2 12.0 8.2 %
Non-operating income and (expense)
Interest expense(68.7)(71.8)3.1 (4.4)%
Interest income5.4 5.8 (0.4)(6.8)%
Earnings from equity method investments4.7 3.1 1.6 52.0 %
Other income and (expense), net(15.7)(6.8)(8.9)nm
Total non-operating income and (expense)(74.1)(69.6)(4.5)6.5 %
Income from continuing operations before income taxes
83.0 75.6 7.5 9.9 %
Benefit (provision) for income taxes
(13.0)(18.6)5.6 (29.9)%
Income from continuing operations
70.0 57.0 13.0 22.8 %
Discontinued operations, net of tax— (0.1)0.1 nm
Net income
70.0 56.9 13.1 23.0 %
Less: net income attributable to noncontrolling interests(4.9)(4.3)(0.6)13.1 %
Net income attributable to TransUnion
$65.1 $52.6 $12.5 23.8 %
nm: not meaningful
As a result of displaying amounts in millions, rounding differences may exist in the table above.
1.We revised the Consolidated Statements of Operations for the three months ended March 31, 2023, to correct the classification of certain expenses between cost of services and selling, general and administrative. See Part I, Item 1, “Financial Information - Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements,” Note 1, “Significant Accounting and Reporting Policies” and Note 19, “Revision of Previously Issued Financial Statements.”
Revenue
For the three months ended March 31, 2024, revenue increased $81.0 million, or 8.6%, compared with the same period in 2023, due primarily to growth in both segments, including an increase of 0.3% due to the impact of foreign currencies, as further discussed in the Segment Results of Operations section below.
Operating Expenses
Cost of Services
Cost of services increased $25.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared with the same period in 2023. The increase was due primarily to:
an increase of approximately $24.0 million in variable and non-variable product costs resulting from the increase in volume in both segments, and an increase in certain product cost pricing primarily in our U.S. Markets segment;
an increase of approximately $4.0 million in ongoing technology costs;
an increase of approximately $3.0 million from our operating model optimization program in our Corporate unit; and
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an increase of approximately $1.0 from the impact of foreign currencies on the expenses of our International operations,
partially offset by:
a net decrease of approximately $3.0 million in labor costs primarily in our U.S. Markets segment; and
a decrease of approximately $3.0 million in integration costs of our business acquisitions, an initiative that was completed last year.
Selling, General and Administrative
Selling, general and administrative expenses increased $21.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared with the same period in 2023. The increase was due primarily to:
an increase of approximately $11.0 million in certain legal and regulatory expenses, primarily in our U.S. Markets segment;
a net increase of approximately $8.0 million in labor costs, including annual incentive compensation, stock-based incentive compensation and employee benefits, primarily in our Corporate unit and International segment;
an increase of approximately $4.0 million from our operating model optimization program in our Corporate unit; and
an increase of approximately $1.0 million from the impact of foreign currencies on the expenses of our International operations,
partially offset by:
a decrease of approximately $3.0 million in integration costs of our business acquisitions, an initiative that was completed last year.
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization increased $4.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared with the same period in 2023 due primarily to the increase in capital expenditures in the past 12 months, including for our accelerated technology investment initiative.
Restructuring
Restructuring expenses relate to our operating model optimization program. For the three months ended March 31, 2024, these expenses include approximately $16.8 million related to employee separation and $1.4 million related to facility exits.
See Part I, Item 1, “Financial Information - Notes to Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements,” Note 8, “Restructuring,” for additional information.
Non-Operating Income and Expense
Interest expense
For the three months ended March 31, 2024, interest expense decreased $3.1 million compared with the same period in 2023. This decrease was due to a decrease in outstanding principal balance due to the prepayments made in 2023, partially offset by an increase in the average periodic variable interest rate on the unhedged portion of our debt.
Interest income
The change in interest income for the current period compared to the prior period is not significant.
Other income and (expense), net
Other income and (expense), net includes acquisition fees, loan fees, and various other income and expenses.
 Three Months Ended March 31,
2024