20-F 1 f20f2023_telesatcorp.htm ANNUAL REPORT

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

__________________________

FORM 20-F

__________________________

(Mark One)

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report

For the transition period from ________________________ to ________________________

Commission file number 001-41083

_______________________

TELESAT CORPORATION

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

_______________________

Not Applicable
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

British Columbia, Canada
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

c/o Telesat Canada
160 Elgin Street
Suite 2100
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K2P 2P7
Tel: (613) 748-8700

(Address of principal executive offices)

__________________________

Christopher S. DiFrancesco
Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
c/o Telesat Canada
160 Elgin Street
Suite 2100
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K2P 2P7
Tel: (613) 748
-8700 ext. 2268
cdifrancesco@telesat.com
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

__________________________

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

 

Trading Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Telesat Corporation Class A Common Shares

 

TSAT

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Telesat Corporation Class B Variable Voting Shares

 

TSAT

 

The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

__________________________

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the Annual Report: At December 31, 2023, 13,497,501 Class A Common Shares and Class B Variable Voting Shares, 112,841 Class C Shares, 3 Special Voting Shares, and 1 Golden Share were issued and outstanding.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.  Yes  No

Note — checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those sections.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes  No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See the definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large Accelerated Filer

 

Accelerated Filer

 

Non-Accelerated Filer

 

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

____________

†           The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 

U.S. GAAP

 

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board 

 

Other

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow. Item 17 Item 18

If this is an Annual Report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes  No

   

 

Table of Contents

Telesat Corporation

Table of Contents

 

Page

INTRODUCTION

 

1

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

2

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

 

4

PART I

 

8

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

 

8

ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

 

8

ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION

 

8

ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

 

51

ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

82

ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

 

82

ITEM 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

 

113

ITEM 7. MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

 

136

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

140

ITEM 9. THE OFFER AND LISTING

 

141

ITEM 10. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

141

ITEM 11. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

 

171

ITEM 12. DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES

 

171

PART II

 

172

ITEM 13. DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES

 

172

ITEM 14. MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS

 

172

ITEM 15. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

 

172

ITEM 16A. AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT

 

173

ITEM 16B. CODE OF ETHICS

 

173

ITEM 16C. PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

 

173

ITEM 16D. EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES

 

174

ITEM 16E. PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS

 

174

ITEM 16F. CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT

 

174

ITEM 16G. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

 

174

ITEM 16H. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE

 

174

ITEM 16I. DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS

 

174

ITEM 16J. INSIDER TRADING POLICIES

 

175

ITEM 16K. CYBERSECURITY

 

175

PART III

 

177

ITEM 17. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS.

 

177

ITEM 18. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS.

 

177

ITEM 19. EXHIBITS

 

178

SIGNATURES

 

181

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INTRODUCTION

Telesat Corporation was incorporated under the Business Corporations Act (British Columbia) on October 21, 2020. Telesat Corporation is the general partner of Telesat Partnership LP, which was formed under the Limited Partnership Act (Ontario) on November 12, 2020. We directly or indirectly own 100% of all of our operating subsidiaries.

EXPLANATORY NOTE

Unless otherwise stated, references to “Telesat,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” in this Annual Report on Form 20-F (“Annual Report”) refers to Telesat Canada and its subsidiaries before the closing of the transaction pursuant to the Transaction Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of November 23, 2020, by and among Telesat Canada, Telesat Corporation, Telesat Partnership LP, Telesat CanHold Corporation, Lion Combination Sub Corporation, Loral Space & Communications Inc. (“Loral”), Public Sector Pension Investment Board and Red Isle Private Investments Inc. (“Transaction”), and to Telesat Corporation and its subsidiaries (including Telesat Canada) after the closing of the Transaction.

Telesat Corporation and Telesat Partnership are reporting issuers in each of the provinces and territories of Canada and, as a result, are subject to Canadian continuous disclosure and other reporting obligations under applicable Canadian securities laws. This Annual Report on Form 20-F constitutes Telesat Corporation’s Annual Information Form for purposes of its Canadian continuous disclosure obligations under National Instrument 51-102 — Continuous Disclosure Obligations (“NI 51-102”). Pursuant to an application for exemptive relief made in accordance with National Policy 11-203 — Process for Exemptive Relief Applications in Multiple Jurisdictions, Telesat Partnership has received exemptive relief dated November 16, 2021 from the Canadian securities regulators. This exemptive relief exempts Telesat Partnership from the continuous disclosure requirements of NI 51-102, effectively allowing Telesat Partnership to satisfy its Canadian continuous disclosure obligations by relying on the Canadian continuous disclosure documents filed by Telesat Corporation, for so long as certain conditions are satisfied. See Item 10B. Additional Information under the heading “Disclosures Regarding Exemptions from Canadian Securities Law Requirements”.

We use various trademarks, trade names and service marks in our business, including Telesat and Telesat Lightspeed. For convenience, we may not include the ® or ™ symbols, but such omission is not meant to indicate that we would not protect our intellectual property rights to the fullest extent allowed by law. Any other trademarks, trade names or service marks referred to in this annual report are the property of their respective owners.

PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Unless we indicate otherwise, financial information in this Annual Report has been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”). IFRS differs in some respects from United States generally accepted accounting principles, (“U.S. GAAP”), and thus our financial statements may not be comparable to the financial statements of United States companies.

We present our historical financial statements in Canadian dollars, which is the presentation currency of the Company. All figures reported in this Annual Report are in Canadian dollars, except where we indicate otherwise, and are referenced as “$” and “dollars”.

This Annual Report contains a translation of some Canadian dollar amounts into United States dollars at specified exchange rates solely for your convenience. All references to “US$” and “U.S. dollar” refer to United States dollars.

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. When used in this document, the words “believes,” “expects,” “plans,” “may,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “project,” “intend” or “outlook” or other variations of these words or other similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements and information. In addition, Telesat Corporation or its representatives have made or may make forward-looking statements, orally or in writing, which may be included in, but are not limited to, various filings made from time to time with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), and press releases or oral statements made with the approval of an authorized executive officer of Telesat Corporation. Actual results may differ materially from anticipated results as a result of certain risks and uncertainties which are described in the section of this Annual Report entitled “Risk Factors.” Risks and uncertainties include but are not limited to (1) risks associated with financial factors, including inflation, fluctuations in exchange rates, swings in the global financial markets, increases in interest rates and access to capital; (2) risks associated with satellite services, including dependence on large customers, launch delays and failures, in-orbit failures and competition; (3) risks and uncertainties associated with Telesat Lightspeed, including overcoming technological challenges, access to spectrum and markets, governmental restrictions or regulations, supply chain disruptions, raising sufficient capital to design and implement the system and competition from other low earth orbit systems; (4) regulatory risks, such as the effect of industry and government regulations that affect Telesat Corporation; and (5) other risks, including changes in technology and consumer demand. The foregoing list of important factors is not exclusive. Furthermore, Telesat Corporation operates in an industry sector where securities values may be volatile and may be influenced by economic and other factors beyond Telesat Corporation’s control.

These factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read with the other cautionary statements in this annual report. These forward-looking statements are based on our current expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about our business and the industry in which we operate and management’s beliefs and assumptions, and are not guarantees of future performance or development and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that are in some cases beyond our control. As a result, any or all of our forward-looking statements in this annual report may turn out to be inaccurate. Factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from current expectations include, among other things, those listed under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this annual report. Potential investors are urged to consider these factors carefully in evaluating the forward-looking statements. Comparisons of results for current and any prior periods are not intended to express any future trends or indications of future performance, unless specifically expressed as such, and should only be viewed as historical data. These forward-looking statements speak only as at the date of this annual report. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update or revise these forward-looking statements for any reason, even if new information becomes available in the future. You should, however, review the factors and risks we describe in the reports we will file from time to time with the SEC and the Canadian securities regulatory authorities, after the date of this annual report.

This Annual Report contains estimates, projections, market research and other information concerning our industry, our business, and the markets for our services. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties, and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances that are assumed in this information.

Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from our own internal estimates and research as well as from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry and general publications, government data and similar sources.

In addition, assumptions and estimates of our and our industry’s future performance are necessarily subject to a high degree of uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in “Risk Factors.” These and other factors could cause our future performance to differ materially from our assumptions and estimates.

Any references to forward-looking statements in this annual report include forward-looking information within the meaning of applicable Canadian securities laws.

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INDUSTRY AND MARKET DATA

This Annual Report includes market data and forecasts with respect to current and projected market sizes for the telecommunications and satellite services sectors. Although we are responsible for all of the disclosure contained in this annual report, in some cases we rely on and refer to market data and certain industry forecasts that were obtained from third party surveys, market research, consultant surveys, publicly available information and industry publications and surveys that we believe to be reliable. Unless otherwise indicated, all market and industry data and other statistical information and forecasts contained in this annual report are based on independent industry publications, reports by market research firms or other published independent sources and other externally obtained data that we believe to be reliable.

Some market and industry data, and statistical information and forecasts, are also based on management’s estimates. Any such market data, information or forecast may prove to be inaccurate because of the method by which we obtain it or because it cannot always be verified with complete certainty given the limits on the availability and reliability of raw data, the voluntary nature of the data gathering process and other limitations and uncertainties, including those discussed under the captions “Risk Factors” and “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

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FREQUENTLY USED TERMS

This annual report generally does not use technical defined terms, but a few frequently used terms may be helpful for you to have in mind at the outset. Unless otherwise specified or if the context so requires, the following terms have the meanings set forth below for purposes of this annual report:

“2026 Senior Secured Notes” means the 5.625% Senior Secured Notes due in December 2026 issued by Telesat Canada and Telesat LLC, as the co-issuer.

“5% Holder” means, with respect to a person, that such person, together with its affiliates, beneficially owns 5% or more of the fully diluted Telesat Corporation Shares.

“BCBCA” means the Business Corporations Act (British Columbia).

“CBCA” means the Canada Business Corporations Act.

“Change of Control” means (i) any person who, together with its affiliates and associates, acquires beneficial ownership of at least a majority of the Telesat Corporation Shares on a fully diluted basis, including by way of any arrangement, amalgamation, merger, consolidation, combination or acquisition of Telesat Corporation with, by or into another corporation, entity or person in one or more related transactions, or (ii) the sale of all or substantially all of the assets of Telesat Corporation to a third party.

“Class A Shares” means the Class A common shares of Telesat Corporation.

“Class A Special Voting Share” means the Class A Special Voting Share of Telesat Corporation.

“Class A Units” means the Class A units of Telesat Partnership.

“Class B Variable Voting Shares” means the Class B variable voting shares of Telesat Corporation.

“Class B Special Voting Share” means the Class B Special Voting Share of Telesat Corporation.

“Class B Units” means the Class B units of Telesat Partnership.

“Class C Fully Voting Shares” means the Class C fully voting shares of Telesat Corporation.

“Class C Limited Voting Shares” means the Class C limited voting shares of Telesat Corporation.

“Class C Shares” means, together, the Class C Fully Voting Shares and the Class C Limited Voting Shares.

“Class C Special Voting Share” means the Class C Special Voting Share of Telesat Corporation.

“Class C Units” means the Class C units of Telesat Partnership.

“Closing” means the consummation of the transactions which occurred on the First Closing Day (November 18, 2021) and the Second Closing Day (November 19, 2021).

“Exchange Act” means the Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

“GEO” means geostationary or geosynchronous equatorial orbit.

“Golden Share” means the Golden Share without par value in the capital of Telesat Corporation.

“IFRS” means the International Financing Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board.

“Independent Audit Committee Director” means a director who (i) satisfies the independence requirements of the applicable U.S. and/or Canadian securities exchanges on which the Telesat Public Shares are listed, (ii) is “independent” of Telesat Corporation within the meaning of National Instrument 52-110 — Audit Committees of the Canadian Securities Administrators and (iii) is “independent” of Telesat Corporation within the meaning of Section 10A(m)(3)(B) of the United States Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

“Investor Rights Agreements” means, together, the two separate investor rights agreements entered into between Telesat Corporation and each of MHR and PSP Investments on November 23, 2020.

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“IRS” means “Internal Revenue Service”

“LEO” means low earth orbit.

“Loral” means Loral Space & Communications Inc.

“Partnership Agreement” means the amended and restated limited partnership agreement of Telesat Partnership, entered into between Telesat Corporation, Red Isle, PSP Investments, Henry Intven, John Cashman, Clare Copeland and each other person who was admitted to Telesat Partnership as a limited partner in accordance with the provisions thereof on the First Closing Day.

“Registration Rights Agreement” means the registration rights agreement entered into between Telesat Corporation, MHR and certain of its affiliates and PSP Investments in connection with the Transaction.

“SEC” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

“Senior Notes” means the 6.5% Senior Notes due in 2027 issued by Telesat Canada and Telesat LLC, as the co-issuer.

“Senior Secured Credit Facilities” means the two outstanding secured credit facilities comprising a revolving facility maturing in 2024 and Term Loan B maturing in 2026.

“Senior Secured Notes” means the 4.875% Senior Secured Notes due in 2027 issued by Telesat Canada and Telesat LLC, as the co-issuer.

“Special Nomination Termination Date” means the earlier of: (i) Telesat Corporation’s annual meeting of shareholders held in calendar year 2024 (unless that meeting is held more than 30 days prior to the one-year anniversary of Telesat Corporation’s annual meeting of shareholders held in calendar year 2023, in which case, Telesat Corporation’s annual meeting of shareholders held in calendar year 2025), and (ii) the Special Board Date (as defined under the section “Description of Telesat Partnership Units and GP Units — Amendments to the Partnership Agreement”).

“Special Voting Shares” means, together, the Class A Special Voting Share, the Class B Special Voting Share and the Class C Special Voting Share.

“Specially Designated Director” means a person who:

(i)     is designated as a director pursuant to Article 10.2(a)(iii) of the Telesat Articles;

(ii)    meets the criteria for an Independent Audit Committee Director;

(iii)   is not an affiliate or associate of PSP Investments, MHR or their permitted assignees (or any of their respective affiliates);

(iv)   together with such person’s immediate family and affiliates, has not received compensation or payments from PSP Investments, MHR or their permitted assignees (or any of their respective affiliates) in any of the past three (3) years in an amount in excess of US$120,000 per annum, excluding for these purposes any directors’ fees; and

(v)    is Canadian.

“Telesat-to-Telesat Corporation Exchange Ratio” means 0.4136 Telesat Corporation Shares for each Telesat Common Share, Telesat Non-Voting Participating Preferred Share or Telesat Voting Participating Preferred Share (including all outstanding shares in the capital of Telesat underlying Telesat Options, Telesat Tandem SARs and Telesat RSUs).

“Telesat Articles” means the Articles of Amalgamation of Telesat Canada dated January 1, 2017 (Incorporation Number: BC1270976).

“Telesat Common Shares” means the Common Shares of Telesat Canada as defined in the Telesat Articles.

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“Telesat Control Transaction” means the consummation of a merger, amalgamation, arrangement or consolidation of Telesat Corporation, other than any transaction which would result in the holders of outstanding voting securities of Telesat Corporation (assuming the exchange of all outstanding Telesat Partnership Units for Telesat Corporation Shares) immediately prior to such transaction having at least a majority of the total voting power represented by the voting securities of the surviving entity outstanding immediately after such transaction, with the voting power of each such continuing holder relative to other continuing holders not being altered substantially in such transaction.

“Telesat Corporation Articles” means the organizational documents of Telesat Corporation, as amended and restated.

“Telesat Corporation Board” means the board of directors of Telesat Corporation.

“Telesat Corporation Shares” means, collectively, the Class A Shares, Class B Variable Voting Shares and Class C Shares of Telesat Corporation.

“Telesat Director Voting Preferred Shares” means the Director Voting Preferred Shares of Telesat Canada as defined in the Telesat Articles.

“Telesat Non-Voting Participating Preferred Shares” means the Non-Voting Participating Preferred Shares of Telesat Canada as defined in the Telesat Articles.

“Telesat Options” means options to purchase Telesat Non-Voting Participating Preferred Shares.

“Telesat Partnership Election” means an election by a Loral stockholder to receive units of Telesat Partnership pursuant to the Transaction Agreement.

“Telesat Partnership GP Units” means the general partnership units of Telesat Partnership.

“Telesat Partnership Units” means, together, the Class A Units, Class B Units and Class C Units of Telesat Partnership.

“Telesat Public Shares” means, together, the Class A Shares and Class B Variable Voting Shares of Telesat Corporation.

“Telesat RSUs” means restricted stock units that represent the right to receive Telesat Non-Voting Participating Preferred Shares.

“Telesat Tandem SARs” means tandem stock appreciation rights accompanying certain Telesat Options.

“Telesat Voting Participating Preferred Shares” means the Voting Participating Preferred Shares of Telesat as defined in the Telesat Articles.

“Transaction” means the transaction contemplated by the Transaction Agreement.

“Transaction Agreement” means the Transaction Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of November 23, 2020, by and among Telesat Canada, Telesat Corporation, Telesat Partnership LP, Telesat CanHold Corporation, Lion Combination Sub Corporation, Loral Space & Communications Inc., Public Sector Pension Investment Board and Red Isle Private Investments Inc.

“Trust” means the Telesat Corporation Trust, an irrevocable trust formed under the laws of the Province of Ontario pursuant to the Trust Agreement.

“Trust Agreement” means the trust agreement establishing the Trust, entered into between the settlor of the Trust and the Trustee on the First Closing Day.

“Trust Voting Agreement” means the voting agreement entered into between the Trustee, Telesat Corporation and Telesat Partnership on the First Closing Day.

“Trustee” means the trustee of the Trust, as determined from time to time in accordance with the Trust Agreement, who will initially be TSX Trust Company.

“TSX” means the Toronto Stock Exchange.

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“U.S.” means United States of America.

“USPTO” means United States Patent and Trademark Office.

“Unwind Transaction” means, collectively, (i) the conversion of all of the Class B Variable Voting Shares into Class A Shares and (ii) the other transactions, events and occurrences specified in the Telesat Corporation Articles to occur upon an Unwind Trigger, including the redemption of the Golden Share and the Special Voting Shares and the expiration of the provisions in Part 24 of the Telesat Corporation Articles.

“Unwind Trigger” means the occurrence of both clauses (i) and (ii): (i) the occurrence of any one of the following: (A) the election of Telesat Corporation (which election, until the Special Board Date, must be made with the approval of the majority of the Specially Designated Directors then in office) to effect the Unwind Transaction, if: (a) no person who is not a Canadian, or any voting group comprised of any persons who are not Canadians, in each case, beneficially owns or controls, directly or indirectly, one-third or more of the fully diluted Telesat Corporation Shares, (b) Telesat Corporation becomes widely held, such that at least 70% of the fully diluted Telesat Corporation Shares are held by holders that do not beneficially own or control, directly or indirectly (and are not members of any group that beneficially owns or controls, directly or indirectly), 10% or more of the fully diluted Telesat Corporation Shares, collectively, or are entitled to report their ownership interest in Telesat Corporation for purposes of U.S. federal securities laws on (i) Form 13F or (ii) Schedule 13G pursuant to Rule 13d-1(b) or Rule 13d-1(c) promulgated under the Exchange Act, and (c) a majority of the members of the Telesat Corporation Board remain Canadian (as defined in the Investment Canada Act) at the time of the Unwind Transaction or (B) a Change of Control; and (ii) both (1) the absence of any determination by the Telesat Corporation Board that the Unwind Transaction would constitute a breach of, or an acceleration of the performance of any obligation under, any material agreement of Telesat Corporation, in each case, within 60 days of written notice to the Telesat Corporation Board of the occurrence of any event set forth in (i) above; provided, however, that in the event of the occurrence of a Change of Control, the fact that such occurrence could be deemed as a Change of Control under Telesat Corporation’s outstanding indebtedness or other material agreements shall be excluded for purposes of this subclause (1) if such indebtedness is refinanced or intended to be refinanced in connection with the occurrence of such Change of Control; and (2) receipt by Telesat Corporation of all required governmental authorizations for the Unwind Transaction.

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PART I

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

Not applicable.

ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

Not applicable.

ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION

A.     Reserved

B.     Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

C.     Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

D.     Risk Factors

RISK FACTORS

Investing in our Telesat Public Shares involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information contained in this annual report, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes appearing at the end of this annual report, before deciding to invest in our Telesat Public Shares. Other risks and uncertainties that we do not presently consider to be material, or of which we are not presently aware, may become important factors that affect our future financial condition and financial performance. If any of those or the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition, financial performance, liquidity and prospects could suffer materially, the trading price of our Telesat Public Shares could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment. See also “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

Summary of Risks

Risks Relating to the Business of Telesat

        Telesat’s in-orbit satellites may fail to operate as expected due to operational anomalies resulting in lost revenues, increased costs and/or termination of contracts.

        Changes in consumer demand for traditional television services and expansion of terrestrial networks have adversely impacted the growth in subscribers to direct-to-home (“DTH”) television services in North America, which may continue to adversely impact revenues. Fluctuations in available satellite capacity could also adversely affect Telesat’s results.

        Significant and intensifying competition in the satellite industry and from other providers of communications capacity is expected to result in a loss of revenues and a decline in profitability of Telesat if it fails to compete effectively.

        Changes in technology could have a material adverse effect on Telesat’s results.

Risks Relating to Telesat’s Lightspeed Constellation

        There are numerous risks and uncertainties associated with Telesat’s planned Lightspeed constellation. Failure to develop significant commercial and service operational capabilities in connection with the Lightspeed constellation could prevent it from achieving commercial viability. Telesat may proceed with the Lightspeed constellation and it may not be successful, Telesat may ultimately choose to not proceed

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with the Lightspeed constellation or Telesat may be unable to raise sufficient capital to fund the Lightspeed constellation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on Telesat’s results of operations, business prospects and financial condition.

        Telesat’s Lightspeed constellation will depend on the use of spectrum; regulations governing non-geostationary orbit (“NGSO”) spectrum rights, including requirements to share spectrum, could materially impact the Lightspeed constellation’s system capacity.

Risks Relating to Regulatory Matters

        Telesat’s operations may be limited or precluded by the rules or processes of the International Telecommunication Union (“ITU”), and it is required to coordinate its operations with those of other satellite operators.

        Telesat operates in a highly regulated industry and government regulations may adversely affect its ability to access certain markets, sell its services, or increase the price of such services or otherwise limit its ability to operate or grow its business.

Risks Relating to Telesat’s Liquidity and Capital Resources

        Telesat’s level of indebtedness is expected to increase, reducing its financial flexibility and making it more difficult to repay or refinance its indebtedness.

        Telesat’s business is capital intensive, and restrictions on its ability to incur additional debt and to take other actions may significantly impair its ability to obtain other financing.

Risks Relating to Tax Matters

        The acquisition, ownership and disposition of Telesat Public Shares and Telesat Partnership Units may have adverse U.S. tax consequences for shareholders of Telesat Corporation, including: Telesat Corporation may have been a passive foreign investment company (a “PFIC”) for 2021, 2022 or 2023 and could be classified as a PFIC in 2024 and subsequent taxable years; Telesat Corporation or Telesat Partnership could be treated as a U.S. corporation or as a surrogate foreign corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes and Loral could be treated as an expatriated entity; the IRS could recharacterize the receipt of Telesat Partnership Units as a receipt of Telesat Public Shares; and non-U.S. holders of Telesat Partnership Units will generally be subject to U.S. withholding with respect to dividends received by Telesat Partnership from Loral.

        The acquisition, ownership and disposition of Telesat Public Shares and Telesat Partnership Units may have adverse Canadian tax consequences for shareholders of Telesat Corporation and partners of Telesat Partnership.

Risks Relating to the Ownership of Telesat Public Shares and Telesat Partnership Units

        Each of MHR and PSP Investments have substantial governance rights over Telesat, and their interests may differ from the interests of the other Telesat Corporation shareholders.

        Telesat may raise additional equity capital to fund Telesat Lightspeed which could result in potential substantial ownership dilution to the shareholders of Telesat Corporation and holders of Telesat Partnership Units.

        Telesat has certain indemnification and post-Closing obligations to PSP Investments, which in certain circumstances will be uncapped and may result in dilution to the other shareholders of Telesat Corporation and holders of Telesat Partnership Units.

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Risks Relating to the Business of Telesat Corporation

Telesat’s in-orbit satellites may fail to operate as expected due to operational anomalies resulting in lost revenues, increased costs and/or termination of contracts.

Satellites utilize highly complex technology and operate in the harsh environment of space and therefore are subject to significant operational risks while in orbit. These risks include in-orbit equipment failures, malfunctions and other kinds of problems commonly referred to as anomalies. Satellite anomalies include, for example, circuit failures, transponder failures, solar array failures, telemetry subsystem failures, battery cell and other power system failures, satellite control system failures and propulsion system failures. Some of Telesat Corporation’s satellites have had malfunctions and other anomalies in the past. See “— Some of Telesat Corporation’s satellites have experienced in-orbit anomalies and may in the future experience further anomalies that may affect their performance.” Acts of war, terrorism, magnetic, electrostatic or solar storms, space debris, satellite conjunctions or micrometeoroids could also damage satellites.

Satellite anomalies are likely to be experienced in the future, and may include the types of anomalies described above or may arise from failures in other systems or components. Despite working closely with satellite manufacturers to determine the causes of anomalies and mitigate them in new satellites and to provide for intra-satellite redundancies for certain critical components to minimize or eliminate service disruptions in the event of failure, Telesat cannot assure you that, in these cases, it will be possible to restore normal operations. Where service cannot be restored, the failure could cause the satellite to have less capacity available for sale, to suffer performance degradation or to cease operating prematurely, either in whole or in part.

Any single anomaly or series of anomalies or other failure (whether full or partial) of any of Telesat’s satellites could cause revenues, cash flows and backlog to decline materially, could require Telesat to repay prepayments made by customers of the affected satellite and could have a material adverse effect on relationships with current customers and Telesat’s ability to attract new customers for satellite services. A failure could result in a customer terminating its contract for service on the affected satellite. If Telesat is unable to provide alternate capacity to an affected customer, the customer may decide to procure all or a portion of its future satellite services from an alternate supplier or the customer’s business may be so adversely affected by the satellite failure that it may not have the financial ability to procure future satellite services. It may also require that Telesat expedite a satellite replacement program, adversely affecting Telesat’s profitability, increasing its financing needs and limiting the availability of funds for other business purposes. Finally, the occurrence of anomalies may adversely affect Telesat’s ability to insure satellites at commercially reasonable premiums, if at all, and may cause insurers to demand additional exclusions in policies they issue.

Because Telesat’s satellites are complex and are deployed in complex environments, Telesat’s satellites may have defects that are discovered only after full deployment, which could seriously harm Telesat’s business.

Telesat produces highly complex satellites that incorporate leading-edge technology. Telesat’s products are complex and are designed to be deployed across complex networks, which in some cases may include over a million users. Because of the nature of these satellites, there is no assurance that Telesat’s pre-launch testing programs will be adequate to detect all defects. As a result, Telesat’s customers may discover errors or defects in its satellites, or Telesat’s satellites may not operate as expected, after they have been launched and entered service. If Telesat is unable to resolve an anomaly, Telesat could experience damage to its reputation, reduced customer satisfaction, loss of existing customers and failure to attract new customers, failure to achieve market acceptance, cancellation of orders, loss of revenues, reduction in backlog and market share, increased service and warranty costs, diversion of development resources, legal actions by Telesat’s customers, issuance of credit to customers and increased insurance costs. Defects, integration issues or other performance problems in Telesat’s satellites could also result in financial or other damages to Telesat’s customers. Telesat’s customers could seek damages for related losses from Telesat, which could seriously harm Telesat’s business, financial condition and results of operations. The occurrence of any of these problems would seriously harm Telesat’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Some of Telesat’s satellites have experienced in-orbit anomalies and may in the future experience further anomalies that may affect their performance.

A number of Telesat’s in-orbit satellites have experienced anomalies and may in the future experience further anomalies that may affect their performance. Past anomalies include:

Nimiq Satellites:

A number of Lockheed Martin’s A2100 series satellites have suffered in-orbit failures of circuits on their solar arrays. Lockheed Martin has determined that Nimiq 2 is in the family of spacecraft that is susceptible to this anomaly.

In February 2003, Nimiq 2 experienced an anomaly affecting the available power on the satellite. Lockheed Martin concluded the most likely cause of this anomaly was an electrical short-circuit caused by foreign object debris located in a single power-carrying connector. As a result of this anomaly, the south solar array power cannot be recovered. In addition, Nimiq 2 has experienced solar array circuit failures, resulting in a significant reduction of available power. These failures have substantially reduced the number of transponders Telesat can operate at saturation and it is currently expected that the available capacity will be further reduced over time. In April 2005, another satellite operator reported that a satellite of the same series as Nimiq 2 suffered a solar array anomaly that resulted in the complete loss of one array and a corresponding 50% reduction in available satellite power. Lockheed Martin, the manufacturer, has traced the most likely cause of this failure to a component on the solar array drive. Nimiq 2 has this component in its remaining functioning solar array. If this same component were to fail on the functioning array of Nimiq 2, it would result in a total loss of service of the satellite.

In January 2024, Nimiq 4 suffered a failure of a north/south thruster. Normal station-keeping operations continue utilizing a redundant thruster. If the redundant thruster were to fail, and alternative operational approaches cannot be developed, the satellite would need to transition to inclined operations.

Anik Satellites:

Anik F1 was designed with the capability to cover both North America and South America from the 107.3° WL orbital location. In August 2001, Boeing, the manufacturer of the Anik F1 satellite, advised Telesat of a gradual decrease in available power on-board the satellite. Boeing investigated the cause of the power loss and reported that the power will continue to degrade. Telesat procured a replacement satellite, Anik F1R, which was launched in 2005. The North American traffic on Anik F1 was transferred to Anik F1R. Anik F1 continued to provide coverage of South America until December 2020. Anik F1 was recently moved to the 109.2° WL orbital location where it commenced inclined orbit operations.

Telesat has experienced and continues to experience intermittent anomalies with certain amplifiers in the Ka-band and Ku-band payloads on Anik F2. Boeing, the manufacturer, has completed its investigation of these anomalies. The majority of the affected Ka-band units continue to remain in service through modifying operational configurations. The Ku-band traveling-wave-tube amplifiers (“TWTAs”) that were affected as a result of these anomalies have failed. All but two of the failed transponders were replaced using spares and many of the Ku-band TWTAs currently in service have no further spares left to replace them should they fail. Anik F2 has experienced an anomaly with one of its two telemetry transmitters. While the failure of a single telemetry transmitter does not impact satellite operations or the service Telesat provides to its customers, in the event Telesat is unable to restore any redundancy and the second telemetry transmitter were to fail, Telesat would cease receiving important information from the satellite regarding its position in orbit and health and Telesat’s ability to operate the satellite would be adversely affected. A software patch for the satellite was developed by Boeing to provide telemetry to support operations in the event of a failure of the second transmitter and was implemented on the satellite in February 2013. Telesat’s Anik F2 satellite has also experienced anomalies on two of the station-keeping thrusters. One of the thrusters has failed while the second continues to be capable of supporting some operations with some constraints. Alternative operational methods were implemented to enable continued operations utilizing the remaining thrusters. The alternative operational methods were less fuel efficient and as a consequence, there was a reduction in the station kept lifetime of the satellite and the satellite commenced inclined orbit operations in December 2022. There is a small Ka-band payload on Anik F3 which experienced an anomaly following launch. Telesat implemented a plan to remedy the effect of this anomaly and the Ka-band payload is currently operational.

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Telstar 11N has experienced anomalies with one of the two batteries that have resulted in a loss of redundancy in the Battery 1 charging system. In the event of another failure in the Battery 1 charge electronics system the satellite will be required to be operated using Battery 2 only.

Telstar Satellites:

Telstar 12 VANTAGE began to suffer from degraded performance of four channels in late December 2016 due to increased noise levels. Following an investigation with the satellite manufacturer, the root cause of the anomaly was determined. As a result of this degradation, two channels on T12V are no longer usable. In 2017, Telesat received insurance proceeds in connection with this anomaly. Degradation of performance was observed on additional channels in May 2018 due to increased noise levels. The satellite manufacturer investigation concluded that the root cause of the anomaly was similar to that of the 2016 anomaly. The channels continue to support service. In the event of further degradation, Telesat may lose the capability to continue to use two channels.

Telstar 14R/Estrela do Sul 2’s North solar array was damaged after launch and only partially deployed, diminishing the power and expected orbital maneuver life of the satellite. In July 2011, the satellite began commercial service with substantially reduced available transponder capacity and with an expected end-of-orbital maneuver life reduced to 2025. It is currently expected that the available transponder capacity will be reduced over time. If the damaged solar array on Telstar 14R/Estrela do Sul 2 were to unexpectedly deploy in the future this could result in a loss of capability to provide service. In September 2016, the primary gyro utilized to maintain operational pointing of the satellite exhibited degraded performance. The backup gyro unit was switched into service and is currently in operation. A ground-based system has been implemented, which provides the capability to operate the satellite in the absence of a functioning on-board gyro. This system will reduce the demands on the backup gyro unit and provide redundancy.

Telstar 19 VANTAGE has suffered a number of failures of heaters that support the operation of two of the three battery packs on the satellite. There is a risk that the satellite may experience additional heater failures. The functionality of the batteries and services on Telstar 19 VANTAGE have not been impacted by the failures thus far. Tests performed in orbit and on the ground have validated operational workarounds that Telesat can implement to maintain battery function in the event Telstar 19 VANTAGE were to suffer additional heater failures on the batteries.

In general, Telesat’s satellites are exposed to the potential risk of financial loss. See “— Telesat’s in-orbit satellites may fail to operate as expected due to operational anomalies resulting in lost revenues, increased costs and/or termination of contracts.”

The actual orbital maneuver lives of Telesat satellites may be shorter than it anticipates, and it may be required to reduce available capacity on its satellites prior to the end of their orbital maneuver lives.

For all but one of Telesat’s geostationary (“GEO”) satellites, the current expected end-of-orbital maneuver life date goes beyond the manufacturer’s end-of-service life date. A number of factors will affect the actual commercial service lives of Telesat satellites, including: the amount of propellant used in maintaining the satellite’s orbital location or relocating the satellite to a new orbital location (and, for newly-launched satellites, the amount of propellant used during orbit raising following launch); the durability and quality of their construction; the performance of their components; conditions in space such as solar flares and space debris; operational considerations, including operational failures and other anomalies; and changes in technology which may make all or a portion of its satellite fleet obsolete.

Telesat has been forced to remove satellites from service prematurely in the past due to an unexpected reduction in their previously anticipated end-of-orbital maneuver life. It is possible that the actual orbital maneuver lives of one or more of the existing satellites may also be shorter than currently anticipated. Further, on some of the satellites it is anticipated that the total available payload capacity may need to be reduced prior to the satellite reaching its end-of-orbital maneuver life.

Telesat periodically reviews the expected orbital maneuver life of each of its satellites using current engineering data. A reduction in the orbital maneuver life of any of the satellites could result in a reduction of the revenues generated by that satellite, the recognition of an impairment loss and an acceleration of capital expenditures. To the extent Telesat is required to reduce the available payload capacity prior to the end of a satellite’s orbital maneuver life, revenues from the satellite would be reduced.

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Telesat’s insurance will not protect it against all satellite-related losses. Further, Telesat may not be able to renew insurance on its existing satellites or obtain insurance on future satellites on acceptable terms or at all, and, for certain of its existing satellites, Telesat has elected to forego obtaining insurance.

Telesat’s current satellite insurance does not protect it against all satellite-related losses that it may experience, and it does not have in-orbit insurance coverage for all of the satellites in its fleet. As of December 31, 2023, the total net book value of Telesat’s nine in-orbit GEO satellites for which Telesat does not have insurance (Nimiq 2, Anik F1, Anik F1R, Anik F2, Anik F3, Anik F4, Telstar 11N, Telstar 14R and ViaSat-1) was approximately $22.2 million. Telesat’s insurance does not protect it against business interruption, loss of revenues or delay of revenues. Telesat’s existing launch and in-orbit insurance policies include specified exclusions, deductibles and material change limitations, and future insurance policies are expected to continue to include such features. Typically, these insurance policies exclude coverage for damage or losses arising from acts of war, antisatellite devices, electromagnetic or radio frequency interference and other similar potential risks for which exclusions are customary in the industry at the time the policy is written. In addition, they typically exclude coverage for satellite health-related problems affecting the satellites that are known at the time the policy is written or renewed. Any claims under existing policies are subject to settlement with the insurers and may, in some instances, be payable to Telesat’s customers.

The price, terms and availability of satellite insurance has fluctuated significantly in recent years. These fluctuations may be affected by recent satellite launch or in-orbit failures and general conditions in the insurance industry. Launch and in-orbit policies on satellites may not continue to be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all. To the extent Telesat experiences a launch or in-orbit failure that is not fully insured, or for which insurance proceeds are delayed or disputed, Telesat may not have sufficient resources to replace the affected satellite. In addition, higher premiums on insurance policies increase costs, thereby reducing profitability. Future insurance policies may also have higher deductibles, shorter coverage periods, higher loss percentages required for constructive total loss claims and additional satellite health-related policy exclusions, all of which would reduce Telesat’s expected profitability. There can be no assurance that, upon the expiration of an in-orbit insurance policy, which typically has a term of one year, Telesat will be able to renew the policy on terms acceptable to it. Telesat may elect to reduce or eliminate insurance coverage for certain of its existing satellites, or elect not to obtain insurance policies for its future satellites, especially if exclusions make such policies ineffective, the costs of coverage make such insurance impractical or self-insurance is deemed more cost effective. In 2023, satellite insurance markets deteriorated, with substantial increases in premium rates and requests from insurers for satellite health-related policy exclusions. As a result, Telesat reduced or in some cases eliminated insurance coverage on its existing satellites.

Telesat derives a substantial amount of its revenues from only a few of its customers. A loss of, or default by, one or more of these major customers, or a material adverse change in any such customer’s business or financial condition, could materially reduce Telesat’s future revenues and contracted backlog.

For the year ended December 31, 2023, Telesat’s top five customers together accounted for approximately 61% of its revenues. As at December 31, 2023, Telesat’s top five backlog customers together accounted for approximately 82% of its backlog. If any of its major customers were to terminate, or choose not to renew, their contracts at the expiration of the existing terms or are able to negotiate concessions, particularly on price, it could have a material adverse effect on results of operations, business prospects and financial condition. Telesat customers could experience a downturn in their business, find themselves in financial difficulties, allege Telesat is in breach of its obligation to them and purport to terminate their contracts, any of which could result in their ceasing or reducing their use of Telesat services, becoming unable or refusing, to pay for services they had contracted to buy. In addition, some of Telesat’s customers’ industries are undergoing significant consolidation, and Telesat customers may be acquired by each other or other companies, including by Telesat competitors. Such acquisitions could adversely affect Telesat’s ability to sell services to such customers and to any end-users whom they serve. Some customers have in the past defaulted, and customers may in the future default, on their obligations to Telesat due to bankruptcy, lack of liquidity, operational failure or other reasons. Such defaults could adversely affect revenues, operating margins and cash flows. If Telesat’s contracted revenue backlog is reduced due to the financial difficulties of, or disputes with, its customers, revenues, operating margins and cash flows would be further negatively impacted.

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Telesat’s business is capital intensive and it may not be able to raise adequate capital to finance its business strategies, or it may be able to do so only on terms that significantly restrict its ability to operate its business.

Implementation of Telesat’s business strategy requires a substantial outlay of capital. As it pursues its business strategies and seeks to respond to developments in its business and opportunities and trends in its industry, Telesat’s actual capital expenditures may differ from expected capital expenditures. There can be no assurance that Telesat will be able to satisfy capital requirements in the future. In addition, if one of its satellites fails unexpectedly, there is no assurance of insurance recovery or the timing thereof and Telesat may need to exhaust or significantly draw upon its Amended Revolving Credit Facility or obtain additional financing to replace the satellite. If Telesat determines it needs to obtain additional funds through external financing and is unable to do so, it may be prevented from fully implementing its business strategy.

The availability and cost to Telesat of external financing depends on a number of factors, including its credit rating and financial performance and general market conditions. Telesat’s ability to obtain financing generally may be influenced by the supply and demand characteristics of the telecommunications sector in general and of the satellite services sector in particular. Declines in Telesat revenues and the challenging business conditions faced by Telesat customers are among the other factors that may adversely affect Telesat’s credit, access to the capital markets and ability to refinance its existing debt. Other factors that could negatively impact Telesat’s credit, access to the capital markets and ability to refinance its existing debt include the amount of debt in its current capital structure and the expected increase in its debt, activities associated with strategic initiatives, the health of its satellites, the success or failure of its planned launches, its expected future cash flows and the capital expenditures required to execute its business strategy. The overall impact on its financial condition of any transaction that it pursues may be negative or may be negatively perceived by the financial markets and rating agencies and may result in adverse rating agency actions with respect to Telesat’s credit rating and access to the capital markets. Long-term disruptions in the capital or credit markets as a result of uncertainty, inflation, rising interest rates or recession, changing or increased regulation or failures of significant financial institutions could adversely affect its access to capital. A credit rating downgrade or deterioration in Telesat’s financial performance or general market conditions could limit its ability to obtain financing or could result in any such financing being available only at greater cost or on more restrictive terms than might otherwise be available and, in either case, could result in Telesat deferring or reducing capital expenditures, including on new or replacement satellites, or being unable to refinance its debt.

Telesat satellite launches may be delayed, it may suffer launch failures or its satellites may fail to reach their planned orbital locations. Any such issue could result in the loss of a satellite or cause significant delays in the deployment of the satellite which could have a material adverse effect on results of operations, business prospects and financial condition.

Delays in launching satellites and in the deployment of satellites are not uncommon and result from construction delays, the unavailability of reliable launch opportunities with suppliers, delays in obtaining required regulatory approvals and launch failures. If satellite construction schedules are not met, a launch opportunity may not be available at the time the satellite is ready to be launched. Satellites are also subject to certain risks related to failed launches. Launch vehicles may fail. Launch failures result in significant delays in the deployment of satellites because of the need to construct replacement geostationary satellites, which can take up to 30 months or longer, and to obtain another launch vehicle. A delay or perceived delay in launching a satellite, or replacing a satellite, may cause Telesat’s current customers to move to another satellite provider if they determine that the delay may cause an interruption in continuous service. In addition, Telesat’s contracts with customers who purchase or reserve satellite capacity may allow the customers to terminate their contracts in the event of a delay. Any such termination would require Telesat to refund any prepayment it may have received, and would result in a reduction in its contracted backlog and would delay or prevent it from securing the commercial benefits of the new satellite.

Replacing a satellite upon the end of its service life will require Telesat to make significant expenditures and may require it to obtain shareholder approval and Telesat may choose not to, or be unable to, replace some of its satellites upon their end of life.

In order to replace a GEO satellite prior to its end of service life, the construction of a replacement GEO satellite must commence approximately three to five years prior to the expected end of service life of the satellite then in orbit. Typically, the construction, launch and insurance of a GEO satellite costs in the range of US$200,000,000 to US$500,000,000. There is no assurance that Telesat will have sufficient cash, cash flow or be able to obtain third-party

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or shareholder financing to fund such expenditures on favorable terms, if at all. Moreover, the Telesat Articles provide that the power of Telesat’s board to issue securities of Telesat cannot be delegated to a committee, and, consequently, so long as designees of PSP Investments and MHR hold a combined majority of the seats on Telesat’s board, the approval of at least the designees of PSP Investments or of MHR is required for Telesat to issue securities. In the event that Telesat determines to finance expenditures to replace satellites by issuing securities, such designees could block such a financing.

Certain of Telesat’s satellites are nearing their expected end-of-orbital maneuver lives. Should Telesat not have sufficient funds available to replace those satellites or Telesat be unable to finance such replacements, because of PSP Investments’ and MHR’s determining not to approve such financing or otherwise, it could have a material adverse effect on Telesat’s results of operations, business prospects and financial condition.

In order to justify the cost of replacing a satellite at the end of its life, there must be sufficient demand for services, and sufficient spectrum available to Telesat to provide those services, such that a reasonable business case can be made for its replacement. If there is insufficient demand for a replacement, or if Telesat does not have sufficient spectrum available to it, as a result of the repurposing of C-band and/or Ka-band spectrum for terrestrial use or otherwise, Telesat may choose not to replace a satellite at the end of its life.

In the event we are unable or choose not to replace a satellite at the end of its life, if we want to maintain the revenues from customers on these satellites, we will need to provide them with alternate capacity and acquiring such alternate capacity may increase our costs of providing services. We do not intend to replace all our satellites that are nearing their end of life. While we are currently considering the potential to extend the life of certain of our satellites nearing their end of life, there can be no assurance that we will acquire any life extension services or that such life extension services would be successful. For some of our GEO satellites, we intend to provide continuity of service to our customers at the end of life of those satellites by transitioning services to our Lightspeed constellation. Given that the entry into service of our Lightspeed constellation is expected to occur after certain of our GEO satellites have reached their end-of-life, we may be unable to provide many of our customers on satellites nearing their end of life with continuity of service. If we are unable to provide continuity of service to our customers by extending the life of such satellites, providing alternate capacity on other satellites, including our Lightspeed constellation, our revenue would decline.

Telesat may experience a failure of ground operations infrastructure or interference with its satellite signals that impairs the commercial performance of, or the services delivered over, its satellites or the satellites of other operators for whom it provides ground services, or its satellites may be adversely impacted by anti-satellite weapons, which could result in a material loss of revenues.

Telesat operates an extensive ground infrastructure including its satellite control centre in Ottawa, its main earth station and back up satellite control facility at Allan Park, Ontario, nine other earth stations throughout Canada, two teleports in the U.S. and one teleport located in Brazil. These ground facilities are used for controlling Telesat’s satellites and/or for the provision of end-to-end services to its customers.

Telesat may experience a partial or total loss of one or more of these facilities due to natural disasters (tornado, flood, hurricane or other such acts of God), fire, acts of war or terrorism or other catastrophic events. A failure at any of these facilities could cause a significant loss of service for its customers. Additionally, it may experience a failure in the necessary equipment at the satellite control center, at the back-up facility, or in the communications links between these facilities and remote earth station facilities. A failure or operator error affecting tracking, telemetry and control operations might lead to a breakdown in the ability to communicate with one or more satellites or cause the transmission of incorrect instructions to the affected satellite(s), which could lead to a temporary or permanent degradation in satellite performance or to the loss of one or more satellites. Intentional or non-intentional electromagnetic or radio frequency interference could result in a failure of its ability to deliver satellite services to customers.

Anti-satellite weapons may be tested or employed upon Telesat’s satellites or third-party satellites, which could result in the direct loss of a Telesat satellite and/or may result in significant increases in orbital debris which may extend to the orbits utilized by Telesat satellites. Increased levels of orbital debris will increase the chance that Telesat satellites may be damaged or destroyed. Utilization of Telesat satellites for government services could result in our satellites being targeted by anti-satellite weapons.

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A failure at any of Telesat’s satellites, facilities or in the communications links between facilities or interference with its satellite signal could cause revenues and backlog to decline materially and could adversely affect its ability to market its services and generate future revenues and profit.

Telesat purchases equipment from third-party suppliers and depends on those suppliers to deliver, maintain and support these products to the contracted specifications in order for it to meet its service commitments to its customers. Telesat may experience difficulty if these suppliers do not meet their obligations to deliver and support this equipment. Telesat may also experience difficulty or failure when implementing, operating and maintaining this equipment, or when providing services using this equipment. This difficulty or failure may lead to delays in implementing services, service interruptions or degradations in service, which could cause revenues and backlog to decline materially and could adversely affect Telesat’s ability to market its services and generate future revenues and profit.

Telesat’s dependence on outside contractors could result in delays related to the design, manufacture and launch of new satellites, or could limit its ability to sell its services, which could adversely affect operating results and prospects.

Any delays in the design, construction or launch of its satellites could have a material adverse effect on Telesat’s results of operations, business prospects and financial condition. There are a limited number of manufacturers that are able to design and build satellites according to the technical specifications and standards of quality Telesat requires, including Airbus Defence and Space, Thales Alenia Space, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, MDA, MELCO, Northrop Grumman (formerly Orbital) and Maxar. Telesat also relies on the manufacturers of its satellites to provide support throughout the life of the satellite in the event it should suffer an anomaly. If any of its manufacturers’ businesses fail, it could adversely impact Telesat’s ability to overcome a satellite anomaly and maintain its satellites in service, in whole or in part. There is also a limited number of suppliers able to launch such satellites, including Arianespace, ISRO, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Rocket Lab, SpaceX, Blue Origin and United Launch Alliance. Should any of its manufacturers’ or launch suppliers’ businesses fail, it would reduce competition and could increase the cost of satellites and launch services. Adverse events with respect to any of Telesat’s manufacturers or launch suppliers could also result in the delay of the design, construction or launch of satellites. Certain launch providers may be unavailable to us either because they are unwilling to provide us with services, because they compete with us or for other reasons, or because we are unable to access their services for regulatory reasons, including as a result of government sanctions.

General economic conditions may also affect the ability of Telesat’s manufacturers and launch suppliers to provide services on commercially reasonable terms or to fulfil their obligations in terms of manufacturing schedules, launch dates, pricing or other items. Even where alternate suppliers for such services are available, Telesat may have difficulty identifying them in a timely manner, it may incur significant additional expense in changing suppliers, and this could result in difficulties or delays in the design, construction or launch of satellites.

Changes in consumer demand for traditional television services and expansion of terrestrial networks have adversely impacted the growth in subscribers to DTH television services in North America, which have adversely impacted current and may adversely impact future revenues.

A substantial amount of Telesat’s revenue is earned from customers who use its services to provide DTH television services to the public in North America. For the year ended December 31, 2023, approximately 95% of Telesat’s broadcast revenue was derived from North American DTH television services. For various reasons, the number of DTH subscribers to whom Telesat’s customers provide services has been decreasing. In many regions of the world, including North America, the terrestrial networks with which Telesat competes continue to expand. Terrestrial networks have advantages over traditional DTH services for the delivery of two-way services, such as on-demand video services or “over-the-top” (“OTT”) video distribution (e.g., Netflix). The growth of on demand and OTT distribution has had a negative impact on the demand for the services of Telesat’s large DTH customers, which has decreased, and is expected to continue to decrease, demand for Telesat’s broadcast satellite capacity. Moreover, two of Telesat’s largest DTH customers also have substantial terrestrial broadcast distribution networks that they are continuing to expand, which has led to certain of their own DTH customers migrating to their terrestrial network. The migration of DTH customers to terrestrial networks, in order to access improved two-way services or for other reasons, is expected to continue to decrease the demand for Telesat’s services, adversely impacting future revenue and financial performance.

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Reductions in government spending could reduce demand for Telesat’s services.

Governments purchase a substantial amount of satellite services from commercial satellite operators, including Telesat. Spending authorizations for defense-related and other programs by governments, in particular the Canadian and U.S. governments, have fluctuated in the past, and future levels of expenditures and authorizations for these programs may decrease, remain constant or shift to programs in areas where Telesat does not provide services. To the extent governments and their agencies reduce spending on commercial satellite services, this could adversely affect Telesat’s revenue and operating margins. Many governments provide funding for satellite services that are used to provide broadband connectivity to rural and remote communities and those with limited terrestrial infrastructure. To the extent these governments reduce spending on satellite services, as a result of the need to reduce overall spending during periods of fiscal restraint, to reduce budget deficits or otherwise, demand for Telesat’s services could decrease which could adversely affect revenue, the prices it is able to charge for its services and results of operations, business prospects and financial condition.

Telesat’s failure to maintain or obtain authorizations under and comply with the U.S. export control and trade sanctions laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on results of operations, business prospects and financial condition.

The export of satellites and technical data related to satellites, earth station equipment and provision of services are subject to U.S. export control and economic sanctions laws, implemented by U.S. State Department, Department of Commerce and Department of the Treasury regulations. If Telesat does not maintain its existing authorizations or obtain necessary future authorizations under the export control laws and regulations of the U.S., it may be unable to export technical data or equipment to non-U.S. persons and companies, including to its own non-U.S. employees, as required to fulfil existing contracts. If it does not maintain its existing authorizations or obtain necessary future authorizations under the trade sanctions laws and regulations of the U.S., it may not be able to provide satellite capacity and related administrative services to certain countries subject to U.S. sanctions. Telesat’s ability to acquire new U.S.-manufactured satellites, procure launch services and launch new satellites, operate existing satellites, obtain insurance and pursue its rights under insurance policies or conduct its satellite-related operations and consulting activities could also be negatively affected if Telesat and its suppliers are not able to obtain and maintain required U.S. export authorizations.

The content of third-party transmissions over Telesat satellites could subject Telesat to sanctions by various governmental entities for the transmission of certain content.

Telesat provides satellite capacity for transmissions by third parties. Telesat does not decide what content is transmitted over its satellites, although its contracts generally provide Telesat with rights to prohibit certain types of content or to cease transmission or permit it to require its customers to cease their transmissions under certain circumstances. A governmental body or other entity may object to some of the content carried over Telesat’s satellites, such as “adult services” video channels or content deemed political in nature. Issues arising from the content of transmissions by these third parties over Telesat’s satellites could affect its future revenues, operations or its relationship with certain governments or customers.

Fluctuations in available satellite capacity could adversely affect Telesat’s results.

The availability of satellite capacity has fluctuated over time, characterized by periods of undersupply of capacity, followed by periods of substantial new satellite construction which is, in turn, followed by an oversupply of available capacity. The industry appears to be currently experiencing a period of oversupply. Given the number of new satellites launched over the past several years, many of which contain high throughput payloads, as well as the number of satellite constellations being deployed and under development, if the demand for satellite capacity does not increase as expected, the next several years are likely to continue to be characterized by an oversupply of capacity. In addition, changes in technology could introduce a substantial amount of new capacity into the market, further exacerbating the oversupply problem. An oversupply of capacity leads to a decrease in rates charged for satellite services, which could adversely affect Telesat’s results of operations and cash flows.

Developments that Telesat expects to support the growth in demand for satellite services, such as continued growth in corporate data and internet traffic and low earth orbit constellations expanding the total addressable market, may fail to materialize or may not occur in the manner or to the extent anticipated.

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Telesat is subject to risks associated with doing business internationally.

Telesat’s operations internationally are subject to risks that are inherent in conducting business globally. It is subject to compliance with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”) and other similar anti-corruption laws, which generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to foreign government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. While its employees and contractors are required to comply with these laws, Telesat cannot be sure that its internal policies and procedures will always protect it from violations of these laws, despite its commitment to legal compliance and corporate ethics. Violations of these laws may result in severe criminal and civil sanctions as well as other penalties, and the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and U.S. Department of Justice have increased their enforcement activities with respect to the FCPA. The occurrence or allegation of these types of risks may adversely affect Telesat’s business, performance, financial condition, and results of operations.

Telesat is subject to significant and intensifying competition within the satellite industry and from other providers of communications capacity. A failure to compete effectively would result in a loss of revenues and a decline in profitability, which would adversely affect Telesat’s results of operations, business prospects and financial condition.

Telesat provides point-to-point and point-to-multipoint services for voice, data and video communications and for high-speed internet access. Telesat competes against global competitors who are substantially larger than us in terms of both the number of satellites in orbit as well as in terms of revenues. Due to their larger sizes, these operators are able to take advantage of greater economies of scale, may be more attractive to customers, may have greater flexibility to restore service to their customers in the event of a partial or total satellite failure and may be able to offer expansion capacity for future requirements. Telesat also competes against regional satellite operators who may enjoy competitive advantages in their local markets.

Telesat’s business is also subject to competition from ground-based forms of communications technology. For many point-to-point and other services, the offerings provided by terrestrial companies can be more competitive than the services offered via satellite. A number of companies are increasing their ability to transmit signals on existing terrestrial infrastructures, such as fiber optic cable, DSL (digital subscriber line) and terrestrial wireless transmitters often with funding and other incentives provided by government. The ability of any of these companies to increase their capacity and/or the reach of their network significantly would likely result in a decrease in the demand for Telesat’s services. Increasing availability of capacity from other forms of communications technology can create an excess supply of telecommunications capacity, decreasing the prices Telesat would be able to charge for its services under new service contracts and thereby negatively affecting profitability. New technology could render satellite-based services less competitive by satisfying consumer demand in other ways. See: “Changes in technology could have a material adverse effect on Telesat’s results of operations, business prospects and financial condition”. Telesat also competes for local regulatory approval in places where more than one provider may want to operate, and with other satellite operators for scarce frequency assignments and a limited supply of orbital locations.

A failure to compete effectively could result in a loss of revenues and a decline in profitability, a decrease in the value of Telesat’s business and a downgrade of Telesat’s credit rating, which would restrict its access to the capital markets.

Spectrum values historically have been volatile, which could cause the value of Telesat’s business to fluctuate.

A material amount of Telesat’s asset value is derived from Telesat’s spectrum authorizations. Valuations of spectrum in other frequency bands historically have been volatile, and Telesat cannot predict any future change in the value of Telesat’s spectrum and other assets. In addition, to the extent that the International Telecommunication Union (“ITU”) or any governmental authority takes action that makes additional spectrum available or promotes the more flexible use or greater availability of existing satellite or terrestrial spectrum allocations, for example, by means of spectrum leasing or new spectrum sales, the availability of such additional spectrum could reduce the value of Telesat’s spectrum authorizations and, as a result, the value of Telesat’s business.

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Changes in technology could have a material adverse effect on Telesat’s results of operations, business prospects and financial condition.

The implementation of new technologies that can provide increased capacity to end-users at lower cost may reduce demand for Telesat’s services. Many of the new GEO satellites deployed over the last several years and replacement satellites expected to be deployed in the near term will be high throughput satellites (“HTS”), which are able to transmit substantially more data than pre-existing satellites or may include high throughput payloads. These satellites may decrease demand and/or prices for traditional satellite capacity. While Telesat owns the high throughput Canadian payload on ViaSat-1, and has incorporated high throughput payloads on its Telstar 12 VANTAGE satellite, Telstar 18 VANTAGE and Telstar 19 VANTAGE satellites, the introduction of more, and more capable, HTS by other operators into the markets in which Telesat participates could have a material adverse effect on results of operations, business prospects and financial condition.

A number of NGSO satellite projects are in development, production, in the process of being deployed, or in operation which have significant advantages over GEO satellite systems, in particular for latency sensitive applications. These will substantially increase the amount of available capacity in the marketplace, potentially decreasing demand for GEO satellite services. In addition to new satellite technologies, new projects which could compete with traditional satellite services have been announced, including for the provision of telecommunications services using balloons or drones.

Improvements in existing technologies could also adversely impact the demand for satellite services. For example, improvements in signal compression could allow Telesat customers to transmit the same amount of data using a reduced amount of capacity, which could decrease demand for Telesat services.

Interruption or failure of, or cyber-attacks on, Telesat information technology and communication systems, data breaches, data theft, unauthorized access or hacking could materially harm Telesat’s reputation and ability to operate its business effectively, any of which could harm its business and operating results.

Telesat’s success depends, in part, on the secure and uninterrupted performance of Telesat’s information technology and communications systems, which are an integral part of its business. Telesat relies on its information and communications systems, as well as on software applications developed internally and externally, to effectively manage its accounting and financial functions, including maintaining its internal controls, operate its satellites and satellites for third parties, provide consulting services to customers, transmit customer’s proprietary and/or confidential content and assist with other operations, among other things. An increasing number of companies have disclosed breaches of their security, some of which have involved sophisticated and highly targeted attacks on their computer networks. Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service, or sabotage systems, change frequently and often are not recognized until launched against a target, Telesat may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. If unauthorized parties gain access to Telesat’s information technology systems, they may be able to misappropriate assets, including confidential trade secrets and intellectual property assets, which could be used to compete against Telesat’s business and otherwise adversely impact its competitive position. They could also access sensitive information (such as personally identifiable information of Telesat’s customers, business partners and employees), cause interruption in Telesat’s operations, corruption of data or computers, or otherwise damage Telesat’s reputation and business. In such circumstances, Telesat could be held liable to its customers or other parties, or be subject to regulatory or other actions for breaching privacy rules.

While Telesat continues to bolster its systems with additional security measures and, working with external experts, mitigate the risk of security breaches, its systems may be vulnerable to theft, loss, damage and interruption from a number of potential sources and events, including unauthorized access or security breaches, inclement weather, natural or man-made disasters, earthquakes, explosions, terrorist attacks, floods, fires, cyberattacks, computer viruses, malware, ransomware, phishing attacks, social engineering schemes, domain name spoofing, insider theft, power loss, telecommunications or equipment failures, transportation interruptions, accidents or other disruptive events or attempts to harm its systems. Telesat’s facilities are potentially vulnerable to break-ins, sabotage and intentional acts of vandalism. Its disaster recovery planning cannot account for all eventualities.

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Telesat’s business and operations could be adversely affected if, as a result of a significant cyber event or otherwise, its operations are disrupted or shutdown, confidential or proprietary information is stolen or disclosed, it loses customers, it incurs costs or is required to pay fines in connection with confidential or export-controlled information that is disclosed, it must dedicate significant resources to system repairs or increase cyber security protection or it otherwise incurs significant litigation or other costs as a result of any such event. A serious disruption to Telesat’s systems could significantly limit its ability to manage and operate its business efficiently, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on its business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition. Furthermore, any compromise of Telesat’s security could result in a loss of confidence in Telesat’s security measures, and subject Telesat to litigation, civil or criminal penalties, and negative publicity that could adversely affect Telesat’s financial condition and results of operations.

Pandemics could have a material adverse effect on Telesat’s business, financial condition and results of operations.

Telesat’s business and results of operation have been and may in the future be adversely affected by pandemics, and by measures taken to prevent their spread, including restrictions on travel, imposition of quarantines, cancellation of events, remote working, and closure of workplaces and other businesses. Telesat’s business and results of operations may also be negatively impacted by the adverse effect that pandemics have had, and may in the future have, on global economic activity, which may include continued inflation and/or a period of prolonged global or regional economic slowdowns or recessions. Pandemics could also impact Telesat’s ability to attract capital to finance business strategies, such as the development of the Lightspeed constellation and its related network, and also could increase Telesat’s cost of borrowing.

Telesat may pursue acquisitions, dispositions and strategic transactions which could result in the incurrence of additional costs, liabilities or expenses in connection with the implementation of such transactions.

In the future, Telesat may pursue acquisitions, dispositions and strategic transactions, which may include joint ventures and strategic relations, as well as business combinations or the acquisition or disposition of assets. Acquisitions, dispositions and strategic transactions involve a number of risks, including: potential disruption of ongoing business; distraction of management; may result in Telesat being more leveraged; the anticipated benefits and cost savings of those transactions may not be realized fully or at all or may take longer to realize than expected; increasing the scope and complexity of Telesat operations; and loss or reduction of control over certain of its assets.

The presence of one or more material liabilities of an acquired company that are unknown to Telesat at the time of acquisition could have a material adverse effect on its results of operations, business prospects and financial condition. A strategic transaction may result in a significant change in the nature of its business, operations and strategy. In addition, it may encounter unforeseen obstacles or costs in implementing a strategic transaction.

Telesat continues to evaluate the performance of all of its businesses and may sell businesses or assets. Such a sale could include a strategic disposition of one or more of its satellites. In addition to the risks listed above that may occur with any acquisition, disposition or strategic transaction, a satellite divestiture could result in a loss of revenues or significant write-offs, including those related to goodwill and other intangible assets, which could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. There can be no assurance that Telesat will be successful in addressing these or any other significant risks encountered.

Telesat could experience the departure of key employees or may be unable to recruit the employees needed for its success.

Telesat relies on a number of key employees, including members of management and certain other employees possessing unique experience in technical and commercial aspects of the satellite services business. If it is unable to retain these employees, it could be difficult to replace them. In addition, Telesat’s business, with its constant technological developments, must continue to attract highly qualified and technically skilled employees. In the future, if Telesat were unable to retain or replace its key employees, or if it were unable to attract new highly qualified employees, it could have a material adverse effect on results of operations, business prospects and financial condition.

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Telesat’s future reported net income and asset values could be adversely affected by impairments of the value of goodwill and intangible assets.

The assets listed on Telesat’s consolidated balance sheet as at December 31, 2023 include goodwill with a carrying value of approximately $2,446.6 million and other intangible assets with a carrying value of approximately $692.8 million. Goodwill and other intangible assets are qualitatively assessed for indicators of impairment. If the qualitative assessment concludes an indication of impairment, a quantitative impairment test of goodwill and other intangible assets (such as orbital locations) with indefinite useful lives is undertaken. Telesat measures for the quantitative impairment test using a projected discounted cash flow method and confirms the assessment using other valuation methods.

If the asset’s carrying value is more than its recoverable amount, the difference is recorded as a reduction in the amount of the asset on the balance sheet and an impairment charge in the statement of income. Quantitative testing for impairment requires significant judgment by management to determine the assumptions used in the impairment analysis. Any changes in the assumptions used could have a material impact on the impairment analysis and result in an impairment charge. Telesat cannot predict whether an event that triggers impairment will occur, when it will occur or how it will affect the reported asset values.

A substantial amount of Telesat’s goodwill and intangible asset value is supported by the planned Telesat Lightspeed constellation. If it were determined that the Telesat Lightspeed constellation program was unlikely to proceed, it is likely that Telesat’s goodwill and intangible assets would be deemed to be impaired.

If Telesat’s goodwill or other intangible assets are deemed to be impaired in whole or in part, it could be required to reduce or write-off such assets, which could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition.

Significant changes in exchange rates could have a material adverse effect on financial results.

Telesat’s main foreign currency exposures as of December 31, 2023 lie in its U.S. dollar denominated debt financing and cash and cash equivalents. In addition, approximately 52% of revenue, 39% of operating expenses, 100% of interest expense on indebtedness and the majority of capital expenditures were denominated in U.S. dollars for the year ended December 31, 2023.

As a result of a decrease in the value of the Canadian dollar against the U.S. dollar at December 31, 2023 compared to December 31, 2022, Telesat recorded a foreign exchange gain of approximately $77.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2023. A five percent increase (decrease) in the value of the U.S. dollar against the Canadian dollar would have increased (decreased) indebtedness and (decreased) increased net income as at December 31, 2023 by $160.0 million. A five percent increase (decrease) in the value of the U.S. dollar against the Canadian dollar would have increased (decreased) cash and cash equivalents by $75.5 million, increased (decreased) net income by $10.6 million and increased (decreased) other comprehensive income by $64.9 million as at December 31, 2023. In addition, for the year ended December 31, 2023, a five percent increase (decrease) in the value of the U.S. dollar against the Canadian dollar would have increased (decreased) revenue by $18.4 million, operating expenses by $4.0 million, and interest expense by $12.7 million. These analyses assume that all other variables remain constant.

A portion of Telesat revenues comes from contracts which are denominated in Brazilian Reais. Any decrease in the value of the Brazilian Reais against the Canadian dollar would reduce revenues.

Significant changes in exchange rates could materially increase interest and other payment obligations under Telesat’s financing arrangements.

As at December 31, 2023, the Canadian dollar equivalent of Telesat’s debt, excluding deferred financing costs, loss on repayment and prepayment options was $3,199.2 million. As at December 31, 2023, if the value of the Canadian dollar against the U.S. dollar increased (decreased) by $0.01, indebtedness would have decreased (increased) by $24.2 million. Changes in exchange rates impact the amount that Telesat pays in interest, and may significantly increase the amount that it is required to pay in Canadian dollar terms to redeem its Senior Secured Notes, 2026 Senior

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Secured Notes or Senior Notes, either at maturity, or earlier if redemption rights are exercised or other events occur which require it to offer to purchase its Senior Secured Notes, 2026 Senior Secured Notes or Senior Notes prior to maturity, and to repay funds drawn under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities.

The soundness of financial institutions and counterparties could adversely affect Telesat.

Telesat has exposure to many different financial institutions and counterparties (including those under its credit, financing and insurance arrangements), including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, insurance providers and other institutions and industry participants. Telesat is exposed to risk, including credit risk resulting from many of the transactions it executes in connection with its hedging activities, in the event that any of its lenders or counterparties, including its insurance providers, are unable to honor their commitments or otherwise default under an agreement with it.

Because of the Telesat Canada Reorganization and Divestiture Act, a Canadian act uniquely applicable to Telesat Canada (but not the other entities in the Telesat corporate structure), Telesat’s primary operating subsidiary may not have access to the usual protections from creditors and other rights available to insolvent persons and creditors, may not have recourse to the usual rights, remedies and protections under applicable bankruptcy and insolvency laws generally available to creditors of insolvent persons.

Under the Telesat Canada Reorganization and Divestiture Act (“Telesat Divestiture Act”), Telesat Canada (as a corporate entity) is subject to certain special conditions and restrictions. The Telesat Divestiture Act provides that no legislation relating to the solvency or winding-up of a corporation applies to Telesat Canada and in no case shall Telesat Canada’s affairs be wound up unless authorized by an Act of the Parliament of Canada. As a result of such legislative provisions, Telesat Canada and its creditors may not have recourse to the usual rights, remedies and protections under applicable bankruptcy and insolvency laws, including the imposition of a stay of proceedings, or a regulated and orderly process to settle or compromise claims and make distributions to creditors, or recourse to fraudulent preference, transfer at undervalue or fraudulent conveyance laws. The effect of the Telesat Divestiture Act upon Telesat Canada’s insolvency has not been considered by a Canadian court and, accordingly, the application of Canadian federal bankruptcy and insolvency laws and provincial receivership and fraudulent conveyance and assignment and preference laws, and the exercise by a Canadian court of any judicial discretion which could affect the enforcement of rights and remedies or other equitable relief against Telesat Canada in the context of an insolvency, is uncertain. To the extent bankruptcy and insolvency laws do not apply to Telesat Canada, its creditors may individually seek to pursue any available rights or remedies, as secured or unsecured creditors as the case may be, against Telesat Canada and its assets. Only Telesat Canada’s assets (including the shares in its subsidiaries) are subject to the Telesat Divestiture Act, but the assets of the other entities within the Telesat corporate structure, including the guarantors of Telesat Canada’s credit facility and outstanding notes, are not. These restrictions may have a material impact on the sale of Telesat Canada or its assets in any bankruptcy or reorganization scenario and on any proceeding to realize value from Telesat Canada or its assets.

Risks Relating to Telesat’s Lightspeed Constellation

There are numerous technological risks and uncertainties associated with Telesat’s planned Lightspeed constellation which may cause it to be unsuccessful and have a material adverse effect on Telesat’s results of operations, business prospects and financial condition.

Telesat is currently developing an advanced LEO satellite network consisting of over one hundred and up to several hundred satellites in NGSO. There are numerous risks and uncertainties associated with NGSO constellations generally and with Telesat’s Lightspeed constellation.

NGSO constellations are complex. In order to operate successfully and deliver a high-quality service, all components of the system, both on the ground and in space, must be integrated seamlessly and efficiently.

Unlike most traditional GEO satellites currently in use, which rely on legacy, space-tested hardware and established ground equipment infrastructures, some of the technology necessary for the successful operation of a LEO constellation, in particular Telesat’s Lightspeed constellation, is still in development. Telesat’s Lightspeed constellation design incorporates leading-edge satellite technologies, including on-board data processing, multi-beam phased array antennas and optical inter-satellite links; these are technologies that have not been fully developed for space applications

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at the scale, levels of performance and price points that are required for the successful operation and commercialization of Telesat’s Lightspeed constellation. In addition, certain key suppliers are small, new companies that may not be well capitalized and for whom we are their largest customer. If these key suppliers’ businesses were to fail, the Lightspeed constellation could be materially delayed and/or its cost could materially increase. In order to provide a competitive service in certain of the customer segments Telesat plans to serve, it requires advances in ground terminal design and manufacturing, particularly electronic flat panel antennas capable of acquiring and tracking LEO satellites. If Telesat’s Lightspeed constellation does not deliver the required quality of service at prices that are competitive relative to other satellite providers and alternative products, it may not be able to acquire customers and establish a successful business. It is possible that Telesat may not be able to overcome the technological hurdles required to complete the planned Lightspeed constellation, the start of service may be materially delayed, and/or due to technological issues the Lightspeed constellation may not operate as planned, any of which could have a material adverse effect on results of operations, business prospects and financial condition.

Telesat’s planned Lightspeed constellation may suffer launch failures or its satellites may fail to reach their planned orbital locations. Any such issue could result in the loss of a satellite or cause significant delays in the deployment of the satellite. Delays in launching satellites and in the deployment of satellites are not uncommon and result from construction delays, the unavailability of reliable launch opportunities with suppliers, delays in obtaining required regulatory approvals, launch failures and launch vehicle underperformance (in which case the satellite may be lost or, if it can be placed into service by using its onboard propulsion systems to reach the desired orbit, will have a shorter useful life).

Launch failures may result in delays in the deployment of satellite constellations because of the need to construct replacement satellites. A delay or perceived delay in launching the planned Lightspeed constellation may cause Telesat’s customers to move to another satellite provider. As of the date of this annual report, Telesat has not received any prepayments from customers of its Telesat Lightspeed constellation that would need to be refunded in the event of significant delays in launching such satellites (nor would there be other contractual penalties or damages to such customers for such delays). It is possible that future agreements may include prepayments for services which would need to be repaid, or provide for other contractual penalties or damages, if the Telesat Lightspeed constellation is delayed. Any launch failure, underperformance, delay or perceived delay could have a material adverse effect on results of operations, business prospects and financial condition.

Telesat may be unable to raise sufficient capital to fund the Lightspeed constellation and Telesat may ultimately be unable to, or choose to not, proceed with the project.

The implementation of Telesat’s planned Lightspeed constellation will require a substantial outlay of capital, and Telesat may not be able to raise sufficient capital to successfully develop and commercialize the project. See “— Telesat’s business is capital intensive and it may not be able to raise adequate capital to finance its business strategies, or it may be able to do so only on terms that significantly restrict its ability to operate its business.” While Telesat has entered into an agreement with MacDonald Dettwiler and Associates (“MDA”) to be the prime manufacturer for the Lightspeed constellation, we do not currently have in place definitive agreements with our financing sources that would allow us to complete construction of the constellation.

While Telesat has announced that it expects to receive funding from Canadian federal and provincial governments in the combined amount of up to approximately US$2 billion, these investments are subject to a number of conditions including the entering into of further, definitive agreements, which, for various reasons, may not occur. If unable to raise sufficient capital, Telesat will not be able to build and deploy its Lightspeed constellation which could have a material adverse effect on Telesat’s operations, business prospects and financial condition.

Telesat and its Canadian federal and provincial government Partners may be unable to agree on definitive documentation related to the Canadian federal and provincial funding commitments, and even if definitive documentation is executed, there is no guarantee that the investment will be advantageous for Telesat or its subsidiaries and the exercise of any warrants granted in connection therewith would be dilutive.

On August 11, 2023, Telesat announced that it expects to receive an up to approximately US$2 billion investment from Canadian federal and provincial governments to support Telesat Lightspeed. See “Business — Our GEO Business and Our LEO Opportunity — Overview of Telesat Lightspeed”. A binding obligation with respect

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to these investments will only be created upon execution of definitive documentation that will contain the terms including representations, warranties, covenants, indemnities, defaults, and other terms and conditions (including fees and expenses, increased costs, tax (including customary gross-up and indemnity provisions for any non-resident withholding tax) and other provisions) as these lenders may reasonably require, which are usual and customary for transactions of this nature. Moreover, these investments are in all respects subject to, among other things, ongoing due diligence, negotiation of satisfactory binding legal documentation and required governmental approvals. Consequently, due to the foregoing and other factors, some of which are outside Telesat’s control, the parties may be unable to reach an agreement with respect to definitive documentation. Furthermore, we expect that there will be conditions to the funding of these investments, and the satisfaction of those conditions may not be entirely within Telesat’s control. The definitive documentation with respect to these investments is expected to contain various affirmative and negative covenants, some of which may restrict Telesat’s ability to conduct its business and which Telesat Canada and Telesat may find onerous. While Telesat will attempt to negotiate definitive documentation for these investments, there is no guarantee it will be successful in doing so.

In connection with the investments from the Canadian federal and provincial governments to support Telesat Lightspeed, Telesat expects to, among other things, grant warrants to purchase a number of shares of the unrestricted subsidiary that will develop and commercialize the Lightspeed constellation. Any exercise of such warrants would result in dilution of the interest of the shareholders of Telesat in the Telesat Lightspeed business.

Telesat’s planned Lightspeed constellation will require Telesat to develop significant commercial and service operational capabilities. Failure to effectively develop such operational capabilities could cause Telesat’s Lightspeed constellation to fail to achieve commercial viability and could have a material adverse effect on Telesat’s operations, business prospects and financial condition.

Telesat’s planned Lightspeed constellation will offer an end-to-end data service such that Telesat will be responsible for system performance from the Point of Presence (where the constellation connects to either a customer’s private network or to the terrestrial internet) through the Lightspeed network to the end-user’s terminal. This contrasts with Telesat’s current GEO satellite services, from which Telesat currently derives a majority of its revenue, where Telesat primarily provides customers with access to its GEO satellites, and customers then combine this capacity with ground (hub) equipment to create a connectivity service. Telesat’s failure to develop new supporting technologies, processes and procedures, competencies, and other capabilities to support the Lightspeed constellation may materially impact its ability to commercialize the Lightspeed constellation. Additionally, Telesat’s Lightspeed constellation will require an advanced ecosystem to support LEO service installation and provisioning, including user terminals and related installs, which we currently do not possess at the scale that will be required.

Telesat’s effective monetization of its Lightspeed constellation may require Telesat to provide ancillary services to combine with Telesat’s LEO services, as customers may demand these services to create a complete solution for their communications requirements. Some examples of ancillary services are trained third parties who can install and maintain Telesat’s LEO terminals. Telesat does not currently have these capabilities, and may be required either to develop such capabilities in house or partner with third parties to deliver these capabilities, and Telesat cannot assure you that it will be able to successfully establish such capabilities. A material part of Telesat’s anticipated revenues from its planned Lightspeed constellation will come from geographies where Telesat does not have a significant presence today, including Europe, Africa and Asia, and the expansion of Telesat’s capabilities in other geographies where it currently has operations. Telesat’s failure to expand its sales and distribution capabilities in these geographies could cause the Lightspeed constellation to fail to achieve commercial viability.

In order to effectively operate its planned Lightspeed constellation, Telesat will be required to develop and expand certain business operations capabilities, including management of inventory, tracking service installation and commissioning, network monitoring and customer call resolution. Telesat will also need to develop new network capabilities to provision terminals, manage bandwidth and monitor these services. If Telesat is unable to develop these capabilities, it may be unable to provide customers with a level of service sufficient to support the Lightspeed constellation’s adoption.

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Even if Telesat is able to successfully build and deploy the Lightspeed constellation, Telesat may nonetheless fail to generate anticipated revenues due to slow market adoption or because the total addressable market for the Lightspeed constellation may be smaller than Telesat expects.

Telesat’s projected revenues from its Lightspeed constellation are based on the anticipated expansion of the market for satellite services, which assumes that the availability of higher quality, lower priced services will lead to increased uses of satellite services. However, there may be factors, both internal to and extraneous to Telesat’s development and deployment of its LEO satellites, that slow market adoption of LEO constellations and cause Telesat’s LEO revenues to be lower than anticipated. LEO ground terminal antennas require a much greater field of view than GEO antennas because LEO satellites are in constant motion from the perspective of the earth. This may mean that LEO antennas are more difficult to install than anticipated, which could limit the adoption of LEO technology. If we are unable to deploy a sufficient number of satellites needed to communicate with standard flat panel antennas, which require an even greater field of view than traditional ground terminal antennas, it may increase the costs of the antennas required to communicate with our satellites, which could increase our costs or adversely impact the addressable market for our services. We will operate our Lightspeed constellation using Ka-band frequencies while some of our competitors are using, or intend to use, Ku-band frequencies which are less susceptible to service outages because of heavy rains. An increased level and frequency of outages at Ka-band may negatively impact the size of the market for our Lightspeed services. Additionally, given that Telesat Lightspeed relies on new technology, potential customers may not be willing to purchase its services until Telesat Lightspeed has been successfully deployed and in operation which could delay or decrease demand for its services. If sufficient LEO terminals are not installed prior to the commencement of global service, it could lead to a failure to achieve anticipated revenues on a timeline that supports Telesat’s Lightspeed constellation’s commercial viability. Moreover, certain users, particularly governments, may have requirements, including security requirements that Telesat is unable to meet, leading to lack of access to important markets.

Telesat’s business plan for the Lightspeed constellation is based on its own analysis of the total addressable market (“TAM”) for the constellation’s services. It is possible that Telesat’s analysis of the TAM for the Lightspeed constellation is inaccurate and the TAM could be materially smaller than Telesat’s analysis suggests. Even if Telesat’s analysis of the TAM for Telesat Lightspeed is accurate, those services may end up being provided by Telesat’s competitors, some of whom are larger, have greater access to capital and have deployed or will deploy their constellations before Telesat.

Although Telesat believes there is a significant market for the services it expects to provide with its Lightspeed constellation, it may not be able to attract enough customers to make the project successful and earn a sufficient return on investment or support its indebtedness, which could have a material adverse effect on its business prospects and financial condition.

Telesat faces robust competition to build and effectively deploy its Lightspeed constellation, and/or the pursuit of a LEO constellation may negatively impact Telesat’s existing business.

Telesat’s Lightspeed constellation will also compete with NGSO satellite projects announced and/or in operation by other companies, including Eutelsat (OneWeb), SpaceX, SES/O3b, Amazon’s subsidiary Kuiper (referenced herein as Amazon), Rivada Space Networks, as well as country and region-sponsored projects in China, Russia and the European Union. Some of these potential competitors to Telesat’s system have greater access to capital than Telesat has and/or are at a more advanced stage of development. For example, China and Russia have access to larger amounts of capital and have government-owned satellite manufacturing and launch facilities at their disposal. SpaceX and Amazon are much larger than Telesat, have more diverse sources of revenue and have substantially greater financial resources than Telesat.

The Eutelsat (OneWeb) and SpaceX constellations have already commenced operations, which may make it more difficult for Telesat to attract customers for its constellation once it is deployed. Further, to the extent any of the other constellations make use of Ka-band spectrum, as SpaceX and Eutelsat (OneWeb) do, and as Amazon has indicated it will, it may limit Telesat’s access to sufficient Ka-band spectrum to operate the Lightspeed constellation efficiently and profitably. See “Risks Relating to Regulatory Matters.” Telesat also competes with Eutelsat (OneWeb), SpaceX, Amazon and other developers of NGSO satellite projects for human capital, and Telesat may fail to recruit and retain a workforce capable of developing and deploying its planned Lightspeed constellation, which may cause Telesat to fail to successfully commercialize its Lightspeed constellation.

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Some of Telesat’s competitors have greater access to launch capabilities than Telesat. SpaceX has its own in-house launch capability and Blue Origin, a company owned by Amazon’s Executive Chair and largest shareholder, Jeff Bezos, is significantly advanced in its development of launch vehicles. Each of Amazon’s and SpaceX’s greater access to launch vehicles for its own satellites may give it an advantage over Telesat since Telesat does not have in-house capability to launch its own satellites. In addition, SpaceX manufactures, and Amazon intends to manufacture, their own satellites, which may provide them with advantages over us since we are reliant on third parties for the supply of our Lightspeed satellites.

If successfully implemented, the Lightspeed constellation may decrease demand for Telesat’s other satellite services. See “— Changes in technology could have a material adverse effect on Telesat’s results of operations, business prospects and financial condition.”

Risks Relating to Intellectual Property

If we are unable to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce patent and other intellectual property protection for our technology and services, or if the scope of the patent and other intellectual property protection obtained is not sufficiently broad, we may not be able to compete effectively in our markets.

Our success may depend, in part, on our ability to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce patent and other intellectual property protection in the United States and other countries with respect to our services and technology we develop. If we fail to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property, third parties may be able to compete more effectively against us, we may lose our technological or competitive advantage, or we may incur substantial litigation costs in our attempts to recover or restrict use of our intellectual property.

We seek to protect our position by filing patent applications in the United States and elsewhere related to our technologies and services that are important to our business. We also rely on a combination of contractual provisions, confidentiality procedures and copyright, trademark, trade secret and other intellectual property rights to protect the proprietary aspects of our brands, services, technologies and data. These legal measures afford only limited protection, and competitors or others may gain access to or use our intellectual property and proprietary information. Our success will depend, in part, on obtaining and maintaining patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets, data and know-how and other intellectual property rights.

We may not be able to obtain and maintain intellectual property or other proprietary rights necessary to our business or in a form that provides us with a competitive advantage. For example, our trade secrets, data and know-how could be subject to unauthorized use, misappropriation or disclosure to unauthorized parties, despite our efforts to enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, contractors, clients and other vendors who have access to such information, and could otherwise become known or be independently discovered by third parties. In addition, the patent prosecution process is expensive, time-consuming and complex, and we may not be able to file, prosecute, maintain, enforce or license all necessary or desirable patent applications at a reasonable cost, in a timely manner, or in all jurisdictions where protection may be commercially advantageous, or we may not be able to protect our intellectual property at all. Despite our efforts to protect our intellectual property, unauthorized parties may be able to obtain and use information that we regard as proprietary.

Given that patent applications are confidential for a period of time after filing, we cannot be certain that we were the first to file any patent application related to our services. The issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its inventorship, scope, validity or enforceability and our owned and in-licensed issued patents may be challenged in courts or patent offices in the United States and abroad. For example, we may be subject to a third-party submission of prior art to the United States Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”) challenging the validity of one or more claims of our owned or in-licensed issued patents. Competitors may also contest our patents, if issued, by showing the USPTO, or the applicable other foreign patent agency that the invention was not original, was not novel or was obvious. In litigation, a competitor could claim that our patents, if issued, are not valid for a number of reasons. If a court agrees, we would lose our rights to those challenged patents.

It is also possible that we will fail to identify patentable aspects of our research and development output in time to obtain patent protection. Although we enter into non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements with parties who have access to confidential or patentable aspects of our research and development output, such as our employees, consultants, contractors, collaborators, vendors and other third parties, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose such output before a patent application is filed, thereby jeopardizing our ability to seek patent protection.

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We may not be able to obtain or maintain patent applications and issued patents due to the subject matter claimed in such patent applications and issued patents being in disclosures in the public domain, and we may not be able to prevent any third party from using any of our technology that is in the public domain to compete with our technologies. In addition, publications of discoveries in the scientific literature often lag behind the actual discoveries, and patent applications in the United States and other jurisdictions are typically not published until 18 months after filing, or in some cases not at all. Therefore, we cannot be certain that we were the first to make the inventions claimed in our owned or in-licensed issued patents or pending patent applications, or that we were the first to file for patent protection of such inventions. If a third party can establish that we or our licensors were not the first to make or the first to file for patent protection of such inventions, our owned or in-licensed patent applications may not issue as patents and even if issued, may be challenged and invalidated or rendered unenforceable.

Moreover, the coverage claimed in a patent application can be significantly reduced before a patent is issued, and its scope can be reinterpreted after issuance. Even if patent applications we license or own currently or in the future issue as patents, they may not issue in a form that will provide us with any meaningful protection, prevent competitors or other third parties from competing with us, or otherwise provide us with any competitive advantage. Any patents that we hold may be challenged, narrowed or invalidated by third parties. Additionally, our competitors or other third parties may be able to circumvent our patents by developing similar or alternative technologies or services in a non-infringing manner. Third parties may also have blocking patents that could prevent us from marketing our own services and practicing our own technology. Alternatively, third parties may seek approval to market their own products or services similar to or otherwise competitive with our services. In these circumstances, we may need to defend and/or assert our patents, including by filing lawsuits alleging patent infringement. In any of these types of proceedings, a court or agency with jurisdiction may find our patents invalid, unenforceable or not infringed, in which case, our competitors and other third parties may then be able to market services and use manufacturing and analytical processes that are substantially similar to ours. Even if we have valid and enforceable patents, these patents still may not provide protection against competing services or processes sufficient to achieve our business objectives.

Failure to obtain and maintain patents, trademarks and other intellectual property rights necessary to our business and failure to protect, monitor and control the use of our intellectual property rights could negatively impact our ability to compete and cause us to incur significant expenses. The intellectual property laws and other statutory and contractual arrangements in the United States and other jurisdictions we depend upon may not provide sufficient protection in the future to prevent the infringement, use, violation or misappropriation of our patents, trademarks, data, technology and other intellectual property, and may not provide an adequate remedy if our intellectual property rights are infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated. Any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, business, financial conditions, results of operations and prospects.

We may not identify relevant third-party patents or may incorrectly interpret the relevance, scope or expiration of a third-party patent, which might adversely affect our ability to develop and market our services.

We cannot guarantee that any of our patent searches or analyses, including the identification of relevant patents, the scope of patent claims or the expiration of relevant patents, are complete or thorough, nor can we be certain that we have identified each and every third-party patent and pending application in the United States and abroad that is relevant to or necessary for the commercialization of our current and future services in any jurisdiction.

The scope of a patent claim is determined by an interpretation of the law, the written disclosure in a patent and the patent’s prosecution history. Our interpretation of the relevance or the scope of a patent or a pending application may be incorrect, which may negatively impact our ability to market our services. We may incorrectly determine that our services are not covered by a third-party patent or may incorrectly predict whether a third party’s pending application will issue with claims of relevant scope. Our determination of the expiration date of any patent in the United States or abroad that we consider relevant may be incorrect, and our failure to identify and correctly interpret relevant patents may negatively impact our ability to develop and market our services.

We may be subject to claims that we or our employees have misappropriated the intellectual property of a third party, including trade secrets or know-how, or are in breach of non-competition or non-solicitation agreements with our competitors and third parties may claim an ownership interest in intellectual property we regard as our own.

Many of our employees and consultants were previously employed at or engaged by our competitors or potential competitors. Some of these employees, consultants and contractors, may have executed proprietary rights, non-disclosure and non-competition agreements in connection with such previous employment. Although we try to

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ensure that our employees and consultants do not use the intellectual property, proprietary information, know-how or trade secrets of others in their work for us, we may be subject to claims that we or these individuals have, inadvertently or otherwise, misappropriated the intellectual property or disclosed the alleged trade secrets or other proprietary information, of these former employers or competitors. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims, and if we fail in defending any such claims, in addition to paying monetary damages, we may lose valuable intellectual property rights. In addition, we may lose personnel as a result of such claims. Any such litigation, or the threat thereof, may adversely affect our ability to hire employees or contract with independent contractors. A loss of key personnel or their work product could hamper or prevent our ability to commercialize our services, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.

Additionally, we may be subject to claims from third parties challenging our ownership interest in intellectual property we regard as our own, based on claims that our employees or consultants have breached an obligation to assign inventions to another employer, to a former employer, or to another person or entity. Litigation may be necessary to defend against any other claims, and it may be necessary or we may desire to enter into a license to settle any such claim; however, there can be no assurance that we would be able to obtain a license on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. If our defense to those claims fails, in addition to paying monetary damages, a court could prohibit us from using technologies or features that are essential to our services, if such technologies or features are found to incorporate or be derived from the trade secrets or other proprietary information of the former employers.

We may in the future also be subject to claims by our former employees, consultants or contractors asserting an ownership right in our patents or patent applications, as a result of the work they performed on our behalf. Although we generally require all of our employees, consultants, contractors and any other partners or collaborators who have access to our proprietary know-how, information or technology to assign or grant similar rights to their inventions to us, we cannot be certain that we have executed such agreements with all parties who may have contributed to our intellectual property, nor can we be certain that our agreements with such parties will be upheld in the face of a potential challenge, or that they will not be breached, for which we may not have an adequate remedy.

We may become a party to intellectual property litigation or administrative proceedings that could be costly and could interfere with our ability to sell and market our services.

It is possible that U.S. and foreign patents and pending patent applications, copyrights, or trademarks controlled by third parties may be alleged to cover our services, or that we may be accused of misappropriating third parties’ trade secrets. Additionally, our services make use of components that we purchase from vendors, and may include design components that are outside of our direct control. Our competitors, some of which have substantially greater resources and have made substantial investments in patent portfolios, trade secrets, copyrights, trademarks and competing technologies, may have applied for or obtained, or may in the future apply for or obtain, patents, copyrights, or trademarks that will prevent, limit or otherwise interfere with our ability to make, use, sell and/or export our services or to use product names. Because patent applications can take years to issue and are often afforded confidentiality for some period of time, there may currently be pending applications, unknown to us, that later result in issued patents that could cover one or more of our technology and services. Moreover, in recent years, individuals and groups that are non-practicing entities, commonly referred to as “patent trolls,” have purchased patents and other intellectual property assets for the purpose of making claims of infringement in order to extract settlements. From time to time, we may receive threatening letters, notices or “invitations to license,” or may be the subject of claims that our products and business operations infringe or violate the intellectual property rights of others. We may face patent infringement claims from non-practicing entities that have no relevant product or service revenue and against whom our owned or in-licensed patent portfolio may therefore have no deterrent effect. We may in the future become party to adversarial proceedings or litigation where our competitors or other third parties may assert claims against us, alleging that our technology or services infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate their intellectual property rights, including patents and trade secrets. The defense of these matters can be time consuming, costly to defend in litigation, divert management’s attention and resources, damage our reputation and brand and cause us to incur significant expenses or make substantial payments. Vendors from whom we purchase hardware or software may not indemnify us in the event that such hardware or software is accused of infringing a third party’s patent or trademark or of misappropriating a third party’s trade secret, or any indemnification granted by such vendors may not be sufficient to address any liability and costs we incur as a result of such claims.

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Even if we believe third party’s intellectual property claims are without merit, there is no assurance that a court would find in our favor, including on questions of infringement, validity, enforceability or priority of patents. The strength of our defenses will depend on the patents asserted, the interpretation of these patents, and our ability to invalidate the asserted patents. A court of competent jurisdiction could hold that these third-party patents are valid, enforceable and infringed, which could materially and adversely affect our ability to commercialize any services or technology we may develop, and any other services or technologies covered by the asserted third-party patents. In order to successfully challenge the validity of any such U.S. patent in federal court, we would need to overcome a presumption of validity. As this burden is a high one requiring us to present clear and convincing evidence as to the invalidity of any such U.S. patent claim, there is no assurance that a court of competent jurisdiction would invalidate the claims of any such U.S. patent. Conversely, the patent owner need only prove infringement by a preponderance of the evidence, which is a lower burden of proof.

Further, if patents, trademarks, copyrights, or trade secrets are successfully asserted against us, this may harm our business and result in injunctions preventing us from developing, manufacturing, marketing or selling our services, or result in obligations to pay license fees, damages, attorney fees and court costs, which could be significant. In addition, if we are found to willfully infringe third-party patents or trademarks or to have misappropriated trade secrets, we could be required to pay treble damages in addition to other penalties.

Although patent, copyright, trademark, trade secret and other intellectual property disputes in our industry have often been settled through licensing or similar arrangements, costs associated with such arrangements may be substantial and could include ongoing royalties. We may be unable to obtain necessary licenses on satisfactory terms, if at all. In addition, if any license we obtain is non-exclusive, we may not be able to prevent our competitors and other third parties from using the intellectual property or technology covered by such license to compete with us. If we do not obtain necessary licenses, we may not be able to redesign our services to avoid infringement. Any of these events could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Similarly, interference or derivation proceedings provoked by third parties or brought by the USPTO may be necessary to determine priority with respect to our patents, patent applications, trademarks or trademark applications. We may also become involved in other proceedings, such as reexamination, inter partes review, derivation or opposition proceedings before the USPTO or other jurisdictional body relating to our intellectual property rights or the intellectual property rights of others. Adverse determinations in a judicial or administrative proceeding or failure to obtain necessary licenses could prevent us from delivering our services or using product names, which would have a significant adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Additionally, we may file lawsuits or initiate other proceedings to protect or enforce our patents or other intellectual property rights, which could be expensive, time consuming and unsuccessful. Competitors may infringe our issued patents or other intellectual property, which we may not always be able to detect.

To counter infringement or unauthorized use, we may be required to file infringement claims, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Any claims we assert against perceived infringers could provoke these parties to assert counterclaims against us alleging that we infringe their intellectual property or alleging that our intellectual property is invalid or unenforceable. Grounds for a validity challenge could be an alleged failure to meet any of several statutory requirements, including lack of novelty, obviousness or non-enablement. Grounds for an unenforceability assertion could be an allegation that someone connected with prosecution of the patent withheld relevant information from the USPTO, or made a misleading statement, during prosecution. Third parties may raise challenges to the validity of certain of our owned or in-licensed patent claims before administrative bodies in the United States or abroad, even outside the context of litigation. Such mechanisms include re-examination, post-grant review, inter partes review, interference proceedings, derivation proceedings and equivalent proceedings in foreign jurisdictions (e.g., opposition proceedings). In any such lawsuit or other proceedings, a court or other administrative body may decide that a patent of ours is invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part, construe the patent’s claims narrowly or refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our patents do not cover the technology in question.

The outcome following legal assertions of invalidity and unenforceability is unpredictable. If a third party were to prevail on a legal assertion of invalidity or unenforceability, we would lose at least part, and perhaps all, of the patent protection on our services or services that we may develop. If our patents are found to be valid and infringed, a court may refuse to grant injunctive relief against the infringer and instead grant us monetary damages and/or ongoing royalties. Such monetary compensation may be insufficient to adequately offset the damage to our business caused by

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the infringer’s competition in the market. An adverse result in any litigation or other proceeding could put one or more of our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly. Any of these events could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Even if resolved in our favor, litigation or other proceedings relating to intellectual property claims may cause us to incur significant expenses and could distract our personnel from their normal responsibilities. In addition, there could be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments, and if securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a substantial adverse effect on the price of our common stock. Such litigation or proceedings could substantially increase our operating losses and reduce the resources available for development activities or any future sales, marketing or distribution activities. We may not have sufficient financial or other resources to conduct such litigation or proceedings adequately. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of such litigation or proceedings more effectively than we can because of their greater financial resources and more mature and developed intellectual property portfolios. Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential or sensitive information could be compromised by disclosure in the event of litigation. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of patent and other intellectual property litigation or other proceedings could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Because of the expense and uncertainty of litigation, we may not be in a position to enforce our intellectual property rights against third parties.

Because of the expense and uncertainty of litigation, we may conclude that even if a third party is infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating our owned or in-licensed patents, any patents that may be issued as a result of our future patent applications, or other intellectual property rights, the risk-adjusted cost of bringing and enforcing such a claim or action may be too high or not in the best interest of our company or our shareholders. In such cases, we may decide that the more prudent course of action is to simply monitor the situation or initiate or seek some other non-litigious action or solution.

If we are unable to protect the confidentiality of our trade secrets and other proprietary information, our business and competitive position may be harmed.

In addition to patent protection, we also rely on other proprietary rights, including protection of trade secrets, and other proprietary information that is not patentable or that we elect not to patent. However, trade secrets can be difficult to protect and some courts inside and outside the United States are less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets. To maintain the confidentiality of our trade secrets and proprietary information, we rely heavily on confidentiality provisions that we have in contracts with our employees, consultants, collaborators and others upon the commencement of their relationship with us. We cannot guarantee that we have entered into such agreements with each party that may have or have had access to our trade secrets or proprietary technology and processes. We may not be able to prevent the unauthorized disclosure or use of our technical knowledge or other trade secrets by such third parties, despite the existence generally of these confidentiality restrictions. These contracts may not provide meaningful protection for our trade secrets, know-how, or other proprietary information in the event of any unauthorized use, misappropriation, or disclosure of such trade secrets, know-how, or other proprietary information. There can be no assurance that such third parties will not breach their agreements with us, that we will have adequate remedies for any breach, or that our trade secrets will not otherwise become known or independently developed by competitors. Despite the protections we do place on our intellectual property or other proprietary rights, monitoring unauthorized use and disclosure of our intellectual property is difficult, and we do not know whether the steps we have taken to protect our intellectual property or other proprietary rights will be adequate. In addition, the laws of many foreign countries will not protect our intellectual property or other proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. Consequently, we may be unable to prevent our proprietary technology from being exploited abroad, which could affect our ability to expand to international markets or require costly efforts to protect our technology.

To the extent our intellectual property or other proprietary information protection is incomplete, we are exposed to a greater risk of direct competition. A third party could, without authorization, copy or otherwise obtain and use our services or technology, or develop similar technology. Our competitors could purchase our services and attempt

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to replicate some or all of the competitive advantages we derive from our development efforts or design around our protected technology. Our failure to secure, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could substantially harm the value of our services, brand and business. The theft or unauthorized use or publication of our trade secrets and other confidential business information could reduce the differentiation of our services and harm our business, the value of our investment in development or business acquisitions could be reduced and third parties might make claims against us related to losses of their confidential or proprietary information. Any of the foregoing could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Further, it is possible that others will independently develop the same or similar technology or otherwise obtain access to our unpatented technology, and in such cases we could not assert any trade secret rights against such parties or those to whom they communicate such trade secrets. Costly and time-consuming litigation could be necessary to enforce and determine the scope of our trade secret rights and related confidentiality and nondisclosure provisions. If we fail to obtain or maintain trade secret protection, or if our competitors obtain our trade secrets or independently develop technology similar to ours or competing technologies, our competitive market position could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, some courts are less willing or unwilling to protect trade secrets and agreement terms that address non-competition are difficult to enforce in many jurisdictions and might not be enforceable in certain cases.

We also seek to preserve the integrity and confidentiality of our data and other confidential information by maintaining physical security of our premises and physical and electronic security of our information technology systems. While we have confidence in these individuals, organizations and systems, agreements or security measures may be breached and detecting the disclosure or misappropriation of confidential information and enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated confidential information is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. Further, we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for any breach.

Intellectual property rights do not necessarily address all potential threats to our competitive advantage.

The degree of future protection afforded by our intellectual property rights is uncertain because intellectual property rights have limitations, and may not adequately protect our business, or permit us to maintain our competitive advantage. The following examples are illustrative:

        others may be able to make a product that is similar to our current services and future services we intend to commercialize and that is not covered by the patents that we own or exclusively in-license and have the right to enforce;

        we and any of our current or future licensors or collaborators might not have been the first to make the inventions covered by the issued patents or pending patent applications that we own, license or may own or license in the future;

        we or any of our current or future licensors or collaborators might not have been the first to file patent applications covering certain of our inventions;

        others may independently develop similar or alternative technologies or duplicate any of our technologies without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating our intellectual property rights;

        it is possible that our current or future owned or in-licensed patent applications will not lead to issued patents;

        issued patents that we own or in-license may not provide us with any competitive advantages, or may be held invalid or unenforceable as a result of legal challenges, including as a result of legal challenges by our competitors;

        we may not develop additional proprietary technologies that are patentable; and

        we may choose not to file a patent for certain trade secrets or know-how, and a third party may subsequently file a patent covering such intellectual property.

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Risks Relating to Regulatory Matters

Telesat operates in a highly regulated industry and is required to comply with multiple, potentially conflicting, laws and regulations and obtain numerous governmental authorizations and approvals. If Telesat becomes subject to onerous regulations, or if it fails to obtain or maintain particular authorizations on acceptable terms (including obtaining required modifications of Canadian and US authorizations and meeting their deployment milestones), such regulatory obligations and/or such failure could delay or prevent it from offering some or all of its services and adversely affect its results of operations, business prospects and financial condition.

Authorizations required to operate satellites

Telesat operates satellites with ITU frequency rights authorized by Canada, the U.S., Brazil, the U.K. and Tonga. Canada, the U.S. and Brazil also issue associated licenses or grants with conditions as discussed below. In addition, Telesat has been granted authorization (sometimes referred to as “market access”) to provide services in many countries around the world, while in other countries there is no formal authorization requirement (sometimes referred to as “Open Skies”). Therefore, Telesat is subject to regulation by government authorities in Canada, the U.S. and Brazil, as well as by other governmental authorities in certain other countries in which it operates.

In Canada, operations are subject to regulation and licensing by Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada (“ISED”) pursuant to the Radiocommunication Act (Canada), and by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (“CRTC”) under the Telecommunications Act (Canada). Certain of Telesat’s satellites are licensed by Canada. This includes the GEO Anik satellites F1, F1R, F2, F3 and G1, the GEO Nimiq satellites 2, 4, 5 and 6, and the NGSO Telesat Lightspeed constellation. ISED has the authority to issue licenses for the frequencies used by Canadian satellite systems, issue earth station licenses, and establish policies and standards upon which Telesat’s satellites and earth stations depend. The Minister responsible for ISED has broad discretion in exercising this authority to issue licenses, establish and amend conditions of licenses, and to suspend or even revoke them. The CRTC implements the broadcasting policy for Canada and can direct the allocation of satellite capacity to particular broadcasting undertakings. Telesat is required to pay “universal service” charges in Canada and has certain research and development and public benefits obligations that do not apply to other satellite operators with which it competes. These obligations could change at any time. With respect to market access, ISED maintains a list of foreign satellites approved to provide FSS in Canada. Telesat’s Telstar 11N, Telstar 12 VANTAGE, Telstar 14R/Estrela do Sul 2 and Telstar 19 VANTAGE satellites are currently authorized to serve the Canadian market in accordance with these procedures.

With respect to the Canadian authorization for the Telesat Lightspeed constellation, as a result of delays in the Telesat Lightspeed program, Telesat will not meet the current, required milestones as set out in the authorization. Accordingly, Telesat intends to seek to amend the milestones in the authorization. There is no assurance that such amendment request will be approved.

In the U.S., the Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”) regulates the provision of satellite services to, from or within the U.S. Certain of Telesat’s satellites are owned and operated through a U.S. subsidiary and are licensed by the FCC. This includes Telstar 11N and Telstar 12 VANTAGE. With respect to market access, operators can apply to have their satellites either placed on the FCC’s Permitted Space Station List (for certain frequencies) or be granted a declaratory ruling (for other frequencies). Telesat’s Anik F1, Anik F1R, Anik F2, Anik F3, Telstar 14R/Estrela do Sul 2 and Telstar 19 VANTAGE satellites are currently authorized to serve the U.S. market in accordance with these procedures, and some of the frequencies on Telstar 18 VANTAGE have access to the U.S. market through an earth station authorization.

The Telesat Lightspeed constellation has also been granted U.S. market access. The parameters of Telesat’s current Ka-band Telesat Lightspeed constellation design differ from the parameters of the market access grant from the U.S., which grant was for 117 satellites, and the market access grant from the U.S. is subject to post-grant conditions, including a requirement for providing an updated showing on orbital debris mitigation based on final system design. Telesat applied on May 26, 2020, in the FCC’s second processing round for Ka-band systems, to modify its U.S. market access grant to match the parameters of the Telesat Lightspeed constellation design at the time, including an increase in the number of authorized satellites to operate an expanded constellation of 1,671 satellites. On October 26, 2023 Telesat submitted an amendment to its pending second round application to provide the modified system design being developed with MDA. In general, satellites authorized in a later processing round must protect satellites authorized

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in a previous processing round from interference. There is no assurance that Telesat’s modification application, as amended, will be approved or, if approved, that it will not have conditions that preclude Telesat from being able to deliver an acceptable level of service in the U.S. There is also no assurance that the updated showing on orbital debris mitigation for the current design will be approved.

In addition, Telesat’s U.S. first round market access grant for Telesat Lightspeed has deployment milestones that require a certain percentage of the authorized satellites to be in service by a specific date, which is also subject to bond requirements. See “Business — Regulation — United States Regulatory Environment.” As Telesat could not meet its first deployment milestone, on October 26, 2023 Telesat submitted a milestone extension request. If an extension is not granted, Telesat will lose its first processing round U.S. market access grant either entirely or as to any number of satellites above the number for which the extension is granted. Telesat has requested that if an extension is not granted the bond be ported to the second round application mentioned above. If such request is denied, Telesat would be required to forfeit the US$5 million bond. If Telesat were to lose its first processing round grant and if Telesat is not granted access to the U.S. market under a second processing round application, Telesat could be prevented from offering its services in the United States, which could adversely affect results of operations, business prospects and financial condition.

In Brazil, the national telecommunications agency, ANATEL, regulates the granting of exploitation and landing rights to the operation of Brazilian and foreign satellites and their use to transport telecommunication signals. Certain of Telesat’s satellites are operated through a Brazilian subsidiary and are regulated by ANATEL pursuant to Concession Agreements. This includes Telstar 14R/Estrela do Sul 2 and Telstar 19 VANTAGE. With respect to market access ANATEL has also accredited the provision of service by foreign operators. Telesat’s Telstar 12 VANTAGE and Anik G1 satellites, and the Telesat Lightspeed constellation, are currently authorized to serve the Brazil market in accordance with these procedures.

The parameters of Telesat’s current Ka band Telesat Lightspeed constellation design differ from the parameters of the accreditation from ANATEL, which was for 298 satellites, and the expected date for entry into operation has changed. Telesat provided a technical update to ANATEL on January 12, 2024 that reflects the new design of 192 satellites plus six spares, along with a request to extend the deadline for entry into operation of the Telesat Lightspeed constellation.

Telstar 18 VANTAGE operates at the 138° EL orbital location under agreements with APT Satellite Company Limited (“APT”), which has been granted the right to use frequencies at the 138° EL orbital location by The Kingdom of Tonga. The ViaSat-1 satellite at the 115° WL orbital location, which has been granted the right to use frequencies at the 115° WL orbital location by the United Kingdom regulatory agency, OFCOM, includes a payload that Telesat owns and operates. The rights to use certain frequencies on Telstar 12 VANTAGE, Telstar 18 VANTAGE and Telstar 19 VANTAGE have also been granted by OFCOM.

Regulatory regimes governing market access

In addition to regulatory requirements governing the use of frequencies, most countries regulate transmission of signals to and from their territory, and Telesat is required to obtain and maintain authorizations to carry on business in the countries in which it operates. While regulators impose successful coordination with domestic operators as a condition for market access by foreign satellite operators, the U.S., and recently Brazil and the U.K. OFCOM, have adopted different approaches.

A ruling by Brazil effective November 1, 2021 gives domestic, or “national priority” status to foreign satellite operators based on date of receipt of a market access request. Telesat is a foreign license applicant in Brazil and therefore will be required to coordinate with other NGSO operators that have sought market access in Brazil at an earlier date than Telesat.

The U.S. rules, which are agnostic to domestic versus foreign, impose band splitting during in-line interference events if NGSO operators from the same processing round are unable to reach a coordination agreement, and as stated above, generally require systems authorized in subsequent processing rounds to protect systems authorized in previous processing rounds. Under the FCC’s rules, the first operator to launch a Ka-band LEO satellite as part of its authorized constellation will be able to choose which portion of the spectrum it will use when spectrum is split during in-line interference events. While Telesat believes it launched its first Ka-band satellite before other first processing round systems launched theirs, other operators have taken the position that they were first to launch and the FCC

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has not issued any guidance as to how it will determine who was “first to launch.” There are uncertainties as to how the FCC will apply this rule and as a result, there can be no assurance that Telesat will be deemed first to launch. As a result, the amount of spectrum that may be available to Telesat for its Telesat Lightspeed constellation in the U.S. is uncertain. In addition, the FCC has an on-going rulemaking proceeding in which it is considering proposals to modify its NGSO spectrum sharing rules. There can be no assurance how the outcome of this proceeding will affect Telesat.

A ruling by OFCOM on December 10, 2021 states applicants for an NGSO network license must demonstrate the ability to coexist with existing NGSO licensees, and with other NGSO license applicants taking-into-account the order with which the application is received. There are uncertainties as to how OFCOM will apply this rule, as there is no internationally agreed methodology to demonstrate coexistence. Telesat received its Satellite (Earth Station Network) license pursuant to the U.K. Wireless Telegraphy Act 2006 on November 14, 2022.

It is possible that other jurisdictions may adopt the U.S., the U.K., or the Brazilian approach. Some of the spectrum utilized by the Telesat Lightspeed constellation is also allocated to terrestrial fixed and mobile services and GEO satellite services. Other portions of the spectrum Telesat plans to use are under consideration for being designated or have been designated for terrestrial fixed and mobile services. While some jurisdictions have established rules for sharing the spectrum, many jurisdictions have yet to address this issue. In addition, even under the international rules governing coordination between satellite systems, while the process for sharing spectrum is well established with respect to GEO systems, it is only now being implemented for the first time for large NGSO systems that provide broadband services. Because the coordination of NGSO systems is both highly technically complex and new, uncertainties exist about spectrum sharing, which may limit Telesat’s ability to operate and hence monetize its Lightspeed constellation. Consequently, Telesat’s ability to use shared spectrum for its Telesat Lightspeed constellation may be adversely impacted by new rules, the implementation of existing rules, or the absence of rules for spectrum sharing.

Potential impacts of failure to obtain or maintain authorizations and approvals

If Telesat fails to obtain or maintain particular authorizations on acceptable terms, such failure could delay or prevent it from offering some or all of its services and adversely affect results of operations, business prospects and financial condition. In particular, Telesat may not be able to obtain all of the required regulatory authorizations for the construction, launch and operation of any of its future satellites, for the spectrum for these satellites and for its ground infrastructure, on acceptable terms or at all. Even if it were able to obtain the necessary authorizations the licenses it obtains may impose significant operational restrictions, or not protect it from interference that could affect the use of its satellites. Countries or their regulatory authorities may adopt new laws, policies or regulations, or change their interpretation of existing laws, policies or regulations, that could cause Telesat’s existing authorizations to be changed or cancelled, require it to incur additional costs, impose or change existing pricing, or otherwise adversely affect operations or revenues. As a result, any currently held regulatory authorizations are subject to rescission and renewal and may not remain sufficient or additional authorizations may be necessary that it may not be able to obtain on a timely basis or on terms that are not unduly costly or burdensome. Further, because the regulatory schemes vary by country, Telesat may be subject to regulations in foreign countries of which it not presently aware that it is not in compliance with, and as a result could be subject to sanctions by a foreign government.

Other potential regulatory impacts

In a number of countries, regulators are considering and may adopt new spectrum allocations for terrestrial mobile broadband and 5G, including in bands that are currently allocated to satellite services. New spectrum allocations may require satellite operators to vacate or share spectrum and may limit the spectrum that is available for satellite services, which could adversely impact Telesat’s business.

There are certain risks that have been raised in connection with the deployment of LEO constellations, including ensuring equitable access to orbit and associated spectrum resources, the potential for increased orbital debris and “light pollution” associated with light reflecting off satellites in the night sky. In a number of countries, regulators are considering and may adopt regulations to ensure the sustainable use of orbit and spectrum resources by satellites. For example, the European Commission is developing an EU Space Law which may contain design requirements for satellites, the compliance with which would be needed for obtaining the right to serve a country within the EU; the United States has an open proceeding (“Mitigation of Orbital Debris in the New Space Age”,

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see IB Docket No. 18-313) through which new requirements aimed at reducing orbital debris may be applied to NGSO satellite systems seeking US market access; the United Kingdom published a consultation to seek comments on whether space sustainability requirements should be tied to the authorization to operate a U.K.-licensed spacecraft; the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) is expected to carry out studies with a focus on the prevention of harmful interference, and ensuring the rational, equitable, efficient and economical use of the radiofrequency spectrum and associated orbit resources (see Resolution ITU-R 74 (RA-23)); and, the United Nations Office for Outer Space Activities (UNOOSA), through its Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS), is expected to further develop its “Guidelines for the Long-Term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities” first published in 2019. Certain of these laws and regulations address risks related to generating orbital debris. Because of the altitude of the orbits used by Telesat Lightspeed, a failed Telesat Lightspeed satellite will take longer to de-orbit and re-enter the Earth’s atmosphere through natural atmospheric drag, than our competitors who have deployed, or will be deploying, their satellites in lower altitude orbits. The increased de-orbit time of the Telesat Lightspeed satellites could make it harder to comply with any new orbital debris regulations that may be developed at national, regional or international levels. To the extent that governments impose restrictions or additional regulations to address any of these concerns regarding LEO constellations, it may adversely impact Telesat’s ability to successfully deploy the Telesat Lightspeed constellation.

The export from the U.S. of satellites and technical information related to satellites, earth station equipment and provision of services to certain countries are subject to State Department, Department of Commerce and Department of the Treasury regulations, in particular the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (“ITAR”), which currently include satellites on the list of items requiring export permits. These ITAR provisions may constrain Telesat’s access to technical information and may have a negative impact on Telesat’s international consulting revenues. In addition, Telesat and its satellite manufacturers may not be able to obtain and maintain necessary export authorizations, which could adversely affect its ability to procure new U.S.-manufactured satellites; control existing satellites; acquire launch services; obtain insurance and pursue its rights under insurance policies; or conduct its satellite-related operations and consulting activities.

Telesat’s operations may be limited or precluded by ITU rules or processes, including deployment milestones and timelines, and/or by the requirement to coordinate its operations with those of other satellite operators, and/or by the requirement to meet power limits to protect GEO

ITU requirements and interaction with other operators’ filings

The ITU, the United Nations specialized agency for information and communication technologies, regulates the global allocation of radio frequency spectrum and the registration of radio frequency assignments at any associated satellite orbit. Telesat participates in the activities of the ITU as an industry sector member; however, only member states (i.e. national administrations) can apply for radio frequency assignments at the ITU. Consequently, Telesat must rely on the relevant government administrations to represent its interests and secure frequency assignments, which are then licensed to Telesat by that administration.

Access to the radio frequency spectrum is governed by the ITU Radio Regulations, established in accordance with an international treaty, which contains the rules concerning frequency allocations and the procedure to obtain rights to use radio frequency assignments. The ITU Radio Regulations are periodically reviewed and revised at World Radiocommunication Conferences, which take place typically every four years. Terrestrial operators are increasingly seeking additional radio frequency assignments, including frequencies currently designated for exclusive or shared use by satellite systems, to support the increasing demand for terrestrial services. As a result, Telesat cannot guarantee that the ITU will not change its allocation decisions and rules in the future in a way that could limit or preclude Telesat’s use of some or all of Telesat’s existing or future spectrum.

The ITU Radio Regulations define the coordination, notification and recording procedures to obtain rights to use frequencies, with the aim to secure entry of the frequencies in the Master International Frequency Register (“MIFR”), including those frequencies used by Telesat’s GEO satellites, and Telesat’s planned Lightspeed constellation.

In most of the frequency bands used or intended to be used by Telesat, a “first-come, first-served” procedure applies among GEO networks or among NGSO systems whereby earlier-registered GEO networks are protected from interference due to later-registered GEO networks and earlier-registered NGSO systems are protected from interference due to later-registered NGSO systems. In order to comply with these rules, Telesat must coordinate the

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operation of its satellites, including any replacement satellite that has performance characteristics that are different from those of the satellite it replaces, with other satellites. This process requires potentially lengthy and costly negotiations with parties who operate or intend to operate satellites that could affect or be affected by its satellites. The failure to reach an appropriate arrangement with such satellite operators may render it impossible to secure entry of the frequencies into the MIFR and result in substantial restrictions on the use and operations of our existing satellites.

In the event there is no coordination agreement and interference occurs, the later-in-time system (i.e. the system operating under the ITU filing with lower priority) is obliged to cease causing interference. The ITU rules permit systems to operate on a “non-interference” basis. Among GEO networks there exists at the ITU an agreed methodology to calculate the maximum allowed interference; however, when an NGSO system is involved, so far there is no agreed methodology to determine how much interference a lower priority system can cause and still qualify as operating on a “non-interference” basis. Thus, it is not yet known either how much interference higher priority systems will be subject to from lower priority systems operating on a non-interference basis nor how large an operating impediment it will be for lower priority systems to operate on a non-interference basis. In addition, while the ITU Radio Regulations may require later-in-time systems to coordinate their operations with Telesat, it cannot guarantee that other operators will conduct their operations so as to avoid transmitting any signals that would cause harmful interference to the signals that Telesat, or its customers, transmit. In the extreme, this interference could require Telesat to take steps, or pay or refund amounts to customers that could have a material adverse effect on results of operations, business prospects and financial condition.

Between NGSO systems and GEO networks, in some cases a “first-come, first-served” procedure applies, and the discussion above is applicable. In other cases, NGSO must protect GEO regardless of the timing of the applications by meeting maximum power levels. Telesat Lightspeed can meet those power levels based on the current approach by the ITU to examine compliance; however, the approach to examine compliance may be updated following the results of technical studies commissioned by the 2023 World Radiocommunication Conference and to be completed in 2027. If certain proposed methods of testing compliance are adopted Telesat Lightspeed could be obliged to reduce power levels, and, depending on the degree of required power reduction, the system capacity could be impacted.

Finally, in the event disputes arise, the ITU’s Radio Regulations do not contain mandatory dispute resolution or enforcement regulations and neither the ITU specifically, nor international law generally, provides clear remedies if the ITU coordination process fails. Failure to coordinate its satellites’ frequencies successfully or to obtain or maintain other required regulatory approvals could have an adverse effect on results of operations, business prospects and financial condition, as well as on the value of the business.

ITU deployment milestones and timelines

Telesat’s in-orbit satellites do not currently occupy all of the GEO locations for which Telesat has obtained spectrum authorizations. In some cases, the Telesat satellite that occupies a GEO location is not designed to use all of the frequency spectrum for which it has been authorized. Similarly, Telesat has been granted regulatory authorizations for certain spectrum in NGSO orbits that are not yet occupied at all or in which the full complement of satellites have not yet been deployed.

In accordance with the ITU Radio Regulations, governments have rights to use radio frequency assignments at certain GEO orbital locations and in NGSO orbits. Certain of these governments have, in turn, authorized Telesat to use these radio frequency assignments. Under the ITU Radio Regulations, Telesat must bring-into-use (“BIU”) these frequency assignments within a fixed period of time, or the governments in question would lose their international rights, and the frequencies at the GEO orbital location or in the NGSO orbit likely would become available for use by another satellite operator. Once brought into use, the ITU rules require that there not be a period longer than three years without a satellite on-station that is capable of operating under the orbital parameters of a filing.

Under the ITU Radio Regulations satellite deployment milestones apply for ITU NGSO system filings. In general, there are milestone deadlines by which 10%, 50% and 100% of the satellites in the ITU filing must be deployed. In the case of the 10% and 50% milestones, if a deadline is missed it is still possible to take advantage of a deployment factor: if, at the 10% deadline, there are fewer than 10% of the total number of satellites in the ITU filing deployed, the modified total number of satellites shall not be greater than 10 times the number of satellites deployed; and if, at the 50% deadline, there are fewer than 50% of the total number of satellites in the ITU

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filing deployed, the modified total number of satellites shall not be greater than two times the number of satellites deployed. At the 100% milestone deadline, the number of satellites already deployed is the total number allowed for the ITU NGSO filing.

If Telesat is unable to place satellites at GEO locations or into NGSO orbits in a manner that satisfies the ITU Radio Regulations and national regulatory requirements, or if the ITU or national regulatory requirements were to change, or if it is unable to maintain satellites or make use of all of the spectrum for which it has been authorized at the GEO locations that it currently uses, Telesat may lose its rights to use these orbital resources and they would become available for other satellite operators to use. The loss of one or more of its orbital resources could negatively affect its plans and ability to implement its business strategy.

Telesat has a number of ITU filings which have lower priority than those of certain other Ka-band LEO operators. Operation under a later-in-time filing may put Telesat at a disadvantage with respect to operators having earlier-in-time filings, in the coordination process.

If Telesat does not obtain required security clearances from, and comply with any agreements entered into with, the U.S. DoD, or if Telesat does not comply with U.S. law, Telesat may not be able to continue to sell Telesat LEO services to the U.S. government.

To participate in classified U.S. government programs, Telesat may seek and obtain security clearances for one or more of its subsidiaries from the U.S. Department of Defense (“DoD”). Given Telesat’s non-U.S. domestication, Telesat has entered into agreements with the U.S. government that may limit its ability to control the operations of this subsidiary, as required under the national security laws and regulations of the U.S. If Telesat does not obtain and maintain these security arrangements, Telesat’s ability to sell LEO services to the U.S. government will be limited. As a result, Telesat’s business could be materially and adversely affected.

Risks Relating to Telesat’s Liquidity and Capital Resources

Telesat’s level of indebtedness may increase and reduce its financial flexibility.

Telesat has a significant amount of debt. As at December 31, 2023, it had total debt of $3,199.2 million and up to US$200.0 million of unused available revolving capacity under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities (not giving effect to $0.2 million of outstanding letters of credit). Telesat may incur additional debt in the future. The terms of Telesat’s Senior Secured Credit Facilities, the indenture governing its Senior Secured Notes, the indenture governing its 2026 Senior Secured Notes and the indenture governing its Senior Notes will allow it to incur substantial amounts of additional debt, subject to certain limitations. Its borrowings, current and future, will require interest payments and need to be repaid or refinanced, could require it to divert funds identified for other purposes to debt service and could create additional cash demands or impair its liquidity position and add financial risk for it. Diverting funds identified for other purposes for debt service may adversely affect Telesat’s business and growth prospects. If it cannot generate sufficient cash flow from operations to service its debt, it may need to refinance its debt at higher rates, dispose of assets, reduce or delay expenditures or issue equity to obtain necessary funds. Telesat does not know whether it would be able to take any of these actions on a timely basis, on terms satisfactory to it or at all.

Telesat’s substantial amount of debt may have important consequences. For example, it may: make it more difficult for it to satisfy its obligations under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities, the Senior Secured Notes the 2026 Senior Secured Notes and the Senior Notes; increase its vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions; require it to dedicate a substantial portion of its cash flow from operations to make interest and principal payments on its debt, thereby limiting the availability of its cash flow to fund future capital expenditures, working capital and other general corporate requirements; limit its flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in its business and in the industries that it services; place it at a competitive disadvantage compared with competitors that have less debt; and limit its ability to borrow additional funds, even when necessary to maintain adequate liquidity.

In addition to its debt service obligations, its operations require material expenditures on a continuing basis. Telesat’s ability to make scheduled debt payments, to refinance its obligations with respect to its indebtedness and to fund capital and non-capital expenditures necessary to maintain the condition of its operating assets and properties, as well as its capacity to fund the growth of its business, depends on its financial and operating performance.

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General economic conditions and financial, business and other factors affect operations and future performance. Many of these factors are beyond Telesat’s control. Telesat may not be able to generate sufficient cash flows to pay the interest on its debt, and future working capital, borrowings or equity financing may not be available to pay or refinance such debt.

The agreements governing Telesat’s debt, including the indentures governing its Senior Secured Notes, 2026 Senior Secured Notes, and Senior Notes and the credit agreement governing its Senior Secured Credit Facilities, contain various covenants that impose restrictions on it that may affect its ability to operate its business.

The agreements governing Telesat’s debt, including the indentures governing its Senior Secured Notes, the 2026 Senior Secured Notes and the Senior Notes and the Credit Agreement, impose operating and financial restrictions on its activities. For example, the Revolving Credit Facility requires it to comply with a first lien net leverage ratio of 5.75:1.00, tested quarterly when its Revolving Credit Facility is drawn by more than 35% of the Credit Facility amount. These indentures, the Credit Agreement and future debt agreements may also limit or prohibit its ability to, among other things:

        incur additional debt and issue disqualified stock and preferred shares;

        create liens;

        pay dividends, acquire shares of capital stock, make payments on subordinated debt or make investments;

        create or permit to exist specified restrictions on its ability to receive distributions from restricted subsidiaries;

        make certain investments;

        issue guarantees;

        issue or sell the capital stock of restricted subsidiaries;

        sell or exchange assets;

        modify or cancel Telesat’s satellite insurance;

        enter into certain transactions with affiliates; and

        effect mergers, consolidations, amalgamations and transfers of all or substantially all assets.

These restrictions on Telesat’s ability to operate its business could seriously harm its business by, among other things, limiting its ability to take advantage of financing, merger and acquisition and other corporate opportunities.

Various risks, uncertainties and events beyond Telesat’s control could affect its ability to comply with these covenants and maintain this financial ratio. Failure to comply with any of the covenants in its existing or future financing agreements could result in a default under those agreements and under other agreements containing cross-default provisions. A default would permit lenders to accelerate the maturity for the debt under these agreements and to foreclose upon any collateral securing the debt. Under these circumstances, Telesat might not have sufficient funds or other resources to satisfy all of its obligations, including its obligations under the Senior Secured Notes, the 2026 Senior Secured Notes or the Senior Notes.

Telesat’s unrestricted subsidiaries are expected to incur substantial additional debt secured by substantially all of the assets related to the Lightspeed constellation.

The agreements governing Telesat’s debt permit it to designate one or more of its restricted subsidiaries as unrestricted subsidiaries, subject to certain conditions. Certain of Telesat’s subsidiaries have been designated as unrestricted subsidiaries pursuant to those debt agreements. As a result, the covenants described above are not applicable to such subsidiaries. Telesat is developing, and intends to fund, construct and operate, its Lightspeed constellation, in one or more of its unrestricted subsidiaries. If the Lightspeed constellation program proceeds, these unrestricted subsidiaries are expected to incur substantial additional debt which would be secured by substantially all of the assets related to the Lightspeed constellation.

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The limitations imposed by financing agreements on Telesat’s ability to incur additional debt and to take other actions might significantly impair its ability to obtain other financing. To service its debt and to fund planned capital expenditures, Telesat will require a significant amount of cash, which may not be available.

Telesat’s ability to make payments on, or repay or refinance its debt, including its Senior Secured Notes, the 2026 Senior Secured Notes and Senior Notes, and to fund planned capital expenditures will depend largely upon its future operating performance. Telesat’s future performance, to a certain extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond its control. In addition, Telesat’s ability to borrow funds in the future to make payments on its debt will depend on the satisfaction of the covenants in the Senior Secured Credit Facilities, in the indentures governing its Senior Secured Notes, its 2026 Senior Secured Notes and its Senior Notes and other agreements it may enter into in the future. In addition, if its Revolving Credit Facility is drawn by more than 35% of the Credit Facility amount, it will be required to comply with a first lien net leverage ratio of 5.75:1.00, tested quarterly, and failure to comply will result in an event of default under the Revolving Credit Facility. These indentures and the Credit Agreement contain limitations on its ability to incur additional debt. Telesat cannot assure you that its business will generate sufficient cash flow from operations or that future borrowings will be available to it under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities or from other sources in an amount sufficient to enable it to pay its debt, including its Senior Secured Notes, its 2026 Senior Secured Notes and its Senior Notes, or to fund its other liquidity needs. As of December 31, 2023, it had US$200.0 million of unused available revolving capacity under its Senior Secured Credit Facilities (not giving effect to $0.2 million of outstanding letters of credit). In addition, Telesat’s ability to raise additional capital to refinance its debt or to fund its operations is dependent on capital market conditions.

If Telesat’s cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to service its indebtedness, it may be forced to reduce or delay capital expenditures, sell assets, seek additional capital or restructure or refinance its indebtedness, including its Senior Secured Notes, its 2026 Senior Secured Notes and its Senior Notes. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit it to meet its scheduled debt service obligations. Telesat’s ability to restructure or refinance its debt will depend on the condition of the capital markets and its financial condition at such time. Any refinancing of its debt could be at higher interest rates and may require it to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict its business operations. In addition, the terms of existing or future debt agreements, including the Senior Secured Credit Facilities, the indentures governing its Senior Secured Notes, its 2026 Senior Secured Notes and its Senior Notes, may restrict Telesat from adopting some of these alternatives. In the absence of such operating results and resources, it could face substantial liquidity problems and might be required to dispose of material assets or operations to meet its debt service and other obligations. It may not be able to consummate those dispositions for fair market value or at all. Furthermore, any proceeds that Telesat could realize from any such dispositions may not be adequate to meet its debt service obligations then due.

Telesat may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of its indebtedness, and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy its obligations under its indebtedness, which may not be successful.

Telesat’s ability to make scheduled payments on or refinance its debt obligations depends on its financial condition and operating performance, which are subject to prevailing economic, industry and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business, legislative, regulatory and other factors beyond its control. Telesat may be unable to maintain a level of cash flow from operating activities sufficient to permit it to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on its indebtedness, including its Senior Secured Notes, its 2026 Senior Secured Notes and its Senior Notes.

If Telesat’s cash flow and capital resources are insufficient to fund its debt service obligations, it could face substantial liquidity problems and could be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures or to dispose of material assets or operations, seek additional debt or equity capital or restructure or refinance its indebtedness, including its Senior Secured Notes, its 2026 Senior Secured Notes and its Senior Notes. Future issuances of equity would dilute the ownership position of shareholders of Telesat and unitholders of Telesat Partnership. Telesat may not be able to effect any such alternative measures on commercially reasonable terms or at all and, even if successful, those alternative actions may not allow it to meet its scheduled debt service obligations. The Credit Agreement, the indentures governing the Senior Secured Notes, the 2026 Senior Secured Notes and the Senior Notes restrict its ability to dispose of assets and use the proceeds from those dispositions and may also restrict its ability to raise debt or equity capital to be used to repay other indebtedness when it becomes due. Telesat may not be able to consummate those dispositions or obtain proceeds in an amount sufficient to meet any debt service obligations then due.

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Telesat’s inability to generate sufficient cash flow to satisfy its debt obligations, or to refinance its indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all, would materially and adversely affect its financial position and results of operations and its ability to satisfy its obligations under its Senior Secured Notes, its 2026 Senior Secured Notes and its Senior Notes.

If Telesat cannot make scheduled payments on its debt, it will be in default and holders of its Senior Secured Notes, its 2026 Senior Secured Notes and its Senior Notes could declare all outstanding principal and interest to be due and payable, the lenders under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities could terminate their commitments to loan money and declare all principal and interest to be due and payable, its secured lenders (including the lenders under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities, the Senior Secured Notes and the 2026 Senior Secured Notes) could foreclose against the assets securing their borrowings and Telesat could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation (as and to the extent applicable to Telesat).

A lowering or withdrawal of the ratings assigned to Telesat’s Senior Secured Notes, Telesat’s 2026 Senior Secured Notes or Telesat’s Senior Notes by rating agencies may increase Telesat’s future borrowing costs and reduce Telesat’s access to capital.

Telesat’s ability to access capital markets is important to its ability to operate Telesat’s business. Increased scrutiny of the satellite industry and the impact of regulation, as well as changes in Telesat’s financial performance and unfavorable conditions in the capital markets could result in credit agencies reexamining Telesat’s credit ratings.

Telesat’s Senior Secured Notes, Telesat’s 2026 Senior Secured Notes and Telesat’s Senior Notes have a non-investment grade rating, and any rating assigned could be lowered or withdrawn entirely by a rating agency if, in that rating agency’s judgment, future circumstances relating to the basis of the rating, such as adverse changes, so warrant. A downgrade in Telesat’s credit ratings could restrict or discontinue Telesat’s ability to access capital markets at attractive rates and increase Telesat’s borrowing costs. There can be no assurance that any rating assigned to any of Telesat’s debt securities will remain in effect for any given period of time or that any such ratings will not be lowered, suspended or withdrawn entirely by a rating agency if, in that rating agency’s judgment, circumstances so warrant.

In 2022, Telesat’s credit rating was lowered by the credit ratings agencies, and it is possible that a further lowering of its credit rating may occur in the future. The credit rating agencies have also previously denoted Telesat as being in “selective default” as a result of having repurchased a portion its debt and they may do so again in the future. Absent an improvement in our ratings, the lowering of Telesat’s credit rating, and any future lowering of Telesat’s credit ratings, may make it more difficult or more expensive for Telesat to obtain additional debt financing or refinance its current debt. Moreover, real or anticipated changes in Telesat’s credit ratings will generally affect the market value of Telesat’s Senior Secured Notes, Telesat’s 2026 Senior Secured Notes and Telesat’s Senior Notes. In 2022, the market value of Telesat’s Senior Secured Notes, Telesat’s 2026 Senior Secured Notes and Telesat’s Senior Notes significantly decreased. Such decreases, and any future decreases in market value that may occur, may make it more difficult or more expensive for Telesat to obtain additional debt financing or refinance its current debt.

Telesat’s variable rate indebtedness subjects Telesat to interest rate risk, which could cause Telesat’s debt service obligations to increase significantly.

Borrowings under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities will be at variable rates of interest and will expose Telesat to interest rate risk. Assuming all revolving loans are fully drawn, each quarter percentage point change in interest rates would result in a $5.1 million change in interest expense on indebtedness under the Senior Secured Credit Facilities for the year ended December 31, 2023. Telesat has entered into, and in the future Telesat may enter into, interest rate swaps that involve the exchange of floating for fixed rate interest payments in order to reduce interest rate volatility. However, Telesat may not maintain interest rate swaps with respect to all or any of its variable rate indebtedness, and any swaps Telesat enters into may not fully mitigate Telesat’s interest rate risk, may prove disadvantageous or may create additional risks.

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Risks Relating to the Ownership of Telesat Public Shares and Telesat Partnership Units

Each of MHR and PSP Investments have substantial governance rights over Telesat, and their interests may conflict with or differ from the interests of the other Telesat shareholders.

Telesat’s governing documents contain special rights of each of MHR and PSP Investments to veto or participate in certain activities of Telesat. Such rights include, without limitation, the ability of each of MHR and PSP Investments to veto certain proposed changes to be taken by Telesat, including making changes to its respective organizational documents, the declaration and payment of non-pro rata dividends and certain tax or accounting elections. These documents also provide, among other things, for MHR and PSP Investments to each designate three directors to Telesat’s board of directors. See the sections of this annual report entitled “Composition of the Telesat Corporation Board and Committees” and “Related Party Transactions — Investor Rights Agreements” for additional information on the negotiated rights of MHR and PSP Investments. The interests of either or both of MHR and PSP Investments may diverge from those of other Telesat shareholders, and each may exercise its respective voting and other rights in a manner adverse to the interests of such other holders.

Each of MHR and PSP Investments have significant voting power in Telesat and their interests may conflict with or differ from the interests of the other Telesat shareholders.

Both MHR and PSP Investments, and their affiliates, maintain significant voting interests in Telesat. The voting interests of each of MHR and PSP Investments, along with their governance rights, provide MHR and PSP with substantial control over Telesat. As a result, MHR and PSP Investments will have the ability to influence many matters affecting Telesat and actions may be taken that other shareholders may not view as beneficial or align with their interests. Additionally, the market price of the Telesat Public Shares could be adversely effected due to the significant control exercised by MHR and PSP Investments. Such control may also discourage transactions involving an offer for control of Telesat in which an investor may otherwise receive a premium for its Telesat Public Shares over the then-current market price, or discourage competing proposals if a going private transaction or change of control transaction is proposed by either MHR or PSP Investments.

The vote of the holders of Class B Variable Voting Shares voting with respect to a particular matter may be diluted by the Golden Share.

In order to maintain Telesat’s status as Canadian, the Telesat Articles employ a variable voting mechanism by way of, amongst other controls, the “Golden Share,” as discussed further in Exhibit 2.6 under the section “Meetings of Shareholders and Voting Rights — Golden Share Mechanic.” The voting power attributed to the Golden Share will vary to ensure that the aggregate number of votes cast by Canadians, including Red Isle, with respect to a particular matter, will equal a simple majority of all votes cast in respect of such matter, resulting in the dilution of the voting power of Telesat’s non-Canadian shareholders. Moreover, if a person who is not Canadian controls one-third or more of the votes of the Telesat Corporation Shares and the Telesat Partnership Units, any voting power of that shareholder in excess of one-third of the voting power (less one vote) of the Telesat Corporation Shares will be attributed to the Golden Share and voted by the Trustee as provided in the Telesat Articles.

Telesat may raise additional funds through the sale of equity, which may be highly dilutive, may include terms with preferences that could adversely affect the rights of the shareholders of Telesat and/or may cause the market price of Telesat Public Shares to decline.

Telesat may raise additional equity capital to fund Telesat Lightspeed, including through the issuance of Telesat Corporation Shares or other equity interests of Telesat or any one or more of its subsidiaries. Telesat is currently in discussions with third parties regarding the sale of equity in its unrestricted subsidiaries that will own, operate and commercialize the Telesat Lightspeed constellation. Any such future issuance by Telesat and/or its subsidiaries could result in potential substantial ownership dilution to the shareholders of Telesat, which is not reflected in the beneficial ownership calculations presented in this annual report. In addition, newly issued securities may include liquidation or other preferences that could adversely affect the rights of the shareholders of Telesat and/or holders of Telesat Partnership Units. Furthermore, the future issuance of additional securities, whether equity or debt, by Telesat and/or

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its subsidiaries, or the perception that these issuances may occur, may cause the market price of the Telesat Public Shares to decline. This could also impair the ability of Telesat and/or its subsidiaries to raise additional capital through the sale of securities.

There is no assurance that Telesat and/or its subsidiaries will be able to obtain additional funding on acceptable terms or at all. It is not certain what effect, if any, that future sales or issuances of Telesat Corporation Shares or other equity interests of Telesat or any one or more of its subsidiaries will have on the trading price of Telesat Public Shares.

So long as the number of Class B Variable Voting Shares and Class B Units exceeds the number of Class A Shares, Class C Shares, Class A Units and Class C Units on matters submitted to a vote of the holders of equity in Telesat Corporation (but not with respect to Second Tabulation matters): (1) the issuance of additional Class B Variable Voting Shares would have the effect of diluting the voting power of the then existing holders of the Class B Variable Voting Shares and Class B Units, but not the voting power of the then existing holders of the Class A Shares, Class C Shares, Class A Units and Class C Units, and (2) the issuance of additional Class A Shares would have the effect of diluting the voting power of the then existing holders of the Class A Shares, Class C Shares, Class A Units and Class C Units, but not the voting power of the then existing holders of the Class B Variable Voting Shares and Class B Units. See Exhibit 2.6 “Meetings of Shareholders and Voting Rights — Golden Share Mechanic”, and “— Risks Relating to the Ownership of Telesat Public Shares and Telesat Partnership Units — The vote of the holders of Class B Variable Voting Shares voting with respect to a particular matter may be diluted by the Golden Share”.

The exchange of Telesat Partnership Units for Telesat Public Shares is subject to certain restrictions and the value of Telesat Public Shares received in any exchange may fluctuate. Holders of Telesat Partnership Units may be unable to exit their position when desired.

The governance documents of Telesat and Telesat Partnership provide for the holders of Telesat Partnership Units to elect to exchange their interests generally on a 1:1 basis (subject to the terms described in Exhibit 2.6 entitled “Meetings of Shareholders and Voting Rights — Golden Share Mechanic”) into the corresponding class of Telesat Corporation Shares at such holder’s election. Any such exchange will be facilitated by a third-party exchange agent engaged by Telesat for this purpose, and is expected to settle within two U.S. business days (T+2). Because the parties have no control over this third party but are relying on the exchange agent to complete each exchange, the timing of settlement cannot be guaranteed.

Telesat Partnership Units are non-transferrable and need to be exchanged for Telesat Corporation Shares in order for the holder to monetize its interest in Telesat Partnership, which could delay or impede such holder’s ability to access liquidity in the market. The Telesat Public Shares into which Telesat Partnership Units may be exchanged may be subject to significant fluctuations in value for many reasons, as further described herein. As described in greater detail below under the section entitled “— Risks Relating to Tax Matters,” it is also expected that the exchange of Telesat Partnership Units for Telesat Public Shares will be an exchange upon which gain or loss is recognized for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Telesat has certain indemnification obligations and additional obligations to PSP Investments, which in certain circumstances will be uncapped and may result in dilution to the then other shareholders of Telesat.

Telesat and Telesat CanHoldco have indemnified PSP Investments on a grossed-up basis for PSP Investments’ pro rata share of costs relating to: (a) certain losses and litigation proceedings related to the Transaction, (b) certain losses with regard to Loral and out-of-pocket expenses of Loral and (c) certain tax matters. This indemnification will be (i) independent of the accuracy of the underlying representations and warranties and (ii) subject to additional, customary limitations. In the case of indemnification for certain tax matters only, there will be a cap of US$50,000,000 (other than with respect to defense costs and gross-up payments) and all other indemnification obligations will be uncapped. In addition, as provided in the Transaction Agreement, these indemnification obligations may be satisfied in the form of cash, unless, upon the determination of the board of directors of Telesat, making such cash payment would unduly constrain the liquidity needs of the go-forward business, in which case such indemnification obligations may be satisfied by issuing Class C Shares valued at the 30-day volume-weighted average price (“VWAP”) as of the date on which such payment is required to be made. Any such issuance of Class C Shares to Red Isle may result in dilution to the other shareholders of Telesat.

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There is no assurance that Telesat will pay any cash dividends for the foreseeable future or that investors will realize gains on Telesat Public Shares.

Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of Telesat’s board of directors, as described in Exhibit 2.6 under “Dividend Entitlements,” and will depend upon results of operations, financial condition, contractual restrictions, including agreements governing its debt and equity financing and any future indebtedness it may incur, restrictions imposed by applicable law and other factors Telesat’s board of directors deems relevant. The current expectation is that in the near term Telesat will not pay dividends, but will retain its cash on hand for the purpose of funding the Lightspeed constellation, funding other capital investments and/or paying down debt. Realization of a gain on the Telesat Public Shares will depend on the appreciation of the price of Telesat Public Shares, which may never occur. See “Dividend Policy.”

In certain circumstances, a limited partner of Telesat Partnership may lose its limited liability status.

The Limited Partnerships Act (Ontario) (“Limited Partnerships Act”) provides that a limited partner benefits from limited liability unless, in addition to exercising rights and powers as a limited partner, such limited partner takes part in the control of the business of a limited partnership of which such limited partner is a partner. Subject to the provisions of the Limited Partnerships Act and of similar legislation in other jurisdictions of Canada, the liability of each limited partner of Telesat Partnership for the debts, liabilities and obligations of Telesat Partnership will be limited to such limited partner’s capital contribution, plus such limited partner’s share of any undistributed income of Telesat Partnership.

The limitation of liability conferred under the Limited Partnerships Act may be ineffective outside Ontario except to the extent it is given extraterritorial recognition or effect by the laws of other jurisdictions. There may also be requirements to be satisfied in each jurisdiction to maintain limited liability. If limited liability is lost, limited partners of Telesat Partnership may be considered to be general partners (and therefore be subject to unlimited liability) in such jurisdiction by creditors and others having claims against Telesat Partnership.

The market price of the Telesat Public Shares may be volatile and may be affected by market conditions beyond Telesat’s control.

The market price of the Telesat Public Shares is subject to significant fluctuations in response to, among other factors:

        variations in Telesat’s operating results and market conditions specific to companies in the satellite services industry;

        changes in financial estimates or recommendations by securities analysts;

        announcements of innovations or new products or services by Telesat or its competitors;

        the emergence of new competitors;

        operating and market price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable;

        changes in Telesat’s board or management;

        sales or purchases of the Telesat Public Shares by insiders;

        commencement of, or involvement in, litigation;

        changes in governmental regulations; and

        general economic conditions and slow or negative growth of related markets.

In addition, if the market for stocks in Telesat’s industry experiences a loss of investor confidence, the market price of the Telesat Public Shares could decline for reasons unrelated to Telesat’s business, financial condition or results of operations.

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The market price of the Telesat Public Shares may be adversely affected by market conditions affecting the stock markets in general. Market conditions may result in volatility in the level of, and fluctuations in, market prices of stocks generally and, in turn, result in sales (including sales following the exchange of Telesat Partnership Units for Telesat Corporation Shares) of substantial amounts of the Telesat Public Shares in the market that may cause the market price of the Telesat Public Shares to fall dramatically. A weak global economy or other circumstances, such as changes in tariffs and trade, could also contribute to extreme volatility of the markets, which may also have an adverse effect on the market price of the Telesat Public Shares.

In addition, if any of the foregoing occurs, it could not only cause the price of the Telesat Public Shares to fall but also may expose Telesat to lawsuits that, even if unsuccessful, could be costly to defend and a distraction to the board of directors and management.

As a “foreign private issuer” under the rules and regulations of the SEC, Telesat is permitted to file less or different information with the SEC than a company incorporated in the U.S. or otherwise subject to these rules, and will follow certain home country corporate governance practices in lieu of certain NASDAQ requirements applicable to U.S. issuers.

Telesat is considered a “foreign private issuer” under the Exchange Act and is therefore exempt from certain rules under the Exchange Act, including the proxy rules, which impose certain disclosure and procedural requirements for proxy solicitations for U.S. and other issuers. Moreover, Telesat is not required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or within the same time frames as U.S. companies with securities registered under the Exchange Act. Telesat currently prepares its financial statements in accordance with IFRS. Telesat is not required to file financial statements prepared in accordance with or reconciled to U.S. GAAP so long as its financial statements are prepared in accordance with IFRS as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board. Telesat is not required to comply with Regulation FD, which imposes restrictions on the selective disclosure of material information to shareholders.

Telesat’s officers, directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and short-swing profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act and the rules under the Exchange Act with respect to their purchases and sales of Telesat’s securities.

In addition, as a foreign private issuer, Telesat follows certain home country corporate governance practices in lieu of certain exchange requirements. A foreign private issuer must disclose in its Annual Reports filed with the SEC each exchange listing requirement with which it does not comply followed by a description of its applicable home country practice.

Telesat could lose its status as a “foreign private issuer” under current SEC rules and regulations if more than 50% of Telesat’s outstanding voting securities become directly or indirectly held of record by U.S. holders and one of the following is true: (i) the majority of Telesat’s directors or executive officers are U.S. citizens or residents; (ii) more than 50% of Telesat’s assets are located in the U.S.; or (iii) Telesat’s business is administered principally in the U.S. If Telesat loses its status as a foreign private issuer, it will no longer be exempt from the rules described above and, among other things, will be required to file periodic reports and annual and quarterly financial statements as if it were a U.S. domestic issuer. If this were to happen, Telesat would likely incur substantial costs in fulfilling these additional regulatory requirements and members of Telesat’s management would likely have to divert time and resources from other responsibilities to ensuring these additional regulatory requirements are fulfilled.

The Telesat Articles provide that the courts of British Columbia will be the sole and exclusive forum for certain shareholder litigation matters, which could limit the ability of holders of Telesat Shares to choose a judicial forum for disputes with Telesat or its directors and officers.

Under the Telesat Articles, unless Telesat consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the courts of British Columbia will be the exclusive jurisdiction for (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of Telesat; (b) any action or proceeding asserting a breach of a fiduciary duty owed to Telesat by any director, officer, or other employee of Telesat; (c) any action or proceeding asserting a claim arising pursuant to any

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provision of the BCBCA or the Telesat Articles; or (d) any action or proceeding asserting a claim otherwise related to the relationships among Telesat, its subsidiaries and its and their respective shareholders, directors and officers (but excluding claims related to the business of Telesat or its subsidiaries). The Telesat Articles further provide that if a shareholder commences an action outside of the courts of British Columbia, the shareholder will be deemed to consent to (i) the jurisdiction of the British Columbia courts and (ii) service on a shareholder being made by service on such shareholder’s counsel (in lieu of such shareholder), in respect of such action. While these provisions are intended to provide increased consistency in the application of law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, as a result of these provisions, a U.S. shareholder may be forced to pursue such claims in the courts of British Columbia, which may entail added expense, compliance with an unfamiliar foreign legal regime, and difficulty in enforcing a judgment against non-Canadian persons.

The foregoing provisions should not apply to other types of suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or any other claim for which United States federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. Further, under the Securities Act, federal and state courts have concurrent jurisdiction over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act, and equity holders cannot waive compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. Accordingly, a court may determine that this provision is unenforceable to the extent it relates to such laws, rules and regulations, and to the extent it is enforceable, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against Telesat’s directors and officers.

The Telesat Articles include a renunciation of certain business opportunities which could enable related parties to benefit from business opportunities that might otherwise be available to Telesat.

The Telesat Articles provide for the renunciation of certain enumerated business opportunities by Telesat and its subsidiaries. This includes an acknowledgement by Telesat that (i) its directors, (ii) its shareholders that employ, retain or are otherwise associated with, or designate or nominate, directors, and/or (iii) their affiliates, may become aware, from time to time, of certain business opportunities (such as investment opportunities) and may direct such opportunities to other businesses in which they have invested, with no obligation to make Telesat aware of any business opportunities that have been renounced by Telesat. Further, such businesses, including entities in which MHR and PSP Investments invest, may choose to compete with Telesat for renounced business opportunities and for business opportunities that have been separately discovered by the directors and their related parties, possibly causing these opportunities to not be available to Telesat or causing them to be more expensive for Telesat to pursue. These potential conflicts of interest could adversely impact Telesat’s business or prospects if attractive business opportunities are procured by such parties for their own benefit rather than for the benefit of Telesat.

Risks Relating to Tax Matters

U.S. Tax Risks

Telesat or Telesat Partnership could be treated as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Telesat and Telesat Partnership are classified as a non-U.S. corporation and a non-U.S. partnership, respectively, under general rules of U.S. federal income taxation. Unlike U.S. persons, who are generally subject to U.S. tax on worldwide income, non-U.S. persons are subject to U.S. income tax only on certain income from U.S. sources and from conducting business. Section 7874 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), and certain regulatory provisions promulgated under Section 7874, however, contain rules that, if applicable, could cause Telesat or Telesat Partnership to be taxed as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

This treatment would apply only if (i) Telesat or Telesat Partnership acquired substantially all of the stock or assets of Loral (the “Acquisition Requirement”), (ii) following the acquisition, former shareholders of Loral own at least 80% of Telesat or Telesat Partnership by reason of their ownership of stock of Loral (the “80% Ownership Test”), (iii) the level of business activities conducted by Telesat or Telesat Partnership and its affiliates in Canada did not satisfy a certain minimum threshold level of activity (“Substantial Business Activities”), and (iv) in the case of Telesat Partnership, it is treated as a publicly traded partnership. These statutory and regulatory rules are complex and there is little administrative guidance regarding their application.

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Prior to consummation of the Transaction, Loral received an opinion from special tax counsel that upon consummation of the Transaction, neither Telesat nor Telesat Partnership should be taxed as a U.S. corporation. Such opinion, however, provides no assurance that the IRS may not take a position contrary to the opinion or that a court considering the issue may not hold otherwise. Further, such opinion does not consider any legislative proposals to lower the threshold for the 80% Ownership Test to 50% (or some other percentage). While the Transaction Agreement was entered into on November 23, 2020, it is possible that such legislative proposals, if enacted, might be applied on a retroactive basis, with no grandfather clause for transactions executed pursuant to a binding commitment entered into prior to such legislation’s enactment.

If it were determined that Telesat or Telesat Partnership should be taxed as a U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, Telesat or Telesat Partnership, as applicable, would be subject to U.S. federal tax return filing requirements and would be subject to U.S. tax on its worldwide income. Any foreign taxes, including Canadian taxes, paid by it would be creditable subject to several limitations, which could be material limitations.

Telesat or Telesat Partnership could be treated as a surrogate foreign corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes and Loral could be treated as an expatriated entity, which might have adverse U.S. tax consequences for Loral and for shareholders of Telesat.

Even if neither Telesat nor Telesat Partnership is treated as a U.S. corporation as described above, Section 7874 of the Code and the associated regulations contain an alternative set of rules that could result in Telesat or Telesat Partnership being treated as a “surrogate foreign corporation,” and Loral being treated as an expatriated entity, if (i) the Acquisition Requirement is satisfied, (ii) following the acquisition, former shareholders of Loral own at least 60% of Telesat or Telesat Partnership by reason of their ownership of Loral stock (the “60% Ownership Test”), (iii) Telesat or Telesat Partnership does not have Substantial Business Activities in Canada, and (iv), in the case of Telesat Partnership, it is treated as a publicly traded partnership.

Prior to consummation of the transaction, Loral received an opinion from special tax counsel that, though it is not free from doubt, Telesat should not be treated as a surrogate foreign corporation. As mentioned above, Loral also received an opinion that Telesat Partnership should neither be treated as a publicly traded partnership, nor, accordingly, a surrogate foreign corporation. If Telesat Partnership were treated as a publicly traded partnership, it would be treated as a surrogate foreign corporation effective as of the consummation of the Transaction.

Special tax counsel’s opinion described above does not provide assurance that the IRS will not take a contrary position or that a court considering the issue would not hold otherwise. If it were determined that Telesat and/or Telesat Partnership should be treated as a surrogate foreign corporation and Loral should be treated as an expatriated entity, Loral would be subject to limitation as to the use of net operating losses and foreign tax credits to offset certain gain recognized in periods on or after the date of the Transaction. It is not anticipated that Loral will realize any material amount of gain upon or subsequent to the Transaction. If it did, however, the limitation as to the use of net operating losses and foreign tax credits could increase its potential U.S. tax liability.

Absent a change in facts and circumstances or law, it is anticipated that Telesat will eventually become a surrogate foreign corporation, and that Loral will become an expatriated entity, upon the exchange of a sufficient number of Telesat Partnership Units for Telesat Public Shares to cause both the 60% Ownership Test and the Acquisition Requirement to be satisfied. Moreover, if Loral were determined to be an expatriated entity before December 22, 2027, Loral would be required to recapture the deduction it claimed on its 2017 U.S. federal income tax return under Section 965(c) of the Code and to pay additional tax in an amount equal to 35% of the amount of such deduction. It is anticipated that the amount of such recapture would be US$38,500,000. Consequently, such recapture would substantially increase Loral’s U.S. federal income tax liability for the year in which it was determined to be an expatriated entity. Under the terms of the Transaction Agreement, PSP Investments may be entitled to a grossed-up indemnification payment for its pro rata share of such tax.

In addition, if Telesat were determined to be a surrogate foreign corporation, dividends paid by Telesat would not be treated as qualified dividend income under Section 1(h)(11) of the Code. Accordingly, non-corporate U.S. shareholders of Telesat would be subject to tax on such dividends at ordinary income rates of up to 37%, and not at the preferential 20% rate applicable under Section 1(h)(11) of the Code.

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Telesat may have been a passive foreign investment company (a “PFIC”) for 2021, 2022 and 2023 and could be classified as a PFIC in 2024 and subsequent taxable years, potentially resulting in adverse U.S. tax consequences to its U.S. shareholders.

If for any taxable year 75% or more of a foreign corporation’s gross income is passive income, or at least 50% of its assets are held for the production of, or produce, passive income, the foreign corporation is classified as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Under the PFIC look-through rules, for the purposes of determining whether a corporation should be classified as a PFIC, the corporation will be treated as if it owns a proportionate share of the assets of, and earns a proportionate share of the income earned by, any subsidiary corporation if the corporation owns at least twenty-five percent (25%) (by value) of the stock of such subsidiary. Furthermore, for purposes of these rules stock owned by a partnership is treated as owned proportionately by its partners. During 2021 after the Transaction and during a portion of 2022, Telesat owned only approximately twenty-four percent (24%) of the Telesat Partnership Units. Telesat’s ownership interest in Telesat Partnership increased during 2022 and subsequently. As of December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2023, respectively, Telesat’s ownership interest in Telesat Partnership was 25.7% and 27.2%. While not free from doubt, Telesat believes that, by virtue of additional value associated with its interest as general partner of Telesat Partnership, Telesat owned at least twenty-five percent (25%) of the total value of Telesat Partnership (and indirectly in the wholly owned corporate subsidiaries of Telesat Partnership) during 2021 and 2022. In addition, Telesat owned more than 25% of the total value of Telesat Partnership (and indirectly in the wholly owned corporate subsidiaries of Telesat Partnership) during 2023. Based on the foregoing, Telesat believes it was not a PFIC for any of its 2021-2023 taxable years, taking into account the income and assets of the wholly owned corporate subsidiaries of Telesat Partnership. Telesat can provide no assurance that the IRS will not successfully challenge this position upon any audit of a U.S. holder.

The determination as to whether Telesat should be classified as a PFIC for 2024 and years thereafter will be a factual determination that must be made annually at the close of each taxable year and will be based upon the composition of Telesat’s income and assets (including entities in which Telesat holds at least a 25% interest), which may be subject to change. Because PFIC status is determined annually based on Telesat’s income and assets for the entire taxable year, it is not possible to determine whether Telesat will be characterized as a PFIC for 2024 or any other future year until after the close of that year. Subject to the foregoing, while Telesat intends to manage its business so as to avoid PFIC status to the extent possible and consistent with its other business goals, Telesat cannot predict whether its business plans will allow it to avoid PFIC status. In addition, because the market price of the Telesat Public Shares has fluctuated and is likely to fluctuate in the future and because that market price may affect the determination of whether Telesat is a PFIC, there can be no assurance that Telesat will not be a PFIC for any taxable year.

U.S. holders of Telesat Public Shares could suffer adverse tax consequences as a result of the classification of Telesat as a PFIC, including having gains realized on the sale of the shares treated as ordinary income, rather than capital gain, the loss of the preferential rate applicable to dividends received on the Telesat Public Shares, having interest charges apply to distributions by Telesat and the proceeds of the sale of Telesat Public Shares and subjection to additional reporting requirements. Telesat will use reasonable efforts to provide to U.S. holders the information needed to report income and gain pursuant to a “qualified electing fund” election, which election would alleviate some of the adverse tax consequences of PFIC status.

Distributions from Telesat Partnership may be insufficient to pay tax on the allocation of income and/or gain for U.S. tax purposes.

While Telesat Partnership intends to make certain distributions to holders of Telesat Partnership Units, a holder of Telesat Partnership Units may receive allocations of income and/or capital gains in a year for U.S. tax purposes without receiving sufficient cash distributions from Telesat Partnership for that year to pay any U.S. or other tax the holder may owe because of such allocation. In addition, there can be no assurance that Telesat Partnership will in fact make cash distributions as intended. Even if Telesat Partnership is unable to distribute cash in amounts that are sufficient to fund a holder’s tax liability, such holder will nonetheless be required to pay any applicable income taxes.

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Canadian Tax Risks

Telesat Partnership may be liable to pay tax under the SIFT Rules which may reduce after-tax returns to holders of Telesat Partnership Units and holders of Telesat Public Shares.

Telesat Partnership is a “SIFT partnership” for the purposes of the Income Tax Act (Canada) (the “Tax Act”). As such, Telesat Partnership is subject to SIFT tax on its “taxable non-portfolio earnings” (as defined in the Tax Act), if any, including income, other than taxable dividends, from “non-portfolio property” (as defined in the Tax Act). In particular, Telesat Partnership would generally be required to pay SIFT tax if its Loral stock were non-portfolio property and the unlimited liability company (“Can ULC”) formed under the laws of British Columbia by Loral Holdings Corporation (“Loral Holdings”) and Telesat CanHoldco paid a dividend to Loral Holdings, subject to any deductions that may be available to Telesat Partnership in computing the income from its Loral stock. In particular, provided Loral Holdings and Loral each pay corresponding dividends in the same taxation year as any dividend paid by Can ULC, Telesat Partnership may have available to it and intends to claim sufficient deductions so that it does not have net income from non-portfolio property. Although it is intended that Loral Holdings and Loral would each pay corresponding dividends in the same taxation year as any dividend paid by Can ULC, no assurance can be given that such dividends will be paid or that such deductions will be available. If Telesat Partnership were required to pay SIFT tax, after-tax returns to holders of Telesat Partnership Units and indirectly to holders of Telesat Public Shares may be reduced.

Telesat may be liable to pay tax in respect of dividends paid by Can ULC to Loral Holdings.

Loral Holdings is a controlled foreign affiliate of Telesat Partnership for purposes of the Tax Act. As such, Telesat Partnership is required to include in its income for a year its share of the “foreign accrual property income” or “FAPI” (as defined in the Tax Act) of Loral Holdings for such year, including its proportionate share of any dividends paid by Can ULC to Loral Holdings in such year. In turn, Telesat must include in income its share of the FAPI (including such dividends paid by Can ULC to Loral Holdings) of Telesat Partnership. However, if Loral Holdings and Loral each pay corresponding dividends in the same taxation year, and provided that Loral is a “foreign affiliate” of Telesat for relevant purposes of the Tax Act, Telesat may deduct in computing its taxable income a prescribed portion of such dividends received by it through Telesat Partnership. In determining the amount of such dividends from Loral that may be deducted in computing its taxable income, Telesat intends not to take into account any deduction claimed by Telesat Partnership pursuant to subsection 91(5) of the Tax Act. Telesat believes that such interpretation is consistent with the rationale expressed by the Canada Revenue Agency (“CRA”) for its published administrative position in this regard, but no assurance can be given. If the deduction that Telesat would otherwise claim were limited, or if a deduction claimed by Telesat were denied or otherwise not available, Telesat may be liable to pay tax on some or all of its share of FAPI resulting from any dividends paid by Can ULC to Loral Holdings and after-tax returns to holders of Telesat Public Shares may be reduced.

Non-Canadian limited partners may be subject to Canadian federal income tax with respect to any Canadian source business income earned by Telesat Partnership and may be required to file Canadian tax returns.

Telesat, as general partner, intends to manage the affairs of Telesat Partnership to the extent possible so that it does not carry on business in Canada for the purposes of the Tax Act. Nevertheless, because the determination of whether Telesat Partnership is carrying on business in Canada for the purposes of the Tax Act is a question of fact that is dependent upon the relevant circumstances, the CRA might successfully assert that Telesat Partnership carries on business in Canada for the purposes of the Tax Act.

If Telesat Partnership were considered to carry on business for the purposes of the Tax Act, holders of Telesat Partnership Units who are not, and are not deemed to be, resident in Canada for purposes of the Tax Act (i) would be subject to Canadian federal income tax on their proportionate share of any Canadian source business income earned or considered to be earned by Telesat Partnership, subject to any relief that may be provided by any applicable income tax treaty or convention, and (ii) may be required to file a Canadian federal income tax return.

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Payments of dividends by Telesat CanHoldco to Telesat Partnership will be subject to Canadian federal withholding tax and if CRA does not apply their administrative position Telesat CanHoldco may be liable for additional amounts of Canadian federal withholding tax plus any associated interest and penalties in certain circumstances.

Dividends paid or credited or deemed to be paid or credited to a partnership that is not a “Canadian partnership” (as defined in the Tax Act) by a corporation resident in Canada are subject to withholding tax at a 25% rate.

Telesat Partnership is not a “Canadian partnership” for purposes of the Tax Act. However, in determining the rate of Canadian federal withholding tax applicable to dividends paid by Telesat CanHoldco to Telesat Partnership, Telesat, as general partner, expects Telesat CanHoldco to look through Telesat Partnership to its partners and, having regard to the CRA’s administrative practice in similar circumstances, not to withhold on that portion of a dividend attributable to Canadian resident partners of Telesat Partnership (including Telesat) and to take into account any reduced rates of Canadian federal withholding tax to which non-Canadian limited partners may be entitled under an applicable income tax treaty or convention.

There is a risk that the CRA will not apply its administrative practice such that Telesat CanHoldco may be liable for additional amounts of Canadian federal withholding tax plus any associated interest and penalties if it withholds tax at less than the 25% rate under the Tax Act.

Distributions from Telesat Partnership may be insufficient to pay tax on the allocation of income and loss for tax purposes.

While Telesat Partnership intends to make certain distributions to holders of Telesat Partnership Units, a holder may receive allocations of income and/or capital gains in a year for purposes of the Tax Act without receiving sufficient distributions from Telesat Partnership for that year to pay any tax the holder may owe because of such allocation. In addition, there can be no assurance that Telesat Partnership will in fact make cash distributions as intended. Even if Telesat Partnership is unable to distribute cash in amounts that are sufficient to fund a holder’s tax liability, such holder will nonetheless be required to pay any applicable income taxes.

Certain Canadian rules in respect of foreign tax credits may apply to Telesat Partnership.

The Tax Act contains anti-avoidance rules to address certain foreign tax credit generator transactions (the “Foreign Tax Credit Generator Rules”). Under certain Foreign Tax Credit Generator Rules, the “foreign accrual tax” (which is a deduction which may be available under the Tax Act) applicable to a FAPI inclusion of Telesat Partnership may be denied in certain specified circumstances, including where the direct or indirect share of the income of any member of Telesat Partnership that is a person resident in Canada or a “foreign affiliate” of such a person is, under a “relevant foreign tax law” (within the meaning attributed to it in the Tax Act), less than such member’s share of such income for purposes of the Tax Act. Although the Foreign Tax Credit Generator Rules are not expected to apply to Telesat Partnership, no assurances can be given in this regard. If the Foreign Tax Credit Generator Rules apply, the “foreign accrual tax” applicable to a FAPI inclusion will be denied and after-tax returns to holders of Telesat Public Shares may be reduced.

Canadian tax laws, or the interpretation thereof, could change in a manner which adversely affects Telesat Partnership, Telesat, and holders of Telesat Partnership Units and/or Telesat Public Shares.

There is a risk that Canadian tax laws, or the interpretation thereof, could change in a manner that adversely affects Telesat Partnership, Telesat, or the holders of Telesat Partnership Units and/or Telesat Public Shares.

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Changes in tax laws and unanticipated tax liabilities could adversely affect profitability.

Telesat is subject to taxes in Canada and numerous foreign jurisdictions. Telesat’s tax liabilities could be adversely affected in the future by a number of factors, including changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, changes in tax laws, and the outcome of tax audits in various jurisdictions around the world. Many of the countries in which Telesat does business have or are expected to adopt changes to tax laws as a result of the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (“BEPS”) final proposals from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (“OECD”) and specific country anti-avoidance initiatives. Legislation to implement Canadian interest expense deduction limitation rules, consistent with the OECD’s recommendations as a result of the BEPS final proposals is currently before Parliament as Bill C-59. The rules will be effective for taxation years starting in 2024 and would generally limit Canadian interest deductions and financing expenses to 30% of tax EBITDA.

Such tax law changes increase uncertainty and may adversely affect Telesat’s tax provision. Telesat regularly assesses all of these matters to determine the adequacy of its tax provision, which is subject to significant judgment.

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ITEM 4. INFORMATION OF THE COMPANY

A.     History and Development of the Company

Telesat Corporation was incorporated under the Business Corporations Act (British Columbia) on October 21, 2020. Telesat Corporation is the general partner of Telesat Partnership LP, which was formed under the Limited Partnership Act (Ontario) on November 12, 2020. We directly or indirectly own 100% of all of our operating subsidiaries.

On November 18, 2021 and November 19, 2021, Telesat Corporation (“Telesat” or the “Company”), along with the other parties to the Transaction Agreement (as defined below) consummated the transactions (collectively, the “Transaction”) contemplated by the Transaction Agreement and Plan of Merger (as amended, the “Transaction Agreement”), dated as of November 23, 2020, by and among Telesat, Telesat Canada, a Canadian corporation (“Telesat Canada”), Loral Space & Communications Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Loral”), Telesat Partnership LP, a limited partnership formed under the laws of Ontario, Canada (“Telesat Partnership”), Telesat CanHold Corporation, a corporation incorporated under the laws of British Columbia, Canada (“Telesat CanHoldco”), Lion Combination Sub Corporation, a Delaware corporation and wholly owned subsidiary of Loral (“Merger Sub”), Public Sector Pension Investment Board, a Canadian Crown corporation (“PSP Investments”), and Red Isle Private Investments Inc., a Canadian corporation (“Red Isle”).

The Transaction was effected in accordance with the Transaction Agreement through a series of transactions, including: (i) on November 18, 2021, Red Isle contributing 272,827 Telesat Canada Non-Voting Participating Preferred Shares to Telesat in exchange for Class C fully voting shares of Telesat and the balance of its equity interest in Telesat Canada to Telesat Partnership in exchange for Class C units of Telesat Partnership (“Class C Units”); (ii) on November 18, 2021 and pursuant to stockholder contribution agreements, the contribution by current and former members of management of Telesat Canada of their Telesat Canada Non-Voting Participating Preferred Shares to Telesat in exchange for newly issued Class A common shares of Telesat (the “Class A Common Shares”) if such contributing shareholder was Canadian (as such term is defined in the Investment Canada Act) or newly issued Class B variable voting shares of Telesat (the “Class B Variable Voting Shares”) if such contributing shareholder was not Canadian (as such term is defined in the Investment Canada Act); (iii) on November 18, 2021 and pursuant to the director contribution agreement, the contribution by John Cashman and Clare Copeland of their Telesat Canada Director Voting Preferred Shares to Telesat Partnership in exchange for interests in Telesat Partnership, which were subsequently redeemed by Telesat Partnership for cash on November 19, 2021; (iv) on November 18, 2021 and pursuant to optionholder exchange agreements, the exchange of options, tandem stock appreciation rights and restricted stock units in respect of Telesat Canada for corresponding instruments in Telesat with the same vesting terms and conditions; and (v) on November 19, 2021, the merger of Merger Sub with and into Loral (the “Merger”), with Loral surviving the Merger as a wholly owned subsidiary of Telesat Partnership and the other Loral stockholders receiving shares of Telesat or units of Telesat Partnership as described below.

Under the terms of the Transaction Agreement, at the effective time of the Merger (the “Effective Time”), each share of Loral common stock outstanding immediately prior to the Effective Time was converted into the right to receive (a) if the Loral stockholder validly made an election to receive units of Telesat Partnership pursuant to the Merger (a “Unit Election”), one (1) newly issued Class A unit of Telesat Partnership if such Loral stockholder was Canadian (as such term is defined in the Investment Canada Act), and otherwise one (1) newly issued Class B unit of Telesat Partnership, (b) if the Loral stockholder validly made an election to receive shares of Telesat (a “Shares Election”), one (1) newly issued Class A Common Share if such Loral stockholder was Canadian (as such term is defined in the Investment Canada Act), or (c) if the Loral stockholder validly made a Shares Election and was not Canadian, or did not validly make a Unit Election or a Shares Election, one (1) newly issued Class B Variable Voting Share. Following the Transaction, Telesat Canada became an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Telesat.

In addition, on November 18, 2021, Telesat entered into a trust agreement and trust voting agreement with Telesat Partnership, TSX Trust Company, as the trustee of Telesat Corporation Trust and, in the case of the trust agreement, Christopher DiFrancesco, effectuating the voting trust relating to the voting rights of units of Telesat Partnership.

Following the completion of the Transaction, our authorized share capital includes Class A Common Shares, Class B Variable Voting Shares (together with the Class A Common Shares, the “Telesat Public Shares”), Class C fully voting shares (the “Class C Fully Voting Shares”), Class C limited voting shares (the “Class C Limited Voting Shares”, and together with the Class C Fully Voting Shares, “Class C Shares”, and the Class C Shares together with the

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Telesat Public Shares, the “Telesat Corporation Shares”), a Class A Special Voting Share (the “Class A Special Voting Share”), a Class B Special Voting Share (the “Class B Special Voting Share”), a Class C Special Voting Share (the “Class C Special Voting Share”, and together with the Class A Special Voting Share and Class B Special Voting Share, the (“Special Voting Shares”), the Golden Share (the “Golden Share”) and “blank check” Class A Preferred Shares (the “Class A Preferred Shares”). The Special Voting Shares and the Golden Share have no material economic rights.

The Telesat Public Shares commenced trading at NASDAQ and the Toronto Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “TSAT” on November 19, 2021. The Telesat Partnership Units are not listed on an exchange.

Our fiscal year ends on December 31 of each calendar year.

Our agent for service of process in the United States is Puglisi & Associates, whose address is 850 Library Avenue, Suite 204, Newark, Delaware 19711.

The registered office of Telesat Corporation is located at 666 Burrard St. #1700, Vancouver, BC V6C 2X8 and our head office is located at 160 Elgin Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K2P 2P7. The head office of Telesat Partnership is located at 160 Elgin Street, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K2P 2P7. Our telephone number at our head and registered office is (613) 748-8700 ext. 2268. Our website address is https://www.telesat.com. Information contained on, or accessible through, our website is not part of this Annual Report and the inclusion of our website address in this Annual Report is an inactive textual reference.

For a description of our principal capital expenditures, see Item 4B. “Information on the Company” — “Business Overview”.

Additional Information on the Company

The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at https://www.sec.gov. Our filings with the SEC can be accessed free of charge at this website.

B.     Business Overview

The following discussion of the business of Telesat is qualified by reference to, and should be read in conjunction with, the “Risk Factors” starting on page 8 of this annual report.

Business Overview

Telesat is a leading global satellite operator, providing its customers with mission-critical communications services since the start of the satellite communications industry in the 1960s. Through a combination of advanced satellites and ground facilities and a highly expert and dedicated staff, our communications solutions support the requirements of sophisticated satellite users throughout the world. Over more than 50 years of operating history, we have demonstrated a deep commitment to customer service and led the way on many of the industry’s most ground-breaking innovations.

After decades of developing and successfully operating our GEO satellite services business, we have commenced the development of what we believe will be one of the world’s most advanced constellations of LEO satellites and integrated terrestrial infrastructure, called “Telesat Lightspeed” — a platform designed to revolutionize the provision of global broadband connectivity. Telesat Lightspeed has the potential to transform global satellite and terrestrial communications industries, dramatically increasing the Company’s addressable market and significantly expanding its growth potential. We seek to benefit from our historically strong and stable GEO-based satellite business and, by continuing to develop and deploy Telesat Lightspeed, capitalize on the growing demand for global broadband connectivity.

Our History as a Company

Telesat, as it exists today, is the result of the 2007 combination of Telesat Canada and Loral Skynet, although the company’s history dates to 1969, when the Canadian Parliament passed the Telesat Canada Act. In 1972, Telesat Canada launched the world’s first domestic commercial satellite in geostationary orbit and the Company has been a pioneer and leading innovator in satellite communications ever since. Telesat Canada launched the first commercial Ku-band satellite (officially, the DTH satellite television service) in 1978, Canada’s first direct broadcast satellite

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(“DBS”) in 1999 and the world’s first consumer 2-way Ka-band broadband internet service via satellite in 2004. Since the mid-1970s, Telesat Canada has provided advanced satellite services for voice, data and broadcast communications in the Americas, including in Canada’s far North.

Loral Skynet traced its history to two early companies in the U.S. satellite communications industry: AT&T Skynet and Orion Satellite Corporation (“Orion”). AT&T Skynet and its predecessor organizations in AT&T’s Bell Laboratories effectively launched the commercial satellite communications industry by demonstrating the first trans-Atlantic satellite delivery of television on Telstar 1 in 1962. Through the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s, AT&T Skynet provided state-of-the-art telephone and television services in the U.S. for AT&T, as well as video distribution and contribution services for U.S. broadcasters and cable operators using the Comstar and Telstar series of satellites. Orion was formed in 1988 for the purpose of providing international data services. In 1994, Orion launched Orion 1, which provided early trans-Atlantic services between the U.S. and Europe. Orion was the second U.S. licensed “separate system” authorized to compete directly with the intergovernmental organization INTELSAT for certain types of international satellite services.

In 1997, AT&T Skynet was acquired from AT&T by LSC Holdings, became Loral Skynet, and expanded its focus from the U.S. to become a global satellite operator. Orion was acquired by LSC Holdings in 1998 and its operations were integrated with those of Loral Skynet in 1999.

On October 31, 2007, PSP Investments, and Loral acquired 100% of the stock of Telesat Canada from BCE Inc., Canada’s largest communications company (the “Skynet Transaction”). Following the Skynet Transaction, the Loral Skynet and Telesat Canada businesses and assets were combined.

On November 18, 2021 and November 19, 2021, Telesat Corporation, a corporation incorporated under the laws of the Province of British Columbia, Canada, along with the other parties to the Transaction Agreement consummated the Transaction. See “Related Party Transactions — The Transaction”.

The Transaction was effected in accordance with the Transaction Agreement through a series of transactions, including: (i) on November 18, 2021, Red Isle contributing 272,827 Telesat Canada Non-Voting Participating Preferred Shares to Telesat in exchange for Class C Fully Voting Shares of Telesat and the balance of its equity interest in Telesat Canada to Telesat Partnership in exchange for Class C Units of Telesat Partnership; (ii) on November 18, 2021 and pursuant to stockholder contribution agreements, the contribution by current and former members of management of Telesat Canada of their Telesat Canada Non-Voting Participating Preferred Shares to Telesat in exchange for newly issued Class A Common Shares of Telesat if such contributing shareholder is Canadian (as such term is defined in the Investment Canada Act) or newly issued Class B Variable Voting Shares of Telesat if such contributing shareholder is not Canadian (as such term is defined in the Investment Canada Act); (iii) on November 18, 2021 and pursuant to the director contribution agreement, the contribution by John Cashman and Clare Copeland of their Telesat Canada Director Voting Preferred Shares to Telesat Partnership in exchange for interests in Telesat Partnership, which were subsequently redeemed by Telesat Partnership for cash on November 19, 2021; (iv) on November 18, 2021 and pursuant to optionholder exchange agreements, the exchange of options, tandem stock appreciation rights and restrict stock units in respect of Telesat Canada for corresponding instruments in Telesat with the same vesting terms and conditions; and (v) on November 19, 2021, the merger of Merger Sub with and into Loral, with Loral surviving the Merger as a wholly owned subsidiary of Telesat Partnership and the other Loral stockholders receiving shares of Telesat or units of Telesat Partnership as described below.

Under the terms of the Transaction Agreement, at the Effective Time, each share of Loral common stock outstanding immediately prior to the Effective Time was converted into the right to receive (a) if the Loral stockholder validly made a Unit Election, one newly issued Class A Unit of Telesat Partnership if such Loral stockholder was Canadian (as such term is defined in the Investment Canada Act), and otherwise one newly issued Class B unit of Telesat Partnership, (b) if the Loral stockholder validly made a Shares Election, one newly issued Class A Common Share if such Loral stockholder was Canadian (as such term is defined in the Investment Canada Act), or (c) if the Loral stockholder validly made a Shares Election and was not Canadian, or did not validly make a Unit Election or a Shares Election, one newly issued Class B variable voting share. Following the Transaction, Telesat Canada became an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Telesat.

In addition, on November 18, 2021, Telesat entered into the trust agreement and trust voting agreement with Telesat Partnership, TSX Trust Company as the trustee of Telesat Corporation Trust and, in the case of the trust agreement, Christopher DiFrancesco, effectuating the voting trust relating to the voting rights of units of Telesat Partnership.

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Following the completion of the Transaction, our authorized share capital includes Class A Common Shares, Class B Variable Voting Shares, Class C Fully Voting Shares, Class C Limited Voting Shares, a Class A Special Voting Share, a Class B Special Voting Share, a Class C Special Voting Share, the Golden Share and Class A Preferred Shares. The Special Voting Shares and the Golden Share have no material economic rights.

In March 2022, Telesat established Telesat Government Solutions (TGS), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Telesat Canada. TGS has been approved by the U.S. Government Defense Counterintelligence and Security Agency as a Foreign Ownership, Control, or Influence — mitigated entity and operates under a Special Security Agreement with the U.S. Government.

Industry Overview and Trends

We compete in the market for the provision of voice, data, video and internet connectivity services worldwide. Services of this type are provided using various technologies, including satellite networks. We provide communications links between fixed points on the earth’s surface, referred to as point-to-point services, and from one point to multiple points, referred to as point-to-multipoint services. We also provide services to mobile platforms, such as ships and airplanes. Over the last several decades, deregulation and privatization have significantly reshaped the satellite sector. In addition, the sector has undergone consolidation, with regional and national operators being acquired by larger companies or seeking to partner with other providers. There have also been many new, smaller entrants, including many governmental operators, launching national or regional satellite programs. More recently, non-geostationary satellite systems have been announced and are in various stages of development, deployment and operation.

Satellite Systems

A generic satellite system consists of a space segment and an earth segment. The “space segment” is comprised of the satellites and the Telemetry, Tracking and Control (“TT&C”) systems and facilities used to control and monitor the satellites. The “earth segment” is made up of all of the communication earth stations and other devices that access operational satellites. A satellite has two primary components: the communications payload and the spacecraft bus. In its simplest form, the communications payload consists of the antennas and transponders which receive the signals from earth at one frequency, amplify them, and transmit them back to earth at a different frequency. The spacecraft bus is essentially comprised of all of the non-communications equipment, including the electrical and TT&C subsystems, the propulsion and thermal subsystems and the spacecraft structure itself.

GEO satellites circle the earth from orbital locations approximately 22,300 miles (35,700 kilometers) above the equator. The speed at which they orbit the earth corresponds to the speed of the earth’s rotation. As a result, each GEO satellite appears fixed over a geographic area and in essence “blankets” that area with its signals, and an earth station antenna located in that area can communicate continuously with a particular satellite if it is pointed to, and has an unobstructed view of, that satellite’s orbital location. An individual satellite can be designed to communicate with major portions of the earth via large, geographically dispersed beams, to focus its coverage more specifically on particular markets or regions through regional or spot beams, or to use a portion of its total capacity for each type of coverage.

The non-geostationary orbit, or NGSO, includes satellites operating in LEO, with an altitude typically between 200 and 870 miles (325 to 1,400 kilometers) and satellites operating in Medium Earth Orbit, or MEO, that is between the LEO and GEO orbits. Unlike geosynchronous satellites that operate in a fixed orbital location above the equator, LEO and MEO satellites travel around the earth at high velocities requiring antennas on the ground to track their movement. LEO satellite systems have the potential to offer a number of advantages over GEO satellites to meet growing requirements for broadband services, both consumer and commercial, by providing increased data speeds and capacity, global coverage, and latency on par with or, in some circumstances, better than terrestrial services.

Our Competitive Strengths

Telesat continues to be at the forefront of the satellite services industry, leading with outstanding customer service and a culture of engineering excellence and technological innovation. Today, we have a leading GEO business defined by one of the largest satellite fleets in the world, occupying attractive orbital locations and offering high performing, mission critical services to hundreds of customers worldwide. The average expected remaining commercial life of our satellite fleet is approximately 6 years. Additionally, we currently have a fleet utilization rate of 85%, one of the

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highest rates in the industry. We are building upon this existing communications platform by developing our Telesat Lightspeed constellation with the aim of creating a transformative and industry-leading fiber-like broadband network from the sky for commercial and government users globally.

The following competitive strengths characterize our business today and provide a strong foundation for Telesat Lightspeed:

Leading Global Satellite Operator with 50+ Years of Heritage and a Blue Chip Customer Base

We are a leading global satellite operator with over 50 years of operating experience. Our GEO satellite fleet is comprised of 15 satellites and offers global satellite coverage with a concentration over the Americas. Through our deep commitment to customer service and focus on innovation and engineering excellence, we have developed strong and long-standing relationships with a diverse range of customers globally.

Industry-Leading Engineering Expertise Driving Continuous Innovation and Advancement

We believe we have an unrivalled track-record of innovation, “firsts,” and commercial success in the global satellite industry, guided by one of the most experienced management teams in the industry. Our deep technical expertise and commercial focus has enabled us to pioneer many of the industry’s most ground breaking innovations, including:

1962 Telstar 1, built by Telesat Canada’s predecessors at AT&T and Bell Laboratories, successfully delivered the first live intercontinental satellite TV transmission between Europe and the United States;

1972 Telesat Canada launched Anik A1, the world’s first commercial domestic communications satellite in geostationary orbit;

1978 Telesat Canada launched the first commercial Ku-band satellite on which was offered the first DTH television service, laying the groundwork for the global DTH industry;

1981 Telesat Canada co-located two satellites in a single orbital slot for the first time, now a widely-used industry practice;

1996 Telesat Canada was the first to provide internet access to Internet Service Providers (“ISPs”) over satellite;

2004 Telesat Canada launched Anik F2, the first satellite to successfully commercialize DTH consumer Ka-band broadband services;

2009 Telesat Canada launched Telstar 11N, the first satellite to provide Ku-band coverage of the Atlantic Ocean from the Arctic Circle to the Equator;

2013 Telesat Canada launched Anik G1, the first commercial satellite with substantial X-band coverage of the Pacific Ocean, including Hawaii, to serve the Canadian and other governments;

2015 Telesat Canada launched Telstar 12 VANTAGE, the first satellite combining high-throughput satellite (“HTS”) spot beams and conventional broad beams, giving customers the ability to maximize throughput, lower cost per bit and meet growing demand for bandwidth intensive applications;

2018 Telesat Canada launched its Phase 1 LEO satellite (“LEO 1”), the start of Telesat Lightspeed, leveraging Telesat Canada’s innovative, patented design, and provided the first high-speed broadband connectivity from LEO;

2019 Telesat Canada conducted the world’s first 5G backhaul demonstration over LEO satellite in partnership with Vodafone and the University of Surrey;

2020 Telesat Canada and the GoC finalize $600 million agreement to bridge Canada’s digital divide with Telesat’s Low Earth Orbit satellite constellation; and

2021 Telesat Lightspeed entered into a $109 million contract with the Government of Ontario (“GoO”) towards universal broadband; and

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2023 Telesat contracts MDA Ltd. as prime satellite manufacturer for its advanced Telesat Lightspeed LEO constellation. Telesat announced that it expects to receive funding from its Canadian federal and provincial government partners in the combined amount of up to approximately US$2 billion and that this funding, combined with Telesat’s own approximately US$1.6 billion equity contribution, as well as certain vendor financing, would provide the Telesat Lightspeed program with sufficient funds to launch global service, which will occur once the first 156 satellites are in orbit. The finalization of this funding is dependent on a number of conditions, including the execution of definitive agreements.

We believe our accumulated experience and expertise in the design, procurement, launch, operation and commercialization of satellites and satellite networks is unparalleled and will continue to drive our success into the future.

Portfolio of Strategic and Valuable Orbital Real Estate

Our GEO satellites occupy orbital locations that provide us with an advantageous position in the markets in which we operate due to the scarcity of available satellite spectrum. Access to these orbital locations, coupled with the high capital intensity of the satellite industry, creates barriers to entry in those markets. We are licensed by ISED to occupy a number of key orbital locations that are well-suited to serve the Americas and support our leading position in North America. Internationally, our satellites occupy advantageous orbital locations that enable broad pan-regional service with interconnectivity between regions, promoting both intra- and inter-regional services. We also have rights to additional spectrum, including at certain existing orbital locations.

We have decades of experience in obtaining and maintaining the licenses and approvals required to operate our existing global satellite and ground station network. We have secured a license from the GoC to launch and operate a LEO satellite constellation using ~4 GHz of Ka-band spectrum, for which Telesat has international spectrum rights in accordance with filings made through the International Telecommunication Union. Ka-band spectrum is particularly well suited for high performance global broadband networks because it allows wider bandwidth, high data and efficient frequency reuse for user-beam services, as well as the feeder-link beams required to connect the satellites to landing stations. As described in the “Regulation” section below, we have received some licenses and approvals for Telesat Lightspeed and are pursuing a market access plan in additional countries that are most important to our business plan on a global basis.

Uniquely Positioned to Revolutionize Global Broadband Connectivity with Telesat Lightspeed

We are uniquely positioned to revolutionize the provision of global broadband internet connectivity with Telesat Lightspeed, which we believe will be one of the most advanced constellations of LEO satellites and integrated terrestrial infrastructure ever conceived. Our Telesat Lightspeed architecture is designed to offer a powerful combination of capacity, speed, security, reach, resiliency and affordability, with low latency that is on par with the most advanced terrestrial networks. We have strong government support, including an anchor contract with the GoC that we believe will result in approximately $1.2 billion of revenue over 10 years, which includes $600 million from the GoC. The GoO has purchased a dedicated Telesat Lightspeed capacity pool to be made available at substantially reduced rates to Canadian Internet service providers, and mobile network operators, that we believe will result in over $200 million of

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revenue over a five-year term, which includes $109 million from the GoO. Given delays we experienced in finalizing the financing of Telesat Lightspeed, we will need to negotiate amendments to our agreements with the GoC and GoO to reflect a later in-service date requirement, which negotiations may not be successful.

We have an agreement-in-principle with Canadian federal and provincial government sources for up to an approximately US$2 billion of long-term funding.

Contracted Revenue Backlog and Disciplined Management Supports Strong Revenue Visibility

Because of the mission-critical nature of our services and long-term contractual agreements, we have significant revenue visibility. For the last three years we have had, on average, approximately 80% of each year’s total revenue already under contract at the beginning of the year. Our contracted revenue backlog of $1.3 billion for our GEO business as at December 31, 2023 represents a multiple of approximately 1.9 times revenue for the year ended December 31, 2023. 100% of our backlog is non-cancellable or cancellable on economically prohibitive terms, except in the event of a continued period of service interruption. Approximately 45% of our revenue is derived from North American DTH customers who signed long term (~15 years) contracts. Roughly half of our revenue is derived from providing vital connectivity services to companies that we have served for decades, including telecommunication companies, mobile network operators, users in the aeronautical and maritime markets, energy and natural resource companies, and governments. As demand for affordable, secure and reliable broadband connectivity continues to increase, we expect that demand for these services from these and similar customers will continue to grow.

We generate highly attractive operating margins. For the year ended December 31, 2023, we have generated Operating Income of $568.8 million and Adjusted EBITDA of $533.7 million, representing an Operating Income Margin of 80.8% and an Adjusted EBITDA margin of 75.8%1. Our strong historical cash flow conversion (as measured by Adjusted EBITDA minus Capital Expenditures) reflects our disciplined approach to capital investment and fleet expansion, with an emphasis on ensuring high customer utilization of our satellites.

Our Growth Strategy

We plan to grow our business and profitability by supporting our existing customers and services and by developing and deploying Telesat Lightspeed. Telesat Lightspeed is a highly advanced, global, enterprise-grade, integrated satellite and terrestrial network optimized to capture the growing demand for broadband connectivity in certain key market verticals around the world. Core to our growth strategy is leveraging our longstanding customer relationships, our deep technical, operating and regulatory expertise and our culture of outstanding customer service and continuous innovation. The principal elements of our growth strategy are the following:

Follow a Disciplined GEO Satellite Operating and Expansion Strategy

We will continue to focus on increasing the utilization of our existing GEO satellite capacity, maintaining our operating efficiency and, in a disciplined manner, using our strong cash flows to strengthen our business. We will continue to be disciplined in our satellite replacement and expansion program, seeking to secure high-quality, long-term customers to anchor any new or replacement geostationary satellites in advance of committing to the construction of such satellites. Many of our customer service contracts are multi-year in duration and, in the past, we have successfully contracted all or a significant portion of a satellite’s capacity prior to commencing construction.

Capture the Explosive Demand for Global Broadband Connectivity with Telesat Lightspeed

Telesat Lightspeed has been designed to provide fast, affordable, reliable and secure broadband connectivity everywhere on Earth, giving Telesat and our customers a significant competitive advantage in the markets we serve. The network design is optimized to serve enterprise and government users that require fiber-like connectivity beyond the reach of high capacity terrestrial networks. We believe our advanced constellation design, patented LEO

____________

1        Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin are Non-IFRS measures. For the definition and a reconciliation of Non-IFRS measures, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Non-IFRS Measures”.

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architecture, strong government support and decades of deep commercial, technical, operational and regulatory experience put us in a strong position to capture the growing demand for affordable, high capacity broadband connectivity around the world.

Opportunistically Engage in M&A Activity to Enhance our Competitive Position and Shareholder Value

The satellite industry has, historically, undergone periods of consolidation, both horizontal and vertical.

A number of satellite operators have publicly discussed the benefit of, and potential for, consolidation among satellite operators. Our competitor ViaSat has acquired Inmarsat, a leading provider of global mobile satellite communications services, and Eutelsat has acquired OneWeb. We will be alert to, and will evaluate, merger and acquisition opportunities in a thoughtful and disciplined manner as they arise with the aim of enhancing our competitive position and shareholder value.

Our GEO Business and Our LEO Opportunity

Below, we describe in detail our existing GEO business and the compelling opportunity presented by our Telesat Lightspeed network.

Background and Overview of Our GEO Business

Satellite operators compete with terrestrial network operators (e.g., cable, DSL, fiber optic, cellular/wireless and microwave transmission) in the market for video, data and voice communication services. We believe that satellite services have several advantages over these competing communication platforms, including the following:

        Satellites are a relatively cost-effective and efficient means to deliver a signal (e.g., TV, radio) to hundreds of millions of locations in a large geographic area, in particular in remote areas;

        The capacity to provide extensive coverage over a large geographic region allowing for the addition of sites at a lower marginal cost. Unlike cable and fiber lines, satellites can readily provide broadcast and communication services over large areas and to remote locations where the population density may not be high enough to warrant the expense of building a terrestrial-based communications network;

        The ability to deploy communications quickly in locations where little or no infrastructure is available, for example in the case of natural disaster response; and

        The capability to bypass shared and congested terrestrial links, further enhancing network performance, resiliency and security.

Traditionally, satellite communications services have principally been delivered by GEO satellites, such as those in our fleet, which circle the earth from orbital locations approximately 22,300 miles (35,700 kilometers) above the equator. Each GEO satellite in essence “blankets” a fixed geographic area with its signals and can communicate continuously with an earth station antenna if it is pointed to, and has an unobstructed view of, that satellite’s orbital location. An individual satellite can be designed to cover large geographic areas, to focus its coverage more specifically on particular markets or regions, or to use a portion of its total capacity for each type of coverage.

This contrasts with NGSO satellites, which include LEO satellites with an altitude typically between 200 and 870 miles (325 to 1,400 kilometers) and satellites operating in MEO that stand between the LEO and GEO orbits. Unlike GEO satellites that operate in a fixed orbital location above the equator, LEO and MEO satellites continuously travel around the Earth at high velocities and, depending on their orbits, may cover higher latitude parts of the Earth that GEO satellites may not be able to reach.

Overview of Our GEO Satellite Business

Our GEO satellite fleet is comprised of 15 satellites and offers global coverage with a concentration over the Americas. We have a significant position in the North American satellite video distribution market. Our GEO satellite fleet and ground infrastructure provide a platform supporting (i) video distribution and DTH in North America with large telecommunications customers and significant contracted backlog, and (ii) connectivity satellite services for customers around the world for backhaul, corporate networks, maritime and aero services, and video distribution and contribution.

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We offer our suite of GEO satellite services to more than 400 customers worldwide, which include some of the world’s leading DTH service providers, ISPs, network service integrators, telecommunications carriers, corporations and government agencies. We have established long-term, collaborative relationships with our customers and have developed a reputation for innovation, reliability, and outstanding customer service.

We believe our global satellite fleet, access to desirable orbital locations and spectrum rights and strong relationships with our customers position us to maintain our industry leading position as a provider of GEO satellite services, generate significant cash flows, and capitalize on the growth drivers in the satellite industry and the markets we serve.

Our GEO Services

We earn the majority of our revenues by providing satellite-based services to customers who use these services for their own communications requirements or to provide video and data service solutions to customers further down the distribution chain. We also earn revenue by providing ground-based transmit and receive services, selling equipment, installing, managing and maintaining satellite networks and providing consulting services in the field of satellite communications.

We currently derive revenues from the following services:

        Broadcast:    Our broadcast services business provided approximately 47% of our revenues for the year ended December 31, 2023. Our broadcast customers include North American DTH providers Bell TV, Shaw Direct, DISH Network, and leading telecommunications and media firms such as Bell Media. These services include:

        DTH:    The two major DTH service providers in Canada (Bell TV and Shaw Direct which are estimated to have approximately 1.1 million subscribers) exclusively use Telesat satellites as a distribution platform for satellite-delivered television programming, audio and information channels directly to their customers’ homes. In addition, two of our satellites are used by DISH Network, which has about 6.47 million subscribers according to public filings, for DTH services in the U.S.

        Video distribution and contribution:    Broadcasters, cable networks and DTH service providers use our satellites for the full-time transmission of television programming, distributing content around the globe. Additionally, we provide certain broadcasters and DTH service providers bundled, value-added services that include satellite capacity, digital encoding of video channels, and uplinking and downlinking services to and from our satellites and earth station facilities.

        Enterprise:    Our enterprise services provided approximately 51% of our revenues for the year ended December 31, 2023. Our enterprise customers include Bell Canada, Hughes Network Systems, iForte, Marlink, Northwestel, Telespazio, Viasat, Vodafone and Xplore. These services include:

        Telecommunication carrier and integrator services:    We provide satellite capacity and end-to-end services for data and voice transmission to telecommunications carriers and integrators located throughout the world. These services include space segment services and terrestrial facilities for enterprise connectivity, internet backhaul, cellular backhaul and services such as rural telephony to telecommunications carriers and network services integrators around the world.

        Maritime and aeronautical services:    We provide satellite capacity to customers serving the maritime and aeronautical markets, bringing broadband communications services to commercial airplanes and vessels.

        Government services:    We provide services to the U.S. government, including through government service integrators, and are a significant provider of satellite services to the Canadian government.

        Direct-to-consumer broadband services:    We provide satellite capacity to Xplore in Canada, and to Hughes Network Services in South America, who each, in turn, use it to provide two-way broadband internet services directly to consumers.

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        VSAT services:    We operate satellite and terrestrial networks that support enterprise and retail activities in Canada¸ including point-of-sale and other applications. These services include installation and maintenance of the end user terminal as well as the provision of satellite capacity and other network elements.

        Resource services:    We provide communications services to geographically diverse locations, both on and off shore, for the oil and gas and mining industries.

        Satellite operator services:    We provide satellite services to other satellite operators when they do not have adequate capacity to meet their customers’ needs. We also, on occasion, will relocate one of our end of life satellites to the orbital location of another satellite operator on a short-term basis so that they can preserve their spectrum rights at that location.

        Consulting and other:    Our consulting and other category provided approximately 2% of our revenues for the year ended December 31, 2023. We have provided services to businesses and governments in more than 40 countries and on over 100 satellite systems. Our consulting customers have included Airbus, Brit Insurance, Lockheed Martin, MDA Geospatial Services, Mitsubishi Electric, The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (“DARPA”), Telkom Indonesia, Viasat, as well as many regional satellite operators around the world. Our consulting operations allow us to realize operating efficiencies by leveraging, in part, the same employees and facilities used to support our own satellite communication business.

The combination of our North American broadcast, enterprise and government services businesses, and our international business offers diversity in terms of both the customers, end markets and regions served as well as the services provided. For the year ended December 31, 2023, we derived revenues, based on the billing address of the customer, in the following geographic regions:

Geographical Breakdown of Revenues

 

Years ended December 31,

($ millions)

 

2023

 

2022

 

2021

North America

 

$

569.6

 

$

620.5

 

$

623.3

Asia and Australia

 

$

50.7

 

$

45.1

 

$

38.3

Latin America and Caribbean

 

$

48.7

 

$

57.8

 

$

55.8

Europe, Middle East and Africa

 

$

35.3

 

$

35.8

 

$

40.8

Our Infrastructure

In-Orbit Satellite Fleet

Our GEO satellite fleet is comprised of 15 satellites offering global coverage with a concentration over the Americas. We also have one LEO satellite, LEO 3, in polar orbit.

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Owned in-orbit satellites as of December 31, 2023

 

Orbital Location Regions Covered

 

Launch
Date

 

Manufacturer’s End-of-Service Life

 

End-of-Orbital Maneuver Life(1)

 

Model

Anik F1

 

109.2° WL North America

 

Nov 2020

 

2016

 

2024(2)

 

BSS702 (Boeing)

Anik F1R

 

107.3° WL North America

 

Sep 2005

 

2020

 

2026(2)

 

E3000 (EADS Astrium)

Anik F2

 

111.1° WL Canada, Continental United States

 

Jul 2004

 

2019

 

2027(2)(6)

 

BSS702 (Boeing)

Anik F4

 

111.1° WL Canada

 

May 2004

 

2019

 

2026

 

A2100 (Lockheed Martin)

Anik F3

 

118.7° WL Canada, Continental United States

 

Apr 2007

 

2022

 

2025

 

E3000 (EADS Astrium)

Anik G1

 

107.3° WL Canada South America

 

Apr 2013

 

2028

 

2039

 

SS/L 1300

Nimiq 2(3)

 

109.2° WL North America

 

Dec 2002

 

2015

 

2026(2)

 

A2100 AX (Lockheed Martin)

Nimiq 4

 

82° WL Canada

 

Sep 2008

 

2023

 

2027

 

E3000 (EADS Astrium)

Nimiq 5

 

72.7° WL Canada, Continental United States

 

Sep 2009

 

2024

 

2036

 

SS/L 1300

Nimiq 6

 

91.1° WL Canada

 

May 2012

 

2027

 

2046

 

SS/L 1300

Telstar 11N

 

37.55° WL North and Central America, Europe, Africa and the maritime Atlantic Ocean region

 

Feb 2009

 

2024

 

2027

 

SS/L 1300

Telstar 12 VANTAGE

 

15° WL Eastern United States, SE Canada, Europe, Russia, Middle East, South Africa, portions of South and Central America

 

Nov 2015

 

2030

 

2032

 

E3000 (Airbus)

Telstar 14R/Estrela do Sul 2

 

63° WL Brazil and portions of Latin America, North America, Atlantic Ocean

 

May 2011

 

2026

 

2026

 

SS/L 1300

Telstar 18 VANTAGE(4)

 

138° EL India, South East Asia, Indonesia/Malaysia, China, Australia/New Zealand, North Pacific and Hawaii

 

Sep 2018

 

2033

 

2040

 

SS/L 1300

Telstar 19 VANTAGE

 

63° WL Brazil and portions of Latin America, North America, Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean

 

Jul 2018

 

2033

 

2037

 

SS/L 1300

LEO 3

 

NGSO

 

July 2023

 

2028

 

N/A(5)

 

UTIAS SFL

____________

(1)      Our current estimate of when each satellite will be decommissioned, taking account of anomalies and malfunctions the satellites have experienced to date and other factors such as remaining fuel levels, consumption rates and other available engineering data. These estimates are subject to change and it is possible that the actual orbital maneuver life of any of these satellites will be different than we currently anticipate. Further, it is anticipated that the payload capacity of each satellite may be reduced prior to the estimated End-of-Orbital Maneuver life.

(2)      End-of-Orbital Maneuver life for these satellites has been extended through inclined orbit operations which reduces fuel consumption through the elimination of north-south station-keeping.

(3)      Our Nimiq 2 satellite is primarily used to provide short-term services to other operators who use the satellite at their designated orbital locations to preserve their spectrum rights.

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(4)      Telesat International Limited (“TIL”), a subsidiary of Telesat Canada, and APT have entered into agreements relating to the Telstar 18 VANTAGE satellite, which are accounted for as a joint operation, whereby TIL’s interest is 42.5%.

(5)      LEO 3 has sufficient fuel to support collision avoidance maneuvers for several years and subsequent deorbit. End of life will be determined based on ongoing assessment of spacecraft health.

(6)      Anik F2 was placed into inclined operations in December 2022. A C-band satellite acquired from a third party (renamed “Anik F4”) was collocated at the orbital location and commenced providing station-kept service in January 2023.

Rights to Other Satellites

In addition, we have rights to satellite capacity on other satellites, including the entire Ka-band Canadian payload, consisting of nine user beams, on ViaSat-1.

Satellite Control Center and Earth Station Facilities

Our primary Satellite Control Center (“SCC”) is located at our headquarters in Ottawa, Ontario. The SCC is the hub for our satellite-related activities. The facility is staffed 24 hours per day and currently operates 12 Telesat owned satellites: Anik F1, Anik F1R, Anik F2, Anik F3, Anik G1, Nimiq 2, Nimiq 4, Nimiq 5, Nimiq 6, Telstar 11N, Telstar 12 VANTAGE, and Telstar 18 VANTAGE. We also operate numerous other satellites for third parties from our SCC in Ottawa. We operate our Telstar 14R/Estrela do Sul 2 satellite and our Telstar 19 VANTAGE satellite from our SCC in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The Anik F4 and LEO 3 satellites are operated on our behalf by SES and UTIAS SFL respectively. Our headquarters is located at 160 Elgin Street, Ottawa where we lease approximately 75,900 rentable square feet. The lease expires on July 31, 2029, and we have two options to extend for an additional five years each.

The Allan Park earth station, located northwest of Toronto, Ontario on approximately 65 acres of owned land, houses a customer support center and a technical control center. This facility is the single point of contact for our customers internationally and is also the main earth station complex providing Telemetry, Tracking and Control services for the satellites that we operate. The Allan Park earth station also houses our back-up satellite control center for the Nimiq and Anik satellites. The back-up satellite control center for the Telstar satellites is located at the Mount Jackson earth station. We have the functional ability to restore satellite control services via the Allan Park and Mount Jackson back-up control centers if our primary SCCs became disabled.

In addition to the Ottawa headquarters and the Allan Park earth station, we operate a number of other earth stations, including the following:

Overview of Telesat Earth Stations (Other than the SCC and Allan Park)

Earth stations

 

Owned or leased property

Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

 

Leased

Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada

 

Leased

Calgary, Alberta, Canada

 

Owned

Hague, Saskatchewan, Canada

 

Leased

Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

 

Leased

Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

 

Owned

Montreal, Quebec, Canada

 

Owned

Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada

 

Leased

St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada

 

Leased

Mount Jackson, Virginia, U.S.

 

Owned

Middleton, Virginia, U.S.

 

Leased

Belo Horizonte, Brazil

 

Owned

Kapolei, Hawaii, U.S.

 

Third party site

Aflenz, Austria

 

Third party site

Perth, Australia

 

Third party site

Jakarta, Indonesia

 

Third party site

In addition to these facilities, we lease facilities for administrative and sales offices in various locations throughout Canada and the U.S. as well as in Brazil, England and Singapore.

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GEO Business Model

The majority of our revenue comes from service agreements. These cover the provision of satellite capacity, ground services and/or end-to-end managed services. In our service agreements, a customer commits to purchase a specific type of capacity or service. Typically, our service agreements are for at least one year and are non-cancellable, except in the event of a continued period of service interruption.

Our sales efforts are organized by region. We sell our services worldwide primarily through a direct sales force located at our headquarters in Ottawa and in London, Singapore, Rio de Janeiro, Washington D.C. and Toronto.

Background and Overview of Telesat Lightspeed

A key growth opportunity is the continued development and deployment of Telesat Lightspeed. We believe that Telesat Lightspeed has the potential to revolutionize global broadband internet connectivity and allow Telesat to rapidly and profitably grow its business. For this reason, we have invested significant time and resources to develop this innovative constellation of LEO satellites, which we believe will be among the most capable and technologically advanced satellite-based enterprise grade networks in the world. The success of Telesat Lightspeed is expected to be driven by the compelling value proposition it represents in the market, as well as our deep familiarity with our customers, their markets, use cases and needs.

Overview of The Market Opportunity: Growing Demand for High-Capacity, Fiber-like Broadband Connectivity Everywhere

Global broadband demand is increasing exponentially as the world is becoming increasingly digital, a trend that was accelerated by the global COVID pandemic. Applications and programs that are critical to individuals, businesses and governments are built to run on the fast, low latency terrestrial networks that serve the majority of users in developed economies. Forecasted rates in IP-traffic are expected to grow from 160 exabytes per month in 2023 to 563 exabytes per month in 2029, a 23% compound annual growth rate, on a global basis.2

However, there is a major gap in access to global broadband connectivity, with more than three billion people who live outside of urban areas either poorly connected or not connected at all. These unserved and underserved areas include over one million mobile sites (where legacy 2G/3G equipment is installed, but cannot provide broadband data without affordable high capacity backhaul), 600,000 schools, hospitals and offices, 550,000 ships at sea and almost four billion aviation passengers each year.

Traditional Terrestrial and Satellite Solutions Cannot Meet This Growing Demand, but LEO Satellites Can

Expanding the availability of the digital world to unserved and underserved areas requires bringing to these areas the same type of broadband, fiber-quality connectivity that is available in well-connected areas.

It is, however, either prohibitively expensive to install fiber in these areas or simply physically impossible (e.g., to planes and ships).

Historically, the primary options for these markets have been traditional GEO and MEO satellites. While these satellites can provide coverage in most areas, because of the vast distances between the Earth’s surface and the orbital positions above the Earth occupied by GEO and MEO satellites, the user experience suffers due to high latency (the round-trip time delay between the data source and the data destination), which is prohibitive for certain consumer and enterprise broadband applications:

        Consumer applications:    Content-heavy webpages and applications cannot load quickly, large documents cannot be uploaded and downloaded efficiently, encrypted applications such as Virtual Private Networks (remote work access tools) and encrypted websites can experience significant lags or fail altogether.

        Enterprise applications and real-time communications and controls:    Highly latency-sensitive enterprise applications cannot operate on systems that have a meaningful delay in sending and receiving a signal. Advanced mobile networks, like 5G, cannot operate as intended over high latency backhaul.

____________

2        Ericsson Mobility Report November 2023

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LEO satellites are 35 times (or more) closer to the Earth than GEO satellites and 8 times (or more) closer than MEO satellites, thereby solving latency issues that exist with GEO and MEO satellites. In addition to offering low latency, however, any potential LEO solution must also be significantly flexible and technologically advanced to dynamically deliver high capacity connectivity where users require it and minimize the amount of capacity that is idled because it cannot effectively be put to use in the network at any given time. A next-generation satellite broadband network must meet other market requirements for commercial broadband services:

        High capacity:    Capable of coping with high demand and network congestion. Since demand for connectivity tends to be concentrated, LEO networks must be able to dynamically concentrate very high amounts of capacity to high demand areas such as airports and seaports.

        Global coverage:    Provide services everywhere, including to high latitude areas like the poles (a critical feature for large airlines, global shipping fleets and governments) as well as non-urban areas.

        Simple to use:    Plug and play with existing infrastructure by having simple, standards-based interfaces to the terrestrial network and the Internet.

        Resilient:    Mission-critical level of reliability of service. Online activities are now critical for the well-being of individuals, businesses and government users, increasing the emphasis on the reliability and resiliency of the communications network supporting them. A LEO satellite network is a distributed, multi-node network, making it more resilient to service outages.

        Affordable:    Global broadband services provided over a LEO satellite network must be affordable, transforming the economics of the existing marketplace and expanding the addressable market.

As discussed further below, Telesat Lightspeed has been specifically designed and optimized to meet these requirements.

The Market Opportunity for Telesat Lightspeed in Key Vertical Markets

We estimate that the total addressable market, or TAM, for our GEO business will reach approximately US$15.6 billion by 2025.3 Telesat Lightspeed is expected to significantly increase our TAM. The estimated TAM for LEO is approximately US$425 billion in 2025, which we project will nearly double in light of the demand drivers that exist today (e.g., 4G/LTE backhaul in terrestrial vertical or passenger connectivity in aviation vertical), and could potentially triple4, by 2030s with evolving, more nascent applications with high bandwidth potential (e.g., 5G, IoT, backhaul, and operational data transport in aviation).

The Telesat Lightspeed design has been specifically optimized to serve vertical markets that require fiber-like connectivity beyond the reach of terrestrial networks. Our target markets span four verticals: (i) enterprise and telecom, (ii) aviation, (iii) maritime and (iv) government. These target markets require all of the features of Telesat Lightspeed, but each also have their own unique requirements, making certain features of Telesat Lightspeed particularly compelling to each of them.

Enterprise and Telecom

We estimate that the enterprise and telecom market opportunity that can be addressed by LEO will be approximately US$415 billion in 2025 and will grow at 9% annually until 2027 to reach approximately US$495 billion. Of the US$415 billion, we estimate that about US$235 billion is the direct-to-consumer market opportunity and about US$180 billion is the enterprise market opportunity. Our estimates are derived from information on the enterprise and telecom data market obtained from a variety of sources, including OECD Broadband statistics, World Bank Country Indicators, Landscan (with respect to population distribution) and management’s analysis and estimates as to the portion of the enterprise and telecom data market that Telesat Lightspeed could address. Enterprise applications include fixed wireless and mobile backhaul, remote enterprise, and health and education. Telesat Lightspeed will initially focus on addressing the enterprise market.

____________

3        NSR Global Satellite Capacity Supply and Demand Study, 19th Edition.

4        According to Cisco Visual Networking Index, 2017-2022, data demand triples approximately every 5 years. Accordingly, over a 10-12 year horizon (2023 to early 2030s), data demand is expected to grow by approximately 10 times. However, since data pricing generally reduces over time, we estimate overall market value should double or triple over the stated horizon.

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This market is underpinned by the approximately four billion people who are digitally underserved or unconnected. Key demand areas are backhaul from mobile wireless sites, fixed wireless backhaul for remote communities, remote enterprise and emergency services, and broadband for institutions (schools, hospitals, etc.). In many of these areas, there is simply no economical fixed or terrestrial wireless (e.g., microwave) backhaul solution for delivery of high-speed broadband connectivity. There also tends to be no quality access in remote areas for enterprise cloud applications, meaning that schools, hospitals and other public institutions in those areas are unable to take advantage of broadband applications and cloud-based services.

Telesat Lightspeed is designed to provide an optimal, low-cost solution that can become the primary connectivity solution in remote areas and a secondary connectivity solution in urban areas. The Telesat Lightspeed “plug & play” versatility is expected to seamlessly integrate with terrestrial networks, vastly simplifying operations as compared to traditional satellite networks. The low latency of our network will enable customers to seamlessly transport encrypted traffic between terrestrial and satellite networks at high data rates, something that is not possible with traditional GEO satellite networks. The network is also expected to provide high throughput for large trunking links in Northern Canada and for island nations.

Importantly, given our strong reputation and existing customer relationships providing backhaul solutions for telecommunications companies and Mobile Network Operators (“MNOs”) in underserved or unconnected areas, as well as the high growth potential of this market, we are not focused on direct-to-consumer services at this time. It is possible, however, that evolution in antenna technology and other market developments may cause Telesat to offer direct-to-consumer services in the future. Satellites allow telecom operators to expand the reach of their fixed and mobile networks to locations not served, or underserved, by terrestrial networks by connecting these off-network locations to their main networks.

Growing demand for fixed and mobile data, accelerated by the global rollout of 5G services and the universal service coverage requirements of many MNO licenses, is anticipated to drive growth for satellite backhaul services.

Other demand drivers in the enterprise and telecom market include:

        Corporate networks:    As economic growth accelerates in parts of the world with poor terrestrial infrastructure, corporate enterprises expanding their activities in these regions will drive demand for increased satellite capacity.

        Government-sponsored universal connectivity programs:    Universal connectivity projects (government supported initiatives to bring broadband services to rural and remote communities and those with limited terrestrial infrastructure) are growing in both developed and developing nations. Governments are increasingly focused not just on basic connectivity but on enabling high quality connectivity to rural areas, similar to that in urban areas. For example, the Canadian Government’s universal broadband program envisions connecting every Canadian household to a 50x10 Mbps service, far superior to that available today.

Additional government programs supporting better connectivity to businesses and institutions in remote areas (e.g., agriculture, schools, and hospitals) are also on the rise. Telesat may provide backhaul services to funding recipients of programs such as the following:

        The U.S. has created a US$20 billion universal broadband program, the Rural Digital Opportunity Fund (“RDOF”), to subsidize service providers to connect underserved areas. The RDOF program incentivizes low latency (sub-100 milliseconds) services that are not deliverable by traditional GEO satellites, but are deliverable by LEO satellites. Further, the U.S. has created a “5G Fund for Rural America” of US$9 billion to bring 5G mobile broadband service to rural areas that would be unlikely to otherwise see deployment of 5G broadband service.

        Broadband Europe promotes the European Commission’s vision and policy actions to turn Europe into a Gigabit Society by 2025, backed by various initiatives in spending support.

        As universal broadband connectivity has become a key public policy objective in many countries around the world, there are similar universal broadband support initiatives in these countries, including India, Brazil, Australia, Nigeria and Indonesia.

Telesat Lightspeed, which is expected to provide affordable, fiber-like connectivity and backhaul to remote areas, stands to benefit from the expansion of networks and growing demand for high-speed, low latency connectivity resulting from such government-funded digital inclusion programs.

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Aviation

The aviation market opportunity addressable by LEO is expected to grow at 7% annually through 2025 to reach approximately US$3 billion, according to NSR.5 The market opportunity includes delivering connectivity services to commercial aircraft and business jets. Airlines are looking to provide value added and differentiated services to customers, such as free in-flight Wi-Fi and on-demand video streaming.

However, there are currently no high-quality, low-cost, “gate-to-gate” in-flight connectivity (“IFC”) solutions in the marketplace. IFC service providers are facing network capacity constraints in the U.S., especially around demand hotspots such as large airports, and will not have the necessary capacity to support the expected surge in demand should airlines start adopting free in-flight Wi-Fi.

As broadband connectivity has become increasingly important to businesses and individuals, the need to stay connected has spread to locations that cannot readily access terrestrial networks. In aeronautical markets, satellite broadband for passenger and crew communications has become a significant driver of demand and a competitive differentiator as airlines and business jet operators around the world compete for passengers and staff. In addition, aircraft manufacturers and key parts suppliers (e.g., aircraft engine manufacturers) seek improved broadband connectivity to better monitor aircraft health, weather conditions and to optimize airline operations. For example, better and real-time data from the aircraft to the ground will help optimize flight paths and improve maintenance planning, all leading to lower operating cost for the airlines.

The flexible architecture of Telesat Lightspeed is designed to deliver high throughput services to high demand air traffic corridors at speeds and costs that will allow airlines to unlock the benefits of IFC. We plan to offer full global coverage with the flexibility for the airlines and their IFC service providers to dynamically allocate capacity to any plane globally, allowing them to efficiently manage their capacity pools. Telesat Lightspeed is planned as a fully integrated satellite and ground segment network, relieving IFC service providers of the burden and cost of managing their own global hub infrastructure.

Maritime

The maritime market opportunity that can be addressed by LEO satellite constellations is expected to grow at 10% annually through 2025 to reach about US$6 billion, according to NSR.6 This market includes connectivity to merchant vessels, oil & gas sites, yachts and cruise ships.

Currently, GEO satellite operators provide maritime connectivity networks, but these systems suffer from low capacity, high latency and high cost and fail to deliver the connectivity experience desired by passengers and crew members at sea. Cruise lines compete with terrestrial holiday options and greatly benefit from the ability to deliver an at-home-type connectivity experience to customers at sea. We believe Telesat Lightspeed will be uniquely positioned to deliver high throughput and low latency to cruise ships anywhere in the world, ensuring a compelling connectivity experience.

Similarly, yacht owners want to enjoy the same high-quality broadband experience that they have in their homes and offices. For the merchant shipping lines and large oil and gas offshore platform operators, quality and fully global connectivity are a key “ask” of the crew and influences the ability to attract and retain employees. Real-time ship-to-shore connectivity also enables important operational efficiencies (e.g., optimal sea routes reduce vessel fuel costs).

Similar to aviation services, the flexible architecture of Telesat Lightspeed will deliver high throughput services to high demand ports and full global coverage with the flexibility to allocate capacity to any maritime vessel globally, meaning that commercial and passenger fleets alike can ensure consistent fiber-like connectivity throughout the duration of their journeys.

Another growth driver for satellite services is expected to come from increased demand in the resource sector, largely driven by oil and gas exploration, the level of which has been driven principally by global economic growth. In addition, the current and increasing focus on safety concerns in the resource sector is leading to the implementation of diverse, redundant communications for monitoring and control of resource infrastructure (e.g., automated rigs and pipelines), including video, which may drive demand for low latency satellite services.

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5        NSR Aeronautical Satcom Markets, 5th Edition.

6        NSR Maritime Satcom Markets, 4th Edition.

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Government

We estimate the government market opportunity addressable by Telesat Lightspeed will be approximately US$1.5 billion in 2025 and will grow at 30% annually until 2027 to reach approximately US$2.6 billion.7 Telesat will focus on the government demand addressed by commercial satellite operators. Key applications initially include connectivity to government aircrafts, naval vessels and remote sites.

The U.S. government is the single largest user of commercial satellite communications and most of this use relates to the DoD operations. The defense segment is expected to drive increased global requirements for commercial satellite communications. Commercial satellites support secure communications, surveillance, reconnaissance, mobile communications, including support for unmanned aerial vehicles, logistics, troop welfare and a host of other services. The benefits of LEO constellations are being demonstrated in Ukraine following the Russian invasion where SpaceX’s Starlink has been critical in connecting the Ukrainian government, military, NGOs and civilians.

Government space architectures are expected in the future to move to multi-orbit “proliferated” constellations, particularly those based on LEO. As more nations demonstrate anti-satellite systems and communications jamming capability, governments are expected to seek LEO constellations made up of hundreds of advanced, interconnected satellites in an inherently more distributed, resilient network than a network comprised of a handful of high-value GEO satellites. LEO constellations also offer real-time low latency connectivity, and global coverage (including the poles). Global low latency communications are a key goal for the unmanned, remotely controlled, sensor platforms, which are vital to government environmental observation, meteorology, and defense. The DoD has made the development of multi-orbit, “hybrid” commercial/government constellations a priority for the new U.S. Space Force. Various DoD agencies have multi-million dollar LEO networks programs involving commercial industry underway, including: DARPA, the Space Development Agency, the Air Force Research Lab and the U.S. Space & Missile Systems Center. Telesat has direct or indirect LEO development contracts with each of these entities.

Another application in the government vertical market is for “space relay” services. Simply described, government-owned spacecraft could transmit data they collect directly to Telesat Lightspeed satellites in space through optical inter-satellite links, using Telesat Lightspeed as a communications relay network to route such data quickly and securely anywhere on Earth. We anticipate that the U.S. and other governments may launch their own satellites that interface with the Telesat Lightspeed network in that manner. Such a “space relay” service would simplify the design and lower the cost of government spacecraft and enable a more rapid technology refresh cycle than is currently the case, a capability that will be particularly attractive for national security applications in a rapidly changing world with budgetary constraints.

Additional Drivers of Demand Across Verticals and Markets for LEO Services

In addition to the factors driving the projected TAM growth in the key verticals described above, we believe the following trends can be expected to drive satellite services growth in the coming decade:

        Internet of Things:    A vast number of physical objects (e.g., factories, appliances, machinery, electric grids and other infrastructure) now have the capability to monitor their environment, report status, receive instructions, and take action based on information they receive. This is all part of the Internet of Things, or IoT, that already comprises billions of devices in use worldwide and which is forecasted to grow at an approximately 20% average yearly rate until 2025. Reliable communications are essential for IoT to work and, while most IoT connections will likely be by terrestrial wireless, the growth in the number of connected devices is expected to drive increased demand for satellite services.

        Emerging industries:    As developments in technologies like artificial intelligence and automated services progress, future applications such as autonomous driving and the connected car will require more than one communication link to ensure fully redundant connectivity at all times. Telesat Lightspeed is designed to support these developing technologies in an economically feasible manner as they evolve and come to increasingly rely on secure, reliable, low latency communications networks.

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7        International Defense Budgets, US Department of Defense Budgets, Management’s analysis and estimates.

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Overview of Telesat Lightspeed

We have been developing Telesat Lightspeed with industry-leading partners in order to optimize and de-risk its performance. As discussed in greater detail below, the Telesat Lightspeed design has been optimized to serve the fast-growing broadband connectivity requirements of fixed and mobile network operators, aeronautical and maritime users, enterprise customers and governments.

Telesat Lightspeed will combine state-of-the-art interconnected LEO satellites coupled with a sophisticated and integrated terrestrial infrastructure to create a fiber-like broadband network from the sky for commercial and government users worldwide. Our fleet will have a combination of satellites operating in a mix of orbits designed to optimize coverage and capacity, providing full global coverage while concentrating capacity over geographic regions of highest demand. Additional satellites and ground facilities can be added to the network over time to meet increased user demand as and when required.

In January 2018, our first LEO satellite, LEO 1, was successfully launched into orbit. The LEO 1 satellite has demonstrated certain key features of the Telesat Lightspeed system design, specifically the capability of the satellite and customer terminals to deliver a low latency broadband experience. In July 2023, we launched the LEO 3 satellite to continue the demonstrations. We also installed ground infrastructure at our teleport in Allan Park in Canada and Mt. Jackson in the United States to support testing with a variety of existing and prospective customers and potential suppliers of the Telesat Lightspeed system hardware who have been participating in trials since the second half of 2018. We have received positive feedback from customers.

Revenue commitments for Telesat Lightspeed were approximately $739 million as at December 31, 2023. Included in these commitments are an agreement with the GoC to bring affordable, high-speed internet connectivity across rural, underserved areas of Canada. Under the terms of our agreement, Telesat would receive revenue of $600 million from the GoC over a ten-year period commencing when the Telesat Lightspeed network begins commercial service, which will enable internet and mobility service providers to acquire Telesat Lightspeed capacity at substantially reduced rates to bring universal broadband connectivity to rural, Northern and Indigenous communities across Canada. The partnership is expected to generate $1.2 billion in revenue for Telesat over ten years, which includes the $600 million from the GoC. In addition, we have partnered with the GoO to bridge the digital divide pursuant to which Ontario has purchased, over a five-year term, a $109 million dedicated Telesat Lightspeed capacity pool which will be made available at substantially reduced rates to Canadian Internet service providers, including Indigenous owned and operated ISPs, as well as mobile network operators, to expand high-speed Internet and LTE/5G networks to Ontario’s unserved and underserved communities. The partnership is expected to generate over $200 million in revenue for Telesat over five years, which includes the $109 million from the GoO.

We continue to take a number of steps to continue to progress the Telesat Lightspeed business plan, including advancing our arrangements with launch providers, ground systems operators, and antenna manufacturers (to advance the development of economical and high efficiency antenna systems).

We anticipate diverse sources of financing, including (subject to compliance with our borrowing covenants) our current cash-on-hand, expected cash flows of our GEO business, future equity and equity-like issuances, and future borrowings.

On August 11, 2023 Telesat announced that it selected MDA Ltd. as prime satellite manufacturer for its advanced Telesat Lightspeed LEO constellation. Telesat also announced that it expects to receive funding from its Canadian federal and provincial government partners in the combined amount of up to approximately US$2 billion and that this funding, combined with Telesat’s own approximately US$1.6 billion equity contribution, as well as certain vendor financing, would provide the Telesat Lightspeed program with sufficient funds to launch global service, which will occur once the first 156 satellites are in orbit. The finalization of the Canadian federal and provincial funding is dependent on a number of conditions, including the execution of definitive agreements.

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The GoC will also contribute up to $85 million to Telesat through the GoC’s Strategic Innovation Fund (“SIF”).

There are numerous risks and uncertainties associated with our planned Lightspeed constellation. See “Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Telesat’s Lightspeed Constellation.”

Telesat Lightspeed Infrastructure

Satellites

Telesat Lightspeed was designed to optimally serve the key market verticals on which we are focused. It will allow Telesat to provide high-performing and cost-effective broadband services that will allow Telesat customers, serving both traditional and new satellite markets, to improve their competitiveness and expand their businesses. Telesat Lightspeed satellites incorporate leading-edge technologies and features, including:

        Advanced phased array antennas instantly match capacity to demand:    The antennas on each satellite are combined with advanced, digital beam forming technology that can create hundreds of thousands of logical beams and dynamically focus multiple Gbps of capacity into demand hot spots like remote communities, large airports or major seaports;

        Interlinked satellite mesh network in space for high resilience and new applications:    Each satellite will have high capacity optical links that combine to create a highly resilient, flexible and secure space-based network, moving data across the network and around the world at the speed of light;

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        Data processing in space provides most efficient traffic routing:    Full digital modulation and demodulation occurs on the satellite, coupled with a revolutionary end-to-end constellation network operating system, improves link performance and gives customers a high degree of flexibility for routing traffic across the globe, eliminating gateway hops for fast, secure, end-to-end delivery of data; and

        Mix of orbits maximize network efficiency:    Telesat Lightspeed satellites fly in an innovative mix of orbits designed to optimize coverage and capacity, with true pole-to-pole global coverage.

Ground-Based Infrastructure

The ground-based infrastructure of Telesat Lightspeed will consist of the landing stations (“Landing Stations”) and terrestrial network (“Terrestrial Network”) segments. Telesat Lightspeed is designed to make it easy for customers to connect to the network and communicate through it. Metro Ethernet Forum standards-compliant services are expected to further simplify the integration of Telesat Lightspeed into customer provisioning, operations and billing systems.

        Landing Stations:    We plan to deploy widely distributed Landing Stations around the world to provide connectivity to Telesat Lightspeed. The Landing Stations provide the forward and return feeder links that connect the satellites to our ground system.

        Terrestrial Network:    The Terrestrial Network consists of Points of Presence (“PoPs”) and the global fiber network that interconnects all elements of the network, including the Landing Stations, PoPs and data centers. PoPs will host customer facing network interfaces and will relay customer traffic to Landing Stations. One or more Landing Stations may connect to a regional PoP.

Telesat Lightspeed Performance Features

Telesat Lightspeed will provide critical features and functionality that will make it a highly compelling value proposition in the market verticals it has been optimized to serve, including:

        High throughput:    Individual links will be at speeds in the gigabits per second and Telesat Lightspeed will have multiple terabits per second of total usable capacity;

        Low latency:    Data will travel from the customer location to the internet (or the customer’s network) roughly 20 times faster than the latency that GEO satellites can provide;

        Low cost:    With its highly innovative design, Telesat Lightspeed will have a cost advantage over many other satellite broadband solutions, enhancing its competitiveness and expanding the addressable market for satellite-delivered connectivity solutions;

        Focused and flexible capacity:    The network will be able to dynamically allocate high capacity where and when customers require it, and will be able to reconfigure that capacity distribution as customer demand changes and evolves. Telesat Lightspeed also supports mesh connectivity enabling efficient remote to remote communications without having to transit the landing station;

        True global coverage:    Telesat Lightspeed will provide coverage of the Earth’s entire surface, from pole to pole, fulfilling the needs of governments and mobility markets, such as aviation and maritime for global network coverage and providing a uniform connectivity experience;

        Interoperability with terrestrial networks:    Customers want to connect to a satellite network as seamlessly as they do to terrestrial fiber networks today. Telesat Lightspeed leverages MEF 3.0 industry- wide network interface standards which enables simple, seamless integration with customers’ terrestrial networks, without the need to integrate proprietary hardware or software. Through MEF 3.0 underlay connectivity service standards, customers can easily understand the capabilities provided by Telesat Lightspeed and how these software-defined digital services can be procured and integrated into their networks; and

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        High level security and resiliency:    With a constellation of interconnected satellites in a mix of orbits designed to optimize coverage and capacity and with multiple beams on each satellite, combined with the ability to dynamically reshape beam patterns on the Earth, we believe Telesat Lightspeed will provide a high level of resiliency and protection against interference never before available in satellite communications. In addition, industry-standard encryption will protect the network control functions, providing a high-level of security.

Since January 2018, we have used the LEO 1 satellite to demonstrate key features of our LEO system design, specifically the capability of the satellite and customer terminals to deliver a low latency broadband experience. LEO 1 Satellite has completed its mission and since July 2023 is replaced with LEO 3 satellite to continue the mission. We have conducted successful demonstrations in each of the key vertical markets we are targeting.

        Enterprise and Telecom:    In partnership with Vodafone and the University of Surrey, we demonstrated that LEO satellites can provide effective backhaul transport for mobile network operators, including advanced backhaul solutions for 5G, based on round trip latency of 18-40 milliseconds during testing, among the lowest ever for a satellite broadband connection. Additional commercial LEO tests have been conducted with Telefonica, Optus, Motorola Solutions and PLDT. Microsoft Azure used the LEO 1 satellite to test throughput, latency and jitter, and also successfully demonstrated application functionality such as Office 365, Teams conferencing, file transfers to OneDrive, streaming videos and playing cloud hosted games on Xbox Cloud.

        Aviation:    We have successfully demonstrated Telesat Lightspeed network’s IFC service capabilities via our LEO satellite with Honeywell and Anuvu.

        Maritime:    We have successfully demonstrated Telesat Lightspeed network’s fit for maritime satellite communications services via our LEO 1 satellite with NSSL Global and OmniAccess, leaders in maritime connectivity solutions.

        Government:    Telesat Lightspeed is particularly attractive to governments because of its resilient distributed nature, low latency, and truly global service.

In 2018, we were awarded a contract by DARPA to demonstrate capabilities of Telesat Lightspeed with DARPA’s experimental “Blackjack” constellation. In October 2020, DARPA awarded us a contract for the development and in-orbit demonstration of commercial spacecraft buses in a LEO constellation network with robust low latency communications features. As part of this follow-on contract, we have delivered two spacecraft buses to DARPA for a “risk reduction” flight to test OISL communications with government payloads in orbit and to demonstrate OISL interoperability with different hardware. In July 2022, Telesat was one of the recipients of the DARPA Space-Based Adaptive Communications Node (Space-BACN) contract to demonstrate the architecture of inter-connecting commercial LEO constellations and their optical inter-satellite link enabled mesh networks with heterogeneous U.S. government networks.

We also have contracts in place with prime contractors L3 Harris and General Dynamics Mission Systems for demonstrations and studies with Air Force Research Labs and NASA. In October 2020, Telesat U.S. Services was selected to become part of the Lockheed Martin team, which was recently awarded the Space Transport Layer Tranche 0 contract by the U.S. Space Development Agency.

Taken together, these developing relationships and contract awards demonstrate that the U.S. government is investing significant resources to bring about its “pivot” from GEO- to LEO-based satellite systems and its demonstrated interest in Telesat Lightspeed as a commercial satellite solutions provider.

The Competitive Landscape for Our Services

We compete against other global, regional and national satellite operators and with providers of terrestrial-based communications services.

Telesat is a leading global satellite operator. Other scaled, global satellite operators include Intelsat S.A. (“Intelsat”), SES S.A. (“SES”), Eutelsat S.A. (“Eutelsat”), Viasat, and SpaceX. We also compete against a number of nationally or regionally focused satellite operators around the world including Hughes. Telesat competes with these operators based primarily on the quality of our services, location of our orbital slots, performance characteristics of our satellites, price, and overall client needs.

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SpaceX and Eutelsat (OneWeb) both have LEO satellite systems that are now in service, and they continue to add satellites and capacity. There are a number of other LEO satellite systems that have been announced, including Amazon Kuiper and Rivada. We believe that the innovative architecture and advanced technology of Telesat Lightspeed will allow us to compete effectively against any of the other current and proposed systems.

We believe the combination of the following attributes positions us favorably to commercialize Telesat Lightspeed successfully, notwithstanding competitors in the LEO marketplace:

        Enterprise-class system:    Telesat Lightspeed is focused on enterprise solutions and optimized for that purpose. Our constellation design, features and functionality will be a highly compelling satellite-based enterprise class network in the world.

        Vast technical expertise, experience and relationships:    As a trusted satellite operator with a highly experienced management team, we have longstanding relationships at the most important levels of the industry (e.g., customers, suppliers and regulators), and an established eco-system of partners to design a technologically-advanced and economical ground infrastructure.

        Existing, engaged customer base:    We are known and trusted by key customers and have a deep understanding of their requirements. Over 400 telecommunications, enterprise, and government customers today rely on Telesat to help plan their future mission critical infrastructure needs.

        Global regulatory experience:    Regulatory compliance is a critical aspect of operating and commercializing a satellite network. Obtaining rights to use spectrum and to gain access to provide service in countries around the world is a complex process. National governments have viewed space, and access to their markets from space, as a critical asset and insist on compliance with their regulations. The framework for NGSO spectrum rights, both at an individual country level and internationally at the ITU, is evolving, and it is critical to be an active participant in, and have deep knowledge of, these processes. Telesat has extensive experience in all of these areas, as well as credibility with regulators and other industry participants. For further regulatory detail, see “— Regulation.”