Company Quick10K Filing
TSMC
Price36.58 EPS2
Shares25,930 P/E22
MCap948,430 P/FCF13
Net Debt-16,606 EBIT49,055
TEV931,824 TEV/EBIT19
TTM 2018-12-31, in MM, except price, ratios
20-F 2019-12-31 Filed 2020-04-15
20-F 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-04-17
20-F 2017-12-31 Filed 2018-04-19
20-F 2016-12-31 Filed 2017-04-13
20-F 2015-12-31 Filed 2016-04-11
20-F 2014-12-31 Filed 2015-04-13
20-F 2013-12-31 Filed 2014-04-14
20-F 2012-12-31 Filed 2013-04-02
20-F 2011-12-31 Filed 2012-04-13
20-F 2010-12-31 Filed 2011-04-15
20-F 2009-12-31 Filed 2010-04-15

TSM 20F Annual Report

Item 17 Item 18 ü
Part I
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisors
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Item 3. Key Information
Item 4. Information on The Company
Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 5. Operating and Financial Reviews and Prospects
Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees
Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions
Item 8. Financial Information
Item 9. The Offer and Listing
Item 10. Additional Information
Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risks
Item 12D. Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities
Part II
Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies
Item 14. Material Modifications To The Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds
Item 15. Controls and Procedures
Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert
Item 16B. Code of Ethics
Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Item 16D. Exemptions From The Listing Standards for Audit Committees
Item 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities By The Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Item 16F. Change in Registrant's Certifying Accountant
Item 16G. Corporate Governance
Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure
Part III
Item 17. Financial Statements
Item 18. Financial Statements
Item 19. Exhibits
EX-1.1 d505546dex11.htm
EX-3.1 d505546dex31.htm
EX-3.2 d505546dex32.htm
EX-4.14 d505546dex414.htm
EX-12.1 d505546dex121.htm
EX-12.2 d505546dex122.htm
EX-13.1 d505546dex131.htm
EX-13.2 d505546dex132.htm
EX-99.1 d505546dex991.htm

TSMC Earnings 2012-12-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow
705642281402012201420172020
Assets, Equity
35282114702012201420172020
Rev, G Profit, Net Income
20136-1-8-152012201420172020
Ops, Inv, Fin

20-F 1 d505546d20f.htm FORM 20-F Form 20-F
Table of Contents

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, DC 20549

FORM 20-F

 

¨ REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR 12(g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2012

OR

¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                      to                     

OR

¨ SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission file number 1-14700

 

LOGO

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Limited   Republic of China
(Translation of Registrant’s Name Into English)   (Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)

No. 8, Li-Hsin Road 6

Hsinchu Science Park

Hsinchu, Taiwan

Republic of China

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class

  

Name of Each Exchange
on Which Registered

Common Shares, par value NT$10.00 each*    The New York Stock Exchange, Inc.

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

As of December 31, 2012, 25,924,435,668 Common Shares, par value NT$10 each were outstanding.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes    ü   No         

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or (15)(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes          No     ü 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes    ü   No          

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).

Yes          No        

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of “accelerated filer and large accelerated filer” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large Accelerated Filer    ü             Accelerated Filer                   Non-Accelerated Filer       

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 

U.S. GAAP         

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued       

by the International Accounting Standards Board

   Other   ü 

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

Item 17         Item 18   ü 

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).   Yes          No   ü 

 

* Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing on the New York Stock Exchange, Inc. of American Depositary Shares representing such Common Shares


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Limited

 

          Page  

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

     1   

PART I

     2   

ITEM 1.

   IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISORS      2   

ITEM 2.

   OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE      2   

ITEM 3.

   KEY INFORMATION      2   

ITEM 4.

   INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY      12   

ITEM 4A.

   UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS      21   

ITEM 5.

   OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEWS AND PROSPECTS      21   

ITEM 6.

   DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES      33   

ITEM 7.

   MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS      40   

ITEM 8.

   FINANCIAL INFORMATION      42   

ITEM 9.

   THE OFFER AND LISTING      43   

ITEM 10.

   ADDITIONAL INFORMATION      44   

ITEM 11.

   QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISKS      59   

ITEM 12D.

   DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES      62   

PART II

     63   

ITEM 13.

   DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES      63   

 

i


Table of Contents

ITEM 14.

   MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS      63   

ITEM 15.

   CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES      63   

ITEM 16A.

   AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT      65   

ITEM 16B.

   CODE OF ETHICS      65   

ITEM 16C.

   PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES      65   

ITEM 16D.

   EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES      65   

ITEM 16E.

   PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS      66   

ITEM 16F.

   CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT      66   

ITEM 16G.

   CORPORATE GOVERNANCE      66   

ITEM 16H.

   MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE      69   

PART III

     69   

ITEM 17.

  

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     69   

ITEM 18.

  

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     69   

ITEM 19.

  

EXHIBITS

     69   

EX-1.1   ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION

  

EX-3.1   RULES FOR ELECTION OF DIRECTORS

  

EX-3.2   RULES AND PROCEDURES OF BOARD OF DIRECTORS MEETINGS

  

EX-4.14 LAND LEASE WITH CENTRAL SCIENCE INDUSTRIAL PARK ADMINISTRATION

  

EX-12.1 CERTIFICATION OF CEO - RULE 13A-14(A)

  

EX-12.2 CERTIFICATION OF CFO - RULE 13A-14(A)

  

EX-13.1 CERTIFICATION OF CEO - RULE 13A-14(B)

  

EX-13.2 CERTIFICATION OF CFO - RULE 13A-14(B)

  

EX-99.1 CONSENT OF DELOITTE & TOUCHE

  

“TSMC”, “tsmc”, NEXSYS, NEXSYS Technology for SoC, EFOUNDRY, VIRTUAL FAB, TSMC-YOUR VIRTUAL FAB, TSMC-YOUR VIRTUAL FAB IN SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING, OPEN INNOVATION and OPEN INNOVATION PLATFORM ARE OUR REGISTERED TRADEMARKS IN VARIOUS JURISDICTIONS INCLUDING THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA USED BY US. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

 

ii


Table of Contents

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

This annual report includes statements that are, or may be deemed to be, “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of U.S. securities laws. The terms “anticipates,” “expects,” “may,” “will,” “should” and other similar expressions identify forward-looking statements. These statements appear in a number of places throughout this annual report and include statements regarding our intentions, beliefs or current expectations concerning, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity, prospects, growth, strategies and the industries in which we operate.

By their nature, forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties because they relate to events and depend on circumstances that may or may not occur in the future. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and our actual results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and the development of the industries in which we operate may differ materially from those made in or suggested by the forward-looking statements contained in this annual report. Important factors that could cause those differences include, but are not limited to:

 

   

the volatility of the semiconductor and electronics industry;

 

   

overcapacity in the semiconductor industry;

 

   

the increased competition from other companies and our ability to retain and increase our market share;

 

   

our ability to develop new technologies successfully and remain a technological leader;

 

   

our ability to maintain control over expansion and facility modifications;

 

   

our ability to generate growth and profitability;

 

   

our ability to hire and retain qualified personnel;

 

   

our ability to acquire required equipment and supplies necessary to meet business needs;

 

   

our reliance on certain major customers;

 

   

the political stability of our local region; and

 

   

general local and global economic conditions.

Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding our strategy and future plans, future business condition and financial results, our capital expenditure plans, our capacity management plans, expectations as to the commercial production using 20-nanometer and more advanced technologies, technological upgrades, investment in research and development, future market demand, future regulatory or other developments in our industry as well as business acquisitions and financing plans. Please see “Item 3. Key Information — Risk Factors” for a further discussion of certain factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by our forward-looking statements.

 

1


Table of Contents

PART I

 

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISORS

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION

Selected Financial and Operating Data

The selected income statement data, cash flow data and other financial data for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2011 and 2012, and the selected balance sheet data as of December 31, 2011 and 2012, set forth below, are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included herein, and should be read in conjunction with, and are qualified in their entirety by reference to, these consolidated financial statements, including the notes thereto. The selected income statement data, cash flow data and other financial data for the years ended December 31, 2008 and 2009 and the selected balance sheet data as of December 31, 2008, 2009 and 2010, set forth below, are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements not included herein. The consolidated financial statements have been prepared and presented in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted (“GAAP” or “R.O.C. GAAP”) in the Republic of China (“R.O.C.” or “Taiwan”), which differ in some material respects from accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) as further explained under note 33 to our consolidated financial statements.

 

    Year ended and as of December 31  
            2008                    2009                    2010                       2011                          2012                         2012              
    NT$     NT$     NT$     NT$     NT$     US$  
   

(in millions, except for percentages,

earnings per share and per ADS)

 

Income Statement Data:

           

R.O.C. GAAP

           

Net sales

    333,158        295,742        419,538        427,081        506,249        17,427    

Cost of sales

    (191,408)        (166,413)        (212,484)        (232,938)        (262,629)        (9,041)    

Gross profit before affiliates elimination

    141,750        129,329        207,054        194,143        243,620         8,386    

Unrealized gross profit from affiliates

    —        —        —        (74)        (25)        (1)    

Gross profit

    141,750        129,329        207,054        194,069        243,595        8,385    

Operating expenses

    (37,315)        (37,367)        (47,879)        (52,512)        (62,538)        (2,152)    

Income from operations

    104,435        91,962        159,175        141,557        181,057        6,233    

Non-operating income and gains

    10,822        5,654        13,136        5,359        6,782        233    

Non-operating expenses and losses

    (3,785)        (2,153)        (2,041)        (1,768)       (6,285)        (216)    

Income before income tax

    111,472        95,463        170,270        145,148        181,554        6,250    

Income tax expense

    (10,949)        (5,997)        (7,988)        (10,695)        (15,590)        (537)    

Net income

    100,523        89,466        162,282        134,453        165,964        5,713    

Net income attributable to minority interests

    (590)        (248)        (677)        (252)        195          

Net income attributable to shareholders of the parent

    99,933        89,218        161,605        134,201        166,159        5,720    

Basic earnings per share(1)

    3.84        3.45        6.24        5.18        6.41        0.22    

Diluted earnings per share(1)

    3.81        3.44        6.23        5.18        6.41        0.22    

Basic earnings per ADS equivalent(1)

    19.19        17.27        31.19        25.89        32.05        1.10    

Diluted earnings per ADS equivalent(1)

    19.05        17.22        31.17        25.88        32.04        1.10    

Basic weighted average shares outstanding(1)

    26,039        25,836        25,906        25,914        25,921        25,921    

Diluted weighted average shares outstanding(1)

    26,234        25,912        25,920        25,925        25,928        25,928    

U.S. GAAP

           

Net sales

    334,340        296,109        419,988        427,488        506,745        17,444    

Cost of sales

    (203,734)        (167,122)        (212,771)        (232,989)        (262,717)        (9,044)    

Gross profit before affiliates elimination

    130,606        128,987        207,217        194,499        244,028        8,400    

Unrealized gross profit from affiliates

    —        —        —        (74)        (25)        (1)    

Gross profit

    130,606        128,987        207,217        194,425        244,003        8,399    

Operating expenses

    (44,424)        (37,627)        (48,434)        (52,405)        (63,046)        (2,170)    

Income from operations

    86,182        91,360        158,783        142,020        180,957        6,229    

Income before income tax

    91,884        94,253        170,088        149,238        181,081        6,233    

Income tax expense

    (10,062)        (4,960)        (5,768)        (12,135)        (22,426)        (772)    

 

2


Table of Contents
    Year ended and as of December 31  
              2008                            2009                               2010                              2011                              2012                            2012             
    NT$     NT$     NT$     NT$     NT$     US$  
   

(in millions, except for percentages,

earnings per share and per ADS)

 

Net income

    81,822        89,293        164,320        137,103        158,655       5,461  

Net income attributable to shareholders of the parent

    81,473        89,102        163,639        136,873        158,850       5,468  

Basic earnings per share(1)

    3.15        3.45        6.32        5.28        6.13       0.21  

Diluted earnings per share(1)

    3.13        3.44        6.31        5.28        6.13       0.21  

Basic earnings per ADS equivalent(1)

    15.77        17.24        31.58        26.41        30.64       1.05  

Diluted earnings per ADS equivalent(1)

    15.66        17.19        31.57        26.40        30.63       1.05  

Basic weighted average shares outstanding(1)

    25,826        25,836        25,906        25,914        25,921       25,921  

Diluted weighted average shares outstanding(1)

    26,021        25,912        25,920        25,925        25,928       25,928  

Balance Sheet Data:

           

R.O.C. GAAP

           

Working capital

    195,812        180,671        138,328        108,253        109,853        3,782   

Long-term investments

    39,982        37,845        39,776        34,459        65,786        2,265   

Properties

    243,645        273,675        388,444        490,375        617,529        21,257   

Goodwill

    6,044        5,931        5,705        5,694        5,524        190   

Total assets

    558,917        594,696        718,929        774,265        955,035        32,876   

Long-term bank borrowing

    1,420        579        302        1,588        1,359        47   

Long-term bonds payable

    4,500        4,500        4,500        18,000        80,000        2,754   

Guarantee deposits and other  liabilities(2)

    15,817        11,436        12,231        5,627        5,486        189   

Total liabilities

    78,544        95,648        140,224        142,221        229,281        7,893   

Capital stock

    256,254        259,027        259,101        259,162        259,245        8,924   

Cash dividend on common shares

    76,881        76,876        77,708        77,730        77,749        2,676   

Shareholders’ equity attributable to shareholders of the parent

    476,377        495,083        574,145        629,594        723,198        24,895   

Minority interests in subsidiaries

    3,996        3,965        4,560        2,450        2,556        88   

U.S. GAAP

           

Goodwill

    47,028        46,825        46,419        46,399        46,093       1,587  

Total assets

    599,484        635,275        759,266        818,774        999,076       34,392  

Total liabilities

    84,424        99,278        144,109        147,161        241,660       8,319  

Capital Stock

    256,254        259,027        259,101        259,162        259,245       8,924  

Shareholders’ equity attributable to common shareholders of the parent

    511,089        532,043        610,597        669,163        754,860       25,985  

Noncontrolling interests in subsidiaries

    3,971        3,954        4,560        2,450        2,556       88  
    Year ended and as of December 31  
    2008     2009     2010     2011     2012     2012  
    NT$     NT$     NT$     NT$     NT$     US$  
    (in millions, except for percentages and operating data)  

Other Financial Data:

           

R.O.C. GAAP

           

Gross margin

    42%               44%                   49%                   45%        48%         48%     

Operating margin

    31%               31%                   38%                   33%        36%         36%     

Net margin

    30%               30%                   39%                   31%        33%         33%     

Capital expenditures

    59,223               87,785                   186,944                   213,963        246,137         8,473     

Depreciation and amortization

    81,512               80,815                   87,810                   107,682        131,349         4,521     

Cash provided by operating activities

    221,494               159,966                   229,476                   247,587        289,064         9,951     

Cash used in investing activities

    (8,042)               (96,468)                   (202,086)                   (182,523)        (273,196)         (9,404)     

Cash used in financing activities

    (115,393)               (85,471)                   (48,638)                   (67,858)        (13,811)         (475)     

Net cash inflow (outflow)

    99,628               (23,338)                   (23,389)                   (4,415)        (61)         (2)     

Operating Data:

           

Wafer (200mm equivalent) shipment(3)

    8,467               7,737                   11,860                   12,549        14,044        14,044    

Billing Utilization Rate(4)

    88%               75%                   101%                   91%        91%        91%    

 

 

(1) 

Retroactively adjusted for stock dividends for earning year 2008.

(2) 

Consists of other long-term payables, obligations under capital leases and total other liabilities.

(3) 

In thousands.

(4) 

“Billing Utilization Rate” is equal to annual wafer shipment divided by annual capacity. Capacity includes wafers committed by Vanguard and SSMC. Please see “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions — Related Party Transactions.”

Exchange Rates

We publish our financial statements in New Taiwan dollars, the lawful currency of the R.O.C. In this annual report, “$”, “US$” and “U.S. dollars” mean United States dollars, the lawful currency of the United States, and “NT$” and “NT dollars” mean New Taiwan dollars. This annual report contains translations of certain NT dollar amounts into U.S. dollars at specified rates solely for the convenience of the reader. The translations from NT dollars to U.S. dollars and from U.S. dollars to NT dollars for periods through December 31, 2008 were made at the year-end noon buying rate in The City of New York for cable transfers in NT dollars per U.S. dollar as certified for customs purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. For January 1, 2009 and all later dates and periods, the exchange rate refers to the exchange rate as set forth in the statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board. Unless otherwise noted, all translations for the year 2012 were made at the exchange rate as of December 31, 2012, which was NT$29.05 to US$1.00. On March 29, 2013, the exchange rate was NT$29.81 to US$1.00.

 

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The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, information concerning the number of NT dollars for which one U.S. dollar could be exchanged.

 

    NT dollars per U.S. dollar

 

          Average(1)                    High                        Low                    Period-End      

2008

  31.51   33.58   29.99   32.76

2009

  32.96   35.21   31.95   31.95

2010

  31.39   32.43   29.14   29.14

2011

  29.42   30.67   28.50   30.27

2012

  29.47   29.91   29.05   29.05

October 2012

  29.24   29.31   29.15   29.20

November 2012

  29.11   29.26   28.96   29.07

December 2012

  29.04   29.10   29.00   29.05

January 2013

  29.10   29.54   28.93   29.54

February 2013

  29.63   29.73   29.52   29.67

March 2013 (through March 29, 2013)

  29.74   29.88   29.63   29.81

 

 

(1) 

Annual averages calculated from month-end rates and monthly averages calculated from daily closing rates.

No representation is made that the NT dollar or U.S. dollar amounts referred to herein could have been or could be converted into U.S. dollars or NT dollars, as the case may be, at any particular rate or at all.

Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

Risk Factors

We wish to caution readers that the following important factors, and those important factors described in other reports submitted to, or filed with, the Securities and Exchange Commission, among other factors, could affect our actual results and could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf, and that such factors may adversely affect our business and financial status and therefore the value of your investment:

Risks Relating to Our Business

Any global systemic political, economic and financial crisis or catastrophic natural disasters (as well as the indirect effects flowing therefrom) could negatively affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

In recent times, several major systemic economic and financial crises and natural disasters negatively affected global business, banking and financial sectors, including the semiconductor industry and markets. These types of crises cause turmoil in global markets that often result in declines in electronic products sales from which we generate our income through our goods and services. In addition, these crises may cause a number of indirect effects such as undermining the ability of our customers to remain competitive vis-à-vis the financial and economic challenges created by insolvent countries and companies still struggling to survive in the wake of these crises. For example, there could be in the future knock-on effects from these types of crises on our business, including significant decreases in orders from our customers; insolvency of key suppliers resulting in product delays; inability of customers to obtain credit to finance purchases of our products; customer insolvencies; and counterparty failures negatively impacting our treasury operations. Any future systemic political, economic or financial crisis or catastrophic natural disaster (as well as the indirect effects flowing from these crises or disasters) could cause revenues for the semiconductor industry as a whole to decline dramatically, and if the economic conditions or financial condition of our customers were to deteriorate, additional accounting related allowances may be required in the future and such additional allowances could increase our operating expenses and therefore reduce our operating income and net income. Thus, any future global economic crisis or catastrophic natural disaster (and their indirect effects) could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

 

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Since we are dependent on the highly cyclical semiconductor and electronics industries, which have experienced significant and sometimes prolonged periods of downturns and overcapacity, our revenues, earnings and margins may fluctuate significantly.

The electronics industries and semiconductor market have historically been cyclical and subject to significant and often rapid increases and decreases in product demand. Our semiconductor foundry business is affected by market conditions in such highly cyclical electronics and semiconductor industries. Most of our customers operate in these industries. Variations in order levels from our customers result in volatility in our revenues and earnings. From time to time, the electronics and semiconductor industries have experienced significant and sometimes prolonged periods of downturns and overcapacity. Any systemic economic, political, or financial crisis, such as the one that occurred in 2008-2009, could create significant volatility and uncertainty within the electronics and semiconductor industries which may disrupt traditional notions of cyclicality within such industries. As such, the nature, extent and scope of such periods of downturns and overcapacity may vary drastically in accordance with the degree of volatility of market demand. Because we are, and will continue to be, dependent on the requirements of electronics and semiconductor companies for our services, periods of downturns and overcapacity in the general electronics and semiconductor industries lead to reduced demand for overall semiconductor foundry services, including our services. If we cannot take appropriate actions such as reducing our costs to sufficiently offset declines in demand, our revenues, margin and earnings will suffer during periods of downturns and overcapacity. Furthermore, due to the increasingly complex technological nature of our products and services and the ever uncertain global economic environment, we may need to provide higher accounting provisions on potential sales returns and allowances by our customers that may adversely affect the results of our operations.

Decreases in demand and average selling prices for products that contain semiconductors may adversely affect demand for our products and may result in a decrease in our revenues and earnings.

A vast majority of our sales revenue is derived from customers who use our services in communication devices, personal computers, consumer electronics products and industrial/standard products. Any decrease in the demand for any one of these products may decrease the demand for such other products as well as overall global semiconductor foundry services, including our services and may adversely affect our revenues. Further, because we own most of our manufacturing capacities, a significant portion of our operating costs is fixed. In general, these costs do not decline when customer demand or our capacity utilization rates drop, and thus declines in customer demand, among other factors, may significantly decrease our margins. Conversely, as product demand rises and factory utilization increases, the fixed costs are spread over increased output, which can improve our margins. In addition, the historical and current trend of declining average selling prices (or “ASP”) of end use applications places downward pressure on the prices of the components that go into such applications. If the ASP of end use applications continues decreasing, the pricing pressure on components produced by us may lead to a reduction of our revenues, margin and earnings.

In light of the rise of new foundry service providers worldwide, if we are unable to compete effectively in the highly competitive foundry segment of the semiconductor industry, we may lose customers and our profit margin and earnings may decrease.

The markets for our foundry services are highly competitive both in Taiwan and internationally. We compete with other foundry service providers, as well as integrated device manufacturers. Some of these companies may have access to more advanced technologies and greater financial and other resources than us, such as the possibility of receiving direct or indirect government bailout/economic stimulus funds or other incentives that may be unavailable to us. Our competition may, from time to time, also decide to undertake aggressive pricing initiatives in one or more technology nodes. Increases in these competitive activities may decrease our customer base, or our ASP, or both.

Over the past few years, we have seen the rise of certain firms with the capability of providing foundry services. These firms are committed to attract our customers. If we are unable to compete with these new competitors with better technologies and manufacturing capacity and capabilities, we risk losing customers to these new contenders.

 

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If we are unable to remain a technological leader in the semiconductor industry or if we are unable to timely respond to fast-changing semiconductor market dynamics, we may become less competitive.

The semiconductor industry and its technologies are constantly changing. We compete by developing process technologies using increasingly advanced nodes and on manufacturing products with more functions. We also compete by developing new derivative technologies. If we do not anticipate these changes in technologies and rapidly develop new and innovative technologies, or our competitors unforeseeably gain sudden access to additional technologies, we may not be able to provide foundry services on competitive terms. In addition, our customers have significantly decreased the time in which their products or services are launched into the market. If we are unable to meet these shorter product time-to-market, we risk losing these customers. These challenges also place greater demands on our research and development capabilities. If we are unable to innovate new technologies that meet the demands of our customers, our revenues may decline significantly. Although we have concentrated on maintaining a competitive edge in research and development, if we fail to achieve advances in technologies or processes, or to obtain access to advanced technologies or processes developed by others, we may become less competitive.

If we are unable to manage our capacity and the streamlining of our production facilities effectively, our competitiveness may be weakened.

We perform regular long term market demand forecasts to estimate market and general economic conditions for our products and services. Based upon these estimates, we manage our overall capacity in accordance with market demand. Because market conditions may vary significantly and unexpectedly, our market demand forecast may change significantly at any time. Further, since certain manufacturing lines or tools in some of our manufacturing facilities may be suspended or shut down temporarily during periods of decreased demand, we may not be able to ramp up in a timely manner during periods of increased demand. During periods of continued decline in demand, our operating facilities may not be able to absorb and complete in a timely manner outstanding orders re-directed from shuttered facilities. Based on demand forecasts, we have been adding capacity to our 300mm wafer fabs in the Hsinchu Science Park, Southern Taiwan Science Park and Central Taiwan Science Park. Total monthly capacity for 300mm wafer fabs was increased from 244,600 wafers as of December 31, 2010 to 290,100 wafers as of December 31, 2011 and to 366,800 wafers as of December 31, 2012. Expansion and modification of our production facilities will, among other factors, increase our costs. For example, we will need to purchase additional equipment, train personnel to operate the new equipment or hire additional personnel. If we do not increase our net sales accordingly, in order to offset these higher costs, our financial performance may be adversely affected. See “Item 4. Information on the Company — Capacity Management and Technology Upgrade Plans” for a further discussion.

We may not be able to implement our planned growth or development if we are unable to obtain sufficient financial resources to meet our future capital requirements.

Capital requirements are difficult to plan in the highly dynamic, cyclical and rapidly changing semiconductor industry. From time to time and increasingly so for the foreseeable next few years, we will continue to need significant capital to fund our operations and manage our capacity in accordance with market demand. Our continued ability to obtain sufficient external financing is subject to a variety of uncertainties, including:

 

   

our future financial condition, results of operations and cash flow;

 

   

general market conditions for financing activities;

 

   

market conditions for financing activities of semiconductor companies; and

 

   

social, economic, financial, political and other conditions in Taiwan and elsewhere.

Sufficient external financing may not be available to us on a timely basis, on reasonable market terms, or at all. As a result, we may be forced to curtail our expansion and modification plans or delay the deployment of new or expanded services until we obtain such financing.

We may not be able to implement our planned growth and development or maintain our leading position if we are unable to recruit and retain qualified executives, managers and skilled technical and service personnel.

We depend on the continued services and contributions of our executive officers and skilled technical and other personnel. Our business could suffer if we lose, for whatever reasons, the services and contributions of some of these personnel and we cannot adequately replace them. We may be required to increase or reduce the number of employees in connection with any business expansion or contraction, in accordance with market demand for our products and services. Since there is intense competition for the recruitment of these personnel, we cannot ensure that we will be able to fulfill our personnel requirements in a timely manner during an economic upturn.

 

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We may be unable to obtain in a timely manner and at a reasonable cost the equipment necessary for us to remain competitive.

Our operations and ongoing expansion plans depend on our ability to obtain an appropriate amount of equipment and related services from a limited number of suppliers in a market that is characterized from time to time by limited supply and long delivery cycles. During such times, supplier-specific or industry-wide lead times for delivery can be as long as six months or more. To better manage our supply chain, we have implemented various business models and risk management contingencies with suppliers to shorten the procurement lead time. We also provide our projected demand for various items to many of our equipment suppliers to help them plan their production in advance. We have purchased used tools and continue to seek opportunities to acquire relevant used tools. Further, the growing complexities especially in next-generation lithographic technologies may delay the timely availability of the equipments and parts needed to exploit time sensitive business opportunities and also increase the market price for such equipment and parts. If we are unable to obtain equipment in a timely manner to fulfill our customers’ orders, or at a reasonable cost, our financial condition and results of operations could be negatively impacted.

Our revenue and profitability may decline if we are unable to obtain adequate supplies of raw materials in a timely manner and at reasonable prices.

Our production operations require that we obtain adequate supplies of raw materials, such as silicon wafers, gases, chemicals, and photoresist, on a timely basis. In the past, shortages in the supply of some materials, whether by specific vendors or by the semiconductor industry generally, have resulted in occasional industry-wide price adjustments and delivery delays. Also, since we procure some of our raw materials from sole-source suppliers, there is a risk that our need for such raw materials may not be met when needed or that back-up supplies may not be readily available. Our revenue and earnings could decline if we are unable to obtain adequate supplies of the necessary raw materials in a timely manner or if there are significant increases in the costs of raw materials that we cannot pass on to our customers.

If the Ministry of Economic Affairs uses a substantial portion of our production capacity, we will not be able to service our other customers.

According to our agreement with the Industrial Technology Research Institute of Taiwan, or ITRI, the Ministry of Economic Affairs of the R.O.C., or an entity designated by the Ministry of Economic Affairs, has an option to purchase up to 35% of certain of our capacity, if our outstanding commitments to our customers are not prejudiced. Although the Ministry of Economic Affairs has never exercised this option, if this option is exercised to any significant degree during tight market conditions, we may not be able to provide services to all of our other customers unless we are able to increase our capacity accordingly or outsource such increased demand in a timely manner.

Any inability to obtain, preserve and defend our technologies and intellectual property rights and third-party licenses could harm our competitive position.

Our ability to compete successfully and to achieve future growth will depend in part on the continued strength of our intellectual property portfolio. While we actively enforce and protect our intellectual property rights, there can be no assurance that our efforts will be adequate to prevent the misappropriation or improper use of our proprietary technologies, trade secrets, software or know-how. Also, we cannot assure you that, as our business or business models expand into new areas, or otherwise, we will be able to develop independently the technologies, trade secrets, patents, software or know-how necessary to conduct our business or that we can do so without unknowingly infringing the intellectual property rights of others. As a result, we may have to rely increasingly on licensed technologies and patent licenses from others. To the extent that we rely on licenses from others, there can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain any or all of the necessary licenses in the future on terms we consider reasonable or at all. The lack of necessary licenses could expose us to claims for damages and/or injunctions from third parties, as well as claims for indemnification by our customers in instances where we have contractually agreed to indemnify our customers against damages resulting from infringement claims.

We have received, from time-to-time, communications from third parties asserting that our technologies, manufacturing processes, the design of the integrated circuits made by us or the use by our customers of semiconductors made by us may infringe upon their patents or other intellectual property rights. Because of the nature of the industry, we may continue to receive such communications in the future. In some instances, these disputes have resulted in litigation. Recently, there has been a notable increase in the number of claims or lawsuits initiated by certain litigious, non-practicing entities and these non-practicing entities are also becoming more aggressive in their monetary demands and requests for court-issued injunctions. Such lawsuits or claims may increase our cost of doing business and may potentially be extremely disruptive if the plaintiffs succeed in blocking the trade of our products and services. If we fail to obtain or maintain certain government, technologies or intellectual property licenses and, if litigation relating to alleged intellectual property matters occurs, it could prevent us from manufacturing or selling particular products or applying particular technologies, which could reduce our opportunities to generate revenues. See “Item 8. Financial Information — Legal Proceedings” for a further discussion.

 

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We are subject to the risk of loss due to explosion and fire because some of the materials we use in our manufacturing processes are highly combustible.

We and many of our suppliers use highly combustible and toxic materials in our manufacturing processes and are therefore subject to the risk of loss arising from explosion, fire, or environmental influences which cannot be completely eliminated. Although we maintain many overlapping risk prevention and protection systems, as well as comprehensive fire and casualty insurance, including insurance for loss of property and loss of profit resulting from business interruption, our risk management and insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all of our potential losses. If any of our fabs or vendor facilities were to be damaged, or cease operations as a result of an explosion, fire, or environmental influences, it could reduce our manufacturing capacity and may cause us to lose important customers, thereby having a potentially adverse and material impact on our financial performance.

Any impairment charges may have a material adverse effect on our net income.

Under R.O.C. GAAP and U.S. GAAP, we are required to evaluate our investments, long-lived assets and intangible assets for impairment whenever triggering events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset may be impaired. If certain criteria are met, we are required to record an impairment charge. We are also required under R.O.C. GAAP and U.S. GAAP to evaluate goodwill for impairment at least on an annual basis or more frequently whenever triggering events or changes in circumstances indicate that goodwill may be impaired and the carrying value may not be recoverable. For example, we hold certain investments in publicly listed companies, some of which have incurred certain impairment charges as discussed further in our financial statements.

We currently are not able to estimate the extent or timing of any impairment charge for future years. Any impairment charge required may have a material adverse effect on our net income.

The determination of an impairment charge at any given time is based significantly on our expected results of operations over a number of years subsequent to that time. As a result, an impairment charge is more likely to occur during a period when our operating results are otherwise already depressed. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Critical Accounting Policies” for a discussion of how we assess if an impairment charge is required and, if so, how the amount is determined.

Having one or more large customers that account for a significant percentage of our revenues may render us vulnerable to the loss of or significant curtailment of purchases by one or more large customers that could in turn adversely affect our results of operations.

Over the years, our customer profile and the nature of our customers’ business have changed dramatically. While we generate revenue from hundreds of customers worldwide, our ten largest customers accounted for approximately 54%, 56% and 59% of our net sales in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Our largest customer accounted for 9%, 14% and 17% of our net sales in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. This customer concentration results in part from the changing dynamics of the electronics industry with the structural shift to mobile devices and applications and software that provide the content for such devices. There are only a limited number of customers who are successfully exploiting this new business model paradigm. Also, in order to respond to the new business model paradigm, we have seen the nature of our customers’ business model changes. For example, there is a growing trend toward the rise of system houses that operate in a manner which make their products and services more marketable in a changing consumer market. The loss of, or significant curtailment of purchases by, one or more of our top customers, including curtailments due to increased competitive pressures, industrial consolidation, a change in their designs, or change in their manufacturing sourcing policies or practices of these customers, or the timing of customer or distributor inventory adjustments, or change in our major customers’ business models may adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Any failure to achieve and maintain effective internal controls could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reasonable assurance with respect to our financial reports and to effectively prevent fraud. If we cannot provide reasonable assurance with respect to our financial reports and effectively prevent fraud and corruption, our reputation and results of operations could be harmed.

We are required to comply with various R.O.C. and U.S. laws and regulations on internal controls. For example, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, we are required to furnish a report by management on our internal control over financial reporting, including management’s assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Moreover, R.O.C. law requires us to establish internal control systems that would reasonably ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of operations, reliability of financial reporting, and compliance with applicable laws and regulations. We are also required under R.O.C. law to file an internal control declaration within four months of the end of each fiscal year.

 

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Internal controls may not prevent or detect misstatements because of their inherent limitations, including the possibility of human error, the circumvention or overriding of controls, fraud or corruption. Therefore, even effective internal controls can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements. In addition, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness of internal controls to future periods are subject to the risk that the internal controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate. If we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal controls, including any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or if we experience difficulties in their implementation, our business and operating results could be harmed, we could fail to meet our reporting obligations, and there could be a material adverse effect on the market price of our common shares and ADSs.

Our global manufacturing, design and sales activities subject us to risks associated with legal, political, economic or other conditions or developments in various jurisdictions, including in particular the R.O.C., which could negatively affect our business and financial status and therefore the market value of your investment.

Our principal executive officers and our principal production facilities are located in the R.O.C., and a substantial majority of our net revenues are derived from our operations in the R.O.C. In addition, we have operations worldwide and a significant percentage of our revenue comes from sales to locations outside the R.O.C. Operating in the R.O.C. and overseas exposes us to changes in policies and laws, as well as the general political and economic conditions, security risks, health conditions and possible disruptions in transportation networks, in the various countries in which we operate, which could result in an adverse effect on our business operations in such countries and our results of operations as well as the market price and the liquidity of our ADSs and common shares.

For example, even though the R.O.C. and the PRC have co-existed for the past 63 years and significant economic and cultural relations have been established during that time, the financial markets have viewed certain past developments in relations between the two sides as occasions to depress general market prices of the securities of Taiwanese companies, including our own. In addition, the R.O.C. government has not lifted some trade and investment restrictions imposed on Taiwanese companies on the amount and types of certain investments that can be made in Mainland China. In addition to the above factors, future expansions of our operations in Taiwan will likely be handicapped by the limited availability of commercial-use land, industrial-quantities of natural resources such as water (needed for our foundry processes) and experienced human resources.

Our operational results could also be materially and adversely affected by natural disasters or interruptions in the supply of utilities (such as water or electricity), in the locations in which we, our customers or our suppliers operate.

The apparent frequency and severity of natural disasters has increased recently. We have manufacturing and other operations in locations subject to natural disasters, such as severe weather, flooding, earthquakes and tsunamis, as well as interruptions or shortages in the supply of utilities, such as water and electricity, which could disrupt operations. We have operations in earthquake-prone locations and any major natural disaster occurring in any such locations may cause severe disruptions to our business operations and financial performance. In addition, our suppliers and customers also have operations in such locations. For example, most of our production facilities, as well as those of many of our suppliers and customers and upstream providers of complementary semiconductor manufacturing services, are located in Taiwan and Japan, which are susceptible to earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, typhoons, and droughts from time to time. In addition, we have sometimes suffered power outages in Taiwan caused by difficulties encountered by our electricity supplier, the Taiwan Power Company, or other power consumers on the same power grid, which have resulted in interruptions to our production schedule. While our business continuity management and emergency response plans are intended to prevent or minimize losses in the future, there is no assurance that the measures will fully eliminate the losses or the insurance will fully cover any losses. One or more natural disasters or interruptions to the supply of utilities that results in a prolonged disruption to our operations, or the operations of our customers or suppliers, may adversely affect the results of our operations and financial conditions.

Our failure to comply with applicable environmental and climate related laws and regulations, as well as international accords to which we are subject, could also harm our business and operational results.

The manufacturing, assembling and testing of our products require the use of chemicals and materials that are subject to environmental, climate-related, and health and safety laws and regulations issued worldwide. Although we may be eligible for various exemptions and/or extensions of time for compliance, our failure to comply with any of these applicable laws or regulations could result in:

 

   

significant penalties and legal liabilities, such as the denial of import permits;

 

   

the temporary or permanent suspension of production of the affected products;

 

   

unfavorable alterations in our manufacturing, fabrication and assembly and test processes; and

 

   

restrictions on our operations or sales.

 

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Existing and future environmental and climate related laws and regulations as well as applicable international accords to which we are subject, could also require us, among other things, to do the following: (a) purchase, use or install expensive pollution control, reduction or remediation equipment; (b) implement climate change mitigation programs and “abatement or reduction of greenhouse gas emissions” programs, or “carbon credit trading” programs; (c) modify our product designs and manufacturing processes, or incur other significant expenses associated with such laws and regulations such as obtaining substitute raw materials or chemicals that may cost more or be less available for our operations. It is still unclear whether such necessary actions would affect the reliability or efficiency of our products and services.

Any of the above contingencies resulting from the actual and potential impact of local or international laws and regulations, as well as international accords on environmental or climate change, could harm our business and operational results by increasing our expenses or requiring us to alter our manufacturing and assembly and test processes. For further details, please see our compliance record with Taiwan and international environmental and climate related laws and regulations in “Item 4. Information on the Company — Environmental Regulations”.

Climate change, other environmental concerns and green initiatives also present other commercial challenges, economic risks and physical risks that could harm our operational results or affect the manner in which we conduct our business.

Increasing climate change and environmental concerns could affect the results of our operations if any of our customers request that we exceed any standard(s) set for environmentally compliant products and services. For example, we have been working on an on-going basis with our suppliers, customers, and several industry consortia to develop and provide products that are compliant with the EU “RoHS” (European Union Restriction of Hazardous Substances) Directive. Even though we are entitled to rely on various exemptions under RoHS, some of our customers might request that we provide products that exceed the legal standard set by RoHS without using any of the exemptions still permitted under RoHS. If we are unable to offer such products or offer products that are compliant, but are not as reliable due to the lack of reasonably available alternative technologies or materials, we may lose market share to our competitors.

Further, energy costs in general could increase significantly due to climate change and other regulations. Therefore, our energy costs may increase significantly if utility or power companies pass on their costs, either fully or partially, such as those associated with carbon taxes, emission caps and carbon credit trading programs. For further details, please see details of our business continuity management of climate change policy in “Item 4. Information on the Company — Environmental Regulation”.

In order to mitigate risks resulting from climate change, we continue to actively carry out energy conservation measures, implement voluntary perfluorinated compounds (“PFCs”) emission reduction projects and conduct greenhouse gas inventories verification every year. Since 2005, we have publicly disclosed climate change information every year through participation in the annual survey conducted by the nonprofit carbon disclosure project, which includes greenhouse gas emission and reduction information for all of our fabs.

Adverse fluctuations in exchange rates could decrease our operating margin.

Over one-half of our capital expenditures and manufacturing costs are denominated in currencies other than NT dollars, primarily in U.S. dollars, Japanese yen and Euros. In 2012, more than 90% of our sales were denominated in U.S. dollars and currencies other than NT dollars. Therefore, any significant fluctuation to our disadvantage in such exchange rates would have an adverse effect on our financial condition. For example, during the period from September 1, 2010 to December 30, 2010, the U.S. dollar depreciated 8.9% against the NT dollar, which had a negative impact on our results of operations. Specifically, based on our 2012 results, every 1% depreciation of the U.S. dollar against the NT dollar exchange rate may result in approximately 0.4 percentage point decrease in our operating margin. In addition, fluctuations in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the NT dollar may affect the U.S. dollar value of our common shares and the market price of the ADSs and of any cash dividends paid in NT dollars on our common shares represented by ADSs. Please see “Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk” for a further discussion on the possible impact of other market factors on our results of operations.

Fluctuations in inflationary and deflationary market expectations could negatively affect costs of and demand for our products and services, which may harm our financial results.

The world economy is becoming more vulnerable to sudden unexpected fluctuations in inflationary and deflationary market expectations and conditions. For example, certain structural changes that resulted from the global financial crisis in 2008-2009 and EU sovereign debt crises, such as highly accommodative monetary policies by major central banks worldwide, may cause variations in the expectation of inflation or deflation. Both high inflation and deflation adversely affect an economy, at both the macro and micro levels, by reducing economic efficiency, disrupting saving and investment decisions and reducing the efficiency of the market prices as a mechanism to allocate resources. Such fluctuations may negatively affect the costs of our operations and the business operations of our customers who may be forced to plan their purchases of our goods and services within an uncertain macro and micro economy. Therefore, the demand for our products and services could unexpectedly fluctuate severely in accordance with market and consumer expectations of inflation or deflation. Please see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Inflation & Deflation” for a further discussion.

 

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Amendments to existing tax regulations or new tax legislation in the R.O.C. may have an adverse effect on our net income.

While we are subject to tax laws and regulations in various jurisdictions in which we operate or conduct business, our principal operations are conducted in the R.O.C. and we are exposed primarily to taxes levied by the government of the R.O.C. In August 2012, the R.O.C. government amended the alternative minimum tax, or AMT, rate for business entities from 10% to 12% effective from January 1, 2013. As a result of this change, and changes in the various tax credit incentives and exemptions available to us, we anticipate our effective tax rate for 2013 will be 14.0%, an increase from 8.7% in 2012, which is anticipated to negatively affect our net income in 2013. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Taxation” for a further discussion of significant tax regulation changes.

If certain of our strategic investments fail to achieve their respective forecasted returns or objectives, we may suffer financial losses that may materially lower our profit margin and distributable earnings.

From time to time, we have made or will make a series of strategic investments that serve two major purposes. Firstly, some of our major strategic investments were (or will be) made to help us open new sources of revenues and innovate alternative business models that target to generate additional shareholders’ value going forward in the future. For example, in order to help us grow into next generation business areas, we have invested to develop potential businesses in solid state lighting, solar power and other renewable sources of energy. We believe these investments into these areas will generate new sources of revenues as the transition into consuming cleaner sources of power is generally expected gradually. For further information on these investments, please see “Item 3. Key Information — Our Subsidiaries and Affiliates”. Secondly, some of our significant strategic investments were (or will be) made to help us grow our existing business by augmenting key technology development. For example, to accelerate the development of next-generation lithographic technology, in August 2012, TSMC joined the ASML Holding N.V. Customer Co-Investment Program (along with other major technology firms). The program’s scope includes development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography technology and 450-millimeter (450mm) lithography tools. Under the agreement with ASML Holding N.V. (“ASML”), TSMC invested EUR838 million to acquire 5% of ASML’s equity and has committed EUR277 million to be spread over five years, to ASML’s research and development program. We are exposed to share price fluctuations arising from the investments in ASML, especially when our equity investment is subject to a lock-up period of 2.5 years. In the future, we may make more strategic investments in various forms, whether through stock purchases, assets purchases, licensing of major intellectual property rights, joint investments or research and development projects, outright mergers and acquisitions, private equity transactions or receiving investments from a consortium of large institutional, public or private investors, etc. Any such investment will incur risks, which may result in losses if not carefully managed. Any such loss resulting from such investments may result in significant impairment charges, lower profit margin and ultimately lower distributable earnings.

Our historical financial statements were prepared in conformity with R.O.C. GAAP and starting from January 1, 2013, under IFRSs; our 2012 consolidated financial statements that will be prepared as a comparative period for our 2013 IFRS financial statements may be materially different from the accompanied 2012 consolidated financial statements under R.O.C. GAAP.

Starting in 2013, our financial statements will be prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, International Accounting Standards, and relevant Interpretations (collectively, “IFRSs”) as issued by International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”) and IFRSs as endorsed for use in R.O.C. Since the transition date to IFRSs was January 1, 2012, our 2012 consolidated financial statements that will be prepared as a comparative period for our 2013 IFRS financial statements may be materially different from the accompanied 2012 consolidated financial statements under R.O.C. GAAP.

Risks Relating to Ownership of ADSs

Your voting rights as a holder of ADSs will be limited.

Holders of American Depositary Receipts (ADRs) evidencing ADSs may exercise voting rights with respect to the common shares represented by these ADSs only in accordance with the provisions of our ADS deposit agreement. The deposit agreement provides that, upon receipt of notice of any meeting of holders of our common shares, the depositary bank will, as soon as practicable thereafter, mail to the holders (i) the notice of the meeting sent by us, (ii) voting instruction forms and (iii) a statement as to the manner in which instructions may be given by the holders.

 

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ADS holders will not generally be able to exercise the voting rights attaching to the deposited securities on an individual basis. According to the provisions of our ADS deposit agreement, the voting rights attaching to the deposited securities must be exercised as to all matters subject to a vote of shareholders collectively in the same manner, except in the case of an election of directors. Election of directors is by means of cumulative voting. See “Item 10. Additional Information — Voting of Deposited Securities” for a more detailed discussion of the manner in which a holder of ADSs can exercise its voting rights.

You may not be able to participate in rights offerings and may experience dilution of your holdings.

We may, from time to time, distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire securities. Under our ADS deposit agreement, the depositary bank will not distribute rights to holders of ADSs unless the distribution and sale of rights and the securities to which these rights relate are either exempt from registration under the United States Securities Act of 1933, as amended, (the “Securities Act”), with respect to all holders of ADSs, or are registered under the provisions of the Securities Act. Although we may be eligible to take advantage of certain exemptions for rights offerings by certain foreign companies, we can give no assurance that we can establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act, and we are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to any such rights or underlying securities or to endeavor to have such a registration statement declared effective. In addition, if the depositary bank is unable to obtain the requisite approval from the Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) for the conversion of the subscription payments into NT dollars or if the depositary determines that it is unlikely to obtain this approval, we may decide with the depositary bank not to make the rights available to holders of ADSs. See “Item 10. Additional Information — Foreign Investment in the R.O.C.” and “Item 10. Additional Information — Exchange Controls in the R.O.C.”. Accordingly, holders of ADSs may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution of their holdings as a result.

If the depositary bank is unable to sell rights that are not exercised or not distributed or if the sale is not lawful or reasonably practicable, it will allow the rights to lapse, in which case you will receive no value for these rights.

The value of your investment may be reduced by possible future sales of common shares or ADSs by us or our shareholders.

One or more of our existing shareholders may, from time to time, dispose of significant numbers of our common shares or ADSs. For example, the National Development Fund of Taiwan, R.O.C. which owned 6.4% of TSMC’s outstanding shares as of February 28, 2013, has sold our shares in the form of ADSs in several transactions during the period between 1997 and 2005.

We cannot predict the effect, if any, that future sales of ADSs or common shares, or the availability of ADSs or common shares for future sale, will have on the market price of ADSs or common shares prevailing from time to time. Sales of substantial amounts of ADSs or common shares in the public market, or the perception that such sales may occur, could depress the prevailing market price of our ADSs or common shares.

The market value of our shares may fluctuate due to the volatility of, and government intervention in, the R.O.C. securities market.

The Taiwan Stock Exchange experiences from time to time substantial fluctuations in the prices and volumes of sales of listed securities. There are currently limits on the range of daily price movements on the Taiwan Stock Exchange. In response to past declines and volatility in the securities markets in Taiwan, and in line with similar activities by other countries in Asia, the government of the R.O.C. formed the Stabilization Fund, which has purchased and may from time to time purchase shares of Taiwan companies to support these markets. In addition, other funds associated with the R.O.C. government have in the past purchased, and may from time to time purchase, shares of Taiwan companies on the Taiwan Stock Exchange or other markets. These funds have disposed and may from time to time dispose shares of Taiwan companies so purchased at a later time. In the future, market activity by government entities, or the perception that such activity is taking place, may take place or has ceased, may cause fluctuations in the market prices of our ADSs and common shares.

 

ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

Our History and Structure

We believe we are currently the world’s largest dedicated foundry in the semiconductor industry. We were founded in 1987 as a joint venture among the R.O.C. government and other private investors and were incorporated in the R.O.C. on February 21, 1987. Our common shares have been listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange since September 5, 1994, and our ADSs have been listed on the New York Stock Exchange since October 8, 1997.

 

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Our Principal Office

Our principal executive office is located at No. 8, Li-Hsin Road 6, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of China. Our telephone number at that office is (886-3) 563-6688. Our web site is www.tsmc.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated herein by reference and does not constitute part of this annual report.

Business Overview of the Company

As a foundry, we manufacture semiconductors using our manufacturing processes for our customers based on their own or third parties’ proprietary integrated circuit designs. We offer a comprehensive range of wafer fabrication processes, including processes to manufacture CMOS logic, mixed-signal, radio frequency, embedded memory, BiCMOS mixed-signal and other semiconductors. We estimate that our revenue market segment share among total foundries worldwide was 45% in 2012. We also offer design, mask making, bumping, probing, assembly and testing services.

We believe that our large capacity, particularly for advanced technologies, is a major competitive advantage. Please see “— Manufacturing Capacity and Technology” and “— Capacity Management and Technology Upgrade Plans” for a further discussion of our capacity.

We count among our customers many of the world’s leading semiconductor companies, ranging from fabless semiconductor and system companies such as Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., Altera Corporation, Broadcom Corporation, Marvell Semiconductor Inc., MediaTek Inc., NVIDIA Corporation, OmniVision Technologies and Qualcomm Incorporated, to integrated device manufacturers such as LSI Corporation, STMicroelectronics and Texas Instruments Inc. Fabless semiconductor and system companies accounted for approximately 85%, and integrated device manufacturers accounted for approximately 15% of our net sales in 2012.

Our Semiconductor Facilities

We currently operate one 150mm wafer fab, six 200mm wafer fabs and three 300mm wafer fabs. Our corporate headquarters and five of our fabs are located in the Hsinchu Science Park, two fabs are located in the Southern Taiwan Science Park, one fab is located in the Central Taiwan Science Park, one fab is located in the United States, and one fab is located in Shanghai. Our corporate headquarters and our five fabs in Hsinchu occupy parcels of land of a total of approximately 555,304 square meters. We lease these parcels from the Hsinchu Science Park Administration in Hsinchu under agreements that will be up for renewal between May 2013 and December 2029. We have leased from the Central Taiwan Science Park Administration a parcel of land of approximately 184,408 square meters for our Taichung fabs under agreements that will be up for renewal in December 2028. We have leased from the Southern Taiwan Science Park Development Office approximately 764,158 square meters of land for our fabs in the Southern Taiwan Science Park under agreements that will be up for renewal between July 2017 and January 2032. WaferTech owns a parcel of land of approximately 1,052,186 square meters in the State of Washington in the United States, where the WaferTech fab and related offices are located. TSMC China owns the land use rights of 369,087 square meters of land in Shanghai, where Fab 10 and related offices are located. Other than certain equipment under leases located at testing areas, we own all of the buildings and equipment for our fabs. We are expanding our 300mm fabrication capacity and research and development through Fab 12 in the Hsinchu Science Park, Fab 14 in the Southern Taiwan Science Park and Fab 15 in the Central Taiwan Science Park. Total monthly capacity for 300mm wafer fabs was increased from 244,600 wafers as of December 31, 2010 to 290,100 wafers as of December 31, 2011 and to 366,800 wafers as of December 31, 2012. We will continuously evaluate our capacity in light of prevailing market conditions.

Semiconductor Manufacturing Capacity and Technology

We manufacture semiconductors on silicon wafers based on proprietary circuitry designs provided by our customers or third party designers. Two key factors that characterize a foundry’s manufacturing capabilities are output capacity and fabrication process technologies. Since our establishment, we have possessed the largest capacity among the world’s dedicated foundries. We also believe that we are the technology leader among the dedicated foundries in terms of our net sales of advanced semiconductors with a resolution of 65-nanometer and below, and are one of the leaders in the semiconductor manufacturing industry generally. We are the first semiconductor foundry with proven low-k interconnect technology in commercial production from the 0.13 micron node down to 28-nanometer node. Following our commercial production based on 65-nanometer process technology in 2006, we also unveiled 55-nanometer process technology in 2007. Our 65-nanometer and 55-nanometer technologies are the third-generation proprietary processes that employ low-k dielectrics. In 2008, we also qualified our 45-nanometer and 40-nanometer process technologies with ultra low-k dielectrics and advanced immersion lithography. In the fourth quarter of 2011, we have begun volume production of 28-nanometer products with first-generation high-k/metal gate transistor. In 2012, we continued 20-nanometer technology development to provide migration path from 28-nanometer for both performance driven products and mobile computing applications.

 

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The following table lists our fabs and those of our affiliates, together with the year of commencement of commercial production, technology and capacity during the last five years:

 

Fab(1)

   Year of
  commencement  
       Current most    
advanced
technology  for
volume
production(2)
   Monthly capacity(3)(4)  
                       2008                      2009                      2010                      2011                      2012          

2

   1990    450      51,609                53,649                48,244                48,244          48,412     

3

   1995    150      92,400                95,377                100,957                102,173          103,023     

5

   1997    150      54,200                48,600                47,500                42,740          49,849     

6

   2000    110      95,100                96,800                94,997                96,282         100,440     

8

   1998    110      91,600                85,750                85,753                85,737          89,587     

10

   2004    150      43,000                45,500                49,600                77,500          80,300     

11

   1998    150      35,500                36,565                36,300                36,500          37,500     

12

   2001    28      167,910                199,283                238,927                265,419          289,747     

14

   2004    40      179,258                186,443                311,447                387,206          418,862     

15

   2012    28      -                -                -                        116,782     

SSMC(5)

   2000    150      24,600                22,010                23,146                21,907          21,907     
        

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

           835,177                869,977                1,036,871                1,163,708          1,356,409     
        

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

(1) 

Fab 2 produces 150mm wafers. Fabs 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, Fab 11 (WaferTech) and SSMC produce 200mm wafers. Fab 12, Fab 14, and Fab 15 produce 300mm wafers. Fabs 2, 3, 5, 8 and 12 are located in Hsinchu Science Park. Fab 6 and Fab 14 are located in the Southern Taiwan Science Park. Fab15 is located in Central Taiwan Science Park. WaferTech is located in the United States, SSMC is located in Singapore and Fab 10 is located in Shanghai.

(2) 

In nanometers, as of year-end.

(3) 

Estimated capacity in 200mm equivalent wafers as of year-end for the total technology range available for production.

(4) 

Under an agreement with Vanguard, TSMC is required to use its best commercial efforts to maintain utilization of a fixed amount of reserved capacity and will not increase or decrease the stipulated quantity by more than 5,000 wafers per month. Please see “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions — Related Party Transactions — Vanguard International Semiconductor Corporation” for a discussion of certain of the Vanguard contract terms. The amounts to be used at Vanguard are not included in our monthly capacity figures.

(5) 

Represents that portion of the total capacity that we had the option to utilize as of December 31, 2008, December 31, 2009, December 31, 2010, December 31, 2011 and December 31, 2012. This fab commenced production in September 2000.

As of December 31, 2012, our monthly capacity (in 200mm equivalent wafers) was 1,356,409 wafers, compared to 1,163,708 wafers at the end of 2011. This increase was primarily due to the expansion of our 28-nanometer advanced technology. Our semiconductor manufacturing facilities require substantial investment to construct and are largely fixed-cost assets once they are in operation. Because we own most of our manufacturing capacity, a significant portion of our operating costs is fixed. In general, these costs do not decline when customer demand or our capacity utilization rates drop, and thus declines in customer demand, among other factors, may significantly decrease our margins. Conversely, as product demand rises and factory utilization increases, the fixed costs are spread over increased output, which can improve our margins.

Capacity Management and Technology Upgrade Plans

We regularly perform long term market demand forecasts to estimate market and general economic conditions for our products and services. Based upon these estimates, we manage our overall capacity in accordance with market demand. For example, such planning enables us to match significant customer demands for our services with the corresponding capacity increase needed to fulfill such demands. But since market conditions may vary significantly and unexpectedly, our market demand forecast may change significantly at any time. Based on current demand forecasts, we intend to maintain our strategy of expanding manufacturing capacity and improving manufacturing process technologies to meet both the fabrication and the technological needs of our customers.

Our capital expenditures in 2010, 2011 and 2012 were NT$186,944 million, NT$213,963 million and NT$246,137 million (US$8,322 million, translated from a weighted average exchange rate of NT$29.577 to US$1.00), respectively. Our capital expenditures in 2013 are expected to be approximately US$9 billion, which, depending on market conditions, may be adjusted later. Prior to 2012, our capital expenditures were funded by our operating cash flow. Starting 2012, our capital expenditures were partially funded by the issuance of corporate bonds. The capital expenditures for 2013 are also expected to be funded in similar ways as in 2012. In 2013, we anticipate our capital expenditures to focus primarily on the following:

 

   

adding production capacity to our 300mm wafer fabs;

 

   

developing new process technologies in 20-nanometer, and 16-nanometer nodes;

 

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expanding buildings/facilities for Fab 12, Fab 14 and Fab 15;

 

   

other research and development projects;

 

   

capacity expansion for mask and backend operations; and

 

   

solar and solid state lighting businesses.

These investment plans are still preliminary and may change per market conditions.

Markets and Customers

The primary customers of our foundry services are fabless semiconductor companies/systems companies and integrated device manufacturers. The following table presents the breakdown of net sales by type of customers during the last three years:

 

     Year ended December 31  
     2010      2011      2012  

Customer Type

       Net Sales            Percentage            Net Sales            Percentage            Net Sales            Percentage    
     (in millions, except percentages)  

Fabless semiconductor companies/systems companies

     NT$331,264         78.9%            NT$346,615         81.2%         NT$432,090           85.4%   

Integrated device manufacturers

     88,054         21.0%            80,431         18.8%         74,007           14.6%   

Others

     220         0.1%            35         0.0%         152           0.0%   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     NT$419,538         100.0%            NT$427,081         100.0%         NT$506,249           100.0%   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

We categorize our net sales based on the country in which the customer is headquartered, which may be different from the net sales for the countries to which we actually sell or ship our products or different from where products are actually ordered. Under this approach, the following table presents a regional geographic breakdown of our net sales during the last three years:

 

     Year ended December 31  
     2010      2011      2012  

Region

       Net Sales           Percentage           Net Sales            Percentage            Net Sales             Percentage     
     (in millions, except percentages)  

North America

     NT$282,498         67.3%         NT$294,858         69.0%         NT$345,474          68.2%   

Asia Pacific

     60,796         14.5%         59,618         14.0%         72,889          14.4%   

Europe

     44,360         10.6%         39,440         9.2%         46,430          9.2%   

China

     13,345         3.2%         16,072         3.8%         24,674          4.9%   

Japan

     18,539         4.4%         17,093         4.0%         16,782          3.3%   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     NT$419,538         100.0%         NT$427,081         100.0%         NT$506,249          100.0%   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

We provide worldwide customer support. Our office in Hsinchu and wholly-owned subsidiaries in the United States, Canada, Japan, Mainland China, the Netherlands, South Korea and India are dedicated to serving our customers worldwide. Foundry services, which are both technologically and logistically intensive, involve frequent and in-depth interaction with customers. We believe that the most effective means of providing foundry services is by developing direct and close relationships with our customers. Our customer service and technical support managers work closely with the sales force to offer integrated services to customers. To facilitate customer interaction and information access on a real-time basis, a suite of web-based applications have also been offered to provide more active interactions with customers in design, engineering and logistics.

Purchase Orders by Customers. Because of the fast-changing technology and functionality in semiconductor design, foundry customers generally do not place purchase orders far in advance to manufacture a particular type of product. However, we engage in discussions with customers regarding their expected manufacturing requirements in advance of the placement of purchase orders.

 

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The Semiconductor Fabrication Process

In general, the semiconductor manufacturing process begins with a thin silicon wafer on which an array of semiconductor devices is fabricated. The wafer is then tested, cut into dice, and assembled into packages that are then individually retested. Our focus is on wafer fabrication although we also provide all other services either directly or through outsourcing arrangements.

Our Foundry Services

Range of Services. Because of our ability to provide a full array of services, we are able to accommodate customers with a variety of needs at every stage of the overall foundry process. The flexibility in input stages allows us to cater to a variety of customers with different in-house capabilities and thus to service a wider class of customers as compared to a foundry that cannot offer design or mask making services, for example.

Fabrication Processes. We manufacture semiconductors using the complementary metal oxide silicon, CMOS and BiCMOS processes. The CMOS process is currently the dominant semiconductor manufacturing process. The BiCMOS process combines the high speed of the bipolar circuitry and the low power consumption and high density of the CMOS circuitry. We use the CMOS process to manufacture logic semiconductors, mixed-signal/radio frequency (“RF”) semiconductors, which combine analog and digital circuitry in a single semiconductor, micro-electro-mechanical-system (“MEMS”), which combines micrometer featured mechanical parts, analog and digital circuitry in a single semiconductor, and embedded memory semiconductors, which combine logic and memory in a single semiconductor. The BiCMOS process is used to make high-end mixed-signal and other types of semiconductors.

Types of Semiconductors We Manufacture. We manufacture different types of semiconductors with different specific functions by changing the number and the combinations of conducting, insulating and semiconducting layers and by defining different patterns in which such layers are applied on the wafer. At any given point in time, there are thousands of different products in various stages of fabrication at our fabs. We believe that the keys to maintaining high production quality and utilization rates are our effective management and control of the manufacturing process technologies which comes from our extensive experience as the longest existing dedicated foundry and our dedication to quality control and process improvements.

The following is a general, non-exhaustive description of the key types of semiconductors that we currently manufacture. Depending on future market conditions, we may provide other services or manufacture other types of products that may be additive to or differ significantly from the following:

Logic Semiconductors. Logic semiconductors process digital data to control the operation of electronic systems. The largest segment of the logic market, standard logic devices, includes microprocessors, application processors, microcontrollers, digital signal processors (“DSP”), graphic chips and chipsets.

Mixed-Signal/RF Semiconductors. Analog/digital semiconductors combine analog and digital devices on a single semiconductor to process both analog and digital data. We make mixed-signal/RF semiconductors using both the CMOS and BiCMOS processes. We currently offer CMOS mixed-signal process down to the 28-nanometer technology for manufacturing mixed-signal/RF semiconductors. The primary uses of mixed-signal/RF semiconductors are in hard disk drives, wireless communications equipment and network communications equipment, with those made with the BiCMOS process occupying the higher end of the mixed-signal/RF market.

CMOS Image Sensor Semiconductors. Image sensors are primarily used in camera phones and tablets. We are currently the leading foundry for the production of CMOS image sensors, characterized by technology features including low dark current, high sensitivity, small pixel size and high dynamic range achieved through integration with mixed mode processes.

High Voltage Semiconductors. We currently offer a range of high-voltage processes including high voltage CMOS (“HVCMOS”), bipolar-CMOS-DMOS (“BCD”) and ultra-high voltage technology (“UHV”), ranging from 5V to 700V, which are suitable for various panel-size display driver and power IC applications.

 

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The table below presents a breakdown of our net sales during the last three years by each semiconductor type:

 

     Year ended December 31  
     2010      2011      2012  

Semiconductor Type  

       Net Sales            Percentage            Net Sales            Percentage            Net Sales          Percentage    
     (in millions, except percentages)  

CMOS

                 

Logic

     NT$300,405            71.6%         NT$297,775         69.7%         NT$352,139         69.5%   

Mixed-Signal(1)

     112,715            26.9%         124,469         29.1%         150,905         29.8%   

BiCMOS(2)

     3,548            0.8%         2,769         0.7%         1,924         0.4%   

Others(3)

     2,870            0.7%         2,068         0.5%         1,281         0.3%   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     NT$419,538            100.0%         NT$427,081         100.0%         NT$506,249         100.0%   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

(1) 

Mixed-signal semiconductors made with the CMOS process.

(2) 

Mixed-signal and other semiconductors made with the BiCMOS process.

(3) 

The net sales of memory semiconductors in 2010 and 2011 have been reclassified to Others.

Design and Technology Platforms. Modern IC designers need sophisticated design infrastructure to optimize productivity and cycle time. Such infrastructures include design flow for electronic design automation (EDA), silicon proven building blocks such as libraries and IPs, simulation and verification design kits such as process design kit (PDK) and tech files. All of these infrastructures are built on top of the technology foundation, and each technology needs its own design infrastructure to be usable for designers. This is the concept of our technology platforms.

For years, we and our alliance partners have spent considerable effort, time and resources to build our technology platforms. We unveiled an open innovation platform (“OIP”) initiative in 2008 to further enhance our technologies offerings. More OIP deliverables were introduced in 2012. In the design methodology area, we announced the release of 20-nanometer and CoWoSTM Reference Flows, 20-nanometer Custom Design Reference Flow, and the fourth release of the Radio Frequency Reference Design Kit (RF RDK).

Multi-project Wafers Program (“CyberShuttle”). To help our customers reduce costs, we offer a dedicated multi-project wafer processing service that allows us to provide multiple customers with circuits produced with the same mask. This program reduces mask costs by a very significant amount, resulting in accelerated time-to-market for our customers. We have extended this program to all of our customers and library and IP partners using our broad selection of process technologies, ranging from the latest 20-, 28-, 40-, 45-, 55- and 65-nanometer processes to 0.18-, 0.25-, 0.35-, and 0.5-micron. This extension offers a routinely scheduled multi-project wafer run to customers on a shared-cost basis for prototyping and verification.

We developed our multi-project wafer program in response to the current system-on-chip development methodologies, which often require the independent development, prototyping and validation of several IPs before they can be integrated onto a single device. By sharing mask costs among our customers to the extent permissible, the system-on-chip supplier can enjoy reduced prototyping costs and greater confidence that the design will be successful.

Customer Service

We believe that our dedication to customer service has been an indispensable factor in attracting new customers, helping to ensure the satisfaction of existing customers, and building a mutually beneficial relationship with our customers. The key elements are our:

 

   

customer-oriented culture through multi-level interaction with customers;

 

   

ability to deliver wafers of consistent quality, competitive ramp-up speed and fast yield improvement;

 

   

responsiveness to customer’s issues and requirements, such as engineering change orders and special wafer handling;

 

   

flexibility in manufacturing processes, supported by our competitive technical capability and production planning;

 

   

dedication to help reduce customer costs through collaboration and services, such as our multi-project wafer program, which combines multiple designs on a single mask set for cost-saving; and

 

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availability of our online service which provides real-time necessary information in design, engineering, and logistics to ensure seamless services to our customers throughout product life cycle.

We also conduct an annual customer satisfaction survey to assess customer satisfaction and to ensure that their needs and wants are adequately understood and addressed. Continual improvement plans based upon customer feedback are an integral part of this business process. We use data derived from the survey as a key indicator of our corporate performance as well as a leading indicator of future performance. We believe that satisfaction leads to better customer relationships, which would result in more business opportunities.

Research and Development

The semiconductor industry is characterized by rapid changes in technology, frequently resulting in the introduction of new technologies to meet customers’ demands and in the obsolescence of recently introduced technology and products. We believe that, in order to stay technologically ahead of our competitors and to maintain our market position in the foundry segment of the semiconductor industry, we need to maintain our position as a technology leader not only in the foundry segment but in the semiconductor industry in general. We spent NT$29,707 million, NT$33,830 million and NT$40,402 million (US$1,391 million) in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively, on research and development, which represented 7.1%, 7.9% and 8.0% of our net sales for these periods. We plan to continue to invest significant amounts on research and development in 2013, with the goal of maintaining a leading position in the development of advanced process technologies. Our research and development efforts have allowed us to provide our customers access to certain advanced process technologies, such as 65-nanometer, 55-nanometer, 45-nanometer, 40-nanometer and 28-nanometer technology for volume production, prior to the implementation of those advanced process technologies by many integrated device manufacturers and our competitors. In addition, we expect to advance our process technologies further down to 20/16-nanometer and below in the coming years to maintain our technology leadership. We will also continue to invest in research and development for our mainstream technologies offerings to provide function-rich process capabilities to our customers. Our research and development efforts are divided into centralized research and development activities and research and development activities undertaken by each of our fabs. Our centralized research and development activities are principally directed toward developing new Logic, system-on-chip (“SOC”), derivatives and package/system-in-package (“SIP”) technologies, and cost-effective 3D IC Chip on Wafer on Substrate (“CoWoS”) solutions. Fab-related research and development activities mostly focus on upgrading the manufacturing process technologies.

In continuing to advance our process technologies, we intend to rely primarily on our internal engineering capability and know-how and our research and development efforts, including collaboration with our customers, equipment vendors and research and development consortia.

We also continuously create in-house inventions and know-how. Since our inception, every year we apply for and are issued a substantial number of United States and other patents, the majority of which are semiconductor-related.

Equipment

The quality and technology of the equipment used in the semiconductor manufacturing process are important in that they effectively define the limits of our process technologies. Advances in process technologies cannot be brought about without commensurate advances in equipment technology. To accelerate the development of next-generation lithographic technology, in August 2012 TSMC joined the ASML Holding N.V. Customer Co-Investment Program. The program’s scope includes development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography technology and 450-millimeter (450mm) lithography tools. Under the agreement with ASML, TSMC made an investment of EUR838 million to acquire 5% of ASML’s equity, and has committed EUR277 million, to be spread over five years, to ASML’s research and development program.

The principal pieces of equipment used by us to manufacture semiconductors are scanners, cleaners and track equipment, inspection equipment, etchers, furnaces, wet stations, strippers, implanters, sputterers, CVD equipment, testers and probers. Other than certain equipment under leases located at testing areas, we own all of the equipment used at our fabs.

In implementing our capacity management and technology advancement plans, we expect to make significant purchases of equipment required for semiconductor manufacturing. Some of the equipment is available from a limited number of vendors and/or is manufactured in relatively limited quantities, and certain equipment has only recently been developed. We believe that our relationships with our equipment suppliers are good and that we have enjoyed the advantages of being a major purchaser of semiconductor fabrication equipment. We work closely with manufacturers to provide equipment customized to our needs for certain advanced technologies.

 

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Raw Materials

Our manufacturing processes use many raw materials, primarily silicon wafers, chemicals, gases and various types of precious metals. Raw materials costs constituted 13.0%, 12.6% and 13.6% of our net sales in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Although most of our raw materials are available from multiple suppliers, some materials are purchased through sole-sourced vendors. Our raw material procurement policy is to select only those vendors who have demonstrated quality control and reliability on delivery time and to maintain multiple sources for each raw material so that a quality or delivery problem with any one vendor will not adversely affect our operations. The quality and delivery performance of each vendor is evaluated quarterly and quantity allocations are adjusted for subsequent periods based on the evaluation.

The most important raw material used in our production is silicon wafers, which is the basic raw material from which integrated circuits are made. The principal suppliers for our wafers are Shin-Etsu Handotai and SUMCO Corporation of Japan, MEMC Electronic Materials, Inc. of the United States, Siltronic AG of Germany and Formosa Sumco Technology Corporation of Taiwan. Together they supplied approximately 96.8%, 96.0% and 94.2% of our total wafer needs in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. We have in the past obtained, and believe we will continue to be able to obtain, a sufficient supply of 150mm, 200mm and 300mm wafers. Please see “Item 3. Key Information - Risk Factors - Risks Relating to Our Business” for a discussion of the risk related to raw materials. In order to secure a reliable and flexible supply of high quality wafers, we have entered into long-term agreements and intend to continue to develop strategic relationships with major wafer vendors to cover our anticipated wafer needs for future years. Also, we have established a special cross-function taskforce comprised of individuals from our fab operations, materials management, risk management and quality system management divisions to reduce our supply chain risks. This taskforce works with our primary suppliers to develop their business continuity plans, qualify their dual-plant materials, prepare safety inventories, improve the quality of their products and manage the supply chain risk of their suppliers.

Competition

We compete internationally and domestically with foundry service providers, as well as with integrated device manufacturers that devote a significant or exclusive portion of their manufacturing capacity to foundry operations. We compete primarily on the basis of process technologies, manufacturing excellence and customer trust. The level of competition differs according to the process technologies involved. For example, in more mature technologies, the competition tends to be more intense. Some companies compete with us in selected geographic regions or application end markets. In recent years, substantial investments have been made by others to establish new foundries worldwide.

Environmental Regulations

The semiconductor production process generates gaseous chemical wastes, liquid wastes, wastewater and other industrial wastes in various stages of the manufacturing process. We have installed in our fabs various types of pollution control equipment for the treatment of gaseous chemical wastes and wastewater and equipment for the recycling of treated water. Operations at our fabs are subject to regulation and periodic monitoring by the R.O.C. Environmental Protection Administration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State Environmental Protection Administration of mainland China, and local environmental protection authorities, including the various science park administrations in the R.O.C., the Washington State Department of Ecology and the Shanghai Environmental Protection Bureau.

We have adopted pollution control measures that are expected to result in the effective maintenance of environmental protection standards consistent with the practice of the semiconductor industry in Taiwan, the U.S. and mainland China. We conduct environmental audits at least once annually to ensure that we are in compliance in all material respects with, and we believe that we are in compliance in all material respects with, applicable environmental laws and regulations. An ESH (environmental, safety and health) team operates at the corporate level that is responsible for policy establishment and enforcement, coordination with ESH teams located at each manufacturing facility and for coordinating and interacting with government agencies worldwide.

Electricity and Water

We use electricity supplied by the Taiwan Power Company in our manufacturing process. Businesses in the Hsinchu Science Park, Southern Taiwan Science Park and Central Taiwan Science Park, such as ours, enjoy preferential electricity supply. We have sometimes suffered power outages caused by difficulties encountered by the Taiwan Power Company, which have led to interruptions in our production schedule. The semiconductor manufacturing process also uses extensive amounts of fresh water. Due to the growth of the semiconductor manufacturers in the Hsinchu Science Park, Southern Taiwan Science Park and Central Taiwan Science Park, and the droughts that Taiwan experiences from time to time, there is concern regarding future availability of sufficient fresh water and the potential impact that insufficient water supplies may have on our semiconductor production. To help address these potential shortages, we have adopted state-of-the-art natural resources conservation methodologies.

 

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Risk Management

We employ an enterprise risk management system to integrate the prevention and control of risk that we or our subsidiaries may face. We have also prepared emergency plans to respond to natural disasters and other disruptive events that could interrupt the operation of our business. These emergency plans have been developed in order to prevent or minimize the loss of personnel or damage to our facilities, equipment and machinery caused by natural disasters and other disruptive events. We also maintain insurance with respect to our facilities, equipment and inventories. The insurance for the fabs and their equipment covers, subject to some limitations, various risks, including fire, typhoons, earthquakes and other risks generally up to the respective policy limits for their replacement values and lost profits due to business interruption. In addition, we have insurance policies covering losses with respect to the construction of all our fabs. Equipment and inventories in transit are also insured. No assurance can be given, however, that insurance will fully cover any losses and our emergency response plans will be effective in preventing or minimizing losses in the future. To further help mitigate our major operational and financial risks, our ERM (enterprise risk management) group reports regularly to our Audit Committee composed of independent board directors.

For further information, please see detailed risk factors related to the impact of climate change regulations and international accords, and business trends on our operations in “Item 3. Key Information - Risk Factors - Risks Relating to Our Business”.

Our Subsidiaries and Affiliates

Vanguard International Semiconductor Corporation (“VIS”). In 1994, we, the R.O.C. Ministry of Economic Affairs and other investors established Vanguard, then an integrated dynamic random access memory (“DRAM”) manufacturer. Vanguard commenced volume commercial production in 1995 and listed its shares on the GreTai Securities Market in March 1998. In 2004, Vanguard completely terminated its DRAM production and became a pure foundry company. As of February 28, 2013, we owned approximately 40.4% of the equity interest in Vanguard. Please see “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions” for a further discussion.

WaferTech in the United States. In 1996, we entered into a joint venture called WaferTech (of which the manufacturing entity is Fab 11) with several U.S.-based investors to construct and operate a US$1.2 billion foundry in the United States. Initial trial production at WaferTech commenced in July 1998 and commercial production commenced in October 1998. As of February 28, 2013, we owned 100% of the equity interest in WaferTech.

Systems on Silicon Manufacturing Company Pte. Ltd. (“SSMC”). In March 1999, we entered into an agreement with Philips and EDB Investment Pte. Ltd. to found a joint venture, SSMC, and build a fab in Singapore. The SSMC fab commenced production in December 2000. As of February 28, 2013, we owned approximately 38.8% of the equity interest in SSMC. Please see “Item 7 Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions” for a further discussion.

Global Unichip Corporation (“GUC”). In January 2003, we acquired a 52.0% equity interest in GUC, a System-on-Chip (SoC) design service company that provides large scale SOC implementation services. GUC has been listed on Taiwan Stock Exchange since November 3, 2006. Since July 2011, we are no longer deemed to be a controlling entity of GUC and its subsidiaries due to the termination of a Shareholders’ Agreement. As a result, we no longer consolidate GUC and its subsidiaries in our financial statements. As of February 28, 2013, we owned approximately 34.8% of the equity interest in GUC.

TSMC China. In August 2003, we established TSMC China (of which the manufacturing entity is Fab 10), a wholly-owned subsidiary primarily engaged in the manufacturing and selling of integrated circuits. TSMC China commenced production in late 2004.

VisEra Technologies Company, Ltd. (“VisEra”). In October 2003, we and OmniVision Technologies Inc., entered into a shareholders’ agreement to form VisEra Technologies Company, Ltd., a joint venture in Taiwan, for the purpose of providing back-end manufacturing service. As of February 28, 2013, we owned approximately 42.7% of the equity interest in VisEra Technologies Company Ltd. Please see “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions for a further discussion.”

Xintec, Inc. (“Xintec”). In January 2007, we acquired a 51.2% equity interest in Xintec, a supplier of wafer level packaging service, to support our complementary metal oxide silicon (“CMOS”) image sensor manufacturing business. As of February 28, 2013, we owned approximately 40.2% combined equity interest in Xintec.

Mcube Inc. (“Mcube”). In September 2009, we acquired preferred and common equity interest in Mcube, a U.S. company engaged in the business of MEMS (“Micro Electro Mechanical Systems”) applications. As of February 28, 2013, we owned approximately 24.7% of the equity interest in Mcube.

 

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Motech Industries, Inc. (“Motech”). In February 2010, we acquired a 20.0% equity interest in Motech, a Taiwan solar cell manufacturer. Motech has been a publicly traded company on Taiwan’s GreTai Security Market since May 2003. In August 2011, we transferred our 20.0% equity interest in Motech to TSMC Solar Ltd.

TSMC Solar Ltd. (“TSMC Solar”). We transferred our solar businesses into our subsidiary, TSMC Solar, in August 2011. TSMC Solar is engaged in research, development, design, manufacture and sales of technologies and products related to renewable energy and energy saving. As of February 28, 2013, we owned approximately 98.6% of the equity interest in TSMC Solar.

TSMC Solid State Lighting Ltd. (“TSMC SSL”). We transferred our solid state lighting businesses into our subsidiary, TSMC SSL, in August 2011. TSMC SSL is engaged in research, development, design, manufacture and sales of solid state lighting devices and related application products and systems. As of February 28, 2013, we owned approximately 95.0% of the equity interest in TSMC SSL.

ITEM 4A.            UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

 

ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEWS AND PROSPECTS

Overview

We manufacture a variety of semiconductors based on designs provided by our customers. Our business model is commonly called a “dedicated semiconductor foundry.” The foundry segment of the semiconductor industry as a whole experienced rapid growth over the last 26 years since our inception. As the leader of the foundry segment of the semiconductor industry, our net sales and net income were NT$419,538 million and NT$161,605 million in 2010, NT$427,081 million and NT$134,201 million in 2011, and NT$506,249 million (US$17,427 million) and NT$166,159 million (US$5,720 million) in 2012, respectively. The sales in 2011 increased slightly by 1.8% from 2010, mainly due to growth in customer demand and more favorable product mix, partially offset by the effect of U.S. dollar depreciation. Our sales in 2012 increased by 18.5% from 2011, mainly due to continuous growth in customer demand and increase in sales of our 28-nanometer products, which commanded a higher selling price.

The principal source of our revenue is wafer fabrication, which accounted for approximately 91% of our net sales in 2012. The rest of our net sales were derived from design, mask making, and testing and assembly services. Factors that significantly impact our revenue include:

 

   

the worldwide demand and capacity supply for semiconductor products;

 

   

pricing;

 

   

capacity utilization;

 

   

availability of raw materials and supplies;

 

   

technology migration; and

 

   

fluctuation in foreign currency exchange rate.

Though equally important, three of the above factors are discussed as follows:

Pricing. We establish pricing levels for specific periods of time with our customers, usually subject to adjustment during the course of that period to take into account market developments and other factors. Not all prices are subject to such adjustments though. We believe that our large capacity, flexible manufacturing capabilities, focus on customer service and ability to deliver high yields in a timely manner have contributed to our ability to obtain premium pricing for our wafer production.

 

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Production Capacity. We currently own and operate our semiconductor manufacturing facilities, the aggregate production capacity for which had been expanded from 1,036,871 200mm equivalent wafers per month as of the end of 2010 to 1,163,708 200mm equivalent wafers per month as of the end of 2011 and 1,356,409 200mm equivalent wafers per month as of the end of 2012.

Technology Migration.

Our operations utilize a variety of process technologies, ranging from mainstream process technologies of 0.5 micron or above circuit resolutions to advanced process technologies of 28-nanometer circuit resolutions. The table below presents a breakdown of wafer sales by circuit resolution during the last three years:

 

     Year ended December 31  
     2010      2011      2012  

Resolution

     Percentage of  
total wafer
revenue(1)
       Percentage of  
total wafer
revenue(1)
       Percentage of  
total wafer
revenue(1)
 

28-nanometer

            1%         12%   

40/45-nanometer

     17%         26%         27%   

65-nanometer

     29%         29%         23%   

90-nanometer

     14%         9%         9%   

0.11/0.13 micron

     12%         8%         6%   

0.15 micron

     4%         6%         4%   

0.18 micron

     13%         12%         11%   

0.25 micron

     4%         4%         4%   

0.35 micron

     4%         3%         2%   

³0.5 micron

     3%         2%         2%   

Total

     100%         100%         100%   

 

 

(1) 

Percentages represent wafer revenue by technology as a percentage of total revenue from wafer sales, which exclude revenue associated with design, mask making, probing, and testing and assembly services. Total wafer revenue excludes sales returns and allowances.

Critical Accounting Policies

Summarized below are our accounting policies that we believe are important to the portrayal of our financial results and also involve the need for management to make estimates about the effect of matters that are uncertain in nature. Actual results may differ from these estimates, judgments and assumptions. Certain accounting policies are particularly critical because of their significance to our reported financial results and the possibility that future events may differ significantly from the conditions and assumptions underlying the estimates used and judgments made by our management in preparing our financial statements. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes, which are included in this annual report.

Revenue Recognition. We recognize revenue when evidence of an arrangement exists, the rewards of ownership and significant risk of the goods have been transferred to the buyer, price is fixed or determinable, and the collectability is reasonably assured. We record a provision for estimated future returns and other allowances in the same period the related revenue is recorded. Provision for estimated sales returns and other allowances is generally made and adjusted at a specific percentage based on historical experience, our management’s judgment, and any known factors that would significantly affect the allowance, and our management periodically reviews the adequacy of the percentage used. However, because of the inherent nature of estimates, actual returns and allowances could be different from our estimates. If the actual returns are greater than our estimated amount, we could be required to record an additional provision, which would have a negative impact on our recorded revenue and gross margin.

As of December 31, 2010, 2011 and 2012, the amount recorded as sales returns and allowances in the accompanying consolidated statements of income was NT$12,093 million, NT$3,410 million and NT$7,187 million (US$247 million), respectively, representing 2.8%, 0.8% and 1.4% of our gross sales for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2011 and 2012. The decline in discount percentages for 2011 from 2010 reflected lower level of sales incentives and product related issues. The discount percentage returned to 1.4% in 2012 with stabilized product yield and sales incentives.

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts. We determine provision for doubtful accounts by examining our historical collection experience and current trends in the credit quality of our customers as well as our internal credit policies. If economic conditions or financial conditions of our customers deteriorate, additional allowance may be required in the future and such additional allowance would increase our operating expenses and therefore reduce our operating income and net income.

 

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Prior to January 1, 2011, we recorded provision for doubtful accounts based on a percentage of accounts receivable due from our customers. Effective on January 1, 2011, we evaluate for indication of impairment of accounts receivable based on an individual and collective basis at the end of each reporting period according to the third revision of Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 34. When objective evidence indicates that the estimated future cash flow of accounts receivable decreases as a result of one or more events that occurred after the initial recognition of the accounts receivable, such accounts receivable are deemed to be impaired.

Because of the short average collection period, the amount of the impairment loss recognized is the difference between the carrying amount of accounts receivable and estimated future cash flows without considering the discounting effect. Changes in the carrying amount of the allowance account are recognized as bad debt expense which is recorded in the operating expenses - general and administrative. When accounts receivable are considered uncollectable, the amount is written off against the allowance account.

As of December 31, 2011 and 2012, the allowance set aside for doubtful receivables was NT$491 million and NT$480 million (US$17 million), respectively, representing 1.1% and 0.8% of our gross notes and accounts receivables as of those dates.

Inventory valuation. Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value for finished goods, work-in-progress, raw materials, supplies and spare parts. Inventory write-downs are made on an item-by-item basis, except where it may be appropriate to group similar or related items.

A significant amount of our manufacturing costs are fixed because our extensive manufacturing facilities (which provide us such large production capacity) require substantial investment to construct and are largely fixed-cost assets once they become operational. When the capacity utilization increases, the fixed manufacturing costs are spread over a larger amount of output, which would lower the inventory cost per unit thereby improving our gross margin.

We evaluate our ending inventory based on standard cost under normal capacity utilization, and reduce the carrying value of our inventory when the actual capacity utilization is higher than normal capacity utilization. No adjustment is made to the carrying value of inventory when the actual capacity utilization is at or lower than normal capacity utilization. Normal capacity utilization is established based on historic loadings compared to total available capacity in our wafer manufacturing fabs.

Due to rapid technology changes, we also evaluate our ending inventory and reduce the carrying value of inventory for estimated obsolescence and unmarketable inventory by an amount that is the difference between the cost of the inventory and the net realizable value. The net realizable value of the inventory is mainly determined based on assumptions of future demand within a specific time horizon, which is generally 180 days or less.

Valuation allowance for deferred tax assets. When we have net operating loss carry forwards, investment tax credits or temporary differences in the amount of tax recorded for tax purposes and accounting purposes, we may be able to reduce the amount of tax that we would otherwise be required to pay in future periods. We recognize all existing future tax benefits arising from these tax attributes as deferred tax assets and then establish a valuation allowance equal to the extent, if any, that it is more likely than not that such deferred tax assets will not be realized. We record an income tax benefit or expense when there is a net change in our total deferred tax assets and liabilities in a period. The ultimate realization of the deferred tax assets depends upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which the net operating losses and temporary differences become deductible or the investment tax credits may be utilized. Specifically, our valuation allowance is impacted by our expected future revenue growth and profitability, tax holidays, Alternative Minimum Tax, 10% tax imposed on unappropriated earnings and the amount of tax credits that can be utilized within the statutory period. In determining the amount of valuation allowance for deferred tax assets as of December 31, 2012, we considered past performance, the general outlook of the semiconductor industry, business conditions, future taxable income and prudent and feasible tax planning strategies.

Because the determination of the amount of valuation allowance is based, in part, on our forecast of future profitability, it is inherently uncertain and subjective. Changes in market conditions and our assumptions may cause the actual future profitability to differ materially from our current expectation, which may require us to increase or decrease the amount of valuation allowance that we have recorded.

As of December 31, 2011 and 2012, the ending balances for valuation allowance were NT$13,531 million and NT$6,671 million (US$230 million), respectively, representing 50.3% and 34.3% of gross deferred tax assets as of those dates. In 2012, we evaluated our future profitability, the effect of Alternative Minimum Tax and the applicable year of the profits generated from projects exempt from income tax for a five-year period. Based on such evaluation, our income tax payable is anticipated to increase and we will utilize available investment tax credits as an offset against income taxes. Since more investment tax credits can be utilized, the valuation allowance has been adjusted down in 2012 accordingly.

 

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Valuation of long-lived assets and intangible assets. We assess the impairment of long-lived assets and intangible assets whenever triggering events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset may be impaired and carrying value may not be recoverable. Our long-lived assets subject to this evaluation include property, plant and equipment and amortizable intangible assets. Factors we consider important which could trigger an impairment review include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

   

significant under performance relative to historical or projected future operating results;

 

   

significant changes in the manner of our use of the acquired assets or our overall business strategy; and

 

   

significant unfavorable industry or economic trends.

When we determine that the carrying value of intangible assets and other long-lived assets may not be recoverable based upon the existence of one or more of the above indicators of impairment, we measure any impairment for long-lived assets based on a projected future cash flow. If the long-lived or intangible assets are determined to be impaired, we recognize an impairment loss through a charge to our operating results to the extent the present value of discounted cash flows attributable to the assets are less than their carrying value. Such cash flow analysis includes assumptions about expected future economic and market conditions, the applicable discount rate, and the future revenue generation from the use or disposition of the assets. We also perform a periodic review to identify assets that are no longer used and are not expected to be used in future periods. An impairment charge is recorded to the extent, if any, that the carrying amount of the idle assets exceeds their fair value. Under R.O.C. GAAP, if the recoverable amount increases in a future period, the amount previously recognized as impairment will be reversed and recognized as a gain. However, the adjusted amount may not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, as if no impairment loss had been recognized. Under U.S. GAAP, the reversal of impairment charges is prohibited.

The process of evaluating the potential impairment of long-lived assets requires significant judgment. We are required to review for impairment groups of assets related to the lowest level of identifiable independent cash flows. Due to our asset usage model and the interchangeable nature of our semiconductor manufacturing capacity, we must make subjective judgments in determining the independent cash flows that can be related to specific asset groups. In addition, because we must make subjective judgments regarding the remaining useful lives of assets and the expected future revenue and expenses associated with the assets, changes in these estimates based on changed economic conditions or business strategies could result in material impairment charges in future periods. Our projection for future cash flow is generally less during periods of reduced earnings. As a result, an impairment charge is more likely to occur during a period when our operating results are already otherwise depressed.

For purposes of evaluating the recoverability of long-lived assets, assets purchased for use in the business but subsequently determined to have no future economic benefits are written down to their fair value and recorded as either idle assets or assets held for disposition. In 2010, 2011 and 2012, an impairment loss for idle assets of NT$0.3 million, NT$98 million and NT$445 million (US$15 million) was recorded, respectively. As of December 31, 2011 and 2012, net long-lived assets and intangible assets amounted to NT$495,542 million and NT$622,965 million (US$21,445 million), respectively.

Goodwill. Goodwill is recorded when the purchase price paid for an acquisition exceeds the estimated fair value of the net identified tangible and intangible assets acquired. Under U.S. GAAP, and effective on January 1, 2005 under R.O.C. GAAP, we assess the impairment of goodwill on an annual basis, or more frequently whenever triggering events or changes in circumstances indicate that goodwill may be impaired and carrying value may not be recoverable. Moreover, effective on January 1, 2006, goodwill is no longer amortizable under R.O.C. GAAP. Factors we consider important which could trigger an impairment review include, without limitation, the following:

 

   

significant decline in our stock price for a sustained period; and

 

   

significant decline in our market capitalization relative to net book value.

Application of the goodwill impairment test is also highly subjective and requires significant judgment, including the identification of cash generating units, assigning assets and liabilities to the relevant cash generating units, assigning goodwill to the relevant cash generating units, and determining the fair value of the relevant cash generating units. Our assessment of fair value is based upon a cash flow analysis that includes assumptions about expected future operating performance, such as revenue growth rates and operating margins, risk-adjusted discount rates, future economic and market conditions, and determination of appropriate market comparables. Under R.O.C. GAAP, the fair value of the cash generating units is compared to the associated carrying value including goodwill. On the other hand, under U.S. GAAP, the fair value of the reporting units is compared to the associated carrying value including goodwill.

 

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Under R.O.C. GAAP, goodwill recorded from the acquisition of TSMC-Acer and WaferTech is evaluated for impairment on an annual basis. Based on our most recent evaluation, the fair value calculated by discounting projected cash flow in five years was higher than the associated carrying value. As a result, we did not record any impairment charge under R.O.C. GAAP. Under U.S. GAAP, goodwill recorded from the acquisition of TSMC-Acer and WaferTech is evaluated for impairment on an annual basis. Based on our most recent evaluation, the fair value calculated by using the discounted cash flow method was higher than the associated carrying value. As a result, we did not record any impairment charge under U.S. GAAP either.

As of December 31, 2011 and 2012, goodwill amounted to NT$5,694 million and NT$5,524 million (US$190 million), respectively, under R.O.C. GAAP. The change in the NT dollar amount of goodwill was due to changes in the exchange rate between NT dollar and U.S. dollar.

Valuation of investments accounted for using the equity method. We assess the impairment of investments accounted for using the equity method whenever triggering events or changes in circumstances indicate that an investment may be impaired and carrying value may not be recoverable. We measure the impairment based on a projected future cash flow of the investees, the underlying assumptions for which had been formulated by such investees’ internal management team, taking into account market conditions for the industries which the investees operate in to ensure the reasonableness of such assumptions. If an investment is determined to be impaired, we recognize an impairment loss through a charge to our operating results to the extent the present value of discounted cash flows attributable to the investee is less than the carrying value of the investment.

In 2012, an impairment loss of NT$1,187 million (US$41 million) was recorded. No impairment loss was recorded in 2010 and 2011. As of December 31, 2011 and 2012, investments accounted for using the equity method amounted to NT$24,900 million and NT$23,430 million (US$807 million), respectively.

Accounting for investments in private and publicly-traded securities. We hold equity interests in companies, some of which are publicly traded and have highly volatile share prices. We also hold investments in debt securities, such as corporate bonds, government bonds, and so on. We review all of our investments for impairment on a quarterly basis and record an impairment charge when we believe an investment has experienced an other-than-temporary decline in value. Determining whether an other-than-temporary decline in value of the investment has occurred is highly subjective. Such evaluation is dependent on the specific facts and circumstances. Factors we consider include, but are not limited to, the following: the market value of the security in relation to its cost basis, the duration of the decline in value, the financial condition of the investees and our intent and ability to retain the investment for a sufficient period of time to allow for recovery in the market value of the investment. Impairment reviews with respect to private security investments also require significant judgment. Factors indicative of an other-than-temporary decline in value include recurring operating losses, credit defaults and subsequent rounds of financing at valuation below the cost basis of the investment.

We have experienced declines in the value of certain privately held investments and publicly traded securities and recorded impairment loss of NT$160 million, NT$266 million and NT$3,045 million (US$105 million) in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. While we have recognized all declines that are currently believed to be other-than-temporary as a charge to income, adverse changes in market conditions or poor operating results of underlying investments could result in further losses in future periods.

Results of Operations

The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, certain financial data from our consolidated statements of income, expressed in each case as a percentage of net sales:

 

                       For the year ended December 31                   
               2010                           2011                       2012        

Net sales

     100.0%        100.0%        100.0%  

Cost of sales

     (50.6)%        (54.6)%        (51.9)%  

Gross profit

     49.4%        45.4%        48.1%  

Operating expenses

        

Research and development

     (7.1)%        (7.9)%        (8.0)%  

General and administrative

     (3.1)%        (3.3)%        (3.4)%  

Sales and marketing

     (1.3)%        (1.1)%        (0.9)%  

Total operating expenses

     (11.5)%        (12.3)%        (12.3)%  

Income from operations

     37.9%        33.1%        35.8%  

Non-operating income and gains

     3.2%        1.3%        1.3%  

 

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                      For the year ended December 31                   
              2010                          2011                      2012        

Non-operating expenses and losses

    (0.5)%        (0.4)%        (1.2)%   

Income before income tax

    40.6%        34.0%        35.9%   

Income tax expense

    (1.9)%        (2.5)%        (3.1)%   

Net income

    38.7%        31.5%        32.8%   

Net income attributable to minority interests

    (0.2)%        (0.1)%        (0.0)%   

Net income attributable to shareholders of the parent

    38.5%        31.4%        32.8%   

Year to Year Comparisons

Net Sales and Gross Margin

 

    For the year ended December 31  
        2010             2011         % Change
  from 2010  
              2012                % Change
    from 2011    
 
    NT$     NT$           NT$     US$        
    (in millions)           (in millions)        

Net sales

    419,538        427,081        1.8%        506,249        17,427        18.5%    

Cost of sales

      (212,484       (232,938     9.6%          (262,629       (9,041     12.7%    
 

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

   

 

 

   

Gross profit before affiliates elimination

    207,054        194,143        (6.2)%        243,620        8,386        25.5%    

Unrealized gross profit from affiliates

    —         (74     —        (25     (1     —    
 

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

   

 

 

   

Gross profit

    207,054        194,069        (6.3)%        243,595        8,385        25.5%    
 

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

   

 

 

   

Gross margin percentage

    49.4%        45.4%        —        48.1%        48.1%        —    

Net Sales

Our net sales in 2012 increased by 18.5% from 2011, which was largely attributable to continuous growth in customer demand, resulting in a 11.9% increase in wafer shipment. We shipped approximately 14.0 million 200mm equivalent wafers in 2012 compared to 12.5 million in 2011. In addition, sales of our 28-nanometer products, which commanded a higher selling price, also increased to 12% of our total wafer sales in 2012 compared to 1% in 2011.

Our net sales in 2011 increased by 1.8% from 2010, which was mainly attributable to the growth in customer demand. The overall wafer shipments increased by 5.8%, from 11,860 thousand 200mm equivalent wafers in 2010 to 12,549 thousand 200mm equivalent wafers in 2011. Furthermore, we had a more favorable product mix in 2011 as the portion of wafer sales from 65-nanometer and below circuit resolutions reached 56% compared to 46% in 2010. However, as a significant portion of our sales were denominated in U.S. dollars, our net sales in 2011 were negatively impacted by a stronger weighted average NT dollar against U.S. dollar, which appreciated against the U.S. dollar by 6.7% to NT$29.367 to US$1.00 in 2011 from NT$31.491 to US$1.00 in 2010.

Gross Margin

Our gross margin fluctuates with the level of capacity utilization, price change and product mix, among other factors. In 2012, our gross margin increased to 48.1% of net sales from 45.4% of net sales in 2011. The higher margin in 2012 was primarily due to higher capacity utilization and cost reductions, which contributed favorably to our gross margin by 5.5 and 2.8 percentage points, respectively, partially offset by price decline and higher portion of wafer sales in 28-nanometer technology bearing lower than corporate average margins at initial production stage, which negatively impacted our gross margin by 5.3 percentage points.

In 2011, our gross margin decreased to 45.4% of net sales from 49.4% of net sales in 2010. The lower margin in 2011 was primarily due to lower capacity utilization as we increased our capacity in 2011, price decline and a stronger NT dollar against the U.S. dollar, which negatively impacted our gross margin by 7.1, 2.8 and 2.4 percentage points, respectively, offset in part by cost improvements and others which contributed favorably to a 8.3 percentage points increase in the gross margin.

 

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Operating Expenses

 

    For the year ended December 31  
          2010             2011     % Change
    from 2010    
    2012     % Change
  from 2011  
 
    NT$     NT$           NT$     US$        
    (in millions)           (in millions)        

Research and development

    29,707        33,830        13.9%           40,402        1,391        19.4%      

General and administrative

    12,804        14,164        10.6%           17,638        607        24.5%      

Sales and marketing

    5,368        4,518        (15.8)%           4,498        154        (0.4)%      
 

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

   

 

 

   

Total operating expenses

    47,879        52,512        9.7%           62,538        2,152        19.1%      
 

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

   

 

 

   

Percentage of net sales

    11.5%        12.3%        —          12.3%        12.3%        —          

Income from operations

        159,175            141,557        (11.1)%               181,057              6,233        27.9%      
 

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

   

 

 

   

Operating Margin

    37.9%        33.1%        —          35.8%        35.8%        —          

Operating expenses increased by NT$10,026 million in 2012, or 19.1%, from NT$52,512 million in 2011, after an increase in operating expenses by NT$4,633 million in 2011, or 9.7%, from NT$47,879 million in 2010.

Research and Development Expenses

We remain strongly committed to being the leader in developing advanced process technologies. We believe that continued investments in process technologies are essential for us to remain competitive in the markets we serve. Research and development expenditures increased by NT$6,572 million in 2012, or 19.4%, from 2011, mainly due to a higher level of research activities for 20-nanometer technologies and higher employee profit sharing expenses and bonus. In 2011, research and development expenditures increased by NT$4,123 million, or 13.9%, from 2010, mainly due to higher spending in developing 20-nanometer technology, partially offset by lower employee profit sharing expenses and bonus. We plan to continue to invest significant amounts in research and development in 2013.

General and Administrative, Sales and Marketing Expenses

General and administrative, sales and marketing expenses in 2012 increased by NT$3,454 million, or 18.5% from 2011, due to an increase in general and administrative expenses by NT$3,474 million, or 24.5%, and a decrease of sales and marketing expenses by NT$20 million, or 0.4%. The net increase was primarily due to higher opening expenses for ramping up 28-nanometer capacity.

General and administrative, sales and marketing expenses in 2011 increased by NT$510 million, or 2.8% from 2010, due to an increase in general and administrative expenses by NT$1,360 million, or 10.6%, and a decrease of sales and marketing expenses by NT$850 million, or 15.8%. The net increase was primarily due to higher opening expenses for Fab15 (Phase I) and Fab10 (Phase II), partially offset by lower employee profit sharing expenses and bonus in 2011.

Non-Operating Income and Expenses

 

    For the year ended December 31  
          2010                       2011             % Change
    from 2010  
                  2012                    % Change 
from 2011
 
    NT$     NT$           NT$     US$        
    (in millions)           (in millions)        

Non-operating income and gains

    13,136        5,359        (59.2)%         6,782         233         26.6%   

Non-operating expenses and losses

    (2,041)        (1,768)        (13.4)%                 (6,285)        (216)        255.5%   
 

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

   

 

 

   

Net non-operating income (expenses)

    11,095        3,591        (67.6)%         497                     17         (86.2)%   
 

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

   

 

 

   

Net non-operating income in 2012 decreased by NT$3,094 million, or 86.2% from NT$3,591 million in 2011 primarily due to a NT$3,966 million increase in loss on impairment of financial assets, resulting from valuation of our equity securities (please refer to “Valuation of investments accounted for using the equity method” and “Accounting for investments in private and publicly-traded securities” under critical accounting policies section), partially offset by a NT$1,131 million increase in equity in earnings of equity method investees reflecting their better operating results in 2012.

 

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Net non-operating income in 2011 decreased by NT$7,504 million, or 67.6% from NT$11,095 million in 2010 primarily due to a NT$5,993 million decrease in settlement income from SMIC as we received less settlement payment in cash and absence of receipt of SMIC shares in 2011 pursuant to the settlement agreement. In addition, equity in earnings of equity method investees declined by NT$1,400 million as a result of weakened operating performance of such equity method investees in 2011.

Income Tax Benefit (Expense)

 

    For the year ended December 31  
          2010                 2011         % Change
  from 2010    
    2012     % Change
  from 2011  
 
    NT$     NT$           NT$     US$        
    (in millions)           (in millions)        

Income tax expense

              (7,988)                  (10,695)        33.9%              (15,590)        537         45.8%    
 

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

   

 

 

   

Net income attributable to shareholders of the parent

    161,605         134,201        (17.0)%        166,159         5,720         23.8%    
 

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

   

 

 

   

Net margin

    38.5%         31.4%        —        32.8%                   32.8%         —    

Income tax expenses increased by NT$4,895 million in 2012, or 45.8%, from 2011. The increase was mainly due to higher taxable income and higher tax rate as a result of expired exemption period for part of Fab 12 (Phase II).

Income tax expenses increased by NT$2,707 million in 2011, or 33.9%, from 2010. The increase was mainly related to increase in tax on unappropriated earnings as a result of higher unappropriated earnings in 2011 compared to 2010.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Our sources of liquidity include cash flow from operations, cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, and revolving credit facilities provided by multiple banks. Issuance of corporate bonds is another source of fund.

Our primary source of liquidity is cash flow from operations. Cash flow from operations for 2012 was NT$289,064 million (US$9,951 million), an increase of NT$41,477 million from 2011.

Our cash, cash equivalents and current investments in financial instruments amounted to NT$150,918 million (US$5,195 million) as of December 31, 2012, approximately flat compared to NT$150,622 million as of December 31, 2011. The current investments in financial instruments primarily consist of publicly-traded stocks, corporate bonds, and money market funds.

As of December 31, 2012, we also had an aggregate unused short-term credit lines of approximately NT$53,422 million (US$1,839 million) and an aggregate unused long-term credit lines of approximately NT$1,335 million (US$46 million).

We believe that our cash generated from operations, cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, ability to access capital market and revolving credit facilities will be sufficient to fund our working capital needs, capital expenditures, dividend payments and other business requirements associated with existing operations over the next 12 months.

 

     For the year ended December 31  
                 2010                         2011                              2012                   
     NT$      NT$      NT$      US$  
     (in millions)      (in millions)      (in millions)  

Net cash provided by operating activities

     229,476               247,587          289,064          9,951    

Net cash used in investing activities

     (202,086)              (182,523)         (273,196)         (9,404)   

Net cash used in financing activities

     (48,638)              (67,858)         (13,811)         (475)   

Net decrease in cash

     (23,389)              (4,415)         (61)         (2)   

Cash and cash equivalents decreased by NT$61 million in 2012, following a decrease of NT$4,415 million in 2011, or 3.0%, from 2010.

 

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Operating Activities

In 2012, we generated NT$289,064 million (US$9,951 million) net cash from operating activities, as compared to NT$247,587 million and NT$229,476 million in 2011 and 2010, respectively. In 2012, net cash generated from operating activities increased primarily due to an increase of NT$31,958 million in net income and an increase of NT$23,668 million in non-cash depreciation and amortization expenses, partially offset by change in working capital and others of NT$14,149 million.

In 2011, net cash generated from operating activities increased primarily due to an increase of NT$19,872 million in non-cash depreciation and amortization expenses, the absence of non-cash gain of NT$4,434 million from SMIC shares received as litigation compensation and from change in inventories and notes and accounts receivables, partially offset by a decrease of NT$27,404 million in net income.

In 2012, depreciation and amortization expenses were NT$131,349 million (US$4,521 million), as compared to NT$107,682 million and NT$87,810 million in 2011 and 2010, respectively. Higher depreciation and amortization expenses in 2012 and 2011 were mainly attributable to expansion of production capacity in advanced technologies.

Investing Activities

In 2012, net cash used in investing activities was NT$273,196 million (US$9,404 million), as compared to NT$182,523 million and NT$202,086 million in 2011 and 2010, respectively. The increase in 2012 was primarily due to higher net purchase of investment in financial assets and higher spending on capital expenditures during the year. Net purchase of investment in financial assets in 2012 primarily included our investment of EUR838 million to acquire 5% of ASML’s equity. The decrease in 2011 was primarily due to lower investment in financial assets, higher disposal or redemption of investment in financial assets, lower refundable deposits and the absence of new investment in equity method investees, partially offset by higher spending on capital expenditures during the year.

Capital expenditures in 2012 were primarily related to:

 

   

adding production capacity to 300mm wafer fabs;

 

   

developing process technologies including 20-nanometer node and below;

 

   

expanding buildings/facilities for Fab 12, Fab 14 and Fab 15;

 

   

other research and development projects;

 

   

capacity expansion for mask and backend operations; and

 

   

solar and solid state lighting businesses.

Prior to 2012, our capital expenditures were funded by our operating cash flow. Starting 2012, our capital expenditures were partially funded by the issuance of corporate bonds. The capital expenditures for 2013 are also expected to be funded in similar ways. See “Item 3. Risk Factors” section for the risks associated with the inability of raising the requisite funding for our expansion programs. Please also see “Item 4. Information on the Company — Capacity Management and Technology Upgrade Plans” for discussion of our capacity management and capital expenditures.

Financing Activities

In 2012, net cash used in financing activities was NT$13,811 million (US$475 million), as compared to NT$67,858 million and NT$48,638 million in 2011 and 2010, respectively. Net cash used in financing activities in 2012 decreased primarily due to proceeds from issuance of corporate bonds amounting to NT$62,000 million in 2012 compared to NT$18,000 million in 2011, the change from NT$5,287 million cash used to repay short-term loans in 2011 to NT$8,788 million cash provided by short-term loans in 2012, partially offset by repayment of corporate bonds of NT$4,500 million during the year. In 2011, net cash used in financing activities increased primarily due to the change from NT$31,214 million cash provided by short-term loans in 2010 to NT$5,287 million cash used to repay short-term loans in 2011 and the higher repayment of other long-term liabilities of NT$2,526 million, partially offset by the proceeds from issuance of corporate bonds amounting to NT$18,000 million and increase in long-term debts of NT$2,250 million.

 

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As of December 31, 2012, our short-term loans were NT$34,715 million (US$1,195 million), and our aggregate long-term debt was NT$81,488 million (US$2,805 million) of which NT$128 million (US$4 million) was classified as current. The short-term loans were denominated in U.S. dollars. The purpose of the short-term loans was mainly to naturally hedge a portion of our receivables. As a substantial portion of our receivables was denominated in U.S. dollars, we use short-term loans denominated in U.S. dollars to naturally hedge the fluctuation of foreign exchanges rates. See “Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk” for a discussion of the hedging instruments used. The long-term debt primarily included NT$80,000 million of the long-term corporate bonds with fixed interest rates ranging from 1.28% to 1.63%.

Cash Requirements

The following table sets forth the maturity of our long-term debt (bank loans and bonds) outstanding as of December 31, 2012:

 

        Long-term debt     
     (in NT$ millions)  

During 2013

     128                 

During 2014

     588                 

During 2015

     137                 

During 2016

     11,125                 

During 2017 and thereafter

       69,510                 

The following table sets forth information on our material contractually obligated payments for the periods indicated as of December 31, 2012:

 

       Payments Due by Period  

Contractual Obligations

           Total                 Less than   
1 Year
          1-3 Years              4-5 Years             More than  
5 Years
 
       (in NT$ millions)                     

Short-Term Loans(1)

       34,715             34,715             -             -             -     

Long-Term Debt(2)

       81,488             128             725             43,735             36,900     

Capital Lease Obligations(3)

       865             27             54             54             730     

Operating Leases(4)

       7,394             694             1,290             1,188             4,222     

Other Payments(5)

       11,602             2,564             4,182             4,856             -     

Capital Purchase or Other Purchase Obligations(6)

       77,310             75,234             2,076             -             -     

Total Contractual Cash Obligations(7)

       213,374             113,362             8,327             49,833             41,852     

 

 

(1) 

The maximum amount and average amount of short-term loans outstanding during the year ended December 31, 2012 were NT$35,875 million and NT$32,383 million, respectively. See note 16 to our consolidated financial statements for further information regarding interest rates and future repayment dates.

(2) 

Includes bank loans payable and corporate bonds payable but excludes relevant interest payments. See notes 17 and 18 to our consolidated financial statements for further information regarding interest rates and future repayment of long-term debts.

(3) 

Capital lease obligations represent our commitment for leases of property, which are described in note 14 to our consolidated financial statements.

(4) 

Operating lease obligations are described in note 29 to our consolidated financial statements.

(5) 

Other payments represent payables for acquisition of property, plant and equipment, payables for software and system design costs, payables for technology transfer, and our commitment of EUR277 million to ASML’s research and development programs from 2013 to 2017.

(6) 

Represents commitments for construction or purchase of equipment, raw material and other property or services. These commitments are not recorded on our balance sheet as of December 31, 2012, as we have not received related goods or taken title of the property.

(7) 

Minimum pension funding requirement is not included since such amounts have not been determined. We made pension contributions of approximately NT$221 million in 2012 and estimate that we will contribute approximately NT$226 million to the pension fund in 2013. See note 20 to our consolidated financial statements for additional details regarding our pension plan.

 

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During 2012, we entered into derivative financial instruments transactions to manage exposures related to foreign-currency denominated receivables or payables and interest rate fluctuations. As of December 31, 2012, we anticipated our cash requirements in 2013 for outstanding forward exchange agreements and cross currency swaps of approximately NT$11,135 million and US$309 million with our expected cash receipts of approximately JPY130 million, US$58 million, NT$8,384 million and EUR246 million and RMB125 million. See “Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk” for more information regarding our derivative financial instruments transactions. See also note 2 to the consolidated financial statements for our accounting policy of derivative financial instruments, and note 6 and note 26 to the consolidated financial statements for additional details regarding our derivative financial instruments transactions.

Generally, we do not provide letters of credit to, or guarantees for any entity other than our consolidated subsidiaries.

Significant amount of capital is required to build, expand, and upgrade our production facilities and equipment. Our capital expenditures for 2013 are expected to be approximately US$9 billion, which, depending on market conditions, may be adjusted later.

U.S. GAAP Reconciliation

Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with R.O.C. GAAP, which differs in certain material aspects from U.S. GAAP. The following table sets forth a comparison of our net income and shareholders’ equity in accordance with R.O.C. GAAP and U.S. GAAP for the periods indicated:

 

     For the year ended December 31  
             2010                      2011                      2012          
     NT$      NT$              NT$                      US$          
     (in millions)  

Net income attributable to the shareholders of the parent in accordance with:

           

R.O.C. GAAP

     161,605         134,201          166,159         5,720   

U.S. GAAP

     163,639         136,873          158,850         5,468   

Shareholders’ equity attributable to the shareholders of the parent in accordance with:

           

R.O.C. GAAP

     574,145         629,594          723,198         24,895   

U.S. GAAP

     610,597         669,163          754,860         25,985   

Differences between R.O.C. GAAP and U.S. GAAP that have a material effect on our net income and shareholders’ equity as reported under R.O.C. GAAP include compensation expense pertaining to stock bonuses to employees, recognition of and subsequent accounting for goodwill, 10% tax imposed on unappropriated earnings, stock-based compensation and deconsolidation of investees. Please refer to note 33 to the consolidated financial statements, which provides a description of the principal differences between R.O.C. GAAP and U.S. GAAP as they relate to us and a reconciliation to U.S. GAAP of certain items, including net income and shareholders’ equity.

Starting in 2013, our financial statements will be prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, International Accounting Standards, and relevant Interpretations (collectively, “IFRSs”) as issued by International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”) and IFRSs as endorsed for use in R.O.C. Since the transition date to IFRSs was January 1, 2012, our 2012 consolidated financial statements under IFRSs may be materially different from the accompanied 2012 consolidated financial statements under R.O.C. GAAP.

Taxation

In 2010, the R.O.C. government reduced the corporate income tax rate from 25% to 17% effective from 2010. In the same year, the “Statute for Industries Innovation” was passed to replace the “Statute for Upgrading Industries” in tax incentives. Under the new statute, the tax credit rate for research and development expenditure was reduced from 30% to 15%, and the 7% tax credit incentive for purchased equipment and the five-year tax exemption were terminated.

We are eligible for five-year tax holidays for income generated from construction and capacity expansions of production facilities according to the regulation under the Statute for Upgrading Industries of the R.O.C. The exemption period may begin at any time within five years, as applicable, following the completion of a construction or expansion of production facilities. The Statute for Upgrading Industries expired at the end of 2009. However, under the Grandfather Clause, we can continue to enjoy five-year tax holidays if the relevant investment plans were approved by R.O.C. tax authority before the expiration of the Statute. Pursuant to the Grandfather Clause, we commenced the exemption period for part of Fab 14 (Phase III), part of Fab 12 (Phase III) and others in 2010; part of Fab 12 (Phase IV), part of Fab 14 (Phase III and IV) in 2011. The aggregate tax benefits of such exemption periods in 2010, 2011 and 2012 were NT$17,410 million, NT$13,832 million and NT$9,830 million (US$338 million), respectively.

 

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Under regulations promulgated under the R.O.C. Statute for Industries Innovation, we were eligible for a tax credit for specified percentages of research and development expenditures. The tax credit rate of research and development expenditures is 15% during the period from 2010 to 2019.

The R.O.C. government enacted the R.O.C. Alternative Minimum Tax Act (“AMT Act”) which became effective on January 1, 2006. The alternative minimum tax (“AMT”) imposed under the R.O.C. AMT Act is a supplemental tax which is payable if the income tax payable pursuant to the R.O.C. Income Tax Act is below the minimum amount prescribed under the R.O.C. AMT Act. The taxable income for calculating the AMT includes most income that is exempted from income tax under various legislations, such as tax holidays and investment tax credits. In August 2012, the AMT rate for business entities was amended from 10% to 12% effective from 2013. However, the R.O.C. AMT Act grandfathered certain tax exemptions and tax credits granted prior to the enactment of the R.O.C. AMT. We have evaluated the impact from the amendments and adjusted deferred tax assets with the resulting differences recorded as income tax expense in 2012.

In consideration of the above tax credit incentives, five-year tax exemption, amended AMT rate and other relevant factors, we expect our effective tax rate for 2013 to be around 14%.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

There are no off-balance sheet arrangements that have or are reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources that are material to investors.

Inflation & Deflation

During 2012, neither inflation nor deflation had a material impact on our operations, or the business operations of our customers and suppliers. However, in light of the uncertain global economic outlook and the fluctuating global oil price, we cannot assure that there will be no significant variations in the future, which may have a material impact on our results of operations. Further, the recent lifting of price limits by the Taiwan government on oil and electricity prices may have additional inflationary effects. As such, there is a likelihood of increased energy taxes, oil, electricity and water prices that may occur in Taiwan, and thus far there is no indication as to whether these increased costs would be material to our business operations.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

For R.O.C. GAAP, please refer to note 4 to the consolidated financial statements. For U.S GAAP, please refer to note 34 to the consolidated financial statements.

Climate Change Related Issues

The manufacturing, assembling and testing of our products require the use of chemicals and materials that are subject to environmental, climate related, health and safety laws and regulations issued worldwide as well as international accords such as the Kyoto Protocol. Climate change related laws or regulations currently are too indefinite for us to assess the impact on our future financial condition with any degree of reasonable certainty. For example, the Taiwan legislative authority has been studying relevant laws relating to environmental protection and climate related changes, such as the “Greenhouse Gas Reduction Act” and “Energy Tax”. Since there has been no concrete guidance or laws issuing from the Taiwan government as of the date of this filing, the impact of such laws is indeterminable at the moment. Please see detailed risk factors related to the impact of climate change regulations and international accords, and business trends on our operations in “Item 3. Key Information - Risk Factors - Risks Relating to Our Business”. Please also see our compliance record with Taiwan and international environmental and climate related laws and regulations in “Item 4. Information on the Company — Environmental Regulation”.

 

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ITEM 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

Directors and Executive Officers

MANAGEMENT

Members of our board of directors are elected by our shareholders. Our board of directors is currently composed of nine directors. Of our current nine directors, five are independent directors. The chairman of the board of directors is elected by the directors. The chairman of the board of directors presides at all meetings of the board of directors, and also has the authority to act as our representative. The term of office for directors is three years.

Pursuant to R.O.C. Securities and Exchange Law, effective from January 1, 2007, a public company is required to either establish an audit committee or to have supervisors. A public company’s audit committee should be composed of all of its independent directors but not less than three, of which at least one member should have accounting or related financial management expertise, and the relevant provisions under the R.O.C. Securities and Exchange Law, the R.O.C. Company Law and other laws applicable to the supervisors are also applicable to the audit committee.

Pursuant to the R.O.C. Company Law, a person may serve as our director in his personal capacity or as the representative of another legal entity. A director who serves as the representative of a legal entity may be removed or replaced at any time at the discretion of that legal entity, and the replacement director may serve the remainder of the term of office of the replaced director. For example, the National Development Fund of Taiwan, R.O.C., one of our largest shareholders, has served as our director since our founding. As a corporate entity, the National Development Fund is required to appoint a representative to act on its behalf. Mr. Johnsee Lee has been the representative of the National Development Fund since August 6, 2010.

The following table sets forth the name of each director and executive officer, their positions, the year in which their term expires and the number of years they have been with us as of February 28, 2013. The business address for each of our directors and executive officers is No. 8, Li Hsin Road 6, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of China.

 

Name

  

Position with our company

   Term
 Expires 
   Years
with our
 company 

Morris Chang

   Chairman & Chief Executive Officer    2015    26

F.C. Tseng

   Vice Chairman    2015    26

Johnsee Lee

   Director (Representative of the National Development Fund)    2015    3

Stan Shih

   Independent Director    2015    13

Sir Peter Leahy Bonfield

   Independent Director    2015    11

Thomas J. Engibous

   Independent Director    2015    4

Gregory C. Chow

   Independent Director    2015    2

Kok-Choo Chen

   Independent Director    2015    2

Rick Tsai

   Director    2015    23

Shang-yi Chiang

   Executive Vice President & Co-Chief Operating Officer       13

Mark Liu

   Executive Vice President & Co-Chief Operating Officer       19

C.C. Wei

   Executive Vice President & Co-Chief Operating Officer       15

Stephen T. Tso

   Senior Vice President & Chief Information Officer       16

Richard Thurston

   Senior Vice President & General Counsel       11

Lora Ho

   Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer & Spokesperson       14

Jason C.S. Chen

   Senior Vice President, Worldwide Sales and Marketing       8

M.C. Tzeng

   Vice President, Operations/Affiliate Fabs       26

Wei-Jen Lo

   Vice President, Research & Development       9

Jack Sun

   Vice President, Research & Development & Chief Technology Officer       16

Y.P. Chin

   Vice President, Operations/Product Development       26

N.S. Tsai

   Vice President, Quality & Reliability       24

Rick Cassidy

   Vice President & President, TSMC North America       16

L.C. Tu(1)

   Vice President, Human Resources       26

J.K. Lin

   Vice President, Operations/Mainstream Fabs & Manufacturing Technology       26

J.K. Wang

   Vice President, Operations/300mm Fabs       26

Irene Sun

   Vice President, Corporate Planning Organization       9

Burn J. Lin

   Vice President, Research & Development       13

Y. J. Mii

   Vice President, Research & Development       19

Cliff Hou

   Vice President, Research & Development       16

 

 

(1)

Vice President of Human Resources L.C. Tu was appointed as the President of TSMC China, effective March 15, 2013.

 

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Morris Chang is the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. He has been the founding Chairman of our board of directors since our establishment and was our Chief Executive Officer from March 1998 to June 2005. He resumed his position as our Chief Executive Officer on June 12, 2009. From 1985 to 1994, he was President and then Chairman of the board of directors of ITRI. Prior to that, Dr. Chang was President and Chief Operating Officer of General Instrument Corporation; Corporate Group and Senior Vice-President for Texas Instruments. He holds a bachelor’s degree and a master’s degree in mechanical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Stanford University and has been active in the international semiconductor industry for over 57 years.

F.C. Tseng is the Vice Chairman. He has been our Vice Chairman since July 2005. He was Deputy Chief Executive Officer from August 2001 to June 2005. He is also the Chairman of Global Unichip Corp., a director of Digimax, Inc., TSMC Solar Ltd., TSMC Solid State Lighting Ltd., and Vanguard International Semiconductor Corp. He also serves as an independent director, a member of Compensation Committee and Chairman of Financial Statement and Internal Control Review Committee of Acer Inc. He formerly served as the President of Vanguard from 1996 to 1998 and our President from May 1998 to August 2001. Prior to his presidency at Vanguard, Dr. Tseng served as our Senior Vice President of Operations. He holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from National Cheng-Kung University and has been active in the semiconductor industry for over 41 years.

Johnsee Lee is a director. He is the Chairman of the Development Center for Biotechnology. He also serves as the President of Taiwan Bio Industry Organization and an independent director of Taiwan Polysilicon Corp., Zhen Ding Technology Holding Ltd. and Far Eastern New Century Corp. He was the President of ITRI from 2003 to 2010 and has also served on many government and industrial boards and committees. Before returning to Taiwan, he held various technical and managerial positions at Argonne National Laboratory and Johnson Matthey Inc. in the U.S. from 1981 to 1990. He holds a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the Illinois Institute of Technology, and a MBA from the University of Chicago. He is also a graduate of Harvard Business School’s Advanced Management Program.

Stan Shih is an independent director. He is the Group Chairman of iD SoftCapital and a director of Acer Inc., Qisda Corp., Wistron Corp. and Nan Shan Life Insurance Company, Ltd. He is also co-founder and Chairman Emeritus of the Acer Group. He served as the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Acer Group from 1976 to 2004. Mr. Shih holds a bachelor’s degree, a master’s degree and an honorary Ph.D. in electrical engineering from National Chiao Tung University. He also holds an honorary doctoral degree in technology from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, an honorary fellowship from the University of Wales and an honorary doctoral degree in international law from the Thunderbird, American Graduate School of International Management.

Sir Peter Leahy Bonfield is an independent director. Sir Peter Bonfield was the Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Executive Committee of British Telecommunications from January 1996 to January 2002. He was the Vice President of the British Quality Foundation from its creation in 1993 until 2012. He is currently the Chairman of the Board of Directors of NXP Semiconductor in the Netherlands. He is also a director of L.M. Ericsson in Sweden, Mentor Graphics Corporation Inc. in U.S. and Sony Corporation in Japan. He is a member of the Sony Corporation Advisory Board, The Longreach Group Advisory Board, and New Venture Partners LLP Advisory Board. He also serves as an advisor to Apax Partners LLP, a board mentor of CMi, and a senior advisor to Rothschild in London. He is a fellow of The Royal Academy of Engineering and the Chair of Council and Senior Pro-Chancellor at Loughborough University in UK. He holds an honors degree in engineering from Longhborough University.

Thomas J. Engibous is an independent director. He joined Texas Instruments (“TI”) in 1976 and served there until retirement in 2008. During his 32-year career at TI, his duties included Chairman from 2004 to 2008, Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer from 1998 to 2004, President and Chief Executive Officer from 1996 to 1998 and Executive Vice President and President of the company’s Semiconductor Group from 1993 to 1996. Mr. Engibous currently serves as the Chairman of J.C. Penney Company Inc. and Honorary Trustee of the Southwestern Medical Foundation. He is also a member of the Texas Business Hall of Fame. He received the Woodrow Wilson Award in 2004. He holds a master’s degree in electrical engineering and an honorary doctorate in engineering from Purdue University.

Gregory C. Chow is an independent director. He is currently Professor of Economics and Class of 1913 Professor of Political Economy, Emeritus, and Lecture with the Rank at Princeton University. He is a member of the Taiwan Academia Sinica and the American Philosophical Society, and a fellow of the American Statistical Association and the Econometric Society. Professor Chow has over 50 years of teaching experience at such institutes as M.I.T., Cornell University, IBM Thomas Watson Research Center, Columbia University and Princeton University. Professor Chow also served as an adviser on economic policy, economic reform and economic education in Taiwan and China. He holds a Ph.D. and master degree in Economics from Chicago University and an honorary Doctorate of Business Administration from Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. He also holds honorary professorships at various major universities in China and the City University of Hong Kong. His publications include 14 books and over 200 articles.

 

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Kok-Choo Chen is an independent director. She served as our Senior Vice President and General Counsel from 1997 to 2001. Currently, Ms. Chen is an advisor to the Taiwan Executive Yuan and the Taipei City Government. Ms. Chen has over 24 years of experience working in international law firms. She has also taught law at Soochow University, National Chengchi University and National Tsing-Hua University in Taiwan for over 28 years. In addition, Ms. Chen is the founder of two Taiwan heritage site museums (Taipei Story House and Futai Street Mansion), as well as a director of the TSMC Education and Culture Foundation. Ms. Chen is licensed to practice law in England, Singapore and California.

Rick Tsai is a director. He is currently the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of two TSMC subsidiaries, “TSMC Solar Ltd.” and “TSMC Solid State Lighting Ltd.”. He is also a director of Motech Industries, Inc. and an advisor to the Taiwan Executive Yuan. Dr. Tsai was TSMC’s President of New Businesses from June 12, 2009 to July 31, 2011, President and Chief Executive Officer from July 2005 to June 11, 2009, President & Chief Operating Officer from August 2001 to June 2005 and Executive Vice President of Worldwide Marketing and Sales from September 2000 to August 2001. Prior to that, he served as our Executive Vice President of Operations. He also served as the President of Vanguard from 1999 to 2000. He joined us in 1989 as Deputy Director of our Fab 2 operations. He holds a Ph.D. in material science from Cornell University.

Shang-yi Chiang is our Executive Vice President and Co-Chief Operating Officer. Dr. Chiang re-joined us as Senior Vice President of Research and Development in September 2009. He was also Chairman of VisEra Technologies Company and Xintec Inc. from August 2006 to July 2010. He was Senior Vice President of Research and Development from November 2000 to August 2006. He joined us as Vice President of Research and Development in 1997. Prior to that, he worked at Hewlett Packard. Dr. Chiang holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Stanford University.

Mark Liu is our Executive Vice President and Co-Chief Operating Officer. Prior to that, he was our Senior Vice President of Operations. From March 2008 to October 2009, he served as Senior Vice President of Advanced Technology Business. From January 2002 to March 2008, he was Senior Vice President of Operations II. He was Vice President of our Fab 8 and Fab 12 Sites Operations from July 2000 to January 2002 and Vice President of South-Site Operations from 1999 to July 2000. Dr. Liu joined us in 1993 and held the positions as Director of Fab 3 Operations and Senior Director of South-Site Operations. He holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering and computer science from University of California, Berkeley.

C.C. Wei is our Executive Vice President and Co-Chief Operating Officer. Prior to that, he was our Senior Vice President of Business Development. From March 2008 to October 2009, he was Senior Vice President of Mainstream Technology Business. From January 2002 to March 2008, Dr. Wei was Senior Vice President of Operations I. He was Vice President of South-Site Operations from April 2000 to January 2002 and Vice President of North-Site Operations from February 1998 to April 2000. Prior to that, he was Senior Vice President at Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing Ltd. in Singapore starting from 1993. He holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Yale University.

Stephen T. Tso is our Senior Vice President of Information Technology, Material Management and Risk Management and Chief Information Officer. He joined us as Vice President of Research and Development in December 1996. Prior to that, he was General Manager of Metal CVD Products in Applied Materials. He was assigned as the President of WaferTech in November 2001. Dr. Tso holds a Ph.D. in material science and engineering from University of California, Berkeley.

Richard Thurston is our Senior Vice President and General Counsel. Prior to joining us in January 2002, he was a partner with Kelt Capital Partners, LP, in Addison, Texas, and a senior partner with the Dallas Texas-based law firm of Haynes and Boone. Dr. Thurston was also Vice President and Assistant General Counsel, and the Asia Pacific Regional Counsel for TI from 1984 to 1996. Dr. Thurston holds a Ph.D. in East Asian studies from University of Virginia and a J.D. from Rutgers School of Law.

Lora Ho is our Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Spokesperson. Prior to joining us in 1999 as controller, she had served as Vice President of Finance and Chief Financial Officer at Acer Semiconductor Manufacturing Inc. since 1990. Ms. Ho holds an MBA from National Taiwan University.

Jason C.S. Chen is our Senior Vice President of Worldwide Sales and Marketing. He joined us as Vice President of Corporate Development in March 2005. Prior to that, he was Vice President and Co-Director of Marketing and Sales group with Intel Corporation. Mr. Chen holds an MBA degree from University of Missouri, Columbia.

M.C. Tzeng is our Vice President of Operations/Affiliate Fabs. From March 2008 to October 2009, he was Vice President of Mainstream Technology Business. Prior to that, he was Vice President of Operations I from January 2002 to March 2008. He was the Senior Director of Fab 2 Operations from 1997 to January 2002. He joined us in 1987 and has held various positions in manufacturing functions. He holds a master degree in applied chemistry from Chung Yuan University.

Wei-Jen Lo is our Vice President of Research & Development. He was Vice President of Operations/Manufacturing Technology from October 2009 to February 2013, Vice President of Advanced Technology Business from September 2009 to October 2009, Vice President of Research & Development from June 2006 to September 2009 and Vice President of Operations from July 2004 to June 2006. Prior to that, he was Director in charge of advanced technology development with Intel Corporation. Dr. Lo holds a Ph.D. in solid state physics & surface chemistry from University of California, Berkeley.

 

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Jack Sun is our Chief Technology Officer, effective November 2009, and also has been our Vice President of Research and Development since 2006. He was promoted to Senior Director in 2000. He joined us in 1997 as Director of Advanced Module Technology Division before taking the position of Director, Logic Technology Development Division. Prior to that, he served at International Business Machines for 14 years in Research and Development. Dr. Sun holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Y.P. Chin is Vice President of Operations/Product Development. He was Vice President of Advanced Technology Business from March 2008 to October 2009. Prior to that, he was Senior Director of Operations II from June 2006 to March 2008 and Product Engineering & Services from 2000 to 2006. He joined us in 1987 and has held various positions in product and engineering functions. He holds a master degree in electrical engineering from National Cheng Kung University.

N.S. Tsai has been Vice President of Quality & Reliability since February 2008. Prior to that, he was Senior Director of Quality & Reliability since 2004, Senior Director of Assembly Test Technology & Service from 2002 to 2004. Dr. Tsai also served as a Vice President of Vanguard from 1997 to 2000. He joined us in 1989 and held various positions in research and development and manufacturing functions. He holds a Ph.D. in material science from Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Rick Cassidy was promoted as Vice President in February 2008. He has been President of TSMC North America since January 2005. He joined us in 1997 and has held various positions in TSMC North America, including Business Operations, Field Technical Support, and Business Management. He holds a B.A. degree in engineering technology from United States Military Academy at West Point.

L.C. Tu is the President of TSMC China, effective March 15, 2013. He was the Vice President of Human Resources from August 2009 to March 2013. Prior to that, he was Senior Director of Corporate Planning Organization from 2002 to 2009. He joined us in 1987 and held various positions in engineering functions. He holds a master degree in business administration from Tulane University.

J.K. Lin is our Vice President of Operations/Mainstream Fabs and Manufacturing Technology. He was promoted as Vice President of Operations in August 2010. Prior to that, he was Senior Director of Mainstream Fabs from May to August in 2010. He joined us in 1987 and held various positions in manufacturing functions. He holds a B.S. degree from National Changhua University of Education.

J.K. Wang is our Vice President of Operations/300mm Fabs. He was promoted as Vice President of Operations in August 2010. Prior to that, he was Senior Director of 300mm Fabs from May to August in 2010. He joined us in 1987 and held various positions in manufacturing functions and research and development technology development. He holds a master degree in chemical engineering from National Cheng-Kung University.

Irene Sun is our Vice President of Corporate Planning Organization. She was promoted as Vice President of Corporate Planning Organization in August 2010. Prior to that, she was Senior Director of Corporate Planning Organization from 2009 to 2010. She joined us in 2003 and held various positions in Corporate Planning Organization. She holds a Ph.D. in materials science and engineering from Cornell University.

Burn J. Lin is our Vice President of Research & Development. He was promoted as Vice President of Research & Development in February 2011. Prior to that, he was our Senior Director of Nanopatterning Technology Division from 2000 to 2011. He joined us in 2000. Dr. Lin is the editor in chief of the Journal of Micro/nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS, a fellow of IEEE and of SPIE. He holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Ohio State University.

Y. J. Mii is our Vice President of Research & Development. He was promoted as Vice President of Research and Development in August 2011. Prior to that, he was our Senior Director of Platform I Division from 2006 to 2011. He joined TSMC in 1994 and has been involved continuously in the development and manufacturing of advanced CMOS technologies in both Operations and research and development. He holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of California, Los Angeles.

Cliff Hou is our Vice President of Design and Technology Platform. He was prompted as Vice President of Design and Technology Platform in August 2011. Prior to that, he was Senior Director of Design and Technology Platform from 2010 to 2011. He joined TSMC in 1997 and established the Company’s technology design kit and reference flow development organizations. He holds a Ph.D. in electrical and computer engineering from Syracuse University.

 

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Table of Contents

There is no family relationship between any of our directors or executive officers and any other director or executive officer.

Share Ownership

The following table sets forth certain information as of February 28, 2013 with respect to our common shares owned by our directors and executive officers.

 

Name of Shareholders

        Number of Common     
Shares Owned(2)
         Percentage of    
Outstanding
Common
Shares(2)
     Number of
Common
Shares
    Underlying    
Stock
Options(3)
 

Morris Chang, Chairman & CEO

     123,137,914              0.47%                 -     

F.C. Tseng, Vice Chairman

     34,662,675              0.13%                 -     

Johnsee Lee, Director(1)

     1,653,709,980              6.38%                 -     

Stan Shih, Independent Director

     1,480,286              0.01%                 -     

Sir Peter Leahy Bonfield, Independent Director

     -              -                    -     

Thomas J. Engibous, Independent Director

     -              -                    -     

Gregory C. Chow, Independent Director

     -              -                    -     

Kok-Choo Chen, Independent Director

     -              -                    -     

Rick Tsai, Director

     32,687,046              0.13%                 -     

Shang-yi Chiang, Executive Vice President & Co-Chief Operating Officer

     1,062,481              0.00%                 -     

Mark Liu, Executive Vice President & Co-Chief Operating Officer

     13,127,114              0.05%                 -     

C.C. Wei, Executive Vice President & Co-Chief Operating Officer

     8,460,207              0.03%                 -     

Stephen T. Tso, Senior Vice President & CIO

     14,425,064              0.06%                 -     

Richard Thurston, Senior Vice President & General Counsel

     869,892              0.00%                 -     

Lora Ho, Senior Vice President, CFO & Spokesperson

     6,381,080              0.02%                 -     

Jason C.S. Chen, Senior Vice President

     2,027,320              0.01%                 -     

M.C. Tzeng, Vice President

     7,592,595              0.03%                 -     

Wei-Jen Lo, Vice President

     1,913,127              0.01%                 -     

Jack Sun, Vice President & CTO

     4,402,831              0.02%                 -     

Y.P. Chin, Vice President

     7,540,122              0.03%                 -     

N.S. Tsai, Vice President

     2,051,180              0.01%                 -     

Rick Cassidy, Vice President

     -              -                    -     

L.C. Tu, Vice President(4)

     9,347,440              0.04%                 -     

J.K. Lin, Vice President

     12,507,018              0.05%                 -     

J.K. Wang, Vice President

     2,553,947              0.01%                 -     

Irene Sun, Vice President

     960,709              0.00%                 -     

Burn J. Lin, Vice President

     2,997,746              0.01%                 -     

Y.J. Mii, Vice President

     1,000,419              0.00%                 -     

Cliff Hou, Vice President

     752,532              0.00%                 -     

 

 

(1) 

Represents shares held by the National Development Fund of the Executive Yuan.

(2) 

Except for the number of shares held by the National Development Fund of the Executive Yuan, the disclosed number of shares owned by the directors and executive officers does not include any common shares held in ADS form by such individuals as such individual ownership of ADSs has not been disclosed to shareholders or otherwise made public and each of these individuals owns less than one percent of all common shares outstanding as of February 28, 2013.

(3) 

The numbers of the common shares underlying the stock options and the exercise prices were adjusted for the cash and stock dividends distributed from 2003 to 2012, according to the terms of the 2002 Employee Stock Option Plan. The options were granted to certain of our officers except Rick Cassidy as a result of their voluntary selection to exchange part of their profit sharing to stock options.

(4) 

Vice President of Human Resources L.C. Tu was appointed as the President of TSMC China, effective March 15, 2013.

 

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Compensation

The aggregate compensation paid and benefits in kind granted to our directors and executive officers in 2012, which included a cash bonus to the directors, was NT$1,430 million (US$49 million). According to our Articles of Incorporation, not more than 0.3 percent of our annual net earnings (after recovering any losses incurred in prior years and deducting the legal reserve and special reserve provisions, if any) may be distributed as compensation to our directors and at least one percent of our annual net earnings (after recovering any losses incurred in prior years and deducting the legal reserve and special reserve provisions, if any) may be distributed as bonuses to employees, including executive officers. Compensation to directors is always paid in cash, while bonuses to our executive officers may be granted in cash, stock, or stock options or the combination of all these three. Individual awards are based on each individual’s responsibility, contribution and performance. See note 23 to our consolidated financial statements. Under our Articles of Incorporation, directors who also serve as executive officers are not entitled to any director compensation.

Board Practices

General

For a discussion of the term of office of the board of directors, see “— Directors and Executive Officers — Management”. No benefits are payable to members of the Board upon termination of their relationship with us.

Audit Committee

Our Audit Committee was established on August 6, 2002 to assist our board of directors in the review and monitoring of our financial and accounting matters, and the integrity of our financial reporting process and controls.

All members of the Audit Committee must have a basic understanding of finance and accounting and at least one member must have accounting or related financial management expertise.

Currently, the Audit Committee consists of five members comprising all of our independent directors. The members of the Audit Committee are Sir Peter Bonfield, the Chairman of our Audit Committee, Mr. Stan Shih, Mr. Thomas J. Engibous, Mr. Gregory C. Chow and Ms. Kok-Choo Chen. In addition, Mr. J. C. Lobbezoo was appointed to serve as financial expert consultant to the Audit Committee from February 14, 2006 onwards. See “Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert”. The Audit Committee is required to meet at least once every quarter. Our Audit Committee charter grants the Audit Committee the authority to conduct any investigation which it deems appropriate to fulfill its responsibilities. It has direct access to all our books, records, facilities, and personnel, as well as our registered public accountants. It has the authority to, among other things, appoint, terminate and approve all fees to be paid to our registered public accountants, subject to the approval of the board of directors as appropriate, and to oversee the work performed by the registered public accountants. The Audit Committee also has the authority to engage special legal, accounting, or other consultants it deems necessary in the performance of its duties. Beginning on January 1, 2007, the Audit Committee also assumed the responsibilities of supervisors pursuant to the R.O.C. Securities and Exchange Law.

The Audit Committee convened four regular meetings in 2012. In addition to these meetings, the Audit Committee members and consultant participated in five telephone conferences to discuss the Company’s Annual Report to be filed with the Taiwan and U.S. authorities and investor conference materials with management.

Compensation Committee

Our board of directors established a Compensation Committee in June 2003 to assist our board of directors in discharging its responsibilities related to our compensation and benefit policies, plans and programs, and the compensation of our directors of the Board and executives.

The Compensation Committee, by its charter, shall consist of no fewer than three independent directors of the Board. Currently, the Compensation Committee is comprised of all five independent directors. The members of the Compensation Committee are Mr. Stan Shih, the Chairman of our Compensation Committee, Sir Peter Bonfield, Mr. Thomas J. Engibous, Mr. Gregory C. Chow and Ms. Kok-Choo Chen.

The Compensation Committee convened four regular meetings in 2012.

 

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Employees

The following table sets out, as of the dates indicated, the number of our full-time employees serving in the capacities indicated.

 

     As of December 31,  

Function

           2010                       2011(1)                       2012(1)          

Managers

     3,142                3,601                3,865          

Professionals

     12,729                13,665                15,844          

Assistant Engineers/Clericals

     2,650                2,796                3,079          

Technicians

     14,711                15,395                16,479          
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     33,232                35,457                39,267          
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

The following table sets out, as of the dates indicated, a breakdown of the number of our full-time employees by geographic location:

 

     As of December 31,  

Location of Facility and Principal Offices

           2010                       2011(1)                       2012(1)          

Hsinchu Science Park, Taiwan

     20,703                20,107                21,534           

Southern Taiwan Science Park, Taiwan

     9,158                9,041                8,964           

Central Taiwan Science Park, Taiwan

     29                1,410                3,558           

Taoyuan County, Taiwan

     -                1,333                1,378           

China

     1,903                2,134                2,353           

North America

     1,355                1,343                1,395           

Europe

     48                53                50           

Japan

     32                32                32           

Korea

     4                4                3           
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     33,232                35,457                39,267           
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

(1)

Including employees of our non-wholly owned subsidiaries, Xintec Inc. and Mutual-Pak Technology Co., Ltd., since 2011.

As of December 31, 2012, our total employee population was 39,267 with an educational makeup of 3.6% Ph.Ds, 34.4% masters, 25.9% university bachelors, 12.8% college degrees and 23.3% others. Among this employee population, 50.2% were at a managerial or professional level. Continuous learning is the cornerstone of our employee development strategy. Individual development plans for each employee are customized and tailored to their individual development needs. Employee development is further supported and enforced by a comprehensive and integrated network of resources including on-the-job training, coaching, mentoring, job rotation, on-site courses, e-learning and external learning opportunities.

Pursuant to our Articles of Incorporation, our employees participate in our profits sharing program by way of a bonus. Employees in the aggregate are entitled to not less than 1% of our net income after the deduction for prior years’ losses and contributions to legal and special reserves. Our practice in the past has been to determine the amount of the bonus based on our operating results and industry practice in the R.O.C. In 2011 and 2012, we distributed an employees’ cash bonus of NT$8,990 million (US$309 million) and an employees’ cash profit sharing of NT$8,990 million (US$309 million) to our employees in relation to year 2011 earnings. In 2012 and 2013, we also distributed an employees’ cash bonus of NT$11,115 million (US$383 million) to our employees in relation to year 2012 earnings.

In June 2002, we adopted the 2002 Employee Stock Option Plan that authorizes the grant of options exercisable for up to 100 million common shares (approximately 0.5% of our total then outstanding common shares). These options vested between two and four years after the date of grant, with 50% of the option granted being exercisable two years after the grant, 75% exercisable three years after the grant and 100% exercisable four years after the grant. Any options granted will expire ten years after the date of grant. Under the 2002 Employee Stock Option Plan, a total of 48,137,264 options were granted, of which 2,726,796 options were originally granted to certain of our officers as a result of their voluntary election to exchange part of their profit sharing for stock options. The remaining balance of options under the 2002 Employee Stock Option Plan expired on June 25, 2003. As of December 31, 2012, 3,361,794 options were outstanding under the 2002 Employee Stock Option Plan.

 

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In September 2003, we adopted the 2003 Employee Stock Option Plan that authorizes the grant of the options exercisable for up to 120 million common shares (approximately 0.6% of our total then outstanding common shares) in one or more tranches before October 29, 2004, when the 2003 Employee Stock Option Plan expired. These options vested between two and four years after the date of grant, with 50% of the options granted being exercisable two years after the grant, 75% exercisable three years after the grant and 100% exercisable four years after the grant. Any options granted will expire ten years after the date of grant. Under the 2003 Employee Stock Option Plan, a total of 12,055,735 options have been granted. The remaining balance under the 2003 Employee Stock Option Plan expired on October 29, 2004. As of December 31, 2012, 995,506 options were outstanding under the 2003 Employee Stock Option Plan.

In November 2004, we adopted the 2004 Employee Stock Option Plan that authorizes the grant of options exercisable for up to 11 million common shares (approximately 0.05% of our total then outstanding common shares) in one or more tranches before January 6, 2006, when the 2004 Employee Stock Option Plan expired. These options vested between two and four years after the date of grant, with 50% of the options granted being exercisable two years after the grant, 75% exercisable three years after the grant and 100% exercisable four years after the grant. Any options granted will expire ten years after the date of grant. Under the 2004 Employee Stock Option Plan, a total of 10,374,550 options have been granted. The remaining balance under the 2004 Employee Stock Option Plan expired on January 6, 2006. As of December 31, 2012, 1,587,490 options were outstanding under the 2004 Employee Stock Option Plan.

In order to attract qualified senior managers, we maintain a sign-on bonus plan, under which selected newly hired senior managers, upon approval by our senior management, receive hiring bonus with the general condition of staying in our employment for at least one year (based on the quantum of sign-on bonus). In 2012, a total of NT$15 million (US$0.5 million) was distributed to our senior management under our sign-on bonus plan.

We value two-way communication and are committed to keeping our communication channels open and transparent between the management level and their subordinates. In addition, we are dedicated to providing diverse employee engagement programs, which support our goals in reinforcing close rapport with employees and maintaining harmonious labor relations.

 

ITEM 7. MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

Major Shareholders

The following table sets forth certain information as of February 28, 2013, with respect to our common shares owned by (i) each person who, according to our records, beneficially owned five percent or more of our common shares and by (ii) all directors and executive officers as a group.