Company Quick10K Filing
TSMC
Price36.58 EPS2
Shares25,930 P/E22
MCap948,430 P/FCF13
Net Debt-16,606 EBIT49,055
TEV931,824 TEV/EBIT19
TTM 2018-12-31, in MM, except price, ratios
20-F 2019-12-31 Filed 2020-04-15
20-F 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-04-17
20-F 2017-12-31 Filed 2018-04-19
20-F 2016-12-31 Filed 2017-04-13
20-F 2015-12-31 Filed 2016-04-11
20-F 2014-12-31 Filed 2015-04-13
20-F 2013-12-31 Filed 2014-04-14
20-F 2012-12-31 Filed 2013-04-02
20-F 2011-12-31 Filed 2012-04-13
20-F 2010-12-31 Filed 2011-04-15
20-F 2009-12-31 Filed 2010-04-15

TSM 20F Annual Report

Item 17 Item 18
Part I
Item 1. Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisors
Item 2. Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable
Item 3. Key Information
Item 4. Information on The Company
Item 4A. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 5. Operating and Financial Reviews and Prospects
Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees
Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions
Item 8. Financial Information
Item 9. The Offer and Listing
Item 10. Additional Information
Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risks
Item 12D. Description of Securities Other Than Equity Securities
Part II
Item 13. Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies
Item 14. Material Modifications To The Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds
Item 15. Controls and Procedures
Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert
Item 16B. Code of Ethics
Item 16C. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Item 16D. Exemptions From The Listing Standards for Audit Committees
Item 16E. Purchases of Equity Securities By The Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
Item 16F. Change in Registrant's Certifying Accountant
Item 16G. Corporate Governance
Item 16H. Mine Safety Disclosure
Part III
Item 17. Financial Statements
Item 18. Financial Statements
Item 19. Exhibits
EX-4.4 d707248dex44.htm
EX-4.10 d707248dex410.htm
EX-4.11 d707248dex411.htm
EX-4.14 d707248dex414.htm
EX-4.15 d707248dex415.htm
EX-4.16 d707248dex416.htm
EX-4.17 d707248dex417.htm
EX-4.18 d707248dex418.htm
EX-4.19 d707248dex419.htm
EX-4.20 d707248dex420.htm
EX-4.21 d707248dex421.htm
EX-4.22 d707248dex422.htm
EX-4.23 d707248dex423.htm
EX-4.24 d707248dex424.htm
EX-4.25 d707248dex425.htm
EX-4.26 d707248dex426.htm
EX-4.27 d707248dex427.htm
EX-12.1 d707248dex121.htm
EX-12.2 d707248dex122.htm
EX-12.3 d707248dex123.htm
EX-13.1 d707248dex131.htm
EX-13.2 d707248dex132.htm
EX-13.3 d707248dex133.htm
EX-99.1 d707248dex991.htm

TSMC Earnings 2013-12-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow
705642281402012201420172020
Assets, Equity
35282114702012201420172020
Rev, G Profit, Net Income
20136-1-8-152012201420172020
Ops, Inv, Fin

20-F 1 d707248d20f.htm FORM 20-F Form 20-F
Table of Contents

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, DC 20549

FORM 20-F

 

¨ REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR 12(g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013

OR

¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                      to                     

OR

¨ SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Commission file number 1-14700

 

LOGO

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Limited   Republic of China
(Translation of Registrant’s Name Into English)   (Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)

No. 8, Li-Hsin Road 6

Hsinchu Science Park

Hsinchu, Taiwan

Republic of China

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of Each Class

  

Name of Each Exchange

on Which Registered

Common Shares, par value NT$10.00 each*    The New York Stock Exchange, Inc.

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

None

(Title of Class)

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.

As of December 31, 2013, 25,928,617,140 Common Shares, par value NT$10 each were outstanding.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes    ü   No         

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or (15)(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes          No     ü 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes    ü   No          

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).

Yes          No        

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of “accelerated filer and large accelerated filer” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

Large Accelerated Filer    ü             Accelerated Filer                   Non-Accelerated Filer       

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 

U.S. GAAP          

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued   ü 

by the International Accounting Standards Board

   Other       

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

Item 17         Item 18        

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).   Yes          No    ü 

 

* Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing on the New York Stock Exchange, Inc. of American Depositary Shares representing such Common Shares


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Limited

 

          Page  

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

     1   

PART I

     2   

ITEM 1.

   IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISORS      2   

ITEM 2.

   OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE      2   

ITEM 3.

   KEY INFORMATION      2   

ITEM 4.

   INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY      13   

ITEM 4A.

   UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS      22   

ITEM 5.

   OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEWS AND PROSPECTS      22   

ITEM 6.

   DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES      33   

ITEM 7.

   MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS      40   

ITEM 8.

   FINANCIAL INFORMATION      42   

ITEM 9.

   THE OFFER AND LISTING      43   

ITEM 10.

   ADDITIONAL INFORMATION      44   

ITEM 11.

   QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISKS      59   

ITEM 12D.

   DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES      62   

PART II

     63   

ITEM 13.

   DEFAULTS, DIVIDEND ARREARAGES AND DELINQUENCIES      63   

 

i


Table of Contents

ITEM 14.

   MATERIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE RIGHTS OF SECURITY HOLDERS AND USE OF PROCEEDS      63   

ITEM 15.

   CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES      63   

ITEM 16A.

   AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT      64   

ITEM 16B.

   CODE OF ETHICS      64   

ITEM 16C.

   PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES      65   

ITEM 16D.

   EXEMPTIONS FROM THE LISTING STANDARDS FOR AUDIT COMMITTEES      65   

ITEM 16E.

   PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS      65   

ITEM 16F.

   CHANGE IN REGISTRANT’S CERTIFYING ACCOUNTANT      65   

ITEM 16G.

   CORPORATE GOVERNANCE      65   

ITEM 16H.

   MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURE      69   

PART III

     70   

ITEM 17.

  

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     70   

ITEM 18.

  

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     70   

ITEM 19.

  

EXHIBITS

     70   

EX-4.4 LAND LEASE WITH HSINCHU SCIENCE PARK ADMINISTRATION

  

EX-4.10 LAND LEASE WITH HSINCHU SCIENCE PARK ADMINISTRATION

  

EX-4.11 LAND LEASE WITH HSINCHU SCIENCE PARK ADMINISTRATION

  

EX-4.14 LAND LEASE WITH SOUTHERN TAIWAN SCIENCE PARK ADMINISTRATION

  

EX-4.15 LAND LEASE WITH SOUTHERN TAIWAN SCIENCE PARK ADMINISTRATION

  

EX-4.16 LAND LEASE WITH SOUTHERN TAIWAN SCIENCE PARK ADMINISTRATION

  

EX-4.17 LAND LEASE WITH SOUTHERN TAIWAN SCIENCE PARK ADMINISTRATION

  

EX-4.18 LAND LEASE WITH SOUTHERN TAIWAN SCIENCE PARK ADMINISTRATION

  

EX-4.19 LAND LEASE WITH SOUTHERN TAIWAN SCIENCE PARK ADMINISTRATION

  

 

ii


Table of Contents

EX-4.20 LAND LEASE WITH SOUTHERN TAIWAN SCIENCE PARK ADMINISTRATION

EX-4.21 LAND LEASE WITH SOUTHERN TAIWAN SCIENCE PARK ADMINISTRATION

EX-4.22 LAND LEASE WITH HSINCHU SCIENCE PARK ADMINISTRATION

EX-4.23 LAND LEASE WITH HSINCHU SCIENCE PARK ADMINISTRATION

EX-4.24 LAND LEASE WITH HSINCHU SCIENCE PARK ADMINISTRATION

EX-4.25 LAND LEASE WITH HSINCHU SCIENCE PARK ADMINISTRATION

EX-4.26 LAND LEASE WITH HSINCHU SCIENCE PARK ADMINISTRATION

EX-4.27 LAND LEASE WITH HSINCHU SCIENCE PARK ADMINISTRATION

EX-12.1 CERTIFICATION OF CO-CEO - RULE 13A-14(A)

EX-12.2 CERTIFICATION OF CO-CEO - RULE 13A-14(A)

EX-12.3 CERTIFICATION OF CFO - RULE 13A-14(A)

EX-13.1 CERTIFICATION OF CO-CEO - RULE 13A-14(B)

EX-13.2 CERTIFICATION OF CO-CEO - RULE 13A-14(B)

EX-13.3 CERTIFICATION OF CFO - RULE 13A-14(B)

EX-99.1 CONSENT OF DELOITTE & TOUCHE

“TSMC”, “tsmc”, NEXSYS, NEXSYS Technology for SoC, eFoundry, Virtual Fab, TSMC-Your Virtual Fab, TSMC-Your Virtual Fab in Semiconductor Manufacturing, Open Innovation and Open Innovation Platform (OIP) are our registered trademarks used by us in various jurisdictions, including the United States of America. All rights reserved.

 

iii


Table of Contents

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

This annual report includes statements that are, or may be deemed to be, “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of U.S. securities laws. The terms “anticipates,” “expects,” “may,” “will,” “could,” “should” and other similar expressions identify forward-looking statements. These statements appear in a number of places throughout this annual report and include statements regarding our intentions, beliefs or current expectations concerning, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, liquidity, prospects, growth, strategies and the industries in which we operate.

By their nature, forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties because they relate to events and depend on circumstances that may or may not occur in the future. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and our actual results of operations, financial condition and liquidity, and the development of the industries in which we operate may differ materially from those made in or suggested by the forward-looking statements contained in this annual report. Important factors that could cause those differences include, but are not limited to:

 

   

the volatility of the semiconductor and electronics industry;

 

   

overcapacity in the semiconductor industry;

 

   

the increased competition from other companies and our ability to retain and increase our market share;

 

   

our ability to develop new technologies successfully and remain a technological leader;

 

   

our ability to maintain control over expansion and facility modifications;

 

   

our ability to generate growth and profitability;

 

   

our ability to hire and retain qualified personnel;

 

   

our ability to acquire required equipment and supplies necessary to meet business needs;

 

   

our reliance on certain major customers;

 

   

the political stability of our local region; and

 

   

general local and global economic conditions.

Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding our strategy and future plans, future business condition and financial results, our capital expenditure plans, our capacity management plans, expectations as to the commercial production using 16-nanometer and more advanced technologies, technological upgrades, investment in research and development, future market demand, future regulatory or other developments in our industry as well as business acquisitions and financing plans. Please see “Item 3. Key Information — Risk Factors” for a further discussion of certain factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by our forward-looking statements.

 

1


Table of Contents

PART I

 

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISORS

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

Not applicable.

 

ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION

Selected Financial and Operating Data

The selected consolidated statements of profit or loss and other comprehensive income data and other consolidated financial data for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2013, and the selected consolidated statements of financial position data as of December 31, 2012 and 2013, set forth below, are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included herein, and should be read in conjunction with, and are qualified in their entirety by reference to, these consolidated financial statements, including the notes thereto, which have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, or “IFRSs”, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, or “IASB”. Since these are our first audited consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with IFRSs, pursuant to the transitional relief granted by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission in respect of the first-time adoption of IFRSs, we have only provided financial statements and financial information for the financial years ended December 31, 2012 and 2013. Additionally, financial data as of and for the years ended December 31, 2009, 2010 and 2011 derived from our consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted (“GAAP” or “R.O.C. GAAP”) in the Republic of China (“R.O.C.” or “Taiwan”) have not been included below.

In addition to preparing financial statements in accordance with IFRSs as issued by the IASB included in this annual report, we also prepare financial statements in accordance with the IFRSs as adopted for use in Taiwan (“Taiwan-IFRSs”), which we are required to file with the Financial Supervisory Commission (“FSC”) of R.O.C. and Taiwan Stock Exchange (“TWSE”) under the applicable regulations and listing rules of the TWSE. Please see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Reviews and Prospects – First Time Adoption of IFRSs” for more details. English translations of such financial statements are furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K, which are not incorporated by reference to this or any of our previous annual reports on Form 20-F.

 

    Year ended and as of December 31,  
            2012                    2013                     2013              
    NT$     NT$     US$  
   

(in millions, except for percentages,

earnings per share and per ADS)

 

Consolidated Statements of Profit or Loss and Other Comprehensive Income Data:

     

Net revenue

    506,745        597,024         20,014    

Cost of revenue

    (262,592)        (315,642)         (10,581)    

Gross profit before unrealized gross profit on sales to associates

    244,153        281,382         9,433    

Unrealized gross profit on sales to associates

    (25)        (21)         (1)    

Gross profit

    244,128        281,361         9,432    

Operating expenses

    (62,517)        (71,339)         (2,392)    

Other operating income and expenses, net

    (449)         47           

Income from operations

    181,162        210,069         7,042    

Non-operating income and expenses

    499        5,893         198    

Income before income tax

    181,661        215,962         7,240    

Income tax expense

    (22,375)        (32,112)         (1,077)    

Net income

    159,286        183,850         6,163    

Other comprehensive income for the year, net of income tax

    4,261         16,359         549    

Total comprehensive income for the year

    163,547         200,209         6,712    

Net income attributable to shareholders of the parent

    159,481        183,978         6,167    

Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests

    (195)        (128)         (4)    

 

2


Table of Contents
     Year ended and as of December 31,  
               2012                       2013                      2013          
     NT$      NT$      US$  
    

(in millions, except for percentages,

earnings per share and per ADS)

 

Total comprehensive income attributable to shareholders of the parent

     163,692         200,343         6,716   

Total comprehensive loss attributable to noncontrolling interests

     (145)         (134)         (4)   

Basic earnings per share

     6.15        7.10         0.24   

Diluted earnings per share

     6.15        7.10         0.24   

Basic earnings per ADS equivalent

     30.76        35.48         1.19   

Diluted earnings per ADS equivalent

     30.75        35.48         1.19   

Basic weighted average shares outstanding

     25,921        25,928         25,928   

Diluted weighted average shares outstanding

     25,928        25,930         25,930   
     Year ended and as of December 31,  
     2012      2013      2013  
     NT$      NT$      US$  
     (in millions, except for cash dividend per
common share)
 

Consolidated Statements of Financial Position Data:

        

Working capital

     92,223        154,513         5,180   

Long-term investments(1)

     65,723        89,024         2,984   

Property, plant and equipment

     617,562        792,666         26,573   

Intangible assets

     10,960         11,490         385   

Total assets

     961,344        1,262,801         42,333   

Hedging derivative financial liabilities

     -         5,482         184   

Long-term bonds payable

     80,000        210,768         7,066   

Accrued pension cost

     6,781         6,802        228   

Total liabilities

     247,749        428,688         14,371   

Capital stock

     259,245        259,286         8,692   

Equity attributable to shareholders of the parent

     711,052        833,846         27,953   

Noncontrolling interests

     2,543        267         9   

Cash dividend per common share(2)

     3.0         3.0         0.1   
     Year ended and as of December 31,  
     2012      2013      2013  
     NT$      NT$      US$  
    

(in millions, except for percentages

and operating data)

 

Other Financial Data:

        

Gross margin

     48%        47%         47%   

Operating margin

     36%        35%         35%   

Net margin

     31%        31%         31%   

Capital expenditures

     246,137        287,595         9,641   

Depreciation and amortization

     131,349        156,182         5,236   

Cash generated by operating activities

     284,963        347,384         11,645   

Cash used in investing activities

     (269,318)         (281,054)         (9,422)   

Cash generated by (used in) financing activities

     (13,589)         32,106         1,076   

Effect of exchange rate changes

     (2,118)         849         29   

Net cash inflow (outflow)

     (62)         99,285         3,328   

Operating Data:

        

Wafer (200mm equivalent) shipment(3)

     14,044         15,666        15,666   

Billing Utilization Rate(4)

     91%         91%         91%   

 

 

(1) 

Investments accounted for using equity method, and noncurrent available-for-sale financial assets.

(2) 

In one decimal point.

(3) 

In thousands.

(4) 

“Billing Utilization Rate” is equal to annual wafer shipment divided by annual capacity, which includes wafers committed by Vanguard International Semiconductor Corporation (“VIS”) and Systems on Silicon Manufacturing Company Pte. Ltd. (“SSMC”). Please see “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions — Related Party Transactions”.

Exchange Rates

We publish our financial statements in New Taiwan dollars, the lawful currency of the R.O.C. In this annual report, “$”, “US$” and “U.S. dollars” mean United States dollars, the lawful currency of the United States, and “NT$” and “NT dollars” mean New Taiwan dollars. This annual report contains translations of certain NT dollar amounts into U.S. dollars at specified rates solely for the convenience of the reader. The translations from NT dollars to U.S. dollars and from U.S. dollars to NT dollars were made by the exchange rate as set forth in the statistical release of the Federal Reserve Board. Unless otherwise noted, all translations for the year 2013 were made at the exchange rate as of December 31, 2013, which was NT$29.83 to US$1.00. On April 4, 2014, the exchange rate was NT$30.20 to US$1.00.

 

3


Table of Contents

The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, information concerning the number of NT dollars for which one U.S. dollar could be exchanged.

 

     NT dollars per U.S. dollar

 

            Average(1)                     High                         Low                     Period-End      

2012

   29.47    29.91    29.05    29.05

2013

   29.73    30.03    29.42    29.83

October 2013

   29.38    29.49    29.32    29.42

November 2013

   29.52    29.65    29.37    29.59

December 2013

   29.72    30.03    29.53    29.83

January 2014

   30.14    30.31    29.90    30.31

February 2014

   30.31    30.37    30.25    30.29

March 2014

   30.40    30.65    30.24    30.45

April 2014 (through April 4, 2014)

   30.26    30.29    30.20    30.20

 

 

(1) 

Annual averages calculated from month-end rates and monthly averages calculated from daily closing rates.

No representation is made that the NT dollar or U.S. dollar amounts referred to herein could have been or could be converted into U.S. dollars or NT dollars, as the case may be, at any particular rate or at all.

Capitalization and Indebtedness

Not applicable.

Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

Not applicable.

Risk Factors

We wish to caution readers that the following important factors, and those important factors described in other reports submitted to, or filed with, the Securities and Exchange Commission, among other factors, could affect our actual results and could cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf, and that such factors may adversely affect our business and financial status and therefore the value of your investment:

Risks Relating to Our Business

Any global systemic political, economic and financial crisis or catastrophic natural disasters (as well as the indirect effects flowing therefrom) could negatively affect our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

In recent times, several major systemic economic and financial crises and natural disasters negatively affected global business, banking and financial sectors, including the semiconductor industry and markets. These types of crises cause turmoil in global markets that often result in declines in electronic products sales from which we generate our income through our products and services. In addition, these crises may cause a number of indirect effects such as undermining the ability of our customers to remain competitive vis-à-vis the financial and economic challenges created by insolvent countries and companies still struggling to survive in the wake of these crises. For example, there could be in the future knock-on effects from these types of crises on our business, including significant decreases in orders from our customers; insolvency of key suppliers resulting in product delays; inability of customers to obtain credit to finance purchases of our products; customer insolvencies; and counterparty failures negatively impacting our treasury operations. Any future systemic political, economic or financial crisis or catastrophic natural disaster (as well as the indirect effects flowing from these crises or disasters) could cause revenues for the semiconductor industry as a whole to decline dramatically, and if the economic conditions or financial condition of our customers were to deteriorate, additional accounting related allowances may be required in the future and such additional allowances could increase our operating expenses and therefore reduce our operating income and net income. Thus, any future global economic crisis or catastrophic natural disaster (and their indirect effects) could materially and adversely affect our results of operations.

 

4


Table of Contents

Since we are dependent on the highly cyclical semiconductor and electronics industries, which have experienced significant and sometimes prolonged periods of downturns and overcapacity, our revenues, earnings and margins may fluctuate significantly.

The electronics industries and semiconductor market are cyclical and subject to significant and often rapid increases and decreases in product demand. Our semiconductor foundry business is affected by market conditions in such highly cyclical electronics and semiconductor industries. Most of our customers operate in these industries. Variations in order levels from our customers may result in volatility in our revenues and earnings. From time to time, the electronics and semiconductor industries have experienced significant and sometimes prolonged periods of downturns and overcapacity. Any systemic economic, political, or financial crisis, such as the one that occurred in 2008-2009, could create significant volatility and uncertainty within the electronics and semiconductor industries which may disrupt traditional notions of cyclicality within such industries. As such, the nature, extent and scope of such periods of downturns and overcapacity may vary drastically in accordance with the degree of volatility of market demand. Because we are, and will continue to be, dependent on the requirements of electronics and semiconductor companies for our services, periods of downturns and overcapacity in the general electronics and semiconductor industries could lead to reduced demand for overall semiconductor foundry services, including our services. If we cannot take appropriate actions such as reducing our costs to sufficiently offset declines in demand, our revenues, margin and earnings will suffer during periods of downturns and overcapacity. Furthermore, due to the increasingly complex technological nature of our foundry services, the amount of our accounting provisions may also need to be provided and adjusted for potential sales returns and allowances to customers that may adversely affect the results of our operations.

Decreases in demand and average selling prices for products that contain semiconductors may adversely affect demand for our products and may result in a decrease in our revenues and earnings.

A vast majority of our revenue is derived from customers who use our services in communication devices, personal computers, consumer electronics products and industrial/standard products. Any decrease in the demand for any one of these products may decrease the demand for such other products as well as overall global semiconductor foundry services, including our services and may adversely affect our revenues. Further, because we own most of our manufacturing capacities, a significant portion of our operating costs is fixed. In general, these costs do not decline when customer demand or our capacity utilization rates drop, and thus declines in customer demand, among other factors, may significantly decrease our margins. Conversely, as product demand rises and factory utilization increases, the fixed costs are spread over increased output, which can improve our margins. In addition, the historical and current trend of declining average selling prices (or “ASP”) of end use applications places downward pressure on the prices of the components that go into such applications. If the ASP of end use applications continues decreasing, the pricing pressure on components produced by us may lead to a reduction of our revenues, margin and earnings.

In light of the rise of new foundry service providers worldwide, if we are unable to compete effectively in the highly competitive foundry segment of the semiconductor industry, we may lose customers and our profit margin and earnings may decrease.

The markets for our foundry services are highly competitive. We compete with other foundry service providers, as well as integrated device manufacturers that devote a significant portion of their manufacturing capacity to foundry operations. Some of these companies may have access to more advanced technologies and greater financial and other resources than us, such as the possibility of receiving direct or indirect government bailout/economic stimulus funds or other incentives that may be unavailable to us. Our competition may, from time to time, also decide to undertake aggressive pricing initiatives in one or more technology nodes. Increases in these competitive activities may decrease our customer base, or our ASP, or both. For example, over the past few years, we have seen the rise of certain firms with the capability of providing foundry services. These firms are committed to try to attract our customers. If we are unable to compete with any and each of these new competitors with better technologies and manufacturing capacity and capabilities, we risk losing customers to these new contenders.

If we are unable to remain a technological leader in the semiconductor industry or if we are unable to timely respond to fast-changing semiconductor market dynamics, we may become less competitive.

The semiconductor industry and its technologies are constantly changing. We compete by developing process technologies using increasingly advanced nodes and on manufacturing products with more functions. We also compete by developing new derivative technologies. If we do not anticipate these changes in technologies and rapidly develop new and innovative technologies, or our competitors unforeseeably gain sudden access to additional technologies, we may not be able to provide foundry services on competitive terms. In addition, our customers have significantly decreased the time in which their products or services are launched into the market. If we are unable to meet these shorter product time-to-market, we risk losing these customers. These factors have also been intensified by the shift of the global technology market to consumer driven products such as mobile devices, and increasing concentration of customers and competition (all further discussed among these risk factors). These challenges also place greater demands on our research and development capabilities. If we are unable to innovate new technologies that meet the demands of our customers or overcome the above factors, our revenues may decline significantly. Although we have concentrated on maintaining a competitive edge in research and development, if we fail to achieve advances in technologies or processes, or to obtain access to advanced technologies or processes developed by others, we may become less competitive.

 

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If we are unable to manage our capacity and the streamlining of our production facilities effectively, our competitiveness may be weakened.

We perform long term market demand forecasts to estimate general economic and market conditions for our products and services. Based upon these estimates, we manage our overall capacity in accordance with market demand. Because market conditions may vary significantly and unexpectedly, our market demand forecast may change significantly at any time. Further, since certain manufacturing lines or tools in some of our manufacturing facilities may be suspended or shut down temporarily during periods of decreased demand, we may not be able to ramp up in a timely manner during periods of increased demand. During periods of continued decline in demand, our operating facilities may not be able to absorb and complete in a timely manner outstanding orders re-directed from shuttered facilities. Recently, we have been adding capacity to our 300mm wafer fabs in the Hsinchu Science Park, Southern Taiwan Science Park and Central Taiwan Science Park, based on our market demand forecasts taking into account the demand forecasts of our customers. As a result, our total monthly capacity for 300mm wafer fabs was increased from 366,800 wafers as of December 31, 2012 to 414,700 wafers as of December 31, 2013. Expansion and modification of our production facilities will, among other factors, increase our costs. For example, we will need to purchase additional equipment, train personnel to operate the new equipment or hire additional personnel. If we do not increase our net revenue accordingly, in order to offset these higher costs, our financial performance may be adversely affected. See “Item 4. Information on the Company — Capacity Management and Technology Upgrade Plans” for a further discussion.

We may not be able to implement our planned growth or development if we are unable to obtain sufficient financial resources to meet our future capital requirements.

Capital requirements are difficult to plan in the highly dynamic, cyclical and rapidly changing semiconductor industry. From time to time and increasingly so for the foreseeable next few years, we will continue to need significant capital to fund our operations and manage our capacity in accordance with market demand. Our continued ability to obtain sufficient external financing is subject to a variety of uncertainties, including:

 

   

our future financial condition, results of operations and cash flow;

 

   

general market conditions for financing activities;

 

   

market conditions for financing activities of semiconductor companies; and

 

   

social, economic, financial, political and other conditions in Taiwan and elsewhere.

Sufficient external financing may not be available to us on a timely basis, on reasonable market terms, or at all. As a result, we may be forced to curtail our expansion and modification plans or delay the deployment of new or expanded services until we obtain such financing.

We may not be able to implement our planned growth and development or maintain our leading position if we are unable to recruit and retain qualified executives, managers and skilled technical and service personnel.

We depend on the continued services and contributions of our executive officers and skilled technical and other personnel. Our business could suffer if we lose, for whatever reasons, the services and contributions of some of these personnel and we cannot adequately replace them. We may be required to increase or reduce the number of employees in connection with any business expansion or contraction in accordance with market demand for our products and services. Since there is intense competition for the recruitment of these personnel, we cannot ensure that we will be able to fulfill our personnel requirements in a timely manner during an economic upturn.

 

 

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We may be unable to obtain in a timely manner and at a reasonable cost equipment currently proven and existing that are necessary for us to remain competitive.

Our operations and ongoing expansion plans depend on our ability to obtain an appropriate amount of equipment and related services from a limited number of suppliers in a market that is characterized from time to time by limited supply and long delivery cycles. During such times, supplier-specific or industry-wide lead times for delivery can be as long as six months or more. To better manage our supply chain, we have implemented various business models and risk management contingencies with suppliers to shorten the procurement lead time. We also provide our projected demand for various items to many of our equipment suppliers to help them plan their production in advance. We have purchased used tools and continue to seek opportunities to acquire relevant used tools. Further, the growing complexities especially in next-generation lithographic technologies may delay the timely availability of the equipments and parts needed to exploit time sensitive business opportunities and also increase the market price for such equipment and parts. If we are unable to obtain equipment in a timely manner to fulfill our customers’ orders, or at a reasonable cost, our financial condition and results of operations could be negatively impacted.

Our revenue and profitability may decline if we are unable to obtain adequate supplies of raw materials in a timely manner and at reasonable prices.

Our production operations require that we obtain adequate supplies of raw materials, such as silicon wafers, gases, chemicals, and photoresist, on a timely basis. In the past, shortages in the supply of some materials, whether by specific vendors or by the semiconductor industry generally, have resulted in occasional industry-wide price adjustments and delivery delays. Also, since we procure some of our raw materials from sole-source suppliers, there is a risk that our need for such raw materials may not be met or that back-up supplies may not be readily available. Our revenue and earnings could decline if we are unable to obtain adequate supplies of the necessary raw materials in a timely manner or if there are significant increases in the costs of raw materials that we cannot pass on to our customers.

If the Ministry of Economic Affairs uses a substantial portion of our production capacity, we will not be able to service our other customers.

According to our agreement with the Industrial Technology Research Institute of Taiwan, or ITRI, the Ministry of Economic Affairs of the R.O.C., or an entity designated by the Ministry of Economic Affairs, has an option to purchase up to 35% of certain of our capacity, if our outstanding commitments to our customers are not prejudiced. Although the Ministry of Economic Affairs has never exercised this option, if this option is exercised to any significant degree during tight market conditions, we may not be able to provide services to all of our other customers unless we are able to increase our capacity accordingly or outsource such increased demand in a timely manner.

Any inability to obtain, preserve, enforce, defend and protect our technologies and intellectual property rights and third-party licenses could harm our competitive position.

Our ability to compete successfully and to achieve future growth will depend in part on the continued strength of our intellectual property portfolio. While we actively obtain, preserve, enforce, defend and protect our intellectual property rights, there can be no assurance that our efforts will be adequate to prevent the misappropriation or improper use of our proprietary technologies, trade secrets, software or know-how. Also, we cannot assure you that, as our business or business models expand into new areas, or otherwise, we will be able to develop independently the technologies, trade secrets, patents, software or know-how necessary to conduct our business or that we can do so without unknowingly infringing the intellectual property rights of others. As a result, we may have to rely increasingly on licensed technologies and patent licenses from others. To the extent that we rely on licenses from others, there can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain any or all of the necessary licenses in the future on terms we consider reasonable or at all. The lack of necessary licenses could expose us to claims for damages and/or injunctions from third parties, as well as claims for indemnification by our customers in instances where we have contractually agreed to indemnify our customers against damages resulting from infringement claims.

We have received, from time-to-time, communications from third parties asserting that our technologies, manufacturing processes, the design of the integrated circuits made by us or the use by our customers of semiconductors made by us may infringe upon their patents or other intellectual property rights. Because of the nature of the industry, we may continue to receive such communications in the future. In some instances, these disputes have resulted in litigation. Recently, there has been a notable increase in the number of claims or lawsuits initiated by certain patent assertion entities and these entities are also becoming more aggressive in their monetary demands and requests for court-issued injunctions. Such lawsuits or claims may increase our cost of doing business and may potentially be extremely disruptive if the plaintiffs succeed in blocking the trade of our products and services. If we fail to obtain or maintain certain government, technologies or intellectual property licenses and, if litigation relating to alleged intellectual property matters occurs, it could prevent us from manufacturing or selling particular products or applying particular technologies, which could reduce our opportunities to generate revenues. See “Item 8. Financial Information — Legal Proceedings” for a further discussion.

 

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We are subject to the risk of loss due to explosion and fire because some of the materials we use in our manufacturing processes are highly combustible.

We and many of our suppliers use highly combustible and toxic materials in our manufacturing processes and are therefore subject to the risk of loss arising from explosion, fire, or environmental influences which cannot be completely eliminated. Although we maintain many overlapping risk prevention and protection systems, as well as comprehensive fire and casualty insurance, including insurance for loss of property and loss of profit resulting from business interruption, our risk management and insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all of our potential losses. If any of our fabs or vendor facilities were to be damaged, or cease operations as a result of an explosion, fire, or environmental influences, it could reduce our manufacturing capacity and may cause us to lose important customers, thereby having a potentially adverse and material impact on our financial performance.

Any impairment charges may have a material adverse effect on our net income.

Under IFRSs, we are required to evaluate our investments, tangible assets and intangible assets for impairment whenever triggering events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset may be impaired. If certain criteria are met, we are required to record an impairment charge. We are also required under IFRSs to evaluate goodwill for impairment at least on an annual basis or more frequently whenever triggering events or changes in circumstances indicate that goodwill may be impaired and the carrying value may not be recoverable. For example, we hold investments in certain publicly listed and private companies, some of which have incurred certain impairment charges as discussed further in our financial statements. We are not able to estimate the extent or timing of any impairment charge for future years. Any impairment charge required may have a material adverse effect on our net income.

The determination of an impairment charge at any given time is based significantly on our expected results of operations over a number of years subsequent to that time. As a result, an impairment charge is more likely to occur during a period when our operating results are otherwise already depressed. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Reviews and Prospects — Critical Accounting Policies And Judgments” for a discussion of how we assess if an impairment charge is required and, if so, how the amount is determined.

Having one or more large customers that account for a significant percentage of our revenues may render us vulnerable to the loss of or significant curtailment of purchases by one or more large customers that could in turn adversely affect our results of operations.

Over the years, our customer profile and the nature of our customers’ business have changed dramatically. While we generate revenue from hundreds of customers worldwide, our ten largest customers accounted for approximately 60% and 62% of our net revenue in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Our largest customer accounted for 17% and 22% of our net revenue in 2012 and 2013, respectively. This customer concentration results in part from the changing dynamics of the electronics industry with the structural shift to mobile devices and applications and software that provide the content for such devices. There are only a limited number of customers who are successfully exploiting this new business model paradigm. Also, in order to respond to the new business model paradigm, we have seen the nature of changes in our customers’ business models. For example, there is a growing trend toward the rise of system houses that operate in a manner which make their products and services more marketable in a changing consumer market. The loss of, or significant curtailment of purchases by, one or more of our top customers, including curtailments due to increased competitive pressures, industrial consolidation, a change in their designs, or change in their manufacturing sourcing policies or practices of these customers, or the timing of customer or distributor inventory adjustments, or change in our major customers’ business models may adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Any failure to achieve and maintain effective internal controls could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reasonable assurance with respect to our financial reports and to effectively prevent fraud. If we cannot provide reasonable assurance with respect to our financial reports and effectively prevent fraud and corruption, our reputation and results of operations could be harmed.

We are required to comply with various R.O.C. and U.S. laws and regulations on internal controls. For example, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, we are required to furnish a report by management on our internal control over financial reporting, including management’s assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Moreover, R.O.C. law requires us to establish internal control systems that would reasonably ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of operations, reliability of financial reporting, and compliance with applicable laws and regulations. We are also required under R.O.C. law to file an internal control declaration within four months of the end of each fiscal year.

 

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Internal controls may not prevent or detect misstatements because of their inherent limitations, including the possibility of human error, the circumvention or overriding of controls, fraud or corruption. Therefore, even effective internal controls can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements. In addition, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness of internal controls to future periods are subject to the risk that the internal controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate. If we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal controls, including any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or if we experience difficulties in their implementation, our business and operating results could be harmed, we could fail to meet our reporting obligations, and there could be a material adverse effect on the market price of our common shares and ADSs.

Our global manufacturing, design and sales activities subject us to risks associated with legal, political, economic or other conditions or developments in various jurisdictions, including in particular the R.O.C., which could negatively affect our business and financial status and therefore the market value of your investment.

The majority of our principal executive officers and our principal production facilities are located in the R.O.C., and a substantial majority of our net revenues are derived from our operations in the R.O.C. In addition, we have operations worldwide and a significant percentage of our revenue comes from sales to locations outside the R.O.C. Operating in the R.O.C. and overseas exposes us to changes in policies and laws, as well as the general political and economic conditions, security risks, health conditions and possible disruptions in transportation networks, in the various countries in which we operate, which could result in an adverse effect on our business operations in such countries and our results of operations as well as the market price and the liquidity of our ADSs and common shares.

For example, even though the R.O.C. and the PRC have co-existed for more than six decades and significant economic and cultural relations have been established during that time, the financial markets have viewed certain past developments in relations between the two sides as occasions to depress general market prices of the securities of Taiwanese companies, including our own. In addition, the R.O.C. government has not lifted some trade and investment restrictions imposed on Taiwanese companies on the amount and types of certain investments that can be made in Mainland China. In addition to the above factors, future expansions of our operations in Taiwan will likely be handicapped by the limited availability of commercial-use land, industrial-quantities of natural resources such as water (needed for our foundry processes) and experienced human resources.

Our operational results could also be materially and adversely affected by natural disasters or interruptions in the supply of utilities (such as water or electricity), in the locations in which we, our customers or our suppliers operate.

The frequency and severity of natural disasters has been increasing. We have manufacturing and other operations in locations subject to natural disasters, such as severe weather, flooding, earthquakes and tsunamis, as well as interruptions or shortages in the supply of utilities, such as water and electricity, which could disrupt operations. We have operations in earthquake-prone locations and any major natural disaster occurring in any such locations may cause severe disruptions to our business operations and financial performance. In addition, our suppliers and customers also have operations in such locations. For example, most of our production facilities, as well as those of many of our suppliers and customers and upstream providers of complementary semiconductor manufacturing services, are located in Taiwan and Japan, which are susceptible to earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, typhoons, and droughts from time to time. In addition, we have occasionally suffered power outages or surges in Taiwan caused by difficulties encountered by our electricity supplier, the Taiwan Power Company, or other power consumers on the same power grid, which have resulted in interruptions to our production schedule. While our business continuity management and emergency response plans are intended to prevent or minimize losses in the future, there is no assurance that the measures will fully eliminate the losses or the insurance will fully cover any losses. One or more natural disasters or interruptions to the supply of utilities that results in a prolonged disruption to our operations, or the operations of our customers or suppliers, may adversely affect the results of our operations and financial conditions.

 

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Our failure to comply with applicable environmental and climate related laws and regulations, as well as international laws, regulations and accords to which we are subject, could also harm our business and operational results.

The manufacturing, assembling and testing of our products require the use of metals, chemicals, minerals and materials that are subject to environmental, climate-related, health and safety and humanitarian, conflict-free sourcing laws, regulations and guidelines issued worldwide. For example, the U.S. SEC implemented the final rule mandated by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act to require companies to publicly disclose their use of conflict minerals that originated in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) or an adjoining country. We take our responsibility to comply with applicable legal requirements on conflict minerals very seriously. For further information about our conflict mineral status under applicable U.S. SEC law, please see our Form SD to be filed with the U.S. SEC. (After the filing of this document, please also visit our Corporate Social Responsibility section of our website at www.tsmc.com for further details about our conflict-free status). The final applicable legal rule as well as non-binding guidelines on conflict minerals imposes substantial supply chain verification requirements in the event that conflict minerals originates from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, adjoining countries or any geographic territory that may be specified by the relevant authorities at a future date. These new rules and verification requirements, which apply to our activities in 2013 and beyond, impose additional costs on us and on our suppliers and may limit the sources or increase the prices of materials used in our products. Further, if we are unable to certify that our products are conflict free under applicable law or non-binding guidelines or if we are unable to comply with any material provisions of such laws or guidelines, we may face challenges with our customers that place us at a significant competitive disadvantage, and our goodwill and reputation may be irreparably damaged. Often times, our customers have imposed upon us legally non-binding conditions or guidelines on sourcing conflict minerals that exceed those imposed under relevant legal requirements. For example, many of our customers have been asking us to apply the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals in Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. These guidelines while legally non-binding may impose requirements that well exceed those mandated by applicable law. If we agree to apply these guidelines as requested by our customers, there is the risk that the prices we charge for our products and services will increase (to reflect the added cost in complying with such conditions or guidelines), resulting in the loss of actual and potential customers. Conversely, any failure on our part to comply with such customer-imposed legally non-binding conditions or guidelines may result in us suffering significant competitive harms such as the loss of actual or potential customers that will likely have a material adverse impact on our financial statements. Although we may be eligible for various exemptions and/or extensions of time for compliance, our failure to comply with any of these applicable laws or regulations could result in:

 

   

significant penalties and legal liabilities, such as the denial of import permits;

 

   

the temporary or permanent suspension of production of the affected products;

 

   

unfavorable alterations in our manufacturing, fabrication and assembly and test processes;

 

   

loss of actual or potential sales contracts in case we are unable to satisfy the conditions regarding conflict-free minerals sourcing laws or requirements by our customers; and

 

   

restrictions on our operations or sales.

Existing and future environmental and climate related laws and regulations as well as applicable international accords to which we are subject, could also require us, among other things, to do the following: (a) purchase, use or install expensive pollution control, reduction or remediation equipment; (b) implement climate change mitigation programs and “abatement or reduction of greenhouse gas emissions” programs, or “carbon credit trading” programs; (c) modify our product designs and manufacturing processes, or incur other significant expenses associated with such laws and regulations such as obtaining substitute raw materials or chemicals that may cost more or be less available for our operations. It is still unclear whether such necessary actions would affect the reliability or efficiency of our products and services.

Any of the above contingencies resulting from the actual and potential impact of local or international laws and regulations, as well as international accords on environmental or climate change, could harm our business and operational results by increasing our expenses or requiring us to alter our manufacturing and assembly and test processes. For further details, please see our compliance record with Taiwan and international environmental and climate related laws and regulations in “Item 4. Information on the Company — Environmental Regulations”.

 

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Climate change, other environmental concerns and green initiatives also present other commercial challenges, economic risks and physical risks that could harm our operational results or affect the manner in which we conduct our business.

Increasing climate change and environmental concerns could affect the results of our operations if any of our customers request that we provide products and services that exceed any existing standard(s) of environmental compliance. For example, we have been working on an on-going basis with our suppliers, customers, and several industry consortia to develop and provide products that are compliant with the European Union Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (“RoHS”). Even though we are entitled to rely on various exemptions under RoHS, some of our customers may request that we provide products that exceed the legal standard set by RoHS without using any of the exemptions still permitted under RoHS. If we are unable to offer such products or offer products that are compliant, but are not as reliable due to the lack of reasonably available alternative technologies or materials, we may lose market share to our competitors.

Further, energy costs in general could increase significantly due to climate change and other regulations. Therefore, our energy costs may increase significantly if utility or power companies pass on their costs, either fully or partially, such as those associated with carbon taxes, emission caps and carbon credit trading programs. For further details, please see details of our business continuity management of climate change policy in “Item 4. Information on the Company — Environmental Regulation”.

To mitigate risks resulting from climate change, we continue to actively carry out energy conservation measures and voluntary perfluorinated compounds (PFC) emission reduction projects, and conduct greenhouse gas inventories verification every year. Since 2005, we have publicly disclosed climate change information every year through participation in the annual survey conducted by the nonprofit carbon disclosure project, which includes greenhouse gas emission and reduction information for all of our fabs.

Adverse fluctuations in exchange rates could decrease our operating margin.

Over one-half of our capital expenditures and manufacturing costs are denominated in currencies other than NT dollars, primarily in U.S. dollars, Japanese yen and Euros. In 2013, more than 90% of our revenue were denominated in U.S. dollars and currencies other than NT dollars. Therefore, any significant fluctuation to our disadvantage in such exchange rates would have an adverse effect on our financial condition. For example, during the period from September 1, 2010 to December 30, 2010, the U.S. dollar depreciated 8.9% against the NT dollar, which had a negative impact on our results of operations. Specifically, based on our 2013 results, every 1% depreciation of the U.S. dollar against the NT dollar exchange rate may result in approximately 0.4 percentage point decrease in our operating margin. In addition, fluctuations in the exchange rate between the U.S. dollar and the NT dollar may affect the U.S. dollar value of our common shares and the market price of the ADSs and of any cash dividends paid in NT dollars on our common shares represented by ADSs. Please see “Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk” for a further discussion on the possible impact of other market factors on our results of operations.

Fluctuations in inflationary and deflationary market expectations could negatively affect costs of and demand for our products and services, which may harm our financial results.

The world economy is becoming more vulnerable to sudden unexpected fluctuations in inflationary and deflationary market expectations and conditions. For example, certain structural changes that resulted from the global financial crisis in 2008-2009 and EU sovereign debt crises, such as highly accommodative monetary policies by major central banks worldwide, may cause variations in the expectation of inflation or deflation. Both high inflation and deflation adversely affect an economy, at both the macro and micro levels, by reducing economic efficiency, disrupting saving and investment decisions and reducing the efficiency of the market prices as a mechanism to allocate resources. Such fluctuations may negatively affect the costs of our operations and the business operations of our customers who may be forced to plan their purchases of our goods and services within an uncertain macro and micro economy. Therefore, the demand for our products and services could unexpectedly fluctuate severely in accordance with market and consumer expectations of inflation or deflation. Please see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Reviews and Prospects — Inflation & Deflation” for a further discussion.

Amendments to existing tax regulations or new tax legislation in the R.O.C. may have an adverse effect on our net income.

While we are subject to tax laws and regulations in various jurisdictions in which we operate or conduct business, our principal operations are conducted in the R.O.C. and we are exposed primarily to taxes levied by the government of the R.O.C. Any changes of tax laws and regulations in this jurisdiction could affect our effective tax rate and profitability of our operating results. See “Item 5. Operating and Financial Reviews and Prospects — Taxation” for further discussion of significant tax regulation changes.

 

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If certain of our strategic investments fail to achieve their respective forecasted returns or objectives, we may suffer financial losses that may materially lower our profit margin and distributable earnings.

From time to time, we have made or will make a series of strategic investments that serve two major purposes. Firstly, some of our major strategic investments were (or will be) made to help us open new sources of revenues and innovate alternative business models that target to generate additional shareholders’ value going forward in the future. For example, in order to help us grow into next generation business areas, we have invested to develop potential businesses in solid state lighting, solar power and other renewable sources of energy. We believe these investments into these areas will generate new sources of revenues as the gradual transition into consuming cleaner sources of power is generally expected. For further information on these investments, please see “Item 4. Information on the Company — Our Subsidiaries and Affiliates”. Secondly, some of our significant strategic investments were (or will be) made to help us grow our existing business by augmenting key technology development. For example, to accelerate the development of next-generation lithographic technology, in August 2012, TSMC joined the ASML Holding N.V. Customer Co-Investment Program (along with other major technology firms). The program’s scope includes development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography technology and 450-millimeter (450mm) lithography tools. Under the agreement with ASML Holding N.V. (“ASML”), TSMC invested EUR838 million to acquire 5% of ASML’s equity and has committed EUR276 million, to be spread over five years, to ASML’s research and development program. As a result, we are exposed to share price fluctuations arising from the investment in ASML. In the future, we may make more strategic investments in various forms, whether through stock purchases, assets purchases, licensing of major intellectual property rights, joint investments or research and development projects, outright mergers and acquisitions, private equity transactions and other similar transactions. Any such investment will incur risks, which may result in losses if not carefully managed. Any such loss resulting from such investments may result in significant impairment charges, lower profit margin and ultimately lower distributable earnings.

Risks Relating to Ownership of ADSs

Your voting rights as a holder of ADSs will be limited.

Holders of American Depositary Receipts (ADRs) evidencing ADSs may exercise voting rights with respect to the common shares represented by these ADSs only in accordance with the provisions of our ADS deposit agreement. The deposit agreement provides that, upon receipt of notice of any meeting of holders of our common shares, the depositary bank will, as soon as practicable thereafter, mail to the holders (i) the notice of the meeting sent by us, (ii) voting instruction forms and (iii) a statement as to the manner in which instructions may be given by the holders.

ADS holders will not generally be able to exercise the voting rights attaching to the deposited securities on an individual basis. According to the provisions of our ADS deposit agreement, the voting rights attaching to the deposited securities must be exercised as to all matters subject to a vote of shareholders collectively in the same manner, except in the case of an election of directors. Election of directors is by means of cumulative voting. See “Item 10. Additional Information — Voting of Deposited Securities” for a more detailed discussion of the manner in which a holder of ADSs can exercise its voting rights.

You may not be able to participate in rights offerings and may experience dilution of your holdings.

We may, from time to time, distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire securities. Under our ADS deposit agreement, the depositary bank will not distribute rights to holders of ADSs unless the distribution and sale of rights and the securities to which these rights relate are either exempt from registration under the United States Securities Act of 1933, as amended, (the “Securities Act”), with respect to all holders of ADSs, or are registered under the provisions of the Securities Act. Although we may be eligible to take advantage of certain exemptions for rights offerings by certain foreign companies, we can give no assurance that we can establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act, and we are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to any such rights or underlying securities or to endeavor to have such a registration statement declared effective. Accordingly, holders of ADSs may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution of their holdings as a result.

If the depositary bank is unable to sell rights that are not exercised or not distributed or if the sale is not lawful or reasonably practicable, it will allow the rights to lapse, in which case you will receive no value for these rights.

 

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The value of your investment may be reduced by possible future sales of common shares or ADSs by us or our shareholders.

One or more of our existing shareholders may, from time to time, dispose of significant numbers of our common shares or ADSs. For example, the National Development Fund of Taiwan, R.O.C. which owned 6.4% of TSMC’s outstanding shares as of February 28, 2014, has from time to time in the past sold our shares in the form of ADSs in several transactions.

We cannot predict the effect, if any, that future sales of ADSs or common shares, or the availability of ADSs or common shares for future sale, will have on the market price of ADSs or common shares prevailing from time to time. Sales of substantial amounts of ADSs or common shares in the public market, or the perception that such sales may occur, could depress the prevailing market price of our ADSs or common shares.

The market value of our shares may fluctuate due to the volatility of, and government intervention in, the R.O.C. securities market.

The Taiwan Stock Exchange experiences from time to time substantial fluctuations in the prices and volumes of sales of listed securities. There are currently limits on the range of daily price movements on the Taiwan Stock Exchange. In response to past declines and volatility in the securities markets in Taiwan, and in line with similar activities by other countries in Asia, the government of the R.O.C. formed the Stabilization Fund, which has purchased and may from time to time purchase shares of Taiwan companies to support these markets. In addition, other funds associated with the R.O.C. government have in the past purchased, and may from time to time purchase, shares of Taiwan companies on the Taiwan Stock Exchange or other markets. These funds have disposed and may from time to time dispose shares of Taiwan companies so purchased at a later time. In the future, market activity by government entities, or the perception that such activity is taking place, may take place or has ceased, may cause fluctuations in the market prices of our ADSs and common shares.

 

ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

Our History and Structure

Our legal and commercial name is LOGO (Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Limited). We believe we are currently the world’s largest dedicated foundry in the semiconductor industry. We were founded in 1987 as a joint venture among the R.O.C. government and other private investors and were incorporated in the R.O.C. on February 21, 1987. Our common shares have been listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange since September 5, 1994, and our ADSs have been listed on the New York Stock Exchange since October 8, 1997.

Our Principal Office

Our principal executive office is located at No. 8, Li-Hsin Road 6, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of China. Our telephone number at that office is (886-3) 563-6688. Our web site is www.tsmc.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated herein by reference and does not constitute part of this annual report.

Business Overview of the Company

As a foundry, we manufacture semiconductors using our manufacturing processes for our customers based on their own or third parties’ proprietary integrated circuit designs. We offer a comprehensive range of wafer fabrication processes, including processes to manufacture CMOS logic, mixed-signal, radio frequency, embedded memory, BiCMOS mixed-signal and other semiconductors. We estimate that our revenue market segment share among total foundries worldwide was 49% in 2013. We also offer design, mask making, bumping, probing, and assembly and testing services.

We believe that our large capacity, particularly for advanced technologies, is a major competitive advantage. Please see “— Manufacturing Capacity and Technology” and “— Capacity Management and Technology Upgrade Plans” for a further discussion of our capacity.

We count among our customers many of the world’s leading semiconductor companies, ranging from fabless semiconductor and system companies such as Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., Broadcom Corporation, Marvell Semiconductor Inc., MediaTek Inc., NVIDIA Corporation, OmniVision Technologies and Qualcomm Incorporated, to integrated device manufacturers such as Renesas Electronics Corporation, STMicroelectronics and Texas Instruments Inc. Fabless semiconductor and system companies accounted for approximately 87%, and integrated device manufacturers accounted for approximately 13% of our net revenue in 2013.

 

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Our Semiconductor Facilities

We currently operate one 150mm wafer fab, six 200mm wafer fabs and three 300mm wafer fabs. Our corporate headquarters and five of our fabs are located in the Hsinchu Science Park, two fabs are located in the Southern Taiwan Science Park, one fab is located in the Central Taiwan Science Park, one fab is located in the United States, and one fab is located in Shanghai. Our corporate headquarters and our five fabs in Hsinchu occupy parcels of land of a total of approximately 555,304 square meters. We lease these parcels from the Hsinchu Science Park Administration in Hsinchu under agreements that will be up for renewal between June 2015 and December 2032. We have leased from the Central Taiwan Science Park Administration a parcel of land of approximately 184,408 square meters for our Taichung fabs under agreements that will be up for renewal in December 2028. We have leased from the Southern Taiwan Science Park Development Office approximately 764,158 square meters of land for our fabs in the Southern Taiwan Science Park under agreements that will be up for renewal between July 2017 and July 2032. We also own approximately 143,215 square meters of land located in Miaoli, Taiwan. WaferTech owns a parcel of land of approximately 1,052,186 square meters in the State of Washington in the United States, where the WaferTech fab and related offices are located. TSMC China owns the land use rights of 369,087 square meters of land in Shanghai, where Fab 10 and related offices are located. Other than certain equipment under leases located at testing areas, we own all of the buildings and equipment for our fabs. We are expanding our 300mm fabrication capacity and research and development through Fab 12 in the Hsinchu Science Park, Fab 14 in the Southern Taiwan Science Park and Fab 15 in the Central Taiwan Science Park. Total monthly capacity for 300mm wafer fabs was increased from 366,800 wafers as of December 31, 2012 to 414,700 wafers as of December 31, 2013. We will continuously evaluate our capacity in light of prevailing market conditions.

Semiconductor Manufacturing Capacity and Technology

We manufacture semiconductors on silicon wafers based on proprietary circuitry designs provided by our customers or third party designers. Two key factors that characterize a foundry’s manufacturing capabilities are output capacity and fabrication process technologies. Since our establishment, we have possessed the largest capacity among the world’s dedicated foundries. We also believe that we are the technology leader among the dedicated foundries in terms of our net revenue of advanced semiconductors with a resolution of 40/45-nanometer and below, and are one of the leaders in the semiconductor manufacturing industry generally. We are the first dedicated foundry with proven low-k interconnect technology in commercial production from the 0.13 micron node down to 28-nanometer node. Following our commercial production based on 65-nanometer process technology in 2006, we also unveiled 55-nanometer process technology in 2007. Our 65-nanometer and 55-nanometer technologies are the third-generation proprietary processes that employ low-k dielectrics. In 2008, we also qualified our 45-nanometer and 40-nanometer process technologies with ultra low-k dielectrics and advanced immersion lithography. In the fourth quarter of 2011, we began volume production of 28-nanometer products with first-generation high-k/metal gate transistor. In 2012, we continued 20-nanometer technology development to provide a migration path from 28-nanometer for both performance driven products and mobile computing applications. In 2013, we continued our 16-nanometer technology development.

The following table lists our fabs and those of our affiliates, together with the year of commencement of commercial production, technology and capacity during the last two years:

 

Fab(1)

   Year of
    commencement  
       Current most    
advanced
technology  for
volume
production(2)
   Monthly capacity(3)(4)(5)  
                       2012                      2013          

2

   1990    450      48,412                48,650          

3

   1995    150      103,023                96,693          

5

   1997    150      49,849                33,506          

6

   2000    110      100,440                144,100          

8

   1998    110      89,587                72,784          

10

   2004    150      80,300                83,700          

11

   1998    150      37,500                38,000          

12

   2001    28      289,747                281,052          

14

   2004    40      418,862                427,502          

15

   2012    28      116,782                224,476          
        

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total(5)

               1,334,502                    1,450,463          
        

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

(1) 

Fab 2 produces 150mm wafers. Fabs 3, 5, 6, 8, 10 and Fab 11 (WaferTech) produce 200mm wafers. Fab 12, Fab 14 and Fab 15 produce 300mm wafers. Fabs 2, 3, 5, 8 and 12 are located in Hsinchu Science Park. Fab 6 and Fab 14 are located in the Southern Taiwan Science Park. Fab 15 is located in Central Taiwan Science Park. WaferTech is located in the United States and Fab 10 is located in Shanghai.

 

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(2) 

In nanometers, as of year-end.

(3) 

Estimated capacity in 200mm equivalent wafers as of year-end for the total technology ranges available for production.

(4) 

Under an agreement with VIS, TSMC is required to use its best commercial efforts to maintain utilization of a certain amount of reserved capacity as agreed by both parties. Please see “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions — Related Party Transactions — Vanguard International Semiconductor Corporation” for a discussion of certain of the VIS contract terms. The amounts to be used at VIS are not included in our monthly capacity figures.

(5) 

Starting 2013, TSMC no longer included the capacity of our joint venture, SSMC, in this capacity table. However, TSMC still has the access to SSMC’s capacity. Under an agreement with SSMC, TSMC is required to maintain utilization of a certain amount of reserved capacity as agreed by the parties. Please see “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions — Related Party Transactions — Systems on Silicon Manufacturing Company Pte. Ltd.” for a discussion of certain of the SSMC contract terms.

As of December 31, 2013, our monthly capacity (in 200mm equivalent wafers) was 1,450,463 wafers, compared to 1,334,502 wafers at the end of 2012. This increase was primarily due to the expansion of our 28-nanometer advanced technology. Our semiconductor manufacturing facilities require substantial investment to construct and are largely fixed-cost assets once they are in operation. Because we own most of our manufacturing capacity, a significant portion of our operating costs is fixed. In general, these costs do not decline when customer demand or our capacity utilization rates drop, and thus declines in customer demand, among other factors, may significantly decrease our margins. Conversely, as product demand rises and factory utilization increases, the fixed costs are spread over increased output, which can improve our margins.

Capacity Management and Technology Upgrade Plans

We perform long term market demand forecasts to estimate general economic and market conditions for our products and services. Based upon these estimates, we manage our overall capacity in accordance with market demand. For example, such planning enables us to match significant customer demands for our services with the corresponding capacity increase needed to fulfill such demands. Since market conditions may vary significantly and unexpectedly, our market demand forecast may change significantly at any time. Based on our current market demand forecasts, we intend to maintain our strategy of expanding manufacturing capacity and improving manufacturing process technologies to meet both the fabrication and the technological needs of our customers.

Our capital expenditures in 2012 and 2013 were NT$246,137 million and NT$287,595 million (US$9,688 million, translated from a weighted average exchange rate of NT$29.687 to US$1.00), respectively. Our capital expenditures in 2014 are expected to be approximately US$9.5 billion to US$10 billion, which, depending on market conditions, may be adjusted later. Starting from 2012, our capital expenditures were funded by our operating cash flow and the issuance of corporate bonds. Our capital expenditures for 2014 are expected to be funded primarily by our operating cash flow. In 2014, we anticipate our capital expenditures to focus primarily on the following:

 

   

adding production capacity to our 300mm wafer fabs;

 

   

developing new process technologies in 16-nanometer and 10-nanometer nodes;

 

   

expanding buildings/facilities for Fab 12, Fab 14 and Fab 15;

 

   

other research and development projects;

 

   

capacity expansion for mask and backend operations; and

 

   

solar and solid state lighting businesses.

These investment plans are still preliminary and may change according to market conditions.

 

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Markets and Customers

The primary customers of our foundry services are fabless semiconductor companies, systems companies and integrated device manufacturers. The following table presents the breakdown of net revenue, including foundry services and others, by type of customers during the last two years:

 

     Year ended December 31,  
     2012      2013  

Customer Type

       Net Revenue            Percentage            Net Revenue            Percentage    
     (NT$ in millions, except percentages)  

Fabless semiconductor companies/systems companies

     432,090          85.3%             519,142          87.0%    

Integrated device manufacturers

     74,007          14.6%             76,967          12.9%    

Others

     648          0.1%             915          0.1%    
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     506,745          100.0%             597,024          100.0%    
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

We categorize our net revenue based on the country in which the customer is headquartered, which may be different from the net revenue for the countries to which we actually sell or ship our products or different from where products are actually ordered. Under this approach, the following table presents a regional geographic breakdown of our net revenue during the last two years:

 

     Year ended December 31,  
     2012      2013  

Region

       Net Revenue           Percentage           Net Revenue            Percentage    
     (NT$ in millions, except percentages)  

North America

     345,478          68.2%          425,053          71.2%    

Asia Pacific

     73,381          14.5%          78,500          13.2%    

Europe

     46,430          9.1%          41,230          6.9%    

China

     24,674          4.9%          37,646          6.3%    

Japan

     16,782          3.3%          14,537          2.4%    

Other

                     58          0.0%    
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     506,745          100.0%          597,024          100.0%    
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

We provide worldwide customer support. Our office in Hsinchu and wholly-owned subsidiaries in the United States, Canada, Japan, Mainland China, the Netherlands and South Korea are dedicated to serving our customers worldwide. Foundry services, which are both technologically and logistically intensive, involve frequent and in-depth interaction with customers. We believe that the most effective means of providing foundry services is by developing direct and close relationships with our customers. Our customer service and technical support managers work closely with the sales force to offer integrated services to customers. To facilitate customer interaction and information access on a real-time basis, a suite of web-based applications have also been offered to provide more active interactions with customers in design, engineering and logistics.

Purchase Orders by Customers. Because of the fast-changing technology and functionality in semiconductor design, foundry customers generally do not place purchase orders far in advance to manufacture a particular type of product. However, we engage in discussions with customers regarding their expected manufacturing requirements in advance of the placement of purchase orders.

The Semiconductor Fabrication Process

In general, the semiconductor manufacturing process begins with a thin silicon wafer on which an array of semiconductor devices is fabricated. The wafer is then tested, cut into dice, and assembled into packages that are then individually retested. Our focus is on wafer fabrication although we also provide all other services either directly or through outsourcing arrangements.

Our Foundry Services

Range of Services. Because of our ability to provide a full array of services, we are able to accommodate customers with a variety of needs at every stage of the overall foundry process. The flexibility in input stages allows us to cater to a variety of customers with different in-house capabilities and thus to service a wider class of customers as compared to a foundry that cannot offer design or mask making services, for example.

 

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Fabrication Processes. We manufacture semiconductors using the complementary metal oxide silicon (“CMOS”) and the bipolar complementary metal oxide silicon (“BiCMOS”, which uses CMOS transistors in conjunction with bipolar junction transistor) processes. The CMOS process is currently the dominant semiconductor manufacturing process. The BiCMOS process combines the high speed of the bipolar circuitry and the low power consumption and high density of the CMOS circuitry. We use the CMOS process to manufacture logic semiconductors, mixed-signal/radio frequency (“RF”) semiconductors, which combine analog and digital circuitry in a single semiconductor, micro-electro-mechanical-system (“MEMS”), which combines micrometer featured mechanical parts, analog and digital circuitry in a single semiconductor, and embedded memory semiconductors, which combine logic and memory in a single semiconductor. The BiCMOS process is used to make high-end mixed-signal and other types of semiconductors.

Types of Semiconductors We Manufacture. We manufacture different types of semiconductors with different specific functions by changing the number and the combinations of conducting, insulating and semiconducting layers and by defining different patterns in which such layers are applied on the wafer. At any given point in time, there are thousands of different products in various stages of fabrication at our fabs. We believe that the keys to maintaining high production quality and utilization rates are our effective management and control of the manufacturing process technologies which comes from our extensive experience as the longest existing dedicated foundry and our dedication to quality control and process improvements.

The following is a general, non-exhaustive description of the key types of semiconductors that we currently manufacture. Depending on future market conditions, we may provide other services or manufacture other types of products that may be additive to or differ significantly from the following:

Logic Semiconductors. Logic semiconductors process digital data to control the operation of electronic systems. The largest segment of the logic market, standard logic devices, includes mobile computing chips, application processors, microcontrollers, digital signal processors (DSP), graphic chips and chipsets.

Mixed-Signal/RF Semiconductors. Analog/digital semiconductors combine analog and digital devices on a single semiconductor to process both analog and digital data. We make mixed-signal/RF semiconductors using both the CMOS and BiCMOS processes. We currently offer CMOS mixed-signal process down to the 28-nanometer technology for manufacturing mixed-signal/RF semiconductors. The primary uses of mixed-signal/RF semiconductors are in hard disk drives, wireless communications equipment and network communications equipment, with those made with the BiCMOS process occupying the higher end of the mixed-signal/RF market.

CMOS Image Sensor Semiconductors. Image sensors are primarily used in camera phones and tablets. We are currently the leading foundry for the production of CMOS image sensors, characterized by technology features including low dark current, high sensitivity, small pixel size and high dynamic range achieved through integration with mixed mode processes.

High Voltage Semiconductors. We currently offer a range of high-voltage processes including high voltage CMOS (“HVCMOS”), bipolar-CMOS-DMOS (Diffusion Metal Oxide Semiconductor) (“BCD”) and ultra-high voltage technology (“UHV”), ranging from 5V to 700V, which are suitable for various panel-size display driver and power IC applications.

The table below presents a breakdown of our net revenue during the last two years by each semiconductor type:

 

     Year ended December 31,  
     2012      2013  
     (NT$ in millions, except percentages)  

Semiconductor Type  

       Net Revenue            Percentage            Net Revenue            Percentage    

CMOS

           

Logic

     352,139            69.5%         424,868          71.2%   

Mixed-Signal(1)

     150,905            29.8%         167,333          28.0%   

BiCMOS(2)

     1,924            0.4%         1,615          0.3%   

Others

     1,777            0.3%         3,208          0.5%   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     506,745            100.0%         597,024          100.0%   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

(1) 

Mixed-signal semiconductors made with the CMOS process.

(2) 

Mixed-signal and other semiconductors made with the BiCMOS process.

 

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Design and Technology Platforms. Modern IC designers need sophisticated design infrastructure to optimize productivity and cycle time. Such infrastructure includes design flow for electronic design automation (EDA), silicon proven building blocks such as libraries and intellectual properties, simulation and verification design kits such as process design kit (PDK) and technology files. All of this infrastructure is built on top of the technology foundation, and each technology needs its own design infrastructure to be usable for designers. This is the concept of our technology platforms.

For years, we and our alliance partners have spent considerable effort, time and resources to build our technology platforms. We unveiled an open innovation platform® (OIP) initiative in 2008 to further enhance our technologies offerings. More OIP deliverables were introduced in 2013. In the design methodology area, we announced the release of 16-nanometer Fin Field-Effect Transistor (FinFET) and three dimensional integrated circuit (3D-IC) reference flows for design enablement through OIP.

Multi-project Wafers Program (“CyberShuttle”). To help our customers reduce costs, we offer a dedicated multi-project wafer processing service that allows us to provide multiple customers with circuits produced with the same mask. This program reduces mask costs by a very significant amount, resulting in accelerated time-to-market for our customers. We have extended this program to all of our customers and library and intellectual property partners using our broad selection of process technologies, ranging from the latest 20-, 28-, 40-, 45-, 55- and 65-nanometer processes to 0.18-, 0.25-, 0.35- and 0.5-micron. This extension offers a routinely scheduled multi-project wafer run to customers on a shared-cost basis for prototyping and verification.

We developed our multi-project wafer program in response to the current system-on-chip development methodologies, which often require the independent development, prototyping and validation of several intellectual properties before they can be integrated onto a single device. By sharing mask costs among our customers to the extent permissible, the system-on-chip supplier can enjoy reduced prototyping costs and greater confidence that the design will be successful.

Customer Service

We believe that our dedication to customer service has been an indispensable factor in attracting new customers, helping to ensure the satisfaction of existing customers, and building a mutually beneficial relationship with our customers. The key elements are our:

 

   

customer-oriented culture through multi-level interaction with customers;

 

   

ability to deliver products of consistent quality, competitive ramp-up speed and fast yield improvement;

 

   

responsiveness to customer’s issues and requirements, such as engineering change and special wafer handling requests;

 

   

flexibility in manufacturing processes, supported by our competitive technical capability and production planning;

 

   

dedication to help reduce customer costs through collaboration and services, such as our multi-project wafer program, which combines multiple designs on a single mask set for cost-saving; and

 

   

availability of our online service which provides real-time necessary information in design, engineering and logistics to ensure seamless services to our customers throughout product life cycle.

We also conduct an annual customer satisfaction survey to assess customer satisfaction and to ensure that their needs are adequately understood and addressed. Continual improvement plans based upon customer feedback are an integral part of this business process. We use data derived from the survey as a key indicator of our corporate performance as well as a leading indicator of future performance. We believe that satisfaction leads to better customer relationships, which would result in more business opportunities.

 

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Research and Development

The semiconductor industry is characterized by rapid changes in technology, frequently resulting in the introduction of new technologies to meet customers’ demands and in the obsolescence of recently introduced technology and products. We believe that, in order to stay technologically ahead of our competitors and to maintain our market position in the foundry segment of the semiconductor industry, we need to maintain our position as a technology leader not only in the foundry segment but in the semiconductor industry in general. We spent NT$40,387 million and NT$47,952 million (US$1,608 million) in 2012 and 2013, respectively, on research and development, which represented 8.0% of our net revenue for both periods. We plan to continue to invest significant amounts on research and development in 2014, with the goal of maintaining a leading position in the development of advanced process technologies. Our research and development efforts have allowed us to provide our customers access to certain advanced process technologies, such as 45-nanometer, 40-nanometer, 28-nanometer and 20-nanometer technology for volume production, prior to the implementation of those advanced process technologies by many integrated device manufacturers and our competitors. In addition, we expect to advance our process technologies further down to 16/10-nanometer and below in the coming years to maintain our technology leadership. We will also continue to invest in research and development for our mainstream technologies offerings to provide function-rich process capabilities to our customers. Our research and development efforts are divided into centralized research and development activities and research and development activities undertaken by each of our fabs. Our centralized research and development activities are principally directed toward developing new Logic, system-on-chip (“SOC”), derivatives and package/system-in-package (“SIP”) technologies, and cost-effective 3D-IC Chip on Wafer on Substrate (“CoWoS”) solutions. Fab-related research and development activities mostly focus on upgrading the manufacturing process technologies.

In continuing to advance our process technologies, we intend to rely primarily on our internal engineering capability and know-how and our research and development efforts, including collaboration with our customers, equipment vendors and research and development consortia.

We also continuously create in-house inventions and know-how. Since our inception, we have applied for and have been issued a substantial number of United States and other patents, the majority of which are semiconductor-related.

Equipment

The quality and technology of the equipment used in the semiconductor manufacturing process are important in that they effectively define the limits of our process technologies. Advances in process technologies cannot be brought about without commensurate advances in equipment technology. To accelerate the development of next-generation lithographic technology, in August 2012 TSMC joined the ASML Holding N.V. Customer Co-Investment Program. The program’s scope includes development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography technology and 450mm lithography tools. Under the agreement with ASML, TSMC made an investment of EUR838 million to acquire 5% of ASML’s equity, and has committed EUR276 million, to be spread over five years, to ASML’s research and development program.

The principal pieces of equipment used by us to manufacture semiconductors are scanners, cleaners and track equipment, inspection equipment, etchers, furnaces, wet stations, strippers, implanters, sputterers, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) equipment, testers and probers. Other than certain equipment under leases located at testing areas, we own all of the equipment used at our fabs.

In implementing our capacity management and technology advancement plans, we expect to make significant purchases of equipment required for semiconductor manufacturing. Some of the equipment is available from a limited number of vendors and/or is manufactured in relatively limited quantities, and certain equipment has only recently been developed. We believe that our relationships with our equipment suppliers are good and that we have enjoyed the advantages of being a major purchaser of semiconductor fabrication equipment. We work closely with manufacturers to provide equipment customized to our needs for certain advanced technologies.

Raw Materials

Our manufacturing processes use many raw materials, primarily silicon wafers, chemicals, gases and various types of precious metals. Raw materials costs constituted 13.6% and 12.5% of our net revenue in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Although most of our raw materials are available from multiple suppliers, some materials are purchased through sole-sourced vendors. Our raw material procurement policy is to select only those vendors who have demonstrated quality control and reliability on delivery time and to maintain multiple sources for each raw material whenever possible so that a quality or delivery problem with any one vendor will not adversely affect our operations. The quality and delivery performance of each vendor is evaluated quarterly and quantity allocations are adjusted for subsequent periods based on the evaluation.

 

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The most important raw material used in our production is silicon wafers, which is the basic raw material from which integrated circuits are made. The principal suppliers for our wafers are Shin-Etsu Handotai and SUMCO Corporation of Japan, MEMC Electronic Materials, Inc. of the United States, Siltronic AG of Germany and Formosa Sumco Technology Corporation of Taiwan. Together they supplied approximately 94.2% and 93.3% of our total wafer needs in 2012 and 2013, respectively. We have in the past obtained, and believe we will continue to be able to obtain, a sufficient supply of wafers. Please see “Item 3. Key Information - Risk Factors - Risks Relating to Our Business” for a discussion of the risk related to raw materials. In order to secure a reliable and flexible supply of high quality wafers, we have entered into long-term agreements and intend to continue to develop strategic relationships with major wafer vendors to cover our anticipated wafer needs for future years. Also, we actively address supply chain issues and bring together fab operations, materials management, quality system and risk management teams to mitigate potential supply chain risks and enhance supply chain agility. This taskforce works with our primary suppliers to review their business continuity plans, qualify their dual-plant materials, prepare safety inventories, improve the quality of their products and manage the supply chain risk of their suppliers.

Competition

We compete internationally and domestically with foundry service providers, as well as with integrated device manufacturers that devote a significant or exclusive portion of their manufacturing capacity to foundry operations. We compete primarily on the basis of process technologies, manufacturing excellence and customer trust. The level of competition differs according to the process technologies involved. For example, in more mature technologies, the competition tends to be more intense. Some companies compete with us in selected geographic regions or application end markets. In recent years, substantial investments have been made by others to establish new foundry capacities worldwide, or to transform certain manufacturing operations of integrated device manufacturers (IDMs) into foundry capacities to compete with us.

Environmental Regulations

The semiconductor production process generates gaseous chemical wastes, liquid wastes, wastewater and other industrial wastes in various stages of the manufacturing process. We have installed in our fabs various types of pollution control equipment for the treatment of gaseous chemical wastes and wastewater and equipment for the recycling of treated water. Operations at our fabs are subject to regulation and periodic monitoring by the R.O.C. Environmental Protection Administration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State Environmental Protection Administration of mainland China, and local environmental protection authorities, including the various science park administrations in the R.O.C., the Washington State Department of Ecology and the Shanghai Environmental Protection Bureau.

We have adopted pollution control measures that are expected to result in the effective maintenance of environmental protection standards consistent with the practice of the semiconductor industry in Taiwan, the U.S. and mainland China. We conduct environmental audits at least once annually to ensure that we are in compliance in all material respects with, and we believe that we are in compliance in all material respects with, applicable environmental laws and regulations. An environmental, safety and health (“ESH”) team operates at the corporate level that is responsible for policy establishment and enforcement, coordination with ESH teams located at each manufacturing facility and for coordinating and interacting with government agencies worldwide.

Electricity and Water

We use electricity supplied by the Taiwan Power Company in our manufacturing process. Businesses in the Hsinchu Science Park, Southern Taiwan Science Park and Central Taiwan Science Park, such as ours, enjoy preferential electricity supply. We have occasionally suffered power outages or surges caused by difficulties encountered by the Taiwan Power Company, which have led to interruptions in our production schedule. The semiconductor manufacturing process also uses extensive amounts of fresh water. Due to the growth of manufacturers in the Hsinchu Science Park, Southern Taiwan Science Park and Central Taiwan Science Park, and the droughts that Taiwan experiences from time to time, there is concern regarding future availability of sufficient fresh water and the potential impact that insufficient water supplies may have on our semiconductor production. To help address these potential shortages, we have adopted various natural resources conservation methodologies.

 

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Risk Management

We employ an enterprise risk management system to integrate the prevention and control of risk that we or our subsidiaries may face. We have also prepared emergency response and business continuity plans to respond to natural disasters and other disruptive events that could interrupt the operation of our business. These plans have been developed in order to prevent or minimize the loss of personnel or damage to our facilities, equipment and machinery caused by natural disasters and other disruptive events. We also maintain insurance with respect to our facilities, equipment and inventories. The insurance for the fabs and their equipment covers, subject to some limitations, various risks, including fire, typhoons, earthquakes and other risks generally up to the respective policy limits for their replacement values and lost profits due to business interruption. In addition, we have insurance policies covering losses with respect to the construction of all our fabs. Equipment and inventories in transit are also insured. No assurance can be given, however, that insurance will fully cover any losses and our emergency response plans will be effective in preventing or minimizing losses in the future. To further help mitigate our major operational and financial risks, our enterprise risk management (ERM) group reports regularly to our Audit Committee composed of independent board directors.

For further information, please see detailed risk factors related to the impact of climate change regulations and international accords, and business trends on our operations in “Item 3. Key Information - Risk Factors - Risks Relating to Our Business”.

Our Subsidiaries and Affiliates

Vanguard International Semiconductor Corporation (“VIS”). In 1994, we, the R.O.C. Ministry of Economic Affairs and other investors established VIS, then an integrated dynamic random access memory (“DRAM”) manufacturer. VIS commenced volume commercial production in 1995 and listed its shares on the GreTai Securities Market in March 1998. In 2004, VIS completely terminated its DRAM production and became a dedicated foundry company. As of February 28, 2014, we owned approximately 39.3% of the equity interest in VIS. On April 14, 2014, we sold 82 million common shares of VIS. After this sale, we owned approximately 33.7% of the equity interest in VIS. Please see “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions” for a further discussion.

WaferTech in the United States. In 1996, we entered into a joint venture called WaferTech (of which the manufacturing entity is Fab 11) with several U.S.-based investors to construct and operate a US$1.2 billion foundry in the United States. Initial trial production at WaferTech commenced in July 1998 and commercial production commenced in October 1998. As of February 28, 2014, we owned 100% of the equity interest in WaferTech.

Systems on Silicon Manufacturing Company Pte. Ltd. (“SSMC”). In March 1999, we entered into an agreement with Philips and EDB Investment Pte. Ltd. to found a joint venture, SSMC, and build a fab in Singapore. The SSMC fab commenced production in December 2000. As of February 28, 2014, we owned approximately 38.8% of the equity interest in SSMC. Please see “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions” for a further discussion.

Global Unichip Corporation (“GUC”). In January 2003, we acquired a 52.0% equity interest in GUC, a System-on-Chip (SoC) design service company that provides large scale SOC implementation services. GUC has been listed on Taiwan Stock Exchange since November 3, 2006. Since July 2011, we were no longer deemed to be a controlling entity of GUC and its subsidiaries due to the termination of a Shareholders’ Agreement. As a result, we no longer consolidated GUC and its subsidiaries in our financial statements. As of February 28, 2014, we owned approximately 34.8% of the equity interest in GUC.

TSMC China. In August 2003, we established TSMC China (of which the manufacturing entity is Fab 10), a wholly-owned subsidiary primarily engaged in the manufacturing and selling of integrated circuits. TSMC China commenced production in late 2004.

VisEra Technologies Company, Ltd. (“VisEra”). In October 2003, we and OmniVision Technologies Inc., entered into a shareholders’ agreement to form VisEra Technologies Company, Ltd., a joint venture in Taiwan, for the purpose of providing back-end manufacturing service. As of February 28, 2014, we owned approximately 42.7% of the equity interest in VisEra Technologies Company Ltd.

Xintec, Inc. (“Xintec”). In January 2007, we acquired a 51.2% equity interest in Xintec, a supplier of wafer level packaging service, to support our CMOS image sensor manufacturing business. Since June 2013, we were no longer deemed to be a controlling entity of Xintec due to the addition of independent directors to Xintec’s board, which resulted in our appointed directors on its board representing less than a majority. As a result, we no longer consolidated Xintec in our financial statements. As of February 28, 2014, we owned approximately 40.2% equity interest in Xintec.

 

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Motech Industries, Inc. (“Motech”). In February 2010, we acquired a 20.0% equity interest in Motech, a Taiwan solar cell manufacturer. Motech has been a publicly traded company on Taiwan’s GreTai Security Market since May 2003. In August 2011, we transferred our 20.0% equity interest in Motech to TSMC Solar Ltd. As of February 28, 2014, we owned approximately 19.7% equity interest in Motech.

TSMC Solar Ltd. (“TSMC Solar”). We transferred our solar businesses into our subsidiary, TSMC Solar, in August 2011. TSMC Solar is engaged in research, development, design, manufacture and sales of technologies and products related to renewable energy and energy saving. As of February 28, 2014, we owned approximately 99.0% equity interest in TSMC Solar.

TSMC Solid State Lighting Ltd. (“TSMC SSL”). We transferred our solid state lighting businesses into our subsidiary, TSMC SSL, in August 2011. TSMC SSL is engaged in research, development, design, manufacture and sales of solid state lighting devices and related application products and systems. As of February 28, 2014, we owned approximately 93.4% equity interest in TSMC SSL.

ITEM 4A.            UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

 

ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEWS AND PROSPECTS

Overview

We manufacture a variety of semiconductors based on designs provided by our customers. Our business model is commonly called a “dedicated semiconductor foundry.” The foundry segment of the semiconductor industry as a whole experienced rapid growth over the last 27 years since our inception. As the leader of the foundry segment of the semiconductor industry, our net revenue and net income attributable to shareholders of the parent were NT$506,745 million and NT$159,481 million in 2012 and NT$597,024 million (US$20,014 million) and NT$183,978 million (US$6,167 million) in 2013, respectively. Our net revenue in 2013 increased by 17.8% from 2012, mainly due to continuous growth in customer demand and increase in sales of our 28-nanometer products, which commanded a higher selling price.

The principal source of our revenue is wafer fabrication, which accounted for approximately 93.9% of our net revenue in 2013. The rest of our net revenue was majorly derived from mask making, design, and royalty income. Factors that significantly impact our revenue include:

 

   

the worldwide demand and capacity supply for semiconductor products;

 

   

pricing;

 

   

capacity utilization;

 

   

availability of raw materials and supplies;

 

   

technology migration; and

 

   

fluctuation in foreign currency exchange rate.

Though equally important, three of the above factors are discussed as follows:

Pricing. We establish pricing levels for specific periods of time with our customers, usually subject to adjustment during the course of that period to take into account market developments and other factors. Not all prices are subject to such adjustments though. We believe that our large capacity, flexible manufacturing capabilities, focus on customer service and ability to deliver high yields in a timely manner have contributed to our ability to obtain premium pricing for our wafer production.

Production Capacity. We currently own and operate our semiconductor manufacturing facilities, the aggregate production capacity for which had been expanded from 1,334,502 200mm equivalent wafers per month as of the end of 2012 to 1,450,463 200mm equivalent wafers per month as of the end of 2013.

 

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Technology Migration.

Our operations utilize a variety of process technologies, ranging from mainstream process technologies of 0.5 micron or above circuit resolutions to advanced process technologies of 28-nanometer circuit resolutions. The table below presents a breakdown of wafer revenue by circuit resolution during the last two years:

 

     Year ended December 31,  
     2012      2013  

Resolution

     Percentage of  
total wafer
revenue(1)
       Percentage of  
total wafer
revenue(1)
 

28-nanometer

     12%         30%    

40/45-nanometer

     27%         20%    

65-nanometer

     23%         16%    

90-nanometer

     9%         8%    

0.11/0.13 micron

     6%         4%    

0.15 micron

     4%         4%    

0.18 micron

     11%         12%    

0.25 micron

     4%         3%    

0.35 micron

     2%         2%    

³0.5 micron

     2%         1%    

Total

     100%         100%    

 

 

(1) 

Percentages represent wafer revenue by technology as a percentage of total revenue from wafer revenue, which excludes revenue associated with mask making, design, royalty income, etc. Total wafer revenue excludes sales returns and allowances.

First-Time Adoption of IFRSs

On May 14, 2009, the R.O.C. FSC announced that all companies with shares listed on the TWSE, including us, were required to prepare the consolidated financial statements in accordance with the IFRSs adopted for use in Taiwan (“Taiwan-IFRSs”) starting January 1, 2013, with a transition date of January 1, 2012. We have prepared and reported our consolidated financial statements under Taiwan-IFRSs and published such financial statements as required under the applicable regulations and listing rules of the TWSE since the first quarter of 2013. Prior to 2013, we prepared and reported our consolidated financial statements in accordance with R.O.C. GAAP.

In addition, for our continuing US SEC reporting obligations, we are required to report our financial statements under IFRSs as issued by the IASB. See note 42 to our consolidated financial statements for the explanation of how the transition from R.O.C. GAAP to IFRSs has affected the reported financial position, financial performance, and cash flows.

Critical Accounting Policies And Judgments

Summarized below are our accounting policies that we believe are important to the portrayal of our financial results and also involve the need for management to make estimates about the effect of matters that are uncertain in nature. Actual results may differ from these estimates, judgments and assumptions. Certain accounting policies are particularly critical because of their significance to our reported financial results and the possibility that future events may differ significantly from the conditions and assumptions underlying the estimates used and judgments made by our management in preparing our financial statements. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes, which are included in this annual report.

Revenue Recognition. We recognize revenue from the sale of goods when the goods are delivered and titles have passed, at which time all the following conditions are satisfied:

 

   

We have transferred to the buyer the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods;

 

   

We retain neither continuing managerial involvement to the degree usually associated with ownership nor effective control over the goods sold;

 

   

The amount of revenue can be measured reliably;

 

   

It is probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to us; and

 

 

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The costs incurred or to be incurred in respect of the transaction can be measured reliably.

We record a provision for estimated future returns and other allowances in the same period the related revenue is recorded. Provision for estimated sales returns and allowances is generally made and adjusted at a specific percentage based on historical experience, management judgment, and any known factors that would significantly affect the returns and allowances, and our management periodically reviews the adequacy of the percentage used. However, because of the inherent nature of estimates, actual returns and allowances could be different from our estimates. If the actual returns are greater than our estimated amount, we could be required to record an additional provision, which would have a negative impact on our recorded revenue and gross margin.

As of December 31, 2012 and 2013, the provision recorded as the deduction of revenue was NT$7,187 million and NT$6,633 million (US$223 million), respectively, representing 1.4% and 1.1% of our gross revenue for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2013.

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts. We assess the allowance for doubtful accounts by examining our historical collection experience and current trends in the credit quality of our customers as well as our internal credit policies. If economic conditions or financial conditions of our customers deteriorate, additional allowance may be required in the future and such additional allowance would increase our operating expenses and therefore reduce our operating income and net income.

We evaluate indication of impairment of accounts receivable based on an individual and collective basis at the end of each reporting period. When objective evidence indicates that the estimated future cash flow of accounts receivable decreases as a result of one or more events that occurred after the initial recognition of the accounts receivable, such accounts receivable are deemed to be impaired.

Because of the short average collection period, the amount of the impairment loss recognized is the difference between the carrying amount of accounts receivable and estimated future cash flows without considering the discounting effect. Changes in the carrying amount of the allowance account are recognized as bad debt expense which is recorded in the operating expenses - general and administrative. When accounts receivable are considered uncollectable, the amount is written off against the allowance account.

As of December 31, 2012 and 2013, the allowance set aside for doubtful receivables was NT$480 million and NT$487 million (US$16 million), respectively, representing 0.8% and 0.7% of our gross notes and accounts receivables as of those dates.

Inventory valuation. Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value for finished goods, work-in-progress, raw materials, supplies and spare parts. Inventory write-downs are made on an item-by-item basis, except where it may be appropriate to group similar or related items.

A significant amount of our manufacturing costs are fixed because our extensive manufacturing facilities (which provide us such large production capacity) require substantial investment to construct and are largely fixed-cost assets once they become operational. When the capacity utilization increases, the fixed manufacturing costs are spread over a larger amount of output, which would lower the inventory cost per unit thereby improving our gross margin.

We evaluate our ending inventory based on standard cost under normal capacity utilization, and reduce the carrying value of our inventory when the actual capacity utilization is higher than normal capacity utilization. No adjustment is made to the carrying value of inventory when the actual capacity utilization is at or lower than normal capacity utilization. Normal capacity utilization is established based on historic loadings compared to total available capacity in our wafer manufacturing fabs.

Due to rapid technology changes, we also evaluate our ending inventory and reduce the carrying value of inventory for estimated obsolescence and unmarketable inventory by an amount that is the difference between the cost of the inventory and the net realizable value. The net realizable value of the inventory is mainly determined based on assumptions of future demand within a specific time horizon, which is generally 180 days or less.

Realization of Deferred Income Tax Assets. When we have net operating loss carry forwards, investment tax credits or temporary differences in the amount of tax recorded for tax purposes and accounting purposes, we may be able to reduce the amount of tax that we would otherwise be required to pay in future periods. We generally recognize deferred tax assets to the extent that it is probable that sufficient taxable benefits will be available to utilize. The income tax benefit or expense is recorded when there is a net change in our total deferred tax assets and liabilities in a period. The ultimate realization of the deferred tax assets depends upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which the net operating losses and temporary differences become deductible or the investment tax credits may be utilized. Specifically, our realization of deferred income tax assets is impacted by our expected future revenue growth and profitability, tax holidays, Alternative Minimum Tax (“AMT”), 10% tax imposed on unappropriated earnings and the amount of tax credits that can be utilized within the statutory period. In determining the amount of deferred tax assets as of December 31, 2013, we considered past performance, the general outlook of the semiconductor industry, business conditions, future taxable income and prudent and feasible tax planning strategies.

 

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Because the determination of the amount of realization of the deferred tax assets is based, in part, on our forecast of future profitability, it is inherently uncertain and subjective. Changes in market conditions and our assumptions may cause the actual future profitability to differ materially from our current expectation, which may require us to increase or decrease the realization of the deferred tax assets that we have recorded. As of December 31, 2012 and 2013, the deferred tax assets were NT$13,111 million and NT$7,145 million (US$240 million), respectively. The deferred tax assets decreased by NT$5,966 million in 2013, mainly due to the utilization of the deferred tax assets relating to investment tax credits.

Impairment of Tangible and Intangible Assets Other than Goodwill. We assess the impairment of tangible and intangible assets other than goodwill whenever triggering events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset may be impaired and carrying value may not be recoverable. Our tangible and intangible assets other than goodwill subject to this evaluation include property, plant and equipment and amortizable intangible assets.

Indicators we consider important which could trigger an impairment review include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

   

significant underperformance relative to historical or projected future operating results;

 

   

significant changes in the manner of our use of the acquired assets or our overall business strategy; and

 

   

significant unfavorable industry or economic trends.

When we determine that the carrying value of tangible and intangible assets may not be recoverable based upon the existence of one or more of the above indicators of impairment, we measure any impairment for tangible and intangible assets based on a projected future cash flow. If the tangible or intangible assets are determined to be impaired, we recognize an impairment loss through a charge to our operating results to the extent the recoverable amount, measured at the present value of discounted cash flows attributable to the assets, is less than their carrying value. Such cash flow analysis includes assumptions about expected future economic and market conditions, the applicable discount rate, and the future revenue generation from the use or disposition of the assets. We also perform a periodic review to identify assets that are no longer used and are not expected to be used in future periods and record an impairment charge to the extent that the carrying amount of the tangible and intangible assets exceeds the recoverable amount. If the recoverable amount subsequently increases, the impairment loss previously recognized will be reversed to the extent of the increase in the recoverable amount, provided that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognized for the asset in prior years.

The process of evaluating the potential impairment of tangible and intangible assets other than goodwill requires significant judgment. We are required to review for impairment groups of assets related to the lowest level of identifiable independent cash flows. Due to our asset usage model and the interchangeable nature of our semiconductor manufacturing capacity, we must make subjective judgment in determining the independent cash flows that can be related to specific asset groups. In addition, because we must make subjective judgment regarding the remaining useful lives of assets and the expected future revenue and expenses associated with the assets, changes in these estimates based on changed economic conditions or business strategies could result in material impairment charges in future periods. Our projection for future cash flow is generally lower during periods of reduced earnings. As a result, an impairment charge is more likely to occur during a period when our operating results are already otherwise depressed.

For purposes of evaluating the recoverability of tangible and intangible assets other than goodwill, assets purchased for use in the business but subsequently determined to have no future economic benefits are written down to their recoverable amount. For the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2013, we recognized the impairment loss of NT$445 million and nil, respectively. As of December 31, 2012 and 2013, net tangible and intangible assets amounted to NT$622,998 million and NT$798,529 million (US$26,769 million), respectively.

 

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Impairment of Goodwill. Goodwill arising on an acquisition of a business is carried at cost as established at the date of acquisition of the business less accumulated impairment losses, if any. We assess the impairment of goodwill on an annual basis, or more frequently when there is an indication that goodwill may be impaired. Indicators we consider important which could trigger an impairment review include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

   

significant decline in our stock price for a sustained period; and

 

   

significant decline in our market capitalization relative to net book value.

Application of the goodwill impairment test is also highly subjective and requires significant judgment, including the identification of cash generating units, assigning assets and liabilities to the relevant cash generating units, assigning goodwill to the relevant cash generating units, and determining the recoverable amount of the relevant cash generating units. Our assessment of recoverable amount is based upon a cash flow analysis that includes assumptions about expected future operating performance, such as revenue growth rates and operating margins, risk-adjusted discount rates, future economic and market conditions, and determination of appropriate market comparables. The recoverable amount of the cash generating units is compared to the associated carrying value including goodwill and an impairment charge is recorded to the extent, if any, that the carrying value exceeds the recoverable amount.

Goodwill recorded from the acquisition of TSMC-Acer and WaferTech is evaluated for impairment on an annual basis. Based on our most recent evaluation, the recoverable amount calculated by discounting projected cash flow in five years was higher than the associated carrying value. As a result, we did not record any impairment charge. As of December 31, 2012 and 2013, goodwill amounted to NT$5,524 million and NT$5,627 million (US$189 million), respectively. The change in the NT dollar amount of goodwill was due to changes in the exchange rate between NT dollar and U.S. dollar.

Impairment assessment on investments accounted for using equity method. We assess the impairment of investments accounted for using equity method whenever triggering events or changes in circumstances indicate that an investment may be impaired and its carrying value may not be recoverable. The recoverable amount is determined by taking into consideration the discounted cash flow projections of the investee and the investee’s market price, if available. The underlying assumptions of the future cash flow projections of the investees are formulated by the investees’ internal management team, taking into account market conditions for the industries which the investees operate in to ensure the reasonableness of such assumptions. An impairment charge is recorded to the extent, if any, that the carrying amount of the investments accounted for using equity method exceeds the recoverable amount. If the recoverable amount subsequently increases, the impairment loss previously recognized will be reversed to the extent of the increase in the recoverable amount.

In 2012, an impairment loss of NT$1,187 million was recorded from a certain invested company. In 2013, because the recoverable amount of the aforementioned investment had increased to be higher than its carrying amount before the 2012 impairment, the impairment loss of NT$1,187 million recognized in prior year was reversed. As of December 31, 2012 and 2013, investments accounted for using equity method amounted to NT$23,367 million and NT$28,157 million (US$944 million), respectively.

Accounting for investments in private and publicly-traded securities. We hold equity interests in companies, some of which are publicly traded and have highly volatile share prices. We also hold investments in debt securities. We review all of our investments for impairment on a quarterly basis and record an impairment charge when we believe an investment has experienced a significant or prolonged decline in fair value. Determining whether a significant or prolonged decline in fair value of the investment has occurred is highly subjective. Such evaluation is dependent on the specific facts and circumstances. Factors we consider include, but are not limited to, the following: the market value of the security in relation to its cost basis, the duration of the decline in fair value, the financial condition of the investees and our intent and ability to retain the investment for a sufficient period of time to allow for recovery in the market value of the investment. Impairment reviews with respect to private security investments also require significant judgment. Factors indicative of a significant or prolonged decline in fair value include recurring operating losses, credit defaults and subsequent rounds of financing at valuation below the cost basis of the investment.

We have experienced declines in the fair value of certain privately held investments and publicly traded securities and recorded impairment loss of NT$3,045 million and NT$1,540 million (US$52 million) in 2012 and 2013, respectively. While we have recognized all declines that are currently believed to be significant or prolonged as a charge to income, adverse changes in market conditions or poor operating results of underlying investments could result in further losses in future periods.

 

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Recognition and Measurement of Defined Benefit Plans. We use the Projected Unit Credit Method for accrued pension costs and the resulting pension expenses under defined benefit pension plans. The discount rate, rate of employee turnover, and long-term average future salary increase are included in actuarial assumptions. The discount rate assumption is determined by reference to yields on government bonds of appropriate duration at the end of the maturity of the pension benefits. We assume the average remaining years of service and rate of increase in compensation levels based on historical data. Due to changing market and economic conditions, the underlying key assumptions may differ from actual developments and may lead to significant changes in pension and defined benefit obligations.

As of December 31, 2012 and 2013, the accrued pension costs were NT$6,781 million and NT$6,802 million (US$228 million), respectively.

Results of Operations

The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, certain financial data from our consolidated statements of profit or loss and other comprehensive income, expressed in each case as a percentage of net revenue:

 

                       For the year ended December 31,                   
               2012                           2013             

Net revenue

     100.0%          100.0%   

Cost of revenue

     (51.8)%          (52.9)%   

Gross profit

     48.2%          47.1%    

Operating expenses

     

Research and development

     (8.0)%         (8.0)%    

General and administrative

     (3.4)%         (3.1)%    

Marketing

     (0.9)%         (0.8)%    

Total operating expenses

     (12.3)%         (11.9)%    

Other operating income and expenses, net

     (0.1)%          0.0%   

Income from operations

     35.8%          35.2%   

Income before income tax

     35.8%         36.2%   

Income tax expense

     (4.4)%         (5.4)%   

Net income

     31.4%         30.8%   

Other comprehensive income for the period, net of income tax

     0.9%         2.7%   

Total comprehensive income for the period

     32.3%         33.5%   

Net income attributable to shareholders of the parent

     31.5%         30.8%   

Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests

     (0.1)%         (0.0)%   

Year to Year Comparisons

Net Revenue and Gross Margin

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
     2012     2013     % Change
     from 2012    
 
     NT$     NT$     US$        
     (in millions, except percentages)  

Net revenue

     506,745        597,024        20,014        17.8%    

Cost of revenue

     (262,592     (315,642     (10,581     20.2%    
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Gross profit before unrealized gross profit on sales to associates

     244,153        281,382        9,433        15.2%    

Unrealized gross profit on sales to associates

     (25     (21     (1     (16.0)%    
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Gross profit

     244,128        281,361        9,432        15.3%    
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Gross margin percentage

     48.2%        47.1%        47.1%        —    

 

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Net Revenue

Our net revenue in 2013 increased by 17.8% from 2012, which was largely attributable to continuing growth in customer demand, resulting in a 11.5% increase in wafer shipments. We shipped approximately 15.7 million 200mm equivalent wafers in 2013 compared to 14.0 million in 2012. In addition, sales of our 28-nanometer products, which commanded a higher selling price, also increased to 30% of our total wafer revenue in 2013 compared to 12% in 2012.

Gross Margin

Our gross margin fluctuates with the level of capacity utilization, price change and product mix, among other factors. In 2013, our gross margin was 47.1%, down 1.1 percentage points from 2012, mainly reflecting lower capacity utilization.

Operating Expenses

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
           2012                 2013          % Change
  from  2012  
 
     NT$     NT$      US$         
     (in millions, except percentages)  

Research and development

     40,387        47,952         1,608         18.7%      

General and administrative

     17,633        18,882         633         7.1%      

Marketing

     4,497        4,505         151         0.2%      
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

    

Total operating expenses

     62,517        71,339         2,392         14.1%      
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

    

Percentage of net revenue

     12.3%        11.9%         11.9%         —           

Other operating income and expenses, net

     (449     47         2         —           

Income from operations

         181,162            210,069               7,042         16.0%      
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

    

Operating Margin

     35.8%        35.2%         35.2%         —           

Operating expenses increased by NT$8,822 million in 2013, or 14.1%, from NT$62,517 million in 2012.

Research and Development Expenses

We remain strongly committed to being the leader in developing advanced process technologies. We believe that continuing investments in process technologies are essential for us to remain competitive in the markets we serve. Research and development expenditures increased by NT$7,565 million in 2013, or 18.7%, from $40,387 million in 2012, mainly due to a higher level of research activities for 16-nanometer and 10-nanometer technologies, partially offset by decreased research activities for 20-nanometer. We plan to continue to invest a significant amount in research and development in 2014.

General and Administrative and Marketing Expenses

General and administrative, and marketing expenses in 2013 increased by NT$1,257 million, or 5.7%, from 2012, mainly due to higher opening expenses for ramping up 20-nanometer capacity.

Non-Operating Income and Expenses

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
           2012                   2013             % Change
     from 2012  
 
     NT$     NT$     US$        
     (in millions, except percentages)  

Share of profits of associates and joint venture

     2,073       3,807        128        83.6%    

Other income

     1,716        2,342        79        36.5%    

Foreign exchange gain, net

     582       285        10        (51.0)%    

Finance costs

     (1,020     (2,646     (89     159.4%    

Other gains and losses

     (2,852     2,105        70        —        
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

Net non-operating income (expenses)

     499        5,893        198        1,081.0%    
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

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Net non-operating income in 2013 increased by NT$5,394 million, or 1,081.0% from NT$499 million in 2012 primarily attributable to a lower impairment loss of NT$3,879 million recognized for financial assets. Please see “Item 5- Critical Accounting Policies And Judgments - Impairment assessment on investments accounted for using equity method” where the improvement of the financial condition of an invested company allowed us to reverse an impairment loss recorded in 2012. The increase is also attributable to a smaller impairment loss in private and publicly-traded securities. See “Item 5- Critical Accounting Policies And Judgments - Accounting for investments in private and publicly-traded securities” for further details. We also had a NT$1,734 million increase in share of profits of associates and joint venture investees reflecting their better operating results in 2013 and a NT$771 million increase in gains on disposal of financial assets in 2013. These increases are partially offset by a NT$1,626 million increase in finance costs due to further issuance of corporate bonds in 2013.

Income Tax Benefit (Expense)

 

     For the year ended December 31,  
           2012            2013      % Change
  from  2012  
 
     NT$      NT$      US$         
     (in millions, except percentages)  

Income tax expense

               (22,375)                   (32,112)               (1,077)         43.5%    
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

Net income

     159,286          183,850          6,163          15.4%    
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

Net income attributable to shareholders of the parent

     159,481         183,978          6,167          15.4%    
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

Net margin attributable to shareholders of the parent

     31.5%          30.8%          30.8%          —    

Income tax expenses increased by NT$9,737 million in 2013, or 43.5%, from 2012. The increase was mainly due to higher taxable income, and effective tax rate. The effective tax rate in 2013 was higher than 2012 primarily due to an increase in AMT from 10% to 12%, and an increase in tax on unappropriated earnings as a result of higher unappropriated earnings.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Our sources of liquidity include cash flow from operations, cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, and revolving credit facilities provided by multiple banks. Issuance of corporate bonds is another source of fund.

Our primary source of liquidity is cash flow from operations. Cash flow from operations for 2013 was NT$347,384 million (US$11,645 million), an increase of NT$62,421 million from 2012.

Our cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments in financial instruments increased to NT$245,343 million (US$8,225 million) as of December 31, 2013, from NT$150,918 million as of December 31, 2012. The short-term investments in financial instruments primarily consist of publicly-traded stocks and money market instruments.

As of December 31, 2013, we also had aggregate unused short-term credit lines of approximately NT$76,690 million (US$2,571 million).

We believe that our cash generated from operations, cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, ability to access capital market and revolving credit facilities will be sufficient to fund our working capital needs, capital expenditures, dividend payments and other business requirements associated with existing operations over the next 12 months.

 

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     For the year ended December 31,  
                 2012                   2013  
     NT$      NT$      US$  
            (in millions)         

Net cash provided by operating activities

     284,963               347,384          11,645    

Net cash used in investing activities

     (269,318)              (281,054)         (9,422)   

Net cash generated by (used in) financing activities

     (13,589)              32,106          1,076    

Effect of exchange rate changes

     (2,118)              849          29    

Net increase (decrease) in cash

     (62)              99,285          3,328    

Cash and cash equivalents increased by NT$99,285 million in 2013, following a decrease of NT$62 million in 2012.

Operating Activities

In 2013, we generated NT$347,384 million (US$11,645 million) net cash from operating activities, as compared to NT$284,963 million in 2012. The increase in 2013 was primarily due to an increase of NT$34,301 million in net income before tax, an increase of NT$24,833 million in non-cash depreciation and amortization expenses, and change in working capital and others resulting in an in-flow of NT$3,287 million.

In 2013, depreciation and amortization expenses were NT$156,182 million (US$5,236 million), as compared to NT$131,349 million in 2012. The higher depreciation and amortization expenses in 2013 were mainly attributable to expansion of production capacity in advanced technologies.

Investing Activities

In 2013, net cash used in investing activities was NT$281,054 million (US$9,422 million), as compared to NT$269,318 million in 2012. The increase in 2013 was primarily due to higher spending on capital expenditures during the year, partially offset by the absence of EUR838 million investment in ASML in 2012.

Capital expenditures in 2013 were primarily related to:

 

   

adding production capacity to 300mm wafer fabs;

 

   

developing process technologies including 20-nanometer node and below;

 

   

expanding buildings/facilities for Fab 12, Fab 14 and Fab 15;

 

   

other research and development projects;

 

   

capacity expansion for mask and backend operations; and

 

   

solar and solid state lighting businesses.

Starting from 2012, our capital expenditures were funded by our operating cash flow and the issuance of corporate bonds. The capital expenditures for 2014 are expected to be funded mainly by our operating cash flow. See “Item 3. Risk Factors” section for the risks associated with the inability of raising the requisite funding for our expansion programs. Please also see “Item 4. Information on the Company — Capacity Management and Technology Upgrade Plans” for discussion of our capacity management and capital expenditures.

Financing Activities

In 2013, net cash generated by financing activities was NT$32,106 million (US$1,076 million), as compared to net cash of NT$13,589 million used in 2012. Net cash increased in financing activities was primarily the result of higher proceeds from issuance of corporate bonds of NT$68,845 million in 2013, and the absence of corporate bonds repayment of NT$4,500 million in 2012, partially offset by a decrease of short-term loans of NT$29,383 million.

 

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As of December 31, 2013, our short-term loans were NT$15,645 million (US$524 million), and our aggregate long-term debt was NT$210,808 million (US$7,067 million). The short-term loans were denominated in U.S. dollars. The purpose of the short-term loans was mainly to naturally hedge a portion of our receivables. As a substantial portion of our receivables was denominated in U.S. dollars, we use short-term loans denominated in U.S. dollars to naturally hedge the fluctuation of foreign exchanges rates. See “Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk” for a discussion of the hedging instruments used. The long-term debt primarily included NT$210,768 million of the long-term corporate bonds with fixed interest rates ranging from 0.95% to 2.10% and tenors ranging from 3 years to 10 years.

Cash Requirements

The following table sets forth the maturity of our long-term debt (bank loans and bonds) including relevant interest payments outstanding as of December 31, 2013:

 

        Long-term debt     
     (in NT$ millions)  

During 2014

     3,038                 

During 2015

     3,039                 

During 2016

     25,360                 

During 2017

     40,636                 

During 2018 and thereafter

       154,589                 

The following table sets forth information on our material contractually obligated payments (including principal and interest) for the periods indicated as of December 31, 2013:

 

     Payments Due by Period  

Contractual Obligations

         Total               Less than   
1 Year
        1-3 Years            4-5 Years           More than  
5 Years
 
     (in NT$ millions)   

Short-Term Loans(1)

     15,647           15,647           -           -           -     

Long-Term Debt(2)

     226,662           3,038           28,399           100,852           94,373     

Capital Lease Obligations(3)

     879           28           57           794           -     

Operating Leases(4)

     9,447           859           1,634           1,419           5,535     

Other Payments(5)

     9,115           1,699           4,874           2,542           -     

Capital Purchase or Other Purchase Obligations(6)

     167,512           161,304           5,752           237           219     

Total Contractual Cash Obligations

     429,262           182,575           40,716           105,844           100,127     

 

 

(1) 

The maximum amount and average amount of short-term loans outstanding during the year ended December 31, 2013 were NT$35,760 million and NT$28,032 million, respectively. See note 18 to our consolidated financial statements for further information regarding interest rates and future repayment dates.

(2) 

Includes bank loans payable and corporate bonds payable. See notes 20 and 21 to our consolidated financial statements for further information regarding interest rates and future repayment of long-term debts.

(3) 

Capital lease obligations represent our commitment for leases of property, which are described in note 15 to our consolidated financial statements.

(4) 

Operating lease obligations are described in note 39 to our consolidated financial statements.

(5) 

Other payments represent payables for software and system design costs, and our commitment of EUR221 million to ASML’s research and development programs from 2014 to 2017.

(6) 

Represents commitments for construction or purchase of equipment, raw material and other property or services. These commitments are not recorded on our statement of financial position as of December 31, 2013, as we have not received related goods or taken title of the property.

During 2013, we entered into derivative financial instruments transactions to manage exposures related to foreign-currency denominated receivables or payables and equity price fluctuations. As of December 31, 2013, we anticipated our cash requirements in 2014 for outstanding forward exchange agreements and cross currency swaps of approximately NT$6,837 million and US$819 million with our expected cash receipts of approximately JPY35,755 million, US$78 million, EUR358 million and RMB842 million. See “Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk” for more information regarding our derivative financial instruments transactions. See also note 5 to the consolidated financial statements for our accounting policy of derivative financial instruments, and note 8, note 11 and note 36 to the consolidated financial statements for additional details regarding our derivative financial instruments transactions.

 

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Generally, we do not provide letters of credit to, or guarantees for any entity other than our consolidated subsidiaries.

Significant amount of capital is required to build, expand, and upgrade our production facilities and equipment. Our capital expenditures for 2014 are expected to be approximately US$9.5 billion to US$10 billion, which, depending on market conditions, may be adjusted later.

Taxation

The corporate income tax rate in R.O.C. is 17%. We are eligible for five-year tax holidays for income generated from construction and capacity expansions of production facilities according to the regulation under the Statute for Upgrading Industries of the R.O.C. The exemption period may begin at any time within five years, as applicable, following the completion of a construction or expansion of production facilities. The Statute for Upgrading Industries expired at the end of 2009. However, under the Grandfather Clause, we can continue to enjoy five-year tax holidays if the relevant investment plans were approved by R.O.C. tax authority before the expiration of the Statute. Pursuant to the Grandfather Clause, we commenced the exemption period for part of Fab 14 (Phase III), part of Fab 12 (Phase III) and others in 2010; part of Fab 12 (Phase IV), part of Fab 14 (Phase III and IV) in 2011. The aggregate tax benefits of such exemption periods in 2012 and 2013 were NT$9,830 million and NT$8,612 million (US$289 million), respectively.

Under regulations promulgated under the R.O.C. Statute for Industries Innovation, we are eligible for a tax credit for specified percentages of research and development expenditures. The tax credit rate of research and development expenditures is 15% during the period from 2010 to 2019.

The R.O.C. government enacted the R.O.C. Alternative Minimum Tax Act (“AMT Act”) which became effective on January 1, 2006. The alternative minimum tax (“AMT”) imposed under the R.O.C. AMT Act is a supplemental tax which is payable if the income tax payable pursuant to the R.O.C. Income Tax Act is below the minimum amount prescribed under the R.O.C. AMT Act. The taxable income for calculating AMT includes most income that is exempt from income tax under various legislations, such as tax holidays. However, the R.O.C. AMT Act grandfathered certain tax exemptions granted prior to the enactment of the R.O.C. AMT. In August 2012, the AMT rate for business entities was amended from 10% to 12% effective from 2013.

In consideration of the above five-year tax exemption, tax credit incentives, amended AMT rate and other relevant factors, we expect our effective tax rate for 2014 to be around 13%.

Off Balance Sheet Arrangements

There are no off-balance sheet arrangements that have or are reasonably likely to have a current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources that are material to investors.

Inflation & Deflation

During 2013, neither inflation nor deflation had a material impact on our operations, or the business operations of our customers and suppliers.

However, in light of the uncertain global economic outlook and the fluctuating global oil price, we cannot assure that there will be no significant variations in the future, which may have a material impact on our results of operations. Further, the recent lifting of price limits by the Taiwan government on oil and electricity prices has caused us to suffer additional inflationary effects. Any increase in energy taxes, oil, electricity and water prices in Taiwan may negatively affect our operating margins, resulting in lower margins on our products and services.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

Please refer to note 4 to the consolidated financial statements.

 

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Climate Change Related Issues

The manufacturing, assembling and testing of our products require the use of chemicals and materials that are subject to environmental, climate related, health and safety laws and regulations issued worldwide as well as international accords such as the Kyoto Protocol. Climate change related laws or regulations currently are too indefinite for us to assess the impact on our future financial condition with any degree of reasonable certainty. For example, the Taiwan legislative authority has been studying relevant laws relating to environmental protection and climate related changes, such as the “Greenhouse Gas Reduction Act” and “Energy Tax”. Since there has been no concrete guidance or laws issuing from the Taiwan government as of the date of this filing, the impact of such laws is indeterminable at the moment. Please see detailed risk factors related to the impact of climate change regulations and international accords, and business trends on our operations in “Item 3. Key Information - Risk Factors - Risks Relating to Our Business”. Please also see our compliance record with Taiwan and international environmental and climate related laws and regulations in “Item 4. Information on the Company — Environmental Regulations”.

 

ITEM 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

Directors and Executive Officers

MANAGEMENT

Members of our board of directors are elected by our shareholders. Our board of directors is currently composed of eight directors. A former director, Dr. Rick Tsai, resigned on January 27, 2014. Of our current eight directors, five are independent directors. The chairman of the board of directors is elected by the directors. The chairman of the board of directors presides at all meetings of the board of directors, and also has the authority to act as our representative. The term of office for directors is three years.

Pursuant to R.O.C. Securities and Exchange Law, effective from January 1, 2007, a public company is required to either establish an audit committee or to have supervisors. A public company’s audit committee should be composed of all of its independent directors but not less than three, of which at least one member should have accounting or related financial management expertise, and the relevant provisions under the R.O.C. Securities and Exchange Law, the R.O.C. Company Law and other laws applicable to the supervisors are also applicable to the audit committee.

Pursuant to the R.O.C. Company Law, a person may serve as our director in his personal capacity or as the representative of another legal entity. A director who serves as the representative of a legal entity may be removed or replaced at any time at the discretion of that legal entity, and the replacement director may serve the remainder of the term of office of the replaced director. For example, the National Development Fund of Taiwan, R.O.C., one of our largest shareholders, has served as our director since our founding. As a corporate entity, the National Development Fund is required to appoint a representative to act on its behalf. Mr. Johnsee Lee has been the representative of the National Development Fund since August 6, 2010.

The following table sets forth the name of each director and executive officer, their positions, the year in which their term expires and the number of years they have been with us as of February 28, 2014. The business address for each of our directors and executive officers is No. 8, Li Hsin Road 6, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of China.

 

Name

  

Position with our company

   Term
 Expires 
   Years
with our
 company 

Morris Chang(1)

   Chairman    2015    27

F.C. Tseng

   Vice Chairman    2015    27

Johnsee Lee

   Director (Representative of the National Development Fund)    2015    4

Stan Shih

   Independent Director    2015    14

Sir Peter Leahy Bonfield

   Independent Director    2015    12

Thomas J. Engibous

   Independent Director    2015    5

Gregory C. Chow

   Independent Director    2015    3

Kok-Choo Chen

   Independent Director    2015    3

Mark Liu(2)

   President & Co-Chief Executive Officer       20

C.C. Wei(2)

   President & Co-Chief Executive Officer       16

Stephen T. Tso

   Senior Vice President & Chief Information Officer       17

Richard Thurston

   Senior Vice President & General Counsel       12

Lora Ho

   Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer & Spokesperson       15

Wei-Jen Lo(3)

   Senior Vice President, Research & Development       10

 

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Name

  

Position with our company

   Term
 Expires 
   Years
with our
 company 

Rick Cassidy(3)

   Senior Vice President of TSMC & President of TSMC North America       17

M.C. Tzeng

   Vice President, Operations/Affiliate Fabs       27

Jack Sun

   Vice President, Research & Development & Chief Technology Officer       17

Y.P. Chin

   Vice President, Operations/Product Development       27

N.S. Tsai

   Vice President, Quality & Reliability       25

J.K. Lin

   Vice President, Operations/Mainstream Fabs & Manufacturing Technology       27

J.K. Wang

   Vice President, Operations/300mm Fabs       27

Irene Sun

   Vice President, Corporate Planning Organization       10

Burn J. Lin

   Vice President, Research & Development       14

Y. J. Mii

   Vice President, Research & Development       20

Cliff Hou

   Vice President, Research & Development       17

Been-Jon Woo(4)

   Vice President, Business Development       5

 

 

(1) 

Effective November 12, 2013, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Dr. Morris Chang retired as Chief Executive Officer while remained as Chairman. Executive Vice Presidents and Co-Chief Operating Officers Drs. Mark Liu and C.C. Wei assumed the role as Co-Chief Executive Officers.

(2) 

Executive Vice Presidents and Co-Chief Operating Officers Drs. Mark Liu and C.C. Wei were appointed as Presidents and Co-Chief Executive Officers, effective November 12, 2013.

(3) 

Dr. Wei-Jen Lo and Mr. Rick Cassidy were promoted to Senior Vice Presidents, effective February 18, 2014.

(4) 

Dr. Been-Jon Woo was promoted to Vice President, effective November 12, 2013.

Morris Chang is the Chairman. He has been the founding Chairman of our board of directors since our establishment and was our Chief Executive Officer from March 1998 to June 2005. He again served as our Chief Executive Officer since June 2009 before retiring as Chief Executive Officer on November 12, 2013. Executive Vice Presidents and Co-Chief Operating Officers Drs. Mark Liu and C.C. Wei assumed the role as Co-Chief Executive Officers. From 1985 to 1994, he was President and then Chairman of the board of directors of ITRI. Prior to that, Dr. Chang was President and Chief Operating Officer of General Instrument Corporation; Corporate Group and Senior Vice-President for Texas Instruments. He holds a bachelor’s degree and a master’s degree in mechanical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Stanford University and has been active in the international semiconductor industry for over 58 years.

F.C. Tseng is the Vice Chairman. He has been our Vice Chairman since July 2005. He was Deputy Chief Executive Officer from August 2001 to June 2005. He is also the Chairman of TSMC China Co., Ltd. and Global Unichip Corp., the Vice Chairman of VIS, a director of TSMC Solar Ltd. and TSMC Solid State Lighting Ltd. He also serves as an independent director, a member of Compensation Committee and Chairman of Financial Statement and Internal Control Review Committee of Acer Inc. He formerly served as the President of VIS from 1996 to 1998 and our President from May 1998 to August 2001. Prior to his presidency at VIS, Dr. Tseng served as our Senior Vice President of Operations. He holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from National Cheng-Kung University and has been active in the semiconductor industry for over 42 years.

Johnsee Lee, the representative of the National Development Fund, is a director. He is the Chairman of the Development Center for Biotechnology. He also serves as the President of Taiwan Bio Industry Organization and an independent director of Taiwan Polysilicon Corp., Zhen Ding Technology Holding Ltd. and Far Eastern New Century Corp. He was the President of ITRI from 2003 to 2010 and has also served on many government and industrial boards and committees. Before returning to Taiwan, he held various technical and managerial positions at Argonne National Laboratory and Johnson Matthey Inc. in the U.S. from 1981 to 1990. He holds a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the Illinois Institute of Technology, and a MBA from the University of Chicago. He is also a graduate of Harvard Business School’s Advanced Management Program.

Stan Shih is an independent director. He is the Chairman of Acer Inc., and the Group Chairman of iD SoftCapital and a director of Qisda Corp., Wistron Corp. and Nan Shan Life Insurance Co., Ltd. He is also co-founder and Chairman Emeritus of the Acer Group. He served as the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Acer Group from 1976 to 2004. Mr. Shih holds a bachelor’s degree, a master’s degree and an honorary Ph.D. in electrical engineering from National Chiao Tung University. He also holds an honorary doctoral degree in technology from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, an honorary fellowship from the University of Wales and an honorary doctoral degree in international law from the Thunderbird, American Graduate School of International Management.

 

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Sir Peter Leahy Bonfield is an independent director. Sir Peter Bonfield was the Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Executive Committee of British Telecommunications from January 1996 to January 2002. He was the Vice President of the British Quality Foundation from its creation in 1993 until 2012. He is currently the Chairman of the Board of Directors of NXP Semiconductor N.V. in the Netherlands. He is also a director of L.M. Ericsson in Sweden, Mentor Graphics Corporation Inc. in U.S. and Sony Corporation in Japan. He is a member of the Sony Corporation Advisory Board, The Longreach Group Advisory Board, and New Venture Partners LLP Advisory Board. He also serves as an advisor to Apax Partners LLP, a board mentor of CMi, and a senior advisor to Rothschild in London. He is a fellow of The Royal Academy of Engineering and the Chair of Council and Senior Pro-Chancellor at Loughborough University in UK. He holds an honors degree in engineering from Longhborough University.

Thomas J. Engibous is an independent director. He joined Texas Instruments (“TI”) in 1976 and served there until retirement in 2008. During his 32-year career at TI, his duties included Chairman from 2004 to 2008, Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer from 1998 to 2004, President and Chief Executive Officer from 1996 to 1998 and Executive Vice President and President of the company’s Semiconductor Group from 1993 to 1996. Mr. Engibous currently serves as the Chairman of J.C. Penney Company Inc. and Honorary Trustee of the Southwestern Medical Foundation. He is also a member of National Academy of Engineering and Texas Business Hall of Fame. He received the Woodrow Wilson Award in 2004. He holds a master’s degree in electrical engineering and an honorary doctorate in engineering from Purdue University.

Gregory C. Chow is an independent director. He is currently Professor of Economics and Class of 1913 Professor of Political Economy, Emeritus, and Lecture with the Rank at Princeton University. He is an Academician of Academia Sinica, R.O.C. and a member of American Philosophical Society, and a fellow of the American Statistical Association and Econometric Society. Professor Chow has over 50 years of teaching experience at such institutes as M.I.T., Cornell University, IBM Thomas Watson Research Center, Columbia University and Princeton University. Professor Chow also served as an adviser on economic policy, economic reform and economic education in Taiwan and China. He holds a Ph.D. and master degree in Economics from the University of Chicago and an honorary Doctorate of Business Administration from the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. He also holds honorary professorships at various major universities in China and City University of Hong Kong. His publications include 14 books and over 200 articles.

Kok-Choo Chen is an independent director. She served as our Senior Vice President and General Counsel from 1997 to 2001. Currently, Ms. Chen is an advisor to the Taiwan Executive Yuan and the Taipei City Government. Ms. Chen has over 24 years of experience working in international law firms. She has also taught law at Soochow University, National Chengchi University and National Tsing-Hua University in Taiwan for over 28 years. In addition, Ms. Chen is the founder of two Taiwan heritage site museums (Taipei Story House and Futai Street Mansion). Ms. Chen is licensed to practice law in England, Singapore and California.

Mark Liu is our President and Co-Chief Executive Officer. Prior to that, he was our Executive Vice President and Co-Chief Operating Officer. From October 2009 to March 2012, he was Senior Vice President of Operations. From March 2008 to October 2009, he served as Senior Vice President of Advanced Technology Business. From January 2002 to March 2008, he was Senior Vice President of Operations II. He was Vice President of our Fab 8 and Fab 12 Sites Operations from July 2000 to January 2002 and Vice President of South-Site Operations from 1999 to July 2000. Dr. Liu joined us in 1993 and held the positions as Director of Fab 3 Operations and Senior Director of South-Site Operations. He holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering and computer science from University of California, Berkeley.

C.C. Wei is our President and Co-Chief Executive Officer. Prior to that, he was our Executive Vice President and Co-Chief Operating Officer. From October 2009 to March 2012, he was Senior Vice President of Business Development. From March 2008 to October 2009, he was Senior Vice President of Mainstream Technology Business. From January 2002 to March 2008, Dr. Wei was Senior Vice President of Operations I. He was Vice President of South-Site Operations from April 2000 to January 2002 and Vice President of North-Site Operations from February 1998 to April 2000. Prior to that, he was Senior Vice President at Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing Ltd. in Singapore starting from 1993. He holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Yale University.

Stephen T. Tso is our Senior Vice President of Information Technology, Material Management and Risk Management and Chief Information Officer. He joined us as Vice President of Research & Development in December 1996. Prior to that, he was General Manager of Metal CVD Products in Applied Materials. He was assigned as the President of WaferTech in November 2001. Dr. Tso holds a Ph.D. in material science and engineering from University of California, Berkeley.

Richard Thurston is our Senior Vice President and General Counsel. Prior to joining us in January 2002, he was a partner with Kelt Capital Partners, LP, in Addison, Texas, and a senior partner with the Dallas Texas-based law firm of Haynes and Boone. Dr. Thurston was also Vice President and Assistant General Counsel, and the Asia Pacific Regional Counsel for TI from 1984 to 1996. Dr. Thurston holds a Ph.D. in East Asian studies from University of Virginia and a J.D. from Rutgers School of Law.

 

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Lora Ho is our Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Spokesperson. Prior to joining us in 1999 as controller, she had served as Vice President of Finance and Chief Financial Officer at Acer Semiconductor Manufacturing Inc. since 1990. Ms. Ho holds an MBA from National Taiwan University.

Wei-Jen Lo is our Senior Vice President of Research & Development. He was promoted to Senior Vice President of Research & Development in February 2014. He was Vice President of Research & Development from February 2013 to February 2014, Vice President of Operations/Manufacturing Technology from October 2009 to February 2013, Vice President of Advanced Technology Business from September 2009 to October 2009, Vice President of Research & Development from June 2006 to September 2009, and Vice President of Operations from July 2004 to June 2006. Prior to that, he was Director in charge of advanced technology development with Intel Corporation. Dr. Lo holds a Ph.D. in solid state physics & surface chemistry from University of California, Berkeley.

Rick Cassidy is our Senior Vice President of TSMC and President of TSMC North America. He was promoted to Senior Vice President in February 2014. He was Vice President of TSMC and President of TSMC North America from February 2008 to February 2014, and President of TSMC North America from January 2005 to February 2008. He joined us in 1997 and has held various positions in TSMC North America, including Business Operations, Field Technical Support, and Business Management. He holds a B.A. degree in engineering technology from United States Military Academy at West Point.

M.C. Tzeng is our Vice President of Operations/Affiliate Fabs. From March 2008 to October 2009, he was Vice President of Mainstream Technology Business. Prior to that, he was Vice President of Operations I from January 2002 to March 2008. He was the Senior Director of Fab 2 Operations from 1997 to January 2002. He joined us in 1987 and has held various positions in manufacturing functions. He holds a master degree in applied chemistry from Chung Yuan University.

Jack Sun is our Chief Technology Officer, effective November 2009, and also has been our Vice President of Research & Development since 2006. He was promoted to Senior Director in 2000. He joined us in 1997 as Director of Advanced Module Technology Division before taking the position of Director, Logic Technology Development Division. Prior to that, he served at International Business Machines for 14 years in Research & Development. Dr. Sun holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Y.P. Chin is Vice President of Operations/Product Development. He was Vice President of Advanced Technology Business from March 2008 to October 2009. Prior to that, he was Senior Director of Operations II from June 2006 to March 2008 and Product Engineering & Services from 2000 to 2006. He joined us in 1987 and has held various positions in product and engineering functions. He holds a master degree in electrical engineering from National Cheng Kung University.

N.S. Tsai has been Vice President of Quality & Reliability since February 2008. Prior to that, he was Senior Director of Quality & Reliability since 2004, Senior Director of Assembly Test Technology & Service from 2002 to 2004. Dr. Tsai also served as a Vice President of VIS from 1997 to 2000. He joined us in 1989 and held various positions in research and development and manufacturing functions. He holds a Ph.D. in material science from Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

J.K. Lin is our Vice President of Operations/Mainstream Fabs and Manufacturing Technology. He was promoted to Vice President of Operations in August 2010. Prior to that, he was Senior Director of Mainstream Fabs from May to August in 2010. He joined us in 1987 and held various positions in manufacturing functions. He holds a B.S. degree from National Changhua University of Education.

J.K. Wang is our Vice President of Operations/300mm Fabs. He was promoted to Vice President of Operations in August 2010. Prior to that, he was Senior Director of 300mm Fabs from May to August in 2010. He joined us in 1987 and held various positions in manufacturing and research and development functions. He holds a master degree in chemical engineering from National Cheng-Kung University.

Irene Sun is our Vice President of Corporate Planning Organization. She was promoted to Vice President of Corporate Planning Organization in August 2010. Prior to that, she was Senior Director of Corporate Planning Organization from 2009 to 2010. She joined us in 2003 and held various positions in Corporate Planning Organization. She holds a Ph.D. in materials science and engineering from Cornell University.

 

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Burn J. Lin is our Vice President of Research & Development. He was promoted to Vice President of Research & Development in February 2011. Prior to that, he was our Senior Director of Nanopatterning Technology Division from 2000 to 2011. He joined us in 2000. Dr. Lin is the editor in chief of the Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS, a fellow of IEEE and of SPIE. He holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Ohio State University.

Y. J. Mii is our Vice President of Research & Development. He was promoted to Vice President of Research and Development in August 2011. Prior to that, he was our Senior Director of Platform I Division from 2006 to 2011. He joined us in 1994 and has been involved continuously in the development and manufacturing of advanced CMOS technologies in both Operations and Research & Development. He holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of California, Los Angeles.

Cliff Hou is our Vice President of Research & Development. He was promoted to Vice President of Research & Development in August 2011. Prior to that, he was Senior Director of Design and Technology Platform from 2010 to 2011. He joined us in 1997 and established the Company’s technology design kit and reference flow development organizations. He holds a Ph.D. in electrical and computer engineering from Syracuse University.

Been-Jon Woo is our Vice President of Business Development. She was promoted to Vice President of Business Development in November 2013. Prior to that, she was Director of Business Development from March 2013 to November 2013. She joined us in 2009 and was in charge of advanced technology roadmap and technology definition for 28/20-nanometer for high performance and low power applications. She holds a Ph.D. in chemistry from University of Southern California.

There is no family relationship between any of our directors or executive officers and any other director or executive officer.

Share Ownership

The following table sets forth certain information as of February 28, 2014 with respect to our common shares owned by our directors and executive officers.

 

Name of Shareholders(7)

        Number of Common     
Shares Owned(6)
         Percentage of    
Outstanding
Common
Shares(6)
 

Morris Chang, Chairman(1)

     125,137,914              0.48%           

F.C. Tseng, Vice Chairman

     34,472,675              0.13%           

Johnsee Lee, Director(2)

     1,653,709,980              6.38%           

Stan Shih, Independent Director

     1,480,286              0.01%           

Sir Peter Leahy Bonfield, Independent Director

     -              -              

Thomas J. Engibous, Independent Director

     -              -              

Gregory C. Chow, Independent Director

     -              -              

Kok-Choo Chen, Independent Director

     -              -              

Mark Liu, President and Co-Chief Executive Officer(3)

     13,012,114              0.05%           

C.C. Wei, President and Co-Chief Executive Officer(3)

     8,460,207              0.03%           

Stephen T. Tso, Senior Vice President & Chief Information Officer

     13,845,064              0.05%           

Richard Thurston, Senior Vice President & General Counsel

     857,602              0.00%           

Lora Ho, Senior Vice President, Chief Financial Officer & Spokesperson

     6,381,080              0.02%           

Wei-Jen Lo, Senior Vice President(4)

     1,600,127              0.01%           

Rick Cassidy, Senior Vice President of TSMC & President of TSMC North America(4)

     -              -              

M.C. Tzeng, Vice President

     7,592,595              0.03%           

Jack Sun, Vice President & Chief Technology Officer

     4,368,831              0.02%           

Y.P. Chin, Vice President

     7,428,122              0.03%           

N.S. Tsai, Vice President

     2,051,180              0.01%           

J.K. Lin, Vice President

     12,498,018              0.05%           

J.K. Wang, Vice President

     2,553,947              0.01%           

Irene Sun, Vice President

     800,709              0.00%           

Burn J. Lin, Vice President

     2,777,746              0.01%           

Y.J. Mii, Vice President

     1,000,419              0.00%           

Cliff Hou, Vice President

     652,532              0.00%           

Been-Jon Woo, Vice President(5)

     115,000              0.00%           

 

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(1) 

Effective November 12, 2013, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Dr. Morris Chang retired as Chief Executive Officer while remained as Chairman. Executive Vice Presidents and Co-Chief Operating Officers Drs. Mark Liu and C.C. Wei assumed the role as Co-Chief Executive Officers.

(2) 

Represents shares held by the National Development Fund of the Executive Yuan.

(3) 

Executive Vice Presidents and Co-Chief Operating Officers Drs. Mark Liu and C.C. Wei were appointed as Presidents and Co-Chief Executive Officers, effective November 12, 2013.

(4) 

Dr. Wei-Jen Lo and Mr. Rick Cassidy were promoted to Senior Vice Presidents, effective February 18, 2014.

(5) 

Dr. Been-Jon Woo was promoted to Vice President, effective November 12, 2013.

(6) 

Except for the number of shares held by the National Development Fund of the Executive Yuan, the disclosed number of shares owned by the directors and executive officers does not include any common shares held in the form of ADS by such individuals as such individual ownership of ADSs has not been disclosed to shareholders or otherwise made public. Each of these individuals owned less than one percent of all common shares outstanding as of February 28, 2014.

(7) 

None of our directors and executive officers owned any stock option as of February 28, 2014.

Compensation

The aggregate compensation paid and benefits in kind granted to our directors and executive officers in 2013, which included a cash bonus to the directors, was NT$1,365 million (US$46 million). According to our Articles of Incorporation, not more than 0.3 percent of our annual net earnings (after recovering any losses incurred in prior years and deducting the legal reserve and special reserve provisions, if any) may be distributed as compensation to our directors and at least one percent of our annual net earnings (after recovering any losses incurred in prior years and deducting the legal reserve and special reserve provisions, if any) may be distributed as bonuses to employees, including executive officers. Compensation to directors is always paid in cash, while bonuses to our executive officers may be granted in cash, stock, or stock options or the combination of all these three. Individual awards are based on each individual’s responsibility, contribution and performance. See note 37 to our consolidated financial statements. Under our Articles of Incorporation, directors who also serve as executive officers are not entitled to any director compensation.

Board Practices

General

For a discussion of the term of office of the board of directors, see “— Directors and Executive Officers — Management”. No benefits are payable to members of the Board upon termination of their relationship with us.

Audit Committee

Our Audit Committee was established on August 6, 2002 to assist our board of directors in the review and monitoring of our financial and accounting matters, and the integrity of our financial reporting process and controls.

All members of the Audit Committee must have a basic understanding of finance and accounting and at least one member must have accounting or related financial management expertise.

Currently, the Audit Committee consists of five members comprising all of our independent directors. The members of the Audit Committee are Sir Peter Bonfield, the Chairman of our Audit Committee, Mr. Stan Shih, Mr. Thomas J. Engibous, Mr. Gregory C. Chow and Ms. Kok-Choo Chen. In addition, Mr. J. C. Lobbezoo was appointed to serve as a financial expert consultant to the Audit Committee from February 14, 2006 onwards. See “Item 16A. Audit Committee Financial Expert”. The Audit Committee is required to meet at least once every quarter. Our Audit Committee charter grants the Audit Committee the authority to conduct any investigation which it deems appropriate to fulfill its responsibilities. It has direct access to all our books, records, facilities, and personnel, as well as our registered public accountants. It has the authority to, among other things, appoint, terminate and approve all fees to be paid to our registered public accountants, subject to the approval of the board of directors as appropriate, and to oversee the work performed by the registered public accountants. The Audit Committee also has the authority to engage special legal, accounting, or other consultants it deems necessary in the performance of its duties. Beginning on January 1, 2007, the Audit Committee also assumed the responsibilities of supervisors pursuant to the R.O.C. Securities and Exchange Law.

 

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The Audit Committee convened four regular meetings in 2013. In addition to these meetings, the Audit Committee members and consultant participated in five telephone conferences to discuss our Annual Report to be filed with the Taiwan and U.S. authorities and investor conference materials with management.

Compensation Committee

Our board of directors established a Compensation Committee in June 2003 to assist our board of directors in discharging its responsibilities related to our compensation and benefit policies, plans and programs, and the compensation of our directors of the Board and executives.

The Compensation Committee, by its charter, shall consist of no fewer than three independent directors of the Board. Currently, the Compensation Committee is comprised of all five independent directors. The members of the Compensation Committee are Mr. Stan Shih, the Chairman of our Compensation Committee, Sir Peter Bonfield, Mr. Thomas J. Engibous, Mr. Gregory C. Chow and Ms. Kok-Choo Chen.

The Compensation Committee convened four regular meetings in 2013.

Employees

The following table sets out, as of the dates indicated, the number of our full-time employees serving in the capacities indicated.

 

     As of December 31,  

Function

           2011                      2012                       2013(1)          

Managers

     3,601                 3,865                4,078           

Professionals

     13,665                 15,844                17,205           

Assistant Engineers/Clericals

     2,796                3,079                3,236           

Technicians

     15,395                16,479                15,964           
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     35,457                39,267                40,483           
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

The following table sets out, as of the dates indicated, a breakdown of the number of our full-time employees by geographic location:

 

     As of December 31,  

Location of Facility and Principal Offices

           2011                      2012                       2013(1)          

Hsinchu Science Park, Taiwan

     20,107                21,534                21,096           

Southern Taiwan Science Park, Taiwan

     9,041                8,964                10,772           

Central Taiwan Science Park, Taiwan

     1,410                3,558                4,721           

Taoyuan County, Taiwan

     1,333                1,378                -           

China

     2,134                2,353                2,407           

North America

     1,343                1,395                1,397           

Europe

     53                50                53           

Japan

     32                32                33           

Korea

     4                3                4           
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     35,457                39,267                40,483           
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

 

(1) 

The data shown no longer included Xintec Inc, as Xintec Inc. was deconsolidated in June 2013.

As of December 31, 2013, our total employee population was 40,483 with an educational makeup of 4% Ph.Ds, 37.4% masters, 25.8% university bachelors, 11.9% college degrees and 20.9% others. Among this employee population, 52.6% were at a managerial or professional level. Continuous learning is the cornerstone of our employee development strategy. Individual development plans for each employee are customized and tailored to their individual development needs. Employee development is further supported and enforced by a comprehensive and integrated network of resources including on-the-job training, coaching, mentoring, job rotation, on-site courses, e-learning and external learning opportunities.

 

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Pursuant to our Articles of Incorporation, our employees participate in our profits sharing program by way of a bonus. Employees in the aggregate are entitled to not less than 1% of our net income after the deduction for prior years’ losses and contributions to legal and special reserves. Our practice in the past has been to determine the amount of the bonus based on our operating results and industry practice in the R.O.C. In 2012 and 2013, we distributed an employees’ cash bonus of NT$11,115 million (US$373 million) and an employees’ cash profit sharing of NT$11,115 million (US$373 million) to our employees in relation to year 2012 earnings. In 2013 and 2014, we also distributed an employees’ cash bonus of NT$12,635 million (US$424 million) to our employees in relation to year 2013 earnings. Employee cash profit sharing of NT$12,635 million (US$424 million) in relation to year 2013 earnings will be distributed after approval by our shareholders at the 2014 annual general meeting of shareholders.

In September 2003, we adopted the 2003 Employee Stock Option Plan that authorizes the grant of the options exercisable for up to 120 million common shares (approximately 0.6% of our total then outstanding common shares) in one or more tranches before October 29, 2004, when the 2003 Employee Stock Option Plan expired. These options vested between two and four years after the date of grant, with 50% of the options granted being exercisable two years after the grant, 75% exercisable three years after the grant and 100% exercisable four years after the grant. Any options granted will expire ten years after the date of grant. Under the 2003 Employee Stock Option Plan, a total of 12,055,735 options have been granted. The remaining balance under the 2003 Employee Stock Option Plan expired on October 29, 2004. As of December 31, 2013, 570,695 options were outstanding under the 2003 Employee Stock Option Plan.

In November 2004, we adopted the 2004 Employee Stock Option Plan that authorizes the grant of options exercisable for up to 11 million common shares (approximately 0.05% of our total then outstanding common shares) in one or more tranches before January 6, 2006, when the 2004 Employee Stock Option Plan expired. These options vested between two and four years after the date of grant, with 50% of the options granted being exercisable two years after the grant, 75% exercisable three years after the grant and 100% exercisable four years after the grant. Any options granted will expire ten years after the date of grant. Under the 2004 Employee Stock Option Plan, a total of 10,374,550 options have been granted. The remaining balance under the 2004 Employee Stock Option Plan expired on January 6, 2006. As of December 31, 2013, 1,192,623 options were outstanding under the 2004 Employee Stock Option Plan.

We value two-way communication and are committed to keeping our communication channels open and transparent between the management level and their subordinates. In addition, we are dedicated to providing diverse employee engagement programs, which support our goals in reinforcing close rapport with employees and maintaining harmonious labor relations.

 

ITEM 7. MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

Major Shareholders

The following table sets forth certain information as of February 28, 2014, with respect to our common shares owned by (i) each person who, according to our records, beneficially owned five percent or more of our common shares and by (ii) all directors and executive officers as a group.

 

Names of Shareholders

       Number of Common    
Shares Owned
         Percentage of Total    
Outstanding
Common Shares
 

National Development Fund(1)

     1,653,709,980                      6.38%                

Directors and executive officers as a group(2)

     247,086,168                      0.95%                

 

 

(1) 

Excluded any common shares that may be owned by other funds controlled by the R.O.C. government.

(2) 

Excluded ownership of the National Development Fund.

As of February 28, 2014 a total of 25,929,049,937 common shares were outstanding. With certain limited exceptions, holders of common shares that are not R.O.C. persons are required to hold their common shares through a brokerage account in the R.O.C. As of February 28, 2014, 5,387,471,463 common shares were registered in the name of a nominee of Citibank, N.A., the depositary under our ADS deposit agreement. Citibank, N.A., has advised us that, as of February 28, 2014, 1,077,494,287 ADSs, representing 5,387,471,463 common shares, were held of record by Cede & Co. and 236 other registered shareholders domiciled in and outside of the United States. We have no further information as to common shares held, or beneficially owned, by U.S. persons.

 

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Our major shareholders have the same voting rights as our other shareholders. For a description of the voting rights of our shareholders see “Item 10. Additional Information — Description of Common Shares — Voting Rights”.

We are not aware of any arrangement that may at a subsequent date result in a change of control of us.

Related Party Transactions

Vanguard International Semiconductor Corporation (“VIS”)

In 1994, we, the R.O.C. Ministry of Economic Affairs and other investors established VIS, then an integrated DRAM manufacturer. VIS commenced volume commercial production in 1995 and listed its shares on the GreTai Securities Market in March 1998. In 2004, VIS completely terminated its DRAM production and became a dedicated foundry company. As of February 28, 2014, we owned approximately 39.3% of VIS. On April 14, 2014, we sold 82 million common shares of VIS. After this sale, we owned approximately 33.7% of the equity interest in VIS.

On April 1, 2004, we entered into an agreement with VIS with an initial term of two years. During the term of this agreement, VIS is obligated to use its best commercial efforts to manufacture wafers at specified yield rates for us up to a fixed amount of reserved capacity per month, and TSMC is required to use its best commercial efforts to maintain utilization of such reserved capacity within a specified range of wafers per month. Pursuant to its terms, upon expiration of its initial two-year term, this agreement is to be automatically renewed for additional one year periods unless earlier terminated by the parties. This Agreement has been so renewed per its terms. We pay VIS at a fixed discount to the actual selling price as mutually agreed between the parties in respect of each purchase order. We also agreed to license VIS certain of our process technologies and transfer certain technical know-how and information. TSMC receives from VIS certain royalty payments for granting such licenses. In 2013, we had total purchases of NT$6,994 million (US$234 million) from VIS, representing 2.2% of our total cost of revenue.

Systems on Silicon Manufacturing Company Pte. Ltd. (“SSMC”)

SSMC is a joint venture in Singapore that we established with Philips and EDB Investment Pte. Ltd. to produce integrated circuits by means of advanced submicron manufacturing processes. These integrated circuits are made pursuant to the product design specifications provided primarily by us and Philips under an agreement with Philips, and EDB Investment Pte. Ltd. (the “SSMC Shareholders Agreement”) in March 1999 and, primarily by us and NXP, subsequent to the assignment by Philips of its rights to NXP and NXP’s assumption of Philips’ obligations under the SSMC Shareholders Agreement pursuant to the Assignment and Assumption Agreement effective September 25, 2006. SSMC’s business is limited to manufacturing wafers for us, our subsidiaries, NXP and NXP’s subsidiaries. In November 15, 2006, we and NXP exercised the option rights under the SSMC Shareholders Agreement to purchase all of the SSMC shares owned by EDB Investment Pte. Ltd. As a result, we now own 38.8%, and NXP owns 61.2% of SSMC. While we, together with NXP, have the right to purchase up to 100% of SSMC’s annual capacity, we and NXP are required to purchase, in the aggregate, at least 70% of SSMC’s full capacity; we, alone, are required to purchase up to 28% of the annual installed capacity. As of February 28, 2014, we owned approximately 38.8% of the equity interest in SSMC. See below for a detailed discussion of the contract terms we entered into with SSMC.

We entered into a technology cooperation agreement with SSMC effective March 30, 1999 in which SSMC agreed to base at least a major part of its production activities on processes compatible to those in use in our metal oxide semiconductor (“MOS”) integrated circuits wafer volume production fabs. In return, we have agreed to provide SSMC with access to and benefit of the technical knowledge and experience relating to certain processes in use in our MOS integrated circuits wafer volume production fabs and to assist SSMC by rendering certain technical services in connection with its production activities. In addition, we granted to SSMC limited licenses of related intellectual property rights owned or controlled by us for the purpose of MOS integrated circuit production for the sole use in manufacturing products for us. SSMC pays to us during, and up to three years after, the term of this agreement a remuneration of a fixed percentage of the net selling price of all products manufactured by SSMC. In 2013, we had total purchases of NT$3,057 million (US$102 million) from SSMC, representing 1.0 % of our total cost of revenue.

Global Unichip Corporation (“GUC”)

In January 2003, we acquired 52.0% equity interest in GUC, a System-on-Chip (SoC) design service company that provides large scale SoC implementation services. GUC has been listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange since November 3, 2006. Since July 2011, we were no longer deemed to be a controlling entity of GUC and its subsidiaries due to the termination of a Shareholders’ Agreement. As a result, we no longer consolidated GUC and its subsidiaries in our financial statements. As of February 28, 2014, we owned approximately 34.8% of the equity interest in GUC.

In 2013, we had total sales of NT$3,686 million (US$124 million) to GUC, representing 0.6 % of our total revenue.

 

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Xintec, Inc. (“Xintec”)

In January 2007, we acquired a 51.2% equity interest in Xintec, a supplier of wafer level packaging service, to support our CMOS image sensor manufacturing business. Since June 2013, we were no longer deemed to be a controlling entity of Xintec due to the addition of independent directors to Xintec’s board, which resulted in our appointed directors on its board representing less than a majority. As a result, we no longer consolidated Xintec in our financial statements. As of February 28, 2014, we owned approximately 40.2% equity interest in Xintec. We leased machinery and equipment from Xintec and the related rental expense was classified under manufacturing expenses.

From July 2013 to December 2013, we incurred total manufacturing expenses of NT$909 million (US$30 million) from Xintec, representing 0.3% of our total cost of revenue.

 

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Consolidated Financial Statements and Other Financial Information

Please see “Item 18. Financial Statements”. Other than as disclosed elsewhere in this annual report, no significant change has occurred since the date of the annual consolidated financial statements.

Legal Proceedings

As is the case with many companies in the semiconductor industry, we have received from time to time communications from third parties asserting that our technologies, manufacturing processes, the design of the integrated circuits made by us or the use by our customers of semiconductors made by us may infringe upon patents or other intellectual property rights of others. In some instances, these disputes have resulted in litigation by or against us and certain settlement payments by us in some cases. Irrespective of the validity of these claims, we could incur significant costs in the defense thereof or could suffer adverse effects on our operations.

In June 2010, Keranos, LLC. filed a complaint in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas alleging that TSMC, TSMC North America, and several other leading technology companies infringe three expired U.S. patents. In response, TSMC, TSMC North America, and several co-defendants in the Texas case filed a lawsuit against Keranos in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California in November 2010, seeking a judgment declaring that they did not infringe the asserted patents, and that those patents are invalid. These two litigations have been consolidated into a single lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas. In February 2014, the Court entered a final judgment in favor of TSMC, dismissing all of Keranos’ claims against TSMC with prejudice. In March 2014, Keranos filed a notice of appeal to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. The outcome cannot be determined at this time.

In December 2010, Ziptronix, Inc. filed a complaint in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California accusing TSMC, TSMC North America and one other company of infringing several U.S. patents. The outcome cannot be determined at this time.

In December 2013, Tela Innovations, Inc. filed complaints in the U.S. District Court for the District of Delaware and in the United States International Trade Commission accusing TSMC and TSMC North America of infringing one U.S. patent. In March 2014, the ITC Court granted Tela’s motion to assert an additional U.S. patent against TSMC and TSMC North America. The Delaware case had been stayed since February, 2014. In January 2014, TSMC filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the District of North California against Tela for trade secret misappropriation and breach of contract. The outcome cannot be determined at this time.

In March 2014, DSS Technology Management, Inc. filed a complaint in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas alleging that TSMC, TSMC North America, TSMC Development, Inc., and several other companies infringe one U.S. patent. The outcome cannot be determined at this time.

Other than the matters described above, we were not involved in any other material litigation in 2013 and are not currently involved in any material litigation.

 

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Dividends and Dividend Policy

The following table sets forth the dividends per share paid during each of the years indicated in respect of common shares outstanding on the record date eligible to the payment of those dividends. During 2012 and 2013, we paid cash dividends in the amounts of NT$77,748,667,725 and NT$77,773,307,004 (US$2,607,217,801), respectively.

 

           Cash Dividends      
Per Share
         Outstanding common      
shares at year end
 
     NT$       

2012

   2.9995      25,924,435,668            

2013

   2.9995      25,928,617,140            

Our dividend policy is set forth in our articles of incorporation. Except as otherwise specified in the articles of incorporation or under Taiwan law, we will not pay dividends when there is no profit or retained earnings. Our profits may be distributed by way of cash dividend, stock dividend, or a combination of cash and stock. On December 21, 2004, our shareholders approved amendments to our articles of incorporations pursuant to which distributions of profits shall be made preferably by way of cash dividend. In addition, pursuant to the amendments, the ratio for stock dividends shall not exceed 50% of the total distribution.

Holders of outstanding common shares on a dividend record date will be entitled to the full dividend declared without regard to any subsequent transfer of the common shares. Payment of dividends (including in cash and in common shares) in respect of the prior year is made following approval by our shareholders at the annual general meeting of shareholders. Distribution of stock dividends is subject to approval by the R.O.C. FSC.

Except as otherwise specified in the articles of incorporation or under Taiwan law, we are not permitted to distribute dividends or make other distributions to shareholders in respect of any year in which we have no current or retained earnings . The R.O.C. Company Law also requires that 10% of annual net income (less prior years’ losses and outstanding taxes) be set aside as legal reserves until the accumulated legal reserves equal our paid-in capital. Our articles of incorporation provide that at least one percent of annual net earnings (after recovering any losses incurred in prior years and deducting the legal reserve and special reserve provisions, if any) may be distributed as a bonus to employees and that not more than 0.3 percent of our annual net earnings (after recovering any losses incurred in prior years and deducting the legal reserve and special reserve provisions, if any) may be distributed as a bonus to directors. Under our articles of incorporation, directors who also serve as executive officers are not entitled to any director bonuses.

Holders of ADRs evidencing ADSs are entitled to receive dividends, subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, to the same extent as the holders of common shares. Cash dividends will be paid to the depositary in NT dollars and, after deduction of any applicable R.O.C. taxes and except as otherwise provided in the deposit agreement, will be converted by the depositary into U.S. dollars and paid to holders. Stock dividends will be distributed to the depositary and, except as otherwise provided in the deposit agreement, will be distributed to holders by the depositary in the form of additional ADSs.

For information relating to R.O.C. withholding taxes payable on cash and stock dividends, see “Item 10. Additional Information — Taxation — R.O.C. Taxation — Dividends”.

 

ITEM 9. THE OFFER AND LISTING

The principal trading market for our common shares is the Taiwan Stock Exchange. Our common shares have been listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange under the symbol “2330” since September 5, 1994, and the ADSs have been listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “TSM” since October 8, 1997. The outstanding ADSs are identified by the CUSIP number 874039100. The table below sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high and low closing prices and the average daily volume of trading activity on the Taiwan Stock Exchange for the common shares and the high and low closing prices and the average daily volume of trading activity on the New York Stock Exchange for the common shares represented by ADSs.

 

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       Taiwan Stock Exchange        New York Stock Exchange(1)  
      

Closing price per

common share(2)

      

Average daily

trading

volume

(in thousands

       Closing price per ADS(2)       

Average daily

trading

volume (in
thousands of

 
       High        Low       

of shares)(2)

       High        Low       

ADSs)(2)

 
       (NT$)        (NT$)                 (US$)        (US$)           

2009

       55.60                31.89                63,800                9.83                5.70                19,433        

2010

       65.56                48.93                46,661                11.44                8.10                14,140        

2011

       71.86                59.38                50,131                12.51                10.28                14,704        

2012

       96.49                70.36                39,620                16.80                12.23                10,581        

First Quarter

       80.49                70.36                42,302                14.45                12.34                8,925        

Second Quarter

       83.40                71.76                39,622                15.17                12.23                11,219        

Third Quarter

       87.35                72.27                40,892                15.39                12.31                12,327        

Fourth Quarter

       96.49                82.49                35,971                16.80                14.62                9,814        

2013

                             

First Quarter

       106.03                95.33                37,186                18.63                16.43                9,717        

Second Quarter

       112.35                94.84                34,520                19.66                16.28                10,900        

Third Quarter

       110.00                94.40                39,847                18.54                15.75                10,974        

Fourth Quarter

       111.50                100.00                28,192                19.16                16.99                9,855        

October

       111.50                101.50                29,508                19.16                17.26                9,955        

November

       109.50                100.00                29,351                18.47                17.02                10,512        

December

       106.00                101.00                25,769                17.62                16.99                9,119        

2014

                             

January

       108.00                101.00                35,538                18.15                16.76                11,526        

February

       108.50                100.50                41,701                18.07                16.46                9,305        

March

       118.50                107.50                45,118                20.02                18.03                13,148        

April (through April 11, 2014)

       120.50                117.50                36,952                20.32                19.74                11,925        

 

 

Source: Bloomberg

 

(1) 

Trading in ADSs commenced on October 8, 1997 on the New York Stock Exchange. Each ADS represents the right to receive five common shares.

(2) 

As adjusted for a “NT$2.9999 cash dividend per share and a 0.49998% stock dividend in July 2009”, a “NT$2.9997 cash dividend per share in July 2010”, a “NT$2.9995 cash dividend per share in July 2011”, a “NT$2.9995 cash dividend per share in July 2012” and a “NT$2.9995 cash dividend per share in July 2013”.

 

ITEM 10. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Description of Common Shares

We are organized under the laws of the R.O.C. Set forth below is a description of our common shares, including summaries of the material provisions of our articles of incorporation, the R.O.C. Company Law, the R.O.C. Securities and Exchange Law and the regulations promulgated thereunder.

General

Our authorized share capital is NT$280,500,000,000, divided into 28,050,000,000 common shares of which 500,000,000 common shares are reserved for the issuance for our employee stock options and among which 25,928,617,140 common shares were issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2013.

The R.O.C. Company Law, the R.O.C. Act for Establishment and Administration of Science Parks and the R.O.C. Securities and Exchange Law provide that any change in the issued share capital of a public company, such as us, requires the approval of its board of directors, (or, for capital reduction, a resolution of its shareholders meeting), the approval of, or the registration with, the R.O.C. FSC and the Ministry of Economic Affairs or the Science Park Administration (as applicable) and/or an amendment to its articles of incorporation (if such change also involves a change in the authorized share capital).

 

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There are no provisions under either R.O.C. law or the deposit agreement under which holders of ADSs would be required to forfeit the common shares represented by ADSs.

Dividends and Distributions

An R.O.C. company is generally not permitted to distribute dividends or to make any other distributions to shareholders in respect of any year for which it did not have either earnings or retained earnings. In addition, before distributing a dividend to shareholders following the end of a fiscal year, the company must recover any past losses, pay all outstanding taxes and set aside in a legal reserve, until such time as its legal reserve equals its paid-in capital, 10% of its net income for that fiscal year (less any past losses and outstanding tax), and may set aside a special reserve. Our articles of incorporation provide that at least one percent of the net distributable income for that fiscal year be distributed as a bonus to employees and that not more than 0.3 percent of the net distributable income for that fiscal year may be distributed as a bonus to directors. Under our articles of incorporation, directors who also serve as executive officers are not entitled to any director bonuses. In 2012 and 2013, we paid 100% of the bonus to employees and directors in the form of cash. Subject to compliance with these requirements, a company may pay dividends or make other distributions from its accumulated earnings or reserves as permitted by the R.O.C. Company Law as set forth below.

At the annual general meeting of our shareholders, the board of directors submits to the shareholders for their approval our financial statements for the preceding fiscal year and any proposal for the distribution of a dividend or the making of any other distribution to shareholders from our earnings or retained earnings (subject to compliance with the requirements described above) at the end of the preceding fiscal year. All common shares outstanding and fully paid as of the relevant record date are entitled to share equally in any dividend or other distribution so approved. Dividends may be distributed in cash, in the form of common shares or a combination thereof, as determined by the shareholders at the meeting.

In addition to permitting dividends to be paid out of earnings or retained earnings, the R.O.C. Company Law permits us to make distributions to our shareholders in cash or in the form of common shares from capital surplus and the legal reserve. However, dividend distribution out of our legal reserve can only be effected to the extent of the excessive amount of the accumulated legal reserve over 25% of our paid-in capital.

For information as to R.O.C. taxes on dividends and distributions, see “— Taxation — R.O.C. Taxation”.

Preemptive Rights and Issues of Additional Common Shares

Under the R.O.C. Company Law, when a public company such as us issues new shares of common stock for cash, 10% to 15% of the issue must be offered to its employees. The remaining new shares must be offered to existing shareholders in a preemptive rights offering, subject to a requirement under the R.O.C. Securities and Exchange Law that at least 10% of these issuances must be offered to the public. This percentage can be increased by a resolution passed at a shareholders’ meeting, thereby limiting or waiving the preemptive rights of existing shareholders. The preemptive rights provisions do not apply to limited circumstances, such as:

 

   

issuance of new shares upon conversion of convertible bonds; and

 

   

offerings of new shares through a private placement approved at a shareholders’ meeting.

Authorized but unissued shares of any class may be issued at such times and, subject to the above-mentioned provisions of the R.O.C. Company Law and the R.O.C. Securities and Exchange Law, upon such terms as the board of directors may determine. The shares with respect to which preemptive rights have been waived may be freely offered, subject to compliance with applicable R.O.C. law.

Meetings of Shareholders

Meetings of our shareholders may be general meetings or special meetings. General meetings of shareholders are generally held in Hsinchu, Taiwan, within six months after the end of each fiscal year. Special meetings of shareholders may be convened by resolution of the board of directors whenever it deems necessary, or under certain circumstances, by shareholders or the audit committee. For a public company such as us, notice in writing of shareholders’ meetings, stating the place, time and purpose thereof, must be sent to each shareholder at least thirty days (in the case of general meetings) and fifteen days (in the case of special meetings) prior to the date set for each meeting.

 

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Voting Rights

A holder of common shares has one vote for each common share. Except as otherwise provided by law, a resolution may be adopted by the holders of a simple majority of the total issued and outstanding common shares represented at a shareholders’ meeting at which a majority of the holders of the total issued and outstanding common shares are present. The election of directors at a shareholders’ meeting is by cumulative voting. As authorized under the R.O.C. Company Law, we have adopted a nomination procedure for election of our directors in our articles of incorporation. According to our articles of incorporation, ballots for the election of directors and independent directors are cast separately.

The R.O.C. Company Law also provides that in order to approve certain major corporate actions, including (i) any amendment to the articles of incorporation (which is required for, among other actions, any increase in authorized share capital), (ii) execution, modification or termination of any contracts regarding leasing of all business or joint operations or mandate of the company’s business to other persons, (iii) the dissolution, amalgamation or spin-off of a company or the transfer of the whole or an important part of its business or its properties or the taking over of the whole of the business or properties of any other company which would have a significant impact on the acquiring company’s operations or (iv) the removal of directors or supervisors or (v) the distribution of any stock dividend, a meeting of the shareholders must be convened with a quorum of holders of at least two-thirds of all issued and outstanding shares of common stock at which the holders of at least a majority of the common stock represented at the meeting vote in favor thereof. However, in the case of a publicly held company such as us, such a resolution may be adopted by the holders of at least two-thirds of the shares of common stock represented at a meeting of shareholders at which holders of at least a majority of the issued and outstanding shares of common stock are present.

A shareholder may be represented at a shareholders’ meeting by proxy. A valid proxy must be delivered to us at least five days prior to the commencement of the shareholders’ meeting.

Holders of ADSs will not have the right to exercise voting rights with respect to the common shares represented thereby, except as described in “— Voting of Deposited Securities”.

Other Rights of Shareholders

Under the R.O.C. Company Law, dissenting shareholders are entitled to appraisal rights in the event of amalgamation, spin-off or certain other major corporate actions. A dissenting shareholder may request us to redeem all of the shares owned by that shareholder at a fair price to be determined by mutual agreement or a court order if agreement cannot be reached. A shareholder may exercise these appraisal rights by serving written notice on us prior to the related shareholders’ meeting and by raising an objection at the shareholders’ meeting. In addition to appraisal rights, any shareholder has the right to sue for the annulment of any resolution adopted at a shareholders’ meeting where the procedures were legally defective within thirty days after the date of such shareholders’ meeting. One or more shareholders who have held more than three percent of the issued and outstanding shares for over a year may require audit committee to bring a derivative action against a director for that director’s liability to us as a result of that director’s unlawful actions or failure to act. In addition, one or more shareholders who have held more than three percent of our issued and outstanding shares for over a year may require the board of directors to convene a special shareholders’ meeting by sending a written request to the board of directors.

The R.O.C. Company Law allows shareholder(s) holding 1% or more of the total issued shares of a company to, during the period of time prescribed by the company, submit one proposal in writing containing no more than three hundred words (Chinese characters) for discussion at the general meeting of shareholders. In addition, if a company adopts a nomination procedure for election of directors or supervisors in its articles of incorporation, shareholders representing 1% or more of the total issued shares of such company may submit a candidate list in writing to the company along with relevant information and supporting documents.

Register of Shareholders and Record Dates

Our share registrar, Chinatrust Commercial Bank, maintains the register of our shareholders at its office in Taipei, Taiwan. Under the R.O.C. Company Law, the transfer of common shares in registered form is effected by endorsement of the transferor’s and transferee’s seals on the share certificates and delivery of the related share certificates. In order to assert shareholders’ rights against us, however, the transferee must have his name and address registered on the register of shareholders. Shareholders are required to file their respective specimen signatures or seals with us. The settlement of trading in the common shares is carried out on the book-entry system maintained by the Taiwan Depository & Clearing Corporation and therefore, the share transfer will follow the procedures of the Taiwan Depository & Clearing Corporation.

 

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The R.O.C. Company Law permits us to set a record date and close the register of shareholders for a specified period in order for us to determine the shareholders or pledgees that are entitled to certain rights pertaining to common shares by giving advance public notice. Under the R.O.C. Company Law, our register of shareholders should be closed for a period of sixty days, thirty days and five days immediately before each general meeting of shareholders, special meeting of shareholders and record date of dividend distribution, respectively.

Annual Financial Statements

Under the R.O.C. Company Law, ten days before the general meeting of shareholders, our annual financial statements must be available at our principal office in Hsinchu for inspection by the shareholders.

Acquisition of Common Shares by Us

With minor exceptions, we may not acquire our common shares under the R.O.C. Company Law. However, under the R.O.C. Securities and Exchange Law, we may, by a board resolution adopted by majority consent at a meeting with two-thirds of our directors present, purchase our common shares on the Taiwan Stock Exchange or by a tender offer, in accordance with the procedures prescribed by the R.O.C. FSC, for the following purposes: (i) to transfer shares to our employees; (ii) to satisfy our obligations to provide our common shares upon exercise or conversion of any warrants, convertible bonds or convertible preferred shares; and (iii) if necessary, to maintain our credit and our shareholders’ equity (such as for the purpose of supporting the trading price of our common shares during market dislocations), provided that the common shares so purchased shall be cancelled thereafter.

We are not allowed to purchase more than ten percent of our total issued and outstanding common shares. In addition, we may not spend more than the aggregate amount of our retained earnings, premium from issuing stock and the realized portion of the capital reserve to purchase our common shares.

We may not pledge or hypothecate any purchased common shares. In addition, we may not exercise any shareholders’ rights attached to such common shares. In the event that we purchase our common shares on the Taiwan Stock Exchange, our affiliates, directors, managers and their respective spouses, minor children and nominees are prohibited from selling any of our common shares during the period in which we purchase our common shares.

In addition, effective from November 14, 2001 under the revised R.O.C. Company Law, our subsidiaries may not acquire our shares. This restriction does not, however, affect any of our shares acquired by our subsidiaries prior to November 14, 2001.

Liquidation Rights

In the event of our liquidation, the assets remaining after payment of all debts, liquidation expenses, taxes and distributions to holders of preferred shares, if any, will be distributed pro rata to our shareholders in accordance with the R.O.C. Company Law.

Transaction Restrictions

The R.O.C. Securities and Exchange Law (i) requires each director, supervisor, manager or shareholder holding more than ten percent of the shares of a public company to report the amount of that person’s shareholding to that company and (ii) limits the number of shares that can be sold or transferred on the Taiwan Stock Exchange or on the Over-the-Counter (GreTai) Securities Market by that person per day.

Material Contracts

On November 9, 2009, we settled our action brought in the California State Court against Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation (“SMIC”) in 2006 related to SMIC’s misappropriation of TSMC’s trade secrets and its breach of the 2005 settlement agreement between the two companies. Pursuant to the new settlement agreement, the parties entered a stipulated judgment in favor of TSMC in the California action and the dismissal of the SMIC appeal against the Beijing Higher Court’s finding in favor of TSMC. The new settlement agreement and the stipulated judgment also require SMIC to: (a) make cash payments to TSMC totaling US$200 million, which are in addition to the US$135 million previously paid to TSMC under the 2005 settlement agreement; and (b) conditional upon relevant government regulatory approvals, to issue to TSMC a total of 1,789,493,218 common shares of SMIC (representing about 8% of SMIC’s total shares outstanding as of December 31, 2009) and a three-year warrant to purchase 695,914,030 SMIC common shares (subject to adjustment) at HK$1.30 per share (subject to adjustment). Both parties also agreed to terminate the patent cross-licensing agreement signed in 2005. On July 5, 2010, we acquired the above mentioned common shares.

 

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We joined the Customer Co-Investment Program of ASML Holding N.V. (“ASML”) and entered into an investment agreement in August 2012. The agreement includes an investment of EUR838 million to acquire 5% of ASML’s equity with a lock-up period of 2.5 years. Both parties also signed a research and development funding agreement under which we will provide EUR276 million to ASML’s research and development programs from 2013 to 2017.

Foreign Investment in the R.O.C.

Historically, foreign investment in the R.O.C. securities market has been restricted. Since 1983, the R.O.C. government has periodically enacted legislation and adopted regulations to permit foreign investment in the R.O.C. securities market.

On September 30, 2003, the Executive Yuan approved an amendment to Regulations Governing Investment in Securities by Overseas Chinese and Foreign National, or the Regulations, which took effect on October 2, 2003. According to the Regulations, the R.O.C. FSC abolished the mechanism of the so-called “qualified foreign institutional investors” and “general foreign investors” as stipulated in the Regulations before the amendment.

Under the Regulations, foreign investors are classified as either “onshore foreign investors” or “offshore foreign investors” according to their respective geographical location. Both onshore and offshore foreign investors are allowed to invest in R.O.C. securities after they register with the Taiwan Stock Exchange. The Regulations further classify foreign investors into foreign institutional investors and foreign individual investors. “Foreign institutional investors” refer to those investors incorporated and registered in accordance with foreign laws outside of the R.O.C. (i.e., offshore foreign institutional investors) or their branches set up and recognized within the R.O.C. (i.e., onshore foreign institutional investors). Offshore overseas Chinese and foreign individual investors may be subject to a maximum investment ceiling that will be separately determined by the R.O.C. FSC after consultation with the Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan). Currently, there is no maximum investment ceiling for offshore overseas Chinese and foreign individual investors. On the other hand, foreign institutional investors are not subject to any ceiling for investment in the R.O.C. securities market.

Except for certain specified industries, such as telecommunications, investments in R.O.C.-listed companies by foreign investors are not subject to individual or aggregate foreign ownership limits. Custodians for foreign investors are required to submit to the Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) and the Taiwan Stock Exchange a monthly report of trading activities and status of assets under custody and other matters. Capital remitted to the R.O.C. under these guidelines may be remitted out of the R.O.C. at any time after the date the capital is remitted to the R.O.C. Capital gains and income on investments may be remitted out of the R.O.C. at any time.

Foreign investors (other than foreign investors who have registered with the Taiwan Stock Exchange for making investments in the R.O.C. securities market) who wish to make direct investments in the shares of R.O.C. companies are required to submit a foreign investment approval application to the Investment Commission of the R.O.C. Ministry of Economic Affairs or other applicable government authority. The Investment Commission or such other government authority reviews each foreign investment approval application and approves or disapproves each application after consultation with other governmental agencies (such as the Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) and the R.O.C. FSC).

Under current R.O.C. law, any non-R.O.C. person possessing a foreign investment approval may repatriate annual net profits, interest and cash dividends attributable to the approved investment. Stock dividends attributable to this investment, investment capital and capital gains attributable to this investment may be repatriated by the non-R.O.C. person possessing a foreign investment approval after approvals of the Investment Commission or other government authorities have been obtained.

In addition to the general restriction against direct investment by non-R.O.C. persons in securities of R.O.C. companies, non-R.O.C. persons (except in certain limited cases) are currently prohibited from investing in certain industries in the R.O.C. pursuant to a “negative list”, as amended by the Executive Yuan. The prohibition on foreign investment in the prohibited industries specified in the negative list is absolute in the absence of a specific exemption from the application of the negative list. Pursuant to the negative list, certain other industries are restricted so that non-R.O.C. persons (except in limited cases) may invest in these industries only up to a specified level and with the specific approval of the relevant competent authority that is responsible for enforcing the relevant legislation that the negative list is intended to implement.

 

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The R.O.C. FSC announced on April 30, 2009 the Regulations Governing Mainland Chinese Investors’ Securities Investments (“PRC Regulations”). According to the PRC Regulations, a PRC qualified domestic institutional investor (“QDII”) is allowed to invest in R.O.C. securities (including less than 10% shareholding of an R.O.C. company listed on Taiwan Stock Exchange or Over-the-Counter (GreTai) Securities Market). Nevertheless, the total investment amount of QDIIs cannot exceed US$500 million. For each QDII, the custodians of such QDIIs must apply with the Taiwan Stock Exchange for the remittance amount for each QDII, which cannot exceed US$100 million, and QDII can only invest in the R.O.C. securities market with the amount approved by the Taiwan Stock Exchange. In addition, QDIIs are currently prohibited from investing in certain industries, and their investment of certain other industries in a given company is restricted to a certain percentage pursuant to a list promulgated by the FSC and amended from time to time. PRC investors other than QDII, unless with approval from the Investment Commission of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, are prohibited from making investments in an R.O.C. company listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange or the Over-the-Counter (GreTai) Securities Market if the investment is less than 10% (or other percentage applicable to certain restricted industries) of the equity interest of such R.O.C. company.

In addition to investments permitted under the PRC Regulations, PRC investors who wish to make (i) direct investment in the shares of R.O.C. private companies or (ii) investments, individually or aggregately, in 10% or more (or other percentage applicable to certain restricted industries) of the equity interest of an R.O.C. company listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange or Over-the-Counter (GreTai) Securities Market are required to submit an investment approval application to the Investment Commission of the Ministry of Economic Affairs or other government authority. The Investment Commission or such other government authority reviews Investment Approval application and approves or disapproves each application after consultation with other governmental agencies. Furthermore, PRC investor who wishes to be elected as an R.O.C. company’s director or supervisor shall also submit an investment approval application to the Investment Commission of the Ministry of Economic Affairs or other government authority for approval.

Depositary Receipts

In April 1992, the R.O.C. FSC enacted regulations permitting R.O.C. companies with securities listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange, with the prior approval of the R.O.C. Financial Supervisory Commission, to sponsor the issuance and sale to foreign investors of depositary receipts. Depositary receipts represent deposited shares of R.O.C. companies. In December 1994, the R.O.C. FSC allowed companies whose shares are traded on the R.O.C. Over-the-Counter (GreTai) Securities Market or listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange, upon approval of the R.O.C. FSC, to sponsor the issuance and sale of depositary receipts.

Our deposit agreement has been amended and restated on November 16, 2007 to: (i) make our ADSs eligible for the direct registration system, as required by the New York Stock Exchange, by providing that ADSs may be certificated or uncertificated securities, (ii) enable the distribution of our reports by electronic means and (iii) reflect changes in R.O.C. laws in connection with the nomination of candidates for independent directors, for voting at the meeting of the shareholders. A copy of our amended and restated deposit agreement has been filed under the cover of Form F-6 on November 16, 2007.

A holder of depositary receipts (other than citizens of the PRC and entities organized under the laws of the PRC save for QDII or those which otherwise obtain the approval of the Investment Commission of the Ministry of Economic Affairs) may request the depositary to either cause the underlying shares to be sold in the R.O.C. and to distribute the sale proceeds to the holder or to withdraw from the depositary receipt facility the shares represented by the depositary receipts to the extent permitted under the deposit agreement (for depositary receipts representing existing shares, immediately after the issuance of the depositary receipts; and for depositary receipts representing new shares, in practice four to seven business days after the issuance of the depositary receipts) and transfer the shares to the holder.

We, or the foreign depositary bank, may not increase the number of depositary receipts by depositing shares in a depositary receipt facility or issuing additional depositary receipts against these deposits without specific R.O.C. FSC approval, except in limited circumstances. These circumstances include issuances of additional depositary receipts in connection with:

 

   

dividends or free distributions of shares;

 

   

the exercise by holders of existing depositary receipts of their pre-emptive rights in connection with capital increases for cash; or

 

   

if permitted under the deposit agreement and custody agreement, the deposit of common shares purchased by any person directly or through a depositary bank on the Taiwan Stock Exchange or the Over-the-Counter (GreTai) Securities Market (as applicable) or held by such person for deposit in the depositary receipt facility.

 

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However, the total number of deposited shares outstanding after an issuance under the circumstances described in the third clause above may not exceed the number of deposited shares previously approved by the R.O.C. FSC plus any depositary receipts created under the circumstances described in the first two clauses above. Issuances of additional depositary receipts under the circumstances described in the third clause above will be permitted to the extent that previously issued depositary receipts have been canceled and the underlying shares have been withdrawn from the depositary receipt facility.

Under current R.O.C. law, a non-R.O.C. holder of ADSs who withdraws and holds the underlying shares must register with the Taiwan Stock Exchange and appoint an eligible local agent to:

 

   

open a securities trading account with a local securities brokerage firm;

 

   

remit funds; and

 

   

exercise rights on securities and perform other matters as may be designated by the holder.

Under existing R.O.C. laws and regulations, without this account, holders of ADSs that withdraw and hold the common shares represented by the ADSs would not be able to hold or subsequently transfer the common shares, whether on the Taiwan Stock Exchange or otherwise. In addition, a withdrawing non-R.O.C. holder must appoint a local bank to act as custodian for handling confirmation and settlement of trades, safekeeping of securities and cash proceeds and reporting of information.

Holders of ADSs who are non-R.O.C. persons withdrawing common shares represented by ADSs are required under current R.O.C. law and regulations to appoint an agent in the R.O.C. for filing tax returns and making tax payments. This agent, a “tax guarantor”, must meet certain qualifications set by the R.O.C. Ministry of Finance and, upon appointment, becomes a guarantor of the withdrawing holder’s R.O.C. tax payment obligations. In addition, under current R.O.C. law, repatriation of profits by a non-R.O.C. withdrawing holder is subject to the submission of evidence of the appointment of a tax guarantor to, and approval thereof by, the tax authority, or submission of tax clearance certificates or submission of evidencing documents issued by such agent (so long as the capital gains from securities transactions are exempt from R.O.C. income tax).

Under existing R.O.C. laws and regulations relating to foreign exchange control, a depositary may, without obtaining further approvals from the Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) or any other governmental authority or agency of the R.O.C., convert NT dollars into other currencies, including U.S. dollars, in respect of the following: proceeds of the sale of shares represented by depositary receipts, proceeds of the sale of shares received as stock dividends and deposited into the depositary receipt facility and any cash dividends or cash distributions received. In addition, a depositary, also without any of these approvals, may convert inward remittances of payments into NT dollars for purchases of underlying shares for deposit into the depositary receipt facility against the creation of additional depositary receipts. A depositary may be required to obtain foreign exchange approval from the Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) on a payment-by-payment basis for conversion from NT dollars into other currencies relating to the sale of subscription rights for new shares. Proceeds from the sale of any underlying shares by holders of depositary receipts withdrawn from the depositary receipt facility may be converted into other currencies without obtaining Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan) approval. Proceeds from the sale of the underlying shares withdrawn from the depositary receipt facility may be used for reinvestment in the Taiwan Stock Exchange or the Over-the-Counter (GreTai) Securities Market, subject to compliance with applicable laws and regulations.

Direct Share Offerings

Since 1997, the R.O.C. government has amended regulations to permit R.O.C. companies listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange or Over-the-Counter (GreTai) Securities Market to issue shares directly (not through depositary receipt facility) overseas.

 

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Overseas Corporate Bonds

Since 1989, the R.O.C. FSC has approved a series of overseas bonds issued by R.O.C. companies listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange or the Over-the-Counter (GreTai) Securities Market in offerings outside the R.O.C. Under current R.O.C. law, these overseas corporate bonds can be:

 

   

converted by bondholders, other than citizens of the PRC and entities organized under the laws of the PRC save for QDII or those that have obtained the approval of the Investment Commission of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, into shares of R.O.C. companies; or

 

   

subject to R.O.C. FSC approval, converted into depositary receipts issued by the same R.O.C. company or by the issuing company of the exchange shares, in the case of exchangeable bonds.

The relevant regulations also permit public issuing companies to issue corporate debt in offerings outside the R.O.C. Proceeds from the sale of the shares converted from overseas convertible bonds may be used for reinvestment in securities listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange or traded on the Over-the-Counter (GreTai) Securities Market, subject to compliance with applicable laws and regulations.

Exchange Controls in the R.O.C.

The Foreign Exchange Control Statute and regulations provide that all foreign exchange transactions must be executed by banks designated to handle such business by the R.O.C. FSC and by the Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan). Current regulations favor trade-related foreign exchange transactions. Consequently, foreign currency earned from exports of merchandise and services may now be retained and used freely by exporters, and all foreign currency needed for the importation of merchandise and services may be purchased freely from the designated foreign exchange banks.

Trade aside, R.O.C. companies and resident individuals may, without foreign exchange approval, remit to and from the R.O.C. foreign currency of up to US$50 million (or its equivalent) and US$5 million (or its equivalent), respectively, in each calendar year. Furthermore, any remittance of foreign currency into the R.O.C. by a R.O.C. company or resident individual in a year will be offset by the amount remitted out of R.O.C. by such company or individual (as applicable) within its annual quota and will not use up its annual inward remittance quota to the extent of such offset. The above limits apply to remittances involving a conversion of NT dollars to a foreign currency and vice versa. A requirement is also imposed on all enterprises to register medium- and long-term foreign debt with the Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan).

In addition, foreign persons may, subject to certain requirements, but without foreign exchange approval of the Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan), remit outside and into the R.O.C. foreign currencies of up to US$100,000 (or its equivalent) for each remittance. The above limit applies to remittances involving a conversion of NT dollars to a foreign currency and vice versa. The above limit does not, however, apply to the conversion of NT dollars into other currencies, including U.S. dollars, in respect of the proceeds of sale of any underlying shares withdrawn from a depositary receipt facility.

Voting of Deposited Securities

Holders may direct the exercise of voting rights with respect to the common shares represented by the ADSs only in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement as described below and applicable R.O.C. law. See “Item 3. Key Information — Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Ownership of ADSs — Your voting rights as a holder of ADSs will be limited”.

Except as described below, the holders will not be able to exercise the voting rights attaching to the common shares represented by the ADSs on an individual basis. According to provisions of the deposit agreement, the voting rights attaching to the common shares represented by ADSs must be exercised as to all matters subject to a vote of shareholders by the depositary bank or its nominee, who represents all holders of ADSs, collectively in the same manner, except in the case of an election of directors. Directors are elected by cumulative voting unless our articles of incorporation stipulate otherwise.

In the deposit agreement, the holders will appoint the depositary bank as their representative to exercise the voting rights with respect to the common shares represented by the ADSs.

 

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We will provide the depositary bank with copies (including English translations) of notices of meetings of our shareholders and the agenda of these meetings, including a list of the director candidates, if an election of directors is to be held at the meeting. The depositary bank will mail these materials, together with a voting instruction form to holders as soon as practicable after the depositary bank receives the materials from us. In order to validly exercise its voting rights, the holder of ADSs must complete, sign and return to the depositary bank the voting instruction form by a date specified by the depositary bank.

Subject to the provisions described in the second succeeding paragraph, which will apply to the election of directors done by means of cumulative voting, if persons together holding at least 51% of the ADSs outstanding at the relevant record date instruct the depositary bank to vote in the same manner in respect of one or more resolutions to be proposed at the meeting (other than the election of directors), the depositary bank will notify the instructions to the chairman of our board of directors or a person he may designate. The depositary bank will appoint the chairman or his designated person to serve as the voting representative of the depositary bank or its nominee and the holders. The voting representative will attend such meeting and vote all the common shares represented by ADSs to be voted in the manner so instructed by such holders in relation to such resolution or resolutions.

If, for any reason, the depositary bank has not by the date specified by it received instructions from persons together holding at least 51% of all the ADSs outstanding at the relevant record date to vote in the same manner in respect of any resolution specified in the agenda for the meeting (other than the election of directors), then the holders will be deemed to have instructed the depositary bank or its nominee to authorize and appoint the voting representative as the representative of the depositary bank and the holders to attend such meeting and vote all the common shares represented by all ADSs as the voting representative deems appropriate with respect to such resolution or resolutions, which may not be in your interests; provided, however, that the depositary bank or its nominee will not give any such authorization and appointment unless it has received an opinion of R.O.C. counsel addressed to the depositary bank and in form and substance satisfactory to the depositary bank, at its sole expense, to the effect that, under R.O.C. law (i) the deposit agreement is valid, binding and enforceable against us and the holders and (ii) the depositary bank will not be deemed to be authorized to exercise any discretion when voting in accordance with the deposit agreement and will not be subject to any potential liability for losses arising from such voting. We and the depositary bank will take such actions, including amendment of the provisions of the deposit agreement relating to voting of common shares, as we deem appropriate to endeavor to provide for the exercise of voting rights attached to the common shares represented by all ADSs at shareholders’ meetings in a manner consistent with applicable R.O.C. law.

The depositary bank will notify the voting representative of the instructions for the election of directors received from holders and appoint the voting representative as the representative of the depositary bank and the holders to attend such meeting and vote the common shares represented by ADSs as to which the depositary bank has received instructions from holders for the election of directors, subject to any restrictions imposed by R.O.C. law and our articles of incorporation. Holders who by the date specified by the depositary bank have not delivered instructions to the depositary bank will be deemed to have instructed the depositary bank to authorize and appoint the voting representative as the representative of the depositary bank or its nominee and the holders to attend such meeting and vote all the common shares represented by ADSs as to which the depositary bank has not received instructions from the holders for the election of directors as the voting representative deems appropriate, which may not be in your best interests. Candidates standing for election as representatives of a shareholder may be replaced by such shareholder prior to the meeting of the shareholders, and the votes cast by the holders for such candidates shall be counted as votes for their replacements.

By accepting and continuing to hold ADSs or any interest therein, the holders will be deemed to have agreed to the voting provisions set forth in the deposit agreement, as such provisions may be amended from time to time to comply with applicable R.O.C. law.

There can be no assurance that the holders will receive notice of shareholders’ meetings sufficiently prior to the date established by the depositary bank for receipt of instructions to enable you to give voting instructions before the cutoff date.

 

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Moreover, in accordance with the deposit agreement, as further amended and restated as of November 16, 2007 and pursuant to R.O.C. Company Law, holders that individually or together with other holders hold at least 51% of the ADSs outstanding at the relevant record date are entitled to submit each year one written proposal for voting at the general meeting of shareholders; provided, that (i) such proposal is in Chinese language and does not exceed 300 Chinese characters, (ii) such proposal is submitted to the depositary bank at least two business days prior to the expiry of the relevant submission period, which shall be publicly announced by us each year in a report on Form 6-K filed with the Securities Exchange Commission prior to the commencement of the 60 days closed period for general meetings of shareholders, (iii) such proposal is accompanied by a written certificate to the depositary bank, in the form required by the depository bank, certifying that such proposal is being submitted by holders that individually or together with other holders hold at least 51% of the ADSs outstanding at the date of the submission and, if the date of the submission is on or after the relevant record date, also certifying that the holders who submitted the proposal held at least 51% of the ADSs outstanding as of the relevant record date, (iv) if the date of the submission is prior to the relevant record date, the holders who submitted the proposal must also provide, within five business days after the relevant record date, a second written certificate to the depositary bank, in the form required by the depositary bank, certifying that the holders who submitted the proposal continued to hold at least 51% of the ADSs outstanding at the relevant record date, (v) such proposal is accompanied by a joint and several irrevocable undertaking of all submitting holders to pay all fees and expenses incurred in relation to the submission (including the costs and expenses of the depositary bank or its agent to attend the general meeting of the shareholders) as such fees and expenses may be reasonably determined and documented by the depositary bank or us, and (vi) such proposal shall only be voted upon at the general meeting of shareholders if such proposal is accepted by our board of directors as eligible in accordance with applicable law for consideration at a shareholders meeting.

Taxation