SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
|(Mark One)|| |
|☒||ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|For the Fiscal Year Ended October 1, 2023
|☐||TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934|
|For the Transition Period from to |
Commission File Number 0-19655
TETRA TECH, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
|(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)||(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)|
3475 East Foothill Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91107
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
|Title of each class||Trading Symbol(s)||Name of each exchange on which registered|
|Common Stock, $0.01 par value||TTEK||The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC|
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. Large accelerated filer ☒ Accelerated filer ☐ Non-accelerated filer ☐ Smaller reporting company ☐ Emerging growth company ☐
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ☐ No ☒
The aggregate market value of the registrant's common stock held by non-affiliates on April 2, 2023, was $7.7 billion (based upon the closing price of a share of registrant's common stock as reported by the Nasdaq National Market on that date).
On November 8, 2023, 53,247,668 shares of the registrant's common stock were outstanding.
DOCUMENT INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of registrant's Proxy Statement for its 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference in Part III of this report where indicated.
This Annual Report on Form 10-K ("Report"), including the "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," contains forward-looking statements regarding future events and our future results that are subject to the safe harbors created under the Securities Act of 1933 (the "Securities Act") and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the "Exchange Act"). All statements other than statements of historical facts are statements that could be deemed forward-looking statements. These statements are based on current expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections about the industries in which we operate and the beliefs and assumptions of our management. Words such as "expects," "anticipates," "targets," "goals," "projects," "intends," "plans," "believes," "estimates," "seeks," "continues," "may," variations of such words and similar expressions are intended to identify such forward-looking statements. In addition, statements that refer to projections of our future financial performance, our anticipated growth and trends in our businesses and other characterizations of future events or circumstances are forward-looking statements. Readers are cautioned that these forward-looking statements are only predictions and are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are difficult to predict, including those identified below under "Risk Factors," and elsewhere herein. Therefore, actual results may differ materially and adversely from those expressed in any forward-looking statements. We undertake no obligation to revise or update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason.
Item 1. Business
Tetra Tech, Inc. ("Tetra Tech") is a leading global provider of high-end consulting and engineering services that focuses on water, environment, sustainable infrastructure, renewable energy and international development. We are a global company that is Leading with Science® to provide innovative solutions for our public and private clients. We typically begin at the earliest stage of a project by identifying technical solutions and developing execution plans tailored to our clients' needs and resources.
Tetra Tech is Leading with Science® to provide sustainable and resilient solutions to our clients' most complex needs. Engineering News-Record ("ENR"), the engineering industry's leading magazine, has ranked Tetra Tech #1 in Water for 20 years in a row. In 2023, we were also ranked #1 in environmental management, wind power, hydro plants, water treatment/desalination and green government offices. ENR also ranked Tetra Tech in the top 10 in numerous categories, including dams and reservoirs, marine and port facilities, power, solar power, solid waste, environmental science, chemical and soil remediation, hazardous waste and site assessment and compliance.
Our reputation for high-end consulting and engineering services and our ability to develop solutions for water and environmental management has supported our growth for more than 50 years. Our market leading climate mitigation and adaptation services are solving our clients' most complex challenges related to coastal flooding, water security, energy transition and biodiversity protection. Today, we are proud to be making a difference in people’s lives worldwide through our high-end consulting, engineering and technology service offerings. In fiscal 2023, we worked on over 100,000 projects, in more than 100 countries on all seven continents, with a talent force of 27,000 associates. We are Leading with Science® throughout our operations, with domain experts across multiple disciplines supported by our advanced analytics, artificial intelligence ("AI"), machine learning and digital technology solutions. Our ability to provide innovation and first-of-kind solutions is enhanced by partnerships with our forward-thinking clients. We are diverse, equitable and inclusive, embracing the breadth of experience across our talented workforce worldwide with a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship. We are disciplined in our business, and focused on delivering value to customers and high performance for our shareholders. In supporting our clients, we seek to add value and provide long-term sustainable consulting, engineering and technology solutions.
By combining ingenuity and practical experience, we have helped to advance sustainability by managing water, protecting the environment, providing renewable energy, restoring ecosystems and creating green solutions for our cities and communities. Our mission is to be the world's leading consulting and engineering firm solving global challenges in water and the environment that make a positive difference in people's lives worldwide.
The following core principles form the underpinning of how we work together to serve our clients:
•Service. We put our clients first. We listen closely to better understand our clients' needs and deliver smart, cost-effective solutions that meet their needs.
•Value. We solve our clients' problems as if they were our own. We develop and implement sustainable solutions that are innovative, efficient and practical.
•Excellence. We bring superior technical capability, disciplined project management and excellence in safety and quality to all of our services.
•Opportunity. Our people are our number one asset. Opportunity means new technical challenges that provide advancement within our company, encourage an inclusive and diverse workforce and ensure a safe workplace.
We have a strong project management culture that enables us to deliver on more than 100,000 projects per fiscal year. Our client-focused project management is supported by strong fiscal management and financial tools. We use a disciplined approach to monitoring, managing and improving our return on investment in each of our business areas through our efforts to negotiate appropriate contract terms, manage our contract performance to minimize schedule delays and cost overruns and promptly bill and collect accounts receivable.
We have built a broad client and contract base by proactively understanding our clients' priorities and demonstrating a long track record of successful performance that results in repeat business and limits competition. We believe that proximity to our clients is also instrumental to integrating global experience and resources with an understanding of our local clients' needs. Over the past year, we worked in more than 100 countries, helping our clients address complex water, environment, renewable energy and related sustainable infrastructure needs.
Throughout our history, we have supported both public and private clients, many for multiple decades of continuous contracts and repeat business. Long-term relationships provide us with institutional knowledge of our clients' programs, past projects and internal resources. Institutional knowledge is often a significant factor in winning competitive proposals and providing cost-effective solutions tailored to our clients' needs.
We are often at the leading edge of new challenges where we are delivering one-of-a-kind solutions. These might be a new water treatment technology, a unique solution to addressing new regulatory requirements, a new system for automated assessment of infrastructure assets or a digital twin for real time management of water treatment systems.
We combine interdisciplinary capabilities, technical resources and institutional knowledge to implement complex projects that are at the leading edge of policy and technology development.
Leading with Science®
At Tetra Tech, we provide value-generating solutions by combining operational expertise, science and technology. By Leading with Science® and leveraging our collective technology including advanced data analytics and digital technologies, we create transformational solutions for our clients.
Tetra Tech's proprietary technologies and solutions, referred to collectively as the Tetra Tech Delta, differentiate us in the market and provide us with a competitive advantage. We create customized solutions; from smart data collection and advanced analytics that support decision making to AI enabled solutions for asset management. Our Tetra Tech Delta technologies are drawn from our decades of operational experience and a reservoir of technical applications that are shared throughout our company as well as select solutions that are sold externally as software subscriptions. Our high-end teams connect interdisciplinary experts from across our company's 27,000 staff worldwide. Tetra Tech mobilizes teams that include analysts, statisticians, digital engineers and industry experts who effectively implement value-generating and pragmatic solutions for our clients.
These advanced analytical solutions enable us to provide clients with real-time reporting, automated and remote data collection and dashboards for tracking and communicating results. Tetra Tech Delta is continually expanding and includes cutting-edge tools on interpretive analysis, modeling of physical systems, forecasting and scenario analysis, optimization and operations research. Subscription solutions provide our clients with extended capabilities for large scale data management, spatial data interpretation, and ability to build and utilize digital twins for land, coastal and structural assets.
Leading with Science® also means fully leveraging the collective expertise provided by our global workforce of 27,000 associates. We actively share information, ideas and resources across our global operations through our network structure, guided subject matter teams and project team building. We use company-wide virtual events to engage Tetra Tech experts world-wide to solve client challenges and identify the best ideas for further development. We also proactively share emerging technology and new ideas through our knowledge transfer system, Tetra Tech Technology Transfer ("T4"). T4 facilitates our innovation culture through webcasts, blogs, multi-media and social media across our global operations. Our Tetra Tech Academy provides a full suite of training resources including project management, leadership development, and broad technical skills. Academy curriculum is provided through online training, virtual workshops and in-person events.
We manage our operations under two reportable segments. Our Government Services Group ("GSG") reportable segment primarily includes activities with U.S. government clients (federal, state and local) and all activities with development agencies worldwide. Our Commercial/International Services Group ("CIG") reportable segment primarily includes activities with U.S. commercial clients and international clients other than development agencies. These reportable segments allow us to capitalize on our growing market opportunities and enhance the development of high-end consulting and technical solutions to meet our growing client demand.
The following table presents the percentage of our revenue by reportable segment:
| ||Fiscal Year|
For additional information regarding our reportable segments, see Note 18, "Reportable Segments" of the "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" included in Item 8. For more information on risks related to our business, reportable segments and geographic regions, including risks related to foreign operations, see Item 1A, “Risk Factors” of this report.
Government Services Group
GSG provides high-end consulting and engineering services primarily to U.S. government clients (federal, state and local) and international development agencies worldwide. GSG supports U.S. government civilian and defense agencies with services in water, environment, sustainable infrastructure, information technology and disaster management. GSG also provides engineering design services for U.S. based federal and municipal clients, especially in water infrastructure, flood protection and solid waste. GSG also leads our support for development agencies worldwide, especially in the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia.
GSG provides consulting and engineering services for a broad range of water, environment and sustainable infrastructure-related needs primarily for U.S. government clients. The primary GSG markets include water resources analysis and water management, environmental monitoring, data analytics, government consulting, waste management and a broad range of civil infrastructure master planning and resilient engineering design for facilities, transportation and local development projects. GSG's services span from early data collection and monitoring, to data analysis and information management, to science and engineering applied research, to engineering design, to project management and operations and maintenance.
GSG provides our clients with sustainable solutions that optimize their water management and environmental programs to address regulatory requirements, improve operational efficiencies and manage assets. Our services advance sustainability and resiliency through the "greening" of infrastructure, design of energy efficiency and resource conservation programs, innovation in the capture and sequestration of carbon, development of disaster preparedness and response plans and improvement in water and land resource management practices. We provide climate change and energy management consulting, and greenhouse gas ("GHG") inventory assessment, certification, reduction and management services. GSG also provides planning, architectural and sustainable engineering services for U.S. federal, state and local government facilities. We support government agencies with related sustainable infrastructure needs, asset management for military housing and educational, institutional and research facilities.
Many government organizations face complex problems due to increased demand and competition for water and natural resources, newly understood threats to human health and the environment, aging infrastructure and demand for new and more resilient infrastructure. Our integrated water management services support government agencies responsible for managing water supplies, wastewater treatment, storm water management and flood protection. We help our clients develop more resilient water supplies and more sustainable management of water resources, while addressing a wide range of local and national government requirements and policies. Fluctuations in weather patterns and extreme events, such as prolonged droughts and more frequent flooding, are increasing concerns over the reliability of water supplies, the need to protect coastal areas and flood mitigation and adaptation in metropolitan areas. We provide smart water infrastructure solutions that integrate water modeling, instrumentation and controls and real-time controls to create flexible water systems that respond to changing conditions, optimize use of existing infrastructure and provide clients with the ability to monitor and manage their water infrastructure more efficiently. We provide operational technology for secure management of water treatment and wastewater systems, including cybersecurity assessments and digital twin solutions.
We also support government agencies in the full range of disaster response and community resilience services including monitoring and environmental response, damage assessment and program management services and resilient engineering design and mitigation planning. We have a full suite of Tetra Tech Delta technology and specialized procedures that support our disaster response, planning and management support services. These tools and procedures address disaster management and community resilience data management needs, including information technology systems, portals, dashboards, data management, data analytics and statistical analysis.
GSG provides a wide range of consulting and engineering services for solid waste management, including landfill design and management, and recycling facility design throughout the United States; providing design, project management and maintenance services to manage solid and hazardous waste; as well as innovative renewable energy projects such as solar
energy-generating landfill caps; and providing full-service solutions for gas-to-energy facilities to efficiently use landfill methane gas.
We provide high-end advanced analytics and information technology ("IT") consulting and support to various federal clients including AI applications, machine learning, modernization of IT systems and cloud migration. We design solutions to manage and analyze data for major federal agency programs including data related to health, security, environment and water programs. We provide technical support for the Federal Aviation Administration to optimize the U.S. airspace system and support related aviation systems integration for the U.S. and other countries' metropolitan airports. We provide specialized modeling and data analytics for airspace acoustic analysis. Our aviation airspace services include data management, data processing, communications and outreach and systems development; and providing systems analysis and information management.
We support governments in implementing international development programs for developing nations to help them address numerous challenges, including access to potable water and adapting to the threats of climate change. Our international development services include supporting donor agencies to develop safe and reliable water supplies and sanitation services, support the eradication of poverty, improve livelihoods, promote democracy and increase economic growth. Our programs span planning, designing, implementing, researching and monitoring projects and leverage advanced technology to collect, manage and provide analytics for our clients. Key areas of focus include climate change, agriculture and rural development, governance and institutional development, natural resources and the environment, infrastructure, economic growth, energy, rule of law and justice systems, land tenure and property rights and training and consulting for public-private partnerships. Our projects also include building capacity and strengthening institutions in areas such as global health, energy sector reform, utility management, education, food security and local governance.
Commercial/International Services Group
CIG primarily provides high-end consulting and engineering services to U.S. commercial clients, and international clients inclusive of the commercial and government sectors. CIG supports commercial clients worldwide in renewable energy, industrial, high-performance buildings and aerospace markets. CIG also provides sustainable infrastructure and related environmental, engineering, and project management services to commercial and local government clients across Canada, in Asia Pacific (primarily Australia and New Zealand), Europe, the United Kingdom, as well as Brazil and Chile.
CIG provides consulting and engineering services worldwide for a broad range of water, environment and sustainable infrastructure-related needs in both developed and emerging economies. The primary markets for CIG's services include natural resources, energy and utilities, as well as sustainable infrastructure master planning and engineering design for facilities, transportation and local development projects. CIG's services span from early data collection and monitoring to data analysis and information management, to feasibility studies and assessments, to science and engineering applied research, to engineering design, to project management and operations and maintenance.
CIG's environmental services include cleanup and beneficial reuse of sites contaminated with hazardous materials, toxic chemicals and oil and petroleum products, which cover all phases of the remedial planning process, starting with disaster response and initial site assessment through removal actions, remedial design and implementation oversight; and supporting both commercial and government clients in planning and implementing remedial activities at numerous sites around the world, and providing a broad range of environmental analysis and planning services.
CIG also supports commercial clients by providing design services to renovate, upgrade and modernize industrial water supplies, and address industrial water treatment and water reuse needs; and provides plant engineering, project execution and program management services for industrial water treatment projects throughout the world.
CIG provides planning, architectural and sustainable engineering services for commercial and government facilities. We provide high-end design of sustainable energy, water and GHG decarbonization solutions including civil, electrical, mechanical, structural and hydraulic engineering for buildings, campuses and surrounding developments. We provide high-end services in addressing indoor health and associated assessment, consulting and retrofits of buildings to address indoor air quality and safety. We also provide engineering services for a wide range of clients with specialized needs, such as data centers, advanced manufacturing, security systems, training and audiovisual facilities, clean rooms, laboratories, medical facilities and disaster preparedness facilities.
CIG's international services, especially in Canada, Europe, the United Kingdom, and Asia Pacific, include high-end analytical, engineering, architecture, geotechnical, project management and advisory services for infrastructure projects, including early project planning, rail and roadway monitoring and asset management services, collection of condition data, optimization of upgrades and long-term planning for expansion; multi-modal design services for commuter railway stations, airport expansions, bridges and major highways and ports and harbors; and designing resilient solutions to repair, replace and upgrade older transportation infrastructure.
CIG provides infrastructure design services in extreme and remote areas by using specialized techniques that are adapted to local resources, while minimizing environmental impacts, and considering potential climate change impacts. These include providing consulting, geotechnical and design services to owners of transportation, natural resources, energy and community infrastructure in areas of permafrost or extreme climate regions.
CIG's energy services include support for electric power utilities and independent power producers worldwide, ranging from macro-level planning and management advisory services to project-specific environmental, engineering, project management and operational services, and advising on energy security and the design and implementation of smart grids, both domestically and internationally, including increasing utility automation, information and operational technologies and critical infrastructure security. For utilities and governmental regulatory agencies, our services include policy and regulatory development, utility management, performance improvement and asset management and evaluation. For developers and owners of renewable energy resources such as solar grid and off-grid, on-shore and off-shore wind, biogas and biomass, tidal, hydropower, conventional power generation facilities, micro-grid and battery or alternative storage facilities, as well as transmission and distribution assets, our services include environmental, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, procurement, operations and maintenance and regulatory support for all project phases.
CIG supports industrial clients globally. Our services include environmental permitting support, siting studies, strategic planning and analyses; design of site civil works; water management; biological and cultural assessments, and site investigations; and hazardous waste site remediation.
CIG also provides environmental remediation and reconstruction services to evaluate and restore lands to beneficial use, remediating, and restoring contaminated facilities in the U.S. and around the world; managing large, complex sediment remediation programs that help restore rivers and coastal waters to beneficial use; and supporting utilities in the U.S. in implementing restoration and environmental management programs.
Project examples are provided on our company website located at tetratech.com, including expert interviews, in-depth articles and project profiles that demonstrate our services across water, environment, sustainable infrastructure, renewable energy and international development.
We provide services to a diverse base of U.S. federal government, U.S. state and local government, U.S. commercial and international clients. The following table presents the percentage of our revenue by client sector:
| ||Fiscal Year|
U.S. federal government (1)
|U.S. state and local government||13.4||17.2||16.7|
(1) Includes revenue generated under U.S. federal government contracts performed outside the United States.
(2) Includes revenue generated from non-U.S. clients, primarily in Canada, Australia, Europe and the United Kingdom.
U.S. federal government agencies are significant clients. The U.S. Agency for International Development accounted for 12.2%, 11.0% and 11.7% of our revenue in fiscal 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. The Department of Defense ("DoD") accounted for 8.9%, 9.7% and 11.2% of our revenue in fiscal 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. We typically support multiple programs within a single U.S. federal government agency, both domestically and internationally. We also assist U.S. state and local government clients in various jurisdictions across the United States. Our international clients are primarily focused in Canada, Australia, Europe and the United Kingdom, and consist of a relatively equal sized mix of government and commercial clients. Our U.S. commercial clients include companies in the chemical, energy, pharmaceutical, retail, aerospace and automotive industries. No single client, except for the U.S. federal government clients, accounted for more than 10% of our revenue in fiscal 2023.
Our services are performed under three principal types of contracts with our clients: fixed-price, time-and-materials and cost-plus. The following table presents the percentage of our revenue by contract type:
| ||Fiscal Year|
Under a fixed-price contract, clients agree to pay a specified price for our performance of the entire contract or a specified portion of the contract. Some fixed-price contracts can include date-certain and/or performance obligations. Fixed-price contracts carry certain inherent risks, including risks of losses from underestimating costs, delays in project completion, problems with new technologies, price increases for materials and economic and other changes that may occur over the contract period. Consequently, the profitability of fixed-price contracts may vary substantially. Under time-and-materials contracts, we are paid for labor at negotiated hourly billing rates and paid for other expenses. Profitability on these contracts is driven by billable headcount and cost control. Many of our time-and-materials contracts are subject to maximum contract values and, accordingly, revenue related to these contracts is recognized as if these contracts were fixed-price contracts. Under our cost-plus contracts, some of which are subject to a contract ceiling amount, we are reimbursed for allowable costs and fees, which may be fixed or performance-based. If our costs exceed the contract ceiling or are not allowable, we may not be able to obtain full reimbursement. Further, the amount of the fee received for a cost-plus award fee contract partially depends upon the client's discretionary periodic assessment of our performance on that contract.
Some contracts with the U.S. federal government are subject to annual funding approval. U.S. federal government agencies may impose spending restrictions that limit the continued funding of our existing contracts and may limit our ability to obtain additional contracts. These limitations, if significant, could have a material adverse effect on us. All contracts with the U.S. federal government may be terminated by the government at any time, with or without cause.
U.S. federal government agencies have formal policies against continuing or awarding contracts that would create actual or potential conflicts of interest with other activities of a contractor. These policies may prevent us from bidding for or performing government contracts resulting from or related to certain work we have performed. In addition, services performed for a commercial or government sector client may create conflicts of interest that preclude or limit our ability to obtain work for a private organization. We attempt to identify actual or potential conflicts of interest and to minimize the possibility that such conflicts could affect our work under current contracts or our ability to compete for future contracts. We have, on occasion, declined to bid on a project because of an existing or potential conflict of interest.
Some of our operating units have contracts with the U.S. federal government that are subject to audit by the government, primarily the Defense Contract Audit Agency ("DCAA"). The DCAA generally seeks to (i) identify and evaluate all activities that contribute to, or have an impact on, proposed or incurred costs of government contracts; (ii) evaluate a contractor's policies, procedures, controls and performance; and (iii) prevent or avoid wasteful, careless and inefficient production or service. To accomplish this, the DCAA examines our internal control systems, management policies and financial capability; evaluates the accuracy, reliability and reasonableness of our cost representations and records; and assesses our compliance with Cost Accounting Standards ("CAS") and defective-pricing clauses found within the Federal Acquisition Regulation ("FAR"). The DCAA also performs an annual review of our overhead rates and assists in the establishment of our final rates. This review focuses on the allowability of cost items and the applicability of CAS. The DCAA also audits cost-based contracts, including the close-out of those contracts.
The DCAA reviews all types of U.S. federal government proposals, including those of award, administration, modification and re-pricing. The DCAA considers our cost accounting system, estimating methods and procedures and specific proposal requirements. Operational audits are also performed by the DCAA. A review of our operations at every major organizational level is conducted during the proposal review period. During the course of its audit, the U.S. federal government may disallow certain costs if it determines that we accounted for such costs in a manner inconsistent with CAS. Under a government contract, only those costs that are reasonable, allocable and allowable are recoverable. A disallowance of costs by the U.S. federal government could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.
In accordance with our corporate policies, we maintain controls to minimize any occurrence of fraud or other unlawful activities that could result in severe legal remedies, including the payment of damages and/or penalties, criminal and civil sanctions and debarment. In addition, we maintain preventative audit programs and mitigation measures to ensure that appropriate control systems are in place.
We provide services under contracts, purchase orders or retainer letters. Our policy requires that all contracts must be in writing. We bill our clients in accordance with the contract terms and periodically based on costs incurred, on either an hourly-fee basis or on a percentage-of-completion basis, as the project progresses. Most of our agreements permit our clients to terminate the agreements without cause upon payment of fees and expenses through the date of the termination. Generally, our contracts do not require that we provide performance bonds. If required, a performance bond, issued by a surety company, guarantees a contractor's performance under the contract. If the contractor defaults under the contract, the surety will, at its discretion, complete the job or pay the client the amount of the bond. If the contractor does not have a performance bond and defaults in the performance of a contract, the contractor is responsible for all damages resulting from the breach of contract. These damages include the cost of completion, together with possible consequential damages such as lost profits.
Our management team establishes Tetra Tech's overall business strategy. Our strategic plan defines and guides our investment in marketing and business development to leverage our differentiators and target priority programs and growth markets. We maintain centralized business development resources to develop our corporate branding and marketing materials, support proposal preparation and planning, conduct market research and manage promotional and professional activities, including appearances at trade shows, advertising and public relations.
We have established company-wide growth initiatives that reinforce internal coordination, track the development of new programs, identify and coordinate collective resources for major bids and help us build interdisciplinary teams and provide innovative solutions for major pursuits. Our growth initiatives provide a forum for cross-sector collaboration, access to technical solutions and the development of interdisciplinary solutions. We continuously identify new markets that are consistent with our strategic plan and service offerings, and we leverage our full-service capabilities and internal coordination structure to develop and implement strategies to research, anticipate and position us for future procurements and emerging programs. Our Tetra Tech Delta program facilitates access and exchange of technology solutions across our company, through the use of internal training, inventories and facilitated virtual networking events.
Business development activities are implemented by our technical and professional management staff throughout Tetra Tech with the support of company-wide resources and expertise. Our project managers and technical staff have the best understanding of our clients' needs and the effect of client-specific issues, local laws and regulations and procurement procedures. Our professional staff members hold frequent meetings with existing and potential clients; give presentations to civic and professional organizations and present seminars on research and technical applications. Effective development of business is facilitated by each staff member's access to all of our service offerings including our Tetra Tech Delta technology resources. Our strong internal networking programs help our professional staff members to pursue new opportunities and build multi-disciplinary teams for both existing and new clients. These networks also facilitate our ability to provide services throughout the project life cycle from the early studies to operations and maintenance. Networking is further supported by our enterprise-wide knowledge management systems which include skills search tools, business development tracking and collaboration tools.
To support our growth plans, we actively attract, recruit, engage and retain key hires. Our combination of high-end science, technology resources and consulting culture coupled with practical applications provides challenging and rewarding opportunities for our workforce, thereby enhancing our ability to recruit and retain top quality talent. Our internal networking programs, leadership training, entrepreneurial environment, focus on Leading with Science® and global project portfolio help to attract and retain highly qualified individuals.
Our strategic growth plans are augmented by our selective investment in acquisitions aligned with our business. Acquisitions advance our strategy by adding new technologies, broadening our service offerings, adding contract capacity and expanding our geographic presence. Our long-established experience in identifying and integrating acquisitions strengthens our ability to integrate and rapidly leverage the resources of the acquired companies post-acquisition.
Sustainability is an integral part of our global business, rooted in our internal culture and extending throughout our projects around the world. For more than 50 years, we have leveraged cutting-edge expertise and the latest technology to deliver more sustainable solutions to clients and continually improve the way we do business.
Through our Sustainability Program, we monitor environmental, social and governance ("ESG") metrics, including human capital elements. We continue to enhance the sustainability of our daily practices, reduce our GHG emissions, and provide an exceptional working environment for our employees across our global operations. As a signatory of the United Nations ("UN") Global Compact on human rights, labor, environment and anti-corruption, we embrace the UN Global Compact's Ten Principles as part of the strategy, culture and daily operations of our company.
We actively engage with our stakeholders, internally and externally, to encourage input on the materiality of various ESG issues to Tetra Tech and incorporate input into our strategic planning and sustainability reporting. Our annual
sustainability reporting and key metrics are aligned with the priorities we have set on human capital, professional development, health & safety, and ethics. We report on human capital metrics, including gender balance, racial and ethnic diversity in our workforce, employee engagement and professional development. We have supplier programs that integrate and emphasize sustainability in the procurement of goods and services and subcontracting for our projects. We have reported annually on GHG emissions for more than a decade, significantly reducing our emissions from program inception. In 2021, we expanded our reporting and set new goals for scope 1, 2, and 3 emissions. Based on input from stakeholders and in recognition of the importance of the project work we perform each year, in 2021 we also initiated our Billion People Challenge, with the overarching goal to improve the lives of one billion people by 2030. The Billion People Challenge progress is calculated each year based on our annual project impact analysis in five categories that are closely aligned with the Global Reporting Initiative standards and the UN Sustainable Development Goals.
Our Sustainability Program is led by our Chief Sustainability Officer, who has been appointed by our Board of Directors and is supported by corporate and operations representatives through our Sustainability Council. We continuously review sustainability-related policies and practices, integrate input from stakeholders, and assess the results of our efforts in order to make future improvements. Tetra Tech's Board of Directors Strategic Planning and Enterprise Risk Committee reviews and approves the Sustainability Program and evaluates our progress in achieving the goals and objectives outlined in our plan. As part of our membership in the UN Global Compact, we annually report on the Communication on Progress using Tetra Tech's Sustainability Report.
Acquisitions and Divestitures
Acquisitions. We continuously evaluate the marketplace for acquisition opportunities to further our strategic growth plans. Due to our reputation, size, financial resources, geographic presence and range of services, we have numerous opportunities to acquire privately and publicly held companies or selected portions of such companies. We evaluate an acquisition opportunity based on its ability to strengthen our leadership in the markets we serve, the technologies and solutions they provide and the additional new geographies and clients they bring. Also, during our evaluation, we examine an acquisition's ability to drive organic growth, its accretive effect on long-term earnings and its ability to generate return on investment. Generally, we proceed with an acquisition if we believe that it will strategically expand our service offerings, improve our long-term financial performance and increase shareholder returns.
We view acquisitions as a key component in the execution of our growth strategy, and we intend to use cash, debt or equity, as we deem appropriate, to fund acquisitions. We may acquire other businesses that we believe are synergistic and will ultimately increase our revenue and net income, strengthen our ability to achieve our strategic goals, provide critical mass with existing clients and further expand our lines of service. We typically pay a purchase price that results in the recognition of goodwill, generally representing the intangible value of a successful business with an assembled workforce specialized in our areas of interest. Acquisitions are inherently risky, and no assurance can be given that our previous or future acquisitions will be successful or will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows. All acquisitions require the approval of our Board of Directors.
On January 23, 2023, we completed the acquisition of RPS Group plc ("RPS"), a publicly traded company on the London Stock Exchange in an all-cash transaction totaling $784 million. We funded the RPS acquisition with debt, net of $109 million in proceeds from a foreign exchange forward contract that we entered into at the same time we made the formal offer to acquire RPS on September 23, 2022.
RPS employs approximately 5,000 associates in the United Kingdom, Europe, Asia Pacific and North America, delivering high-end solutions, especially in energy transformation, water and program management for government and commercial clients. In fiscal 2023, RPS contributed revenue of approximately $600 million to our consolidated results. RPS contributed $5.0 million to our consolidated operating income in fiscal 2023, which includes $26.8 million of intangible amortization. Substantially all of RPS is included in our CIG segment.
In fiscal 2023, we also acquired Amyx, Inc. (“Amyx”), an enterprise technology services, cybersecurity and management consulting firm based in Reston, Virginia. With over 500 employees, Amyx provides application modernization, cybersecurity, systems engineering, financial management and program management support on over 30 Federal Government programs. Amyx is included in our GSG segment.
For detailed information regarding acquisitions, see Note 5, "Acquisitions" of the "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" included in Item 8.
Divestitures. We regularly review and evaluate our existing operations to determine whether our business model should change through the divestiture of certain businesses. Accordingly, from time to time, we may divest or wind-down certain non-core businesses and reallocate our resources to businesses that better align with our long-term strategic direction. We did not divest of any businesses in fiscal 2023.
The market for our services is generally competitive. We often compete with many other firms ranging from small regional firms to large international firms.
We perform a broad spectrum of consulting, engineering and technical services across the water, environment, sustainable infrastructure, renewable energy and international development markets. Our competition varies and is a function of the business areas in which, and the client sectors for which, we perform our services. The number of competitors for any procurement can vary widely, depending upon technical qualifications, the relative value of the project, geographic location, the financial terms and risks associated with the work and any restrictions placed upon competition by the client. Historically, clients have chosen among competing firms by weighing the quality, innovation and timeliness of the firm's service versus its cost to determine which firm offers the best value.
Our competitors vary depending on end markets and clients, and often we may only compete with a portion of a firm. We believe that our principal competitors include the following firms, in alphabetical order: AECOM; Arcadis NV; AtkinsRéalis; Black & Veatch Corporation; Booz Allen Hamilton; Brown & Caldwell; CDM Smith Inc.; Chemonics International, Inc.; Exponent, Inc.; GHD; ICF International, Inc.; Jacobs Solutions, Inc.; Leidos, Inc.; SAIC; Stantec Inc.; TRC Companies, Inc.; Weston Solutions, Inc.; and WSP Global Inc.
We include in our backlog only those contracts for which funding has been provided and work authorization has been received. We estimate that approximately two-thirds of our backlog at the end of fiscal 2023 will be recognized as revenue in fiscal 2024, as work is being performed. However, we cannot guarantee that the revenue projected in our backlog will be realized or, if realized, will result in profits. In addition, project cancellations or scope adjustments may occur with respect to contracts reflected in our backlog. For example, certain of our contracts with the U.S. federal government and other clients are terminable at the discretion of the client, with or without cause. These types of backlog reductions could adversely affect our revenue and margins. Accordingly, our backlog as of any particular date is an uncertain indicator of our future earnings.
Our backlog at fiscal 2023 year-end was $4.8 billion, an increase of $1.0 billion, or 27.9%, compared to fiscal 2022 year-end. Of this amount, GSG and CIG reported $2.7 billion and $2.1 billion of backlog, respectively, at fiscal 2023 year-end.
We engage in various service activities that are subject to government oversight, including environmental laws and regulations, general government procurement laws and regulations and other regulations and requirements imposed by the specific government agencies with which we conduct business.
Environmental. A significant portion of our business involves the planning, design and program management of pollution control facilities, as well as the assessment and management of remediation activities at hazardous waste sites, U.S. Superfund sites and military bases. In addition, we contract with U.S. federal government entities to destroy hazardous materials. These activities require us to manage, handle, remove, treat, transport and dispose of toxic or hazardous substances.
Some environmental laws, such as the U.S. Superfund law and similar state, provincial and local statutes, can impose liability for the entire cost of clean-up for contaminated facilities or sites upon present and former owners and operators, as well as generators, transporters and persons arranging for the treatment or disposal of such substances. In addition, while we strive to handle hazardous and toxic substances with care and in accordance with safe methods, the possibility of accidents, leaks, spills and events of force majeure always exist. Humans exposed to these materials, including workers or subcontractors engaged in the transportation and disposal of hazardous materials and persons in affected areas, may be injured or become ill. This could result in lawsuits that expose us to liability and substantial damage awards. Liabilities for contamination or human exposure to hazardous or toxic materials, or a failure to comply with applicable regulations, could result in substantial costs, including clean-up costs, fines, civil or criminal sanctions, third party claims for property damage or personal injury or the cessation of remediation activities.
Certain of our business operations are covered by U.S. Public Law 85-804, which provides for government indemnification against claims and damages arising out of unusually hazardous activities performed at the request of the government. Due to changes in public policies and law, however, government indemnification may not be available in the case of any future claims or liabilities relating to other hazardous activities that we perform.
Government Procurement. The services we provide to the U.S. federal government are subject to the FAR and other rules and regulations applicable to government contracts. These rules and regulations:
•require certification and disclosure of all cost and pricing data in connection with the contract negotiations under certain contract types;
•impose accounting rules that define allowable and unallowable costs and otherwise govern our right to reimbursement under certain cost-based government contracts; and
•restrict the use and dissemination of information classified for national security purposes and the exportation of certain products and technical data.
In addition, services provided to the DoD and U.S. federal civil agencies are monitored by the Defense Contract Management Agency and audited by the DCAA. Our government clients can also terminate any of their contracts, and many of our government contracts are subject to renewal or extension annually. Further, the services we provide to state and local government clients are subject to various government rules and regulations.
We experience seasonal trends in our business. Our revenue and operating income are typically lower in the first half of our fiscal year, primarily due to the Thanksgiving (in the U.S. and Canada), Christmas and New Year's holidays. Many of our clients' employees, as well as our own employees, take vacations during these holiday periods. Further, seasonal inclement weather conditions occasionally cause some of our offices to close temporarily or may hamper our project field work in the northern hemisphere's temperate and arctic regions. These occurrences result in fewer billable hours worked on projects and, correspondingly, less revenue recognized.
Climate Risk Assessment
We assess the impact of climate on our operations and business periodically, as part of our Board of Directors' Strategic Planning and Enterprise Risk Committee meetings. Climate risk is a consideration in business continuity planning and operational security in regions that may experience climate-related disruptions due to extreme weather, fires, or flooding. In some cases, we may be working in regions that also experience socio-political impacts and security disruptions due to the impacts of extreme weather or prolonged drought conditions. As a professional services company, our workforce is highly mobile, able to work remotely, and can in most cases quickly adapt to changes in local conditions. We have business continuity planning and processes in place to address any acute impact to locally affected operations and have the ability to rapidly move to remote and flexible working arrangements while restoring or relocating affected operations. We maintain a strong information technology infrastructure to facilitate remote working and provide virtual access to systems. Our enterprise and project data is accessible through cloud-based systems, reducing the risk of localized disruptions of data access and computer systems. Our offices are typically leased, so we are not at significant risk of physical building assets being impacted. Select project activities can be impacted by climate related events; however, these are addressed through our extensive project risk management process. Climate-related disruptions do, in many cases, result in increased opportunity for project work for Tetra Tech. We provide post-disaster response services and may have additional demand for our expertise if there is an increase in the frequency in climate related events. Furthermore, our business includes providing a wide range of water, environment and sustainable infrastructure services, many of which are increased by the longer-term impacts associated with drought, water scarcity, heat, flooding and fire risk.
Risk Management and Insurance
Our business activities could expose us to potential risk and liability under various laws and under workplace health and safety regulations. In addition, we occasionally assume liability by contract under indemnification agreements. We cannot predict the magnitude of such potential liabilities. Our Office of Risk Management reviews and oversees the risk profile of our operations, and reports to our Board of Directors.
We maintain a comprehensive general liability insurance policy with an umbrella policy that covers losses beyond the general liability limits. We also maintain professional errors and omissions liability and contractor's pollution liability insurance policies. We believe that both policies provide adequate coverage for our business. When we perform higher-risk work, we obtain, if available, the necessary types of insurance coverage for such activities, as is typically required by our clients.
We obtain insurance coverage through a broker that is experienced in our industry. The broker and our risk manager regularly review the adequacy of our insurance coverage. Because there are various exclusions and retentions under our policies, or an insurance carrier may become insolvent, there can be no assurance that all potential liabilities will be covered by our insurance policies or paid by our carrier.
We evaluate the risk associated with insurance claims. If we determine that a loss is probable and reasonably estimable, we establish an appropriate reserve. A reserve is not established if we determine that a claim has no merit or is not probable or reasonably estimable. Our historic levels of insurance coverage and reserves have been adequate. However, partially or completely uninsured claims, if successful and of significant magnitude, could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Human Capital Management
Employees. At fiscal 2023 year-end, we had approximately 27,000 staff worldwide. A large percentage of our employees have technical and professional backgrounds and undergraduate and/or advanced degrees, including the employees of recently acquired companies. Our professional staff includes archaeologists, architects, biologists, chemical engineers, chemists, civil engineers, data scientists, computer scientists, economists, electrical engineers, environmental engineers, environmental scientists, geologists, hydrogeologists, mechanical engineers, software engineers, oceanographers, project managers and toxicologists. We consider the current relationships with our employees to be favorable. We are not aware of any employment circumstances that are likely to disrupt work at any of our facilities. See Part I, Item 1A, "Risk Factors" for a discussion of the risks related to the loss of key personnel or our inability to attract and retain qualified personnel.
Health and Safety. Tetra Tech is committed to providing and maintaining a healthy and safe work environment for our associates. We provide training to all associates to improve their understanding of behaviors that can be perceived as discriminatory, exclusionary and/or harassing, and provide safe avenues for associates to report such behaviors.
Diversity, Equity and Inclusion. Tetra Tech brings together engineers and technical specialists from all backgrounds to solve our clients' most challenging problems. Our Diversity, Equity and Inclusion ("DEI") Policy guides the Board of Directors, management, associates, subcontractors and partners in developing an inclusive culture. Our Diversity, Equity and Inclusion Council monitors Tetra Tech's diversity, equity and inclusion practices and makes recommendations to the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer for any changes or improvements to our program.
Tetra Tech values diversity, equity and inclusion and undertakes various efforts throughout its operations to promote these initiatives. Our current efforts are focused on these primary areas:
•Equal employment opportunity. Tetra Tech ensures that our practices and processes attract a diverse range of candidates, and those candidates are recruited, hired, assigned, developed and promoted based on merit and their alignment to our values.
•Enhancing learning and development opportunities. Our Employee Resource Groups ("ERGs") co-sponsor training, mentorship and life skills development opportunities for the entire Tetra Tech community. The DEI program leverages and further extends the impact of our professional development and Tetra Tech Academy Learning and Development resources. Education assistance is offered to financially support associates who seek to expand their knowledge and skill base.
As part of Tetra Tech's commitment to a culture of inclusion, our ERG Program broadens and enhances company-wide interaction opportunities for our employees. Tetra Tech's ERGs are open to all associates and involve activities for both employees whose background is the focus of the ERG and those who are supportive of the group (also known as allies). These global networks build on and coordinate with the many local networks that are already active throughout our operations and include groups focused on the experiences of Black, Latino, Pan-Asian, Women, Veterans, Disabled and LGBTQIA+ employees and emerging professionals.
Professional Development. Tetra Tech invests in the professional development of our employees. All employees can access training and technical exchange, and skill development through our Tetra Tech Academy Learning and Development Program and customized Learning Management System, providing professional development opportunities throughout our employees' careers. Technology skills development includes access to a series of live webcasts and recorded technology transfer sessions. Company-wide networking events provide interactive skills development activities. We also offer professional development programs through our Leadership Academy for Emerging Professionals, Project Management training, and Fearless Entrepreneur program. Tetra Tech's Project Management Training Program is available to all employees and is focused on professional development, techniques for managing high-end projects and how to employ enterprise systems, dashboards and proprietary technology tools. The Project Management training provides employees with access to a full curriculum, where attendees progress through three development tiers. Tetra Tech's Project Excellence Steering Committee sponsors the development and implementation of our comprehensive Project Management Training Program. In addition, we provide comprehensive Health & Safety training, specialized environmental compliance and safety training, and support employees with required external certifications and training. Tetra Tech also provides employees with financial support in the pursuit of academic degrees and continuous learning.
Executive Officers of the Registrant
The following table shows the name, age and position of each of our executive officers as of November 22, 2023:
|Dan L. Batrack||65 ||Chairman and Chief Executive Officer|
Mr. Batrack joined our predecessor in 1980 and was named Chairman in January 2008. He has served as our Chief Executive Officer and a director since November 2005, and as our President from October 2008 to September 2019. Mr. Batrack has served in numerous capacities over the last 40 years, including arctic research scientist, deep water oceanographic hydrographer, coastal hydrodynamic modeler, environmental data analyst, project and program manager, President of the Engineering Division, and in 2004 he was appointed Chief Operating Officer. He has managed complex programs for many small and Fortune 500 clients, both in the United States and internationally. Mr. Batrack holds a B.A. degree in Business Administration from the University of Washington.
|Jill Hudkins||52 ||President |
|Ms. Hudkins was appointed President in October 2022. Ms. Hudkins has been with us for over 25 years in increasingly responsible positions. She served as President of the Resilient & Sustainable Infrastructure Division from October 2021 to October 2022, President of the IEW Operating Unit from April 2021 to October 2022 and Vice President and Growth Initiatives Program Leader from October 2019 to October 2022. Prior to this, Ms. Hudkins served as Vice President and One Water Leader from May 2015 to October 2019. She is a registered Professional Engineer and is a nationally recognized expert in high-end innovative water treatment solutions. Ms. Hudkins holds a master's degree in Civil and Environmental Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and a bachelor's degree in Civil and Environmental Engineering from Duke University.|
|Steven M. Burdick||59 ||Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer|
| ||Mr. Burdick has served as our Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer since April 2011. He served as our Senior Vice President, Corporate Controller and Chief Accounting Officer from January 2004 to March 2011. Mr. Burdick joined us in April 2003 as Vice President, Management Audit. Previously, Mr. Burdick served in senior financial and executive positions with Aura Systems, Inc., TRW Ventures, and Ernst & Young LLP. Mr. Burdick holds a B.S. degree in Business Administration from Santa Clara University and is a Certified Public Accountant.|
|Leslie Shoemaker||66 ||Executive Vice President, Chief Sustainability and Leadership Development Officer |
|Dr. Shoemaker was appointed Executive Vice President, Chief Sustainability and Leadership Development Officer in October 2022 after serving as Tetra Tech's President since September 2019. Dr. Shoemaker joined us in 1991, and has served in various management capacities, including project and program manager, water resources manager and business group president. From 2005 to 2015, she led our strategic planning, business development and company-wide collaboration programs. Her technical expertise is in the management of large-scale watershed and master planning studies, development of modeling tools and application of optimization tools for decision making. Since the inception of our sustainability program in 2010, she has served as Chief Sustainability Officer leading the formation and evolution of the program. Dr. Shoemaker has facilitated leadership development for Tetra Tech's Leadership Academy program. Dr. Shoemaker holds a B.A. in Mathematics from Hamilton College, a Master of Engineering from Cornell University and a Ph.D. in Agricultural Engineering from the University of Maryland. She was inducted into the United States' National Academy of Engineers in 2022.|
|Roger R. Argus||62 ||Senior Vice President, President of GSG and CIG|
|Mr. Argus is a chemical engineer with 38 years of experience, including 30 years with us in operational leadership, program and project management and quality assurance for projects encompassing a broad spectrum of environmental, engineering, information technology and disaster management services. Mr. Argus has also been responsible for managing multidisciplinary contracts and projects in support of the U.S. federal government (i.e., U.S. Navy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency), state and municipal agencies and private clients nationwide. The scope of his technical experience includes planning and directing environmental programs, developing data acquisition, management and analytics solutions, fund research and development support for innovative environmental technologies and waste treatment systems, municipal resiliency and sustainability programs. Mr. Argus holds a B.S. in Chemical Engineering from California State University, Long Beach.|
|Brian N. Carter||56 ||Senior Vice President, Corporate Controller and Chief Accounting Officer|
| ||Mr. Carter joined us as Vice President, Corporate Controller and Chief Accounting Officer in June 2011 and was appointed Senior Vice President in October 2012. Previously, Mr. Carter served in finance and auditing positions in private industry and with Ernst & Young LLP. Mr. Carter holds a B.S. in Business Administration from Miami University and is a Certified Public Accountant.|
|Preston Hopson||47 ||Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary|
|Mr. Hopson was appointed Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary to the Board of Directors in January 2018. He also is responsible for the global Human Resources function and serves as the Chief Ethics and Compliance Officer. Previously, Mr. Hopson served as Vice President, Assistant General Counsel and Assistant Corporate Secretary at AECOM. Prior to this, he was a corporate and securities lawyer at O’Melveny & Myers LLP and also worked at the U.S. Court of Appeals. Mr. Hopson holds B.A. and J.D. degrees from Yale University.|
Our internet website address is www.tetratech.com. We made available, free electronic copies of our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports through the “Investor Relations” portion of our website, under the heading “SEC Filings” filed under “Financial Information.” These reports are available on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file them with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). These reports, and any amendments to them, are also available at the Internet website of the SEC, https://www.sec.gov. Also available on our website are our Corporate Governance Policies, Board Committees, Corporate Code of Conduct and Finance Code of Professional Conduct.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
We operate in a changing environment that involves numerous known and unknown risks and uncertainties that could materially adversely affect our operations. Set forth below and elsewhere in this report and in other documents we file with the SEC are descriptions of the risks and uncertainties that could cause our actual results to differ materially from the results contemplated by the forward-looking statements contained in this report. Additional risks we do not yet know of or that we currently think are immaterial may also affect our business operations. If any of the events or circumstances described in the following risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Risks Related to Our Business and Operations
If we fail to complete a project in a timely manner, miss a required performance standard or otherwise fail to adequately perform on a project, then we may incur a loss on that project, which may reduce or eliminate our overall profitability.
Our engagements often involve large-scale, complex projects. The quality of our performance on such projects depends in large part upon our ability to manage the relationship with our clients and our ability to effectively manage the project and deploy appropriate resources, including third-party contractors and our own personnel, in a timely manner. We may commit to a client that we will complete a project by a scheduled date. We may also commit that a project, when completed, will achieve specified performance standards. If the project is not completed by the scheduled date or fails to meet required performance standards, we may either incur significant additional costs or be held responsible for the costs incurred by the client to rectify damages due to late completion or failure to achieve the required performance standards. The uncertainty of the timing of a project can present difficulties in planning the amount of personnel needed for the project. If the project is delayed or canceled, we may bear the cost of an underutilized workforce that was dedicated to fulfilling the project. In addition, performance of projects can be affected by a number of factors beyond our control, including unavoidable delays from government inaction, public opposition, inability to obtain financing, weather conditions, unavailability of materials, changes in the project scope of services requested by our clients, industrial accidents, environmental hazards and labor disruptions. To the extent these events occur, the total costs of the project could exceed our estimates, and we could experience reduced profits or, in some cases, incur a loss on a project, which may reduce or eliminate our overall profitability. Further, any defects or errors, or failures to meet our clients’ expectations, could result in claims for damages against us. Failure to meet performance standards or complete performance on a timely basis could also adversely affect our reputation and client base.
Demand for our services is cyclical and vulnerable to economic downturns. If economic growth slows, government fiscal conditions worsen or client spending declines, then our revenue, profits and financial condition may deteriorate.
Demand for our services is cyclical, and vulnerable to economic downturns and reductions in government and private industry spending. Such downturns or reductions may result in clients delaying, curtailing or canceling proposed and existing projects. Our business traditionally lags the overall recovery in the economy; therefore, our business may not recover immediately when the economy improves. If economic growth slows, government fiscal conditions worsen or client spending declines, then our revenue, profits and overall financial condition may deteriorate. Our government clients may face budget deficits that prohibit them from funding new or existing projects. In addition, our existing and potential clients may either postpone entering into new contracts or request price concessions. Difficult financing and economic conditions may cause some of our clients to demand better pricing terms or delay payments for services we perform, thereby increasing the average number of days our receivables are outstanding and the potential of increased credit losses of uncollectible invoices. Further, these conditions may result in the inability of some of our clients to pay us for services that we have already performed. If we are not able to reduce our costs quickly enough to respond to the revenue decline from these clients, our operating results may be adversely affected. Accordingly, these factors affect our ability to forecast our future revenue and earnings from business areas that may be adversely impacted by market conditions. Any of these factors could adversely affect the demand for our services, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our industry is highly competitive, and we may be unable to compete effectively, which could result in reduced revenue, profitability and market share.
We are engaged in a highly competitive business. The markets that we serve are highly fragmented and we compete with many regional, national and international companies. Certain of these competitors have greater financial and other resources than we do. Others are smaller and more specialized and concentrate their resources in particular areas of expertise. The extent of our competition varies according to certain markets and geographic area. In addition, the technical and professional aspects of some of our services generally do not require large upfront capital expenditures and provide limited barriers against new competitors.
The degree and type of competition that we face is also influenced by the type and scope of a particular project. Our clients make competitive determinations based upon qualifications, experience, performance, reputation, technology, customer relationships and ability to provide the relevant services in a timely, safe and cost-efficient manner. This competitive environment could force us to make price concessions or otherwise reduce prices for our services. If we are unable to maintain our competitiveness and win bids for future projects, our market share, revenue and profits will decline.
Our international operations expose us to legal, political and economic risks in different countries as well as currency exchange rate fluctuations that could harm our business and financial results.
In fiscal 2023, we generated 36.7% of our revenue from our international operations, primarily in Canada, Australia, Europe, the United Kingdom and from international clients for work that is performed by our domestic operations. International business is subject to a variety of risks, including: imposition of governmental controls and changes in laws, regulations or policies; lack of developed legal systems to enforce contractual rights; greater risk of uncollectible accounts and longer collection cycles; currency exchange rate fluctuations, devaluations and other conversion restrictions; uncertain and changing tax rules, regulations and rates; the potential for civil unrest, acts of terrorism, force majeure, war or other armed conflict and greater physical security risks, which may cause us to have to leave a country quickly; logistical and communication challenges; changes in regulatory practices, including trade policies, tariffs and taxes; changes in labor conditions; general economic, political and financial conditions in foreign markets; and exposure to civil or criminal liability under the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), the U.K. Bribery Act, the Canadian Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act, the Brazilian Clean Companies Act, the anti-boycott rules, trade and export control regulations as well as other international regulations.
International risks and violations of international regulations may significantly reduce our revenue and profits, and subject us to criminal or civil enforcement actions, including fines, suspensions or disqualification from future U.S. federal procurement contracting. Although we have policies and procedures to monitor legal and regulatory compliance, our employees, subcontractors and agents could take actions that violate these requirements. As a result, our international risk exposure may be more or less than the percentage of revenue attributed to our international operations.
Continuing worldwide political, social and economic uncertainties may adversely affect our revenue and profitability.
The last several years have been periodically marked by political, social and economic concerns, including decreased consumer confidence, the lingering effects of international conflicts, higher energy costs and inflation, and the global coronavirus disease 2019 ("COVID-19") pandemic. Ongoing instability and current conflicts in global markets, including Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Asia, and the potential for other conflicts and future terrorist activities and other recent geopolitical events throughout the world, including the recent state of war between Israel and Hamas and the related risk of a larger regional conflict, have created and may continue to create economic and political uncertainties and impacts. This instability can make it extremely difficult for our clients, our vendors and us to accurately forecast and plan future business activities, and could cause constrained spending on our services, delays and a lengthening of our business development efforts, the demand for more favorable pricing or other terms and/or difficulty in collection of our accounts receivable. Our government clients may face budget deficits that prohibit them from funding proposed and existing projects. Further, ongoing economic instability in the global markets could limit our ability to access the capital markets at a time when we would like, or need, to raise capital, which could have an impact on our ability to react to changing business conditions or new opportunities. If economic conditions remain uncertain or weaken, or government spending is reduced, our revenue and profitability could be adversely affected.
Our backlog is subject to cancellation, unexpected adjustments and changing economic conditions and is an uncertain indicator of future operating results.
Our backlog at fiscal 2023 year-end was $4.8 billion, an increase of $1.0 billion, or 27.9%, compared to fiscal 2022 year-end. We include in backlog only those contracts for which funding has been provided and work authorizations have been received. We cannot guarantee that the revenue projected in our backlog will be realized or, if realized, will result in profits. In addition, project delays, suspensions, terminations, cancellations, reductions in scope, or other adjustments do occur from time to time in our industry due to considerations beyond our control and may have a material impact on the value of reported backlog with a corresponding adverse impact on future revenues and profitability. For example, certain of our contracts with the U.S. federal government and other clients are terminable at the discretion of the client, with or without cause. These types of backlog reductions could adversely affect our revenue and margins. As a result of these factors, our backlog as of any particular date is an uncertain indicator of our future earnings.
The loss of key personnel or our inability to attract and retain qualified personnel could impair our ability to provide services to our clients and otherwise conduct our business effectively.
As primarily a professional and technical services company, we are labor-intensive and, therefore, our ability to attract, retain and expand our senior management and our professional and technical staff is an important factor in determining our future success. The market for qualified scientists and engineers is competitive and, from time to time, it may be difficult to attract and retain qualified individuals with the required expertise within the timeframe demanded by our clients. For example, some of our U.S. government contracts may require us to employ only individuals who have particular government security clearance levels. In addition, if we are unable to retain executives and other key personnel, the roles and responsibilities of those employees will need to be filled, which may require that we devote time and resources to identify, hire and integrate new employees. The loss of the services of any of these key personnel could adversely affect our business. Our failure to attract and retain key individuals could impair our ability to provide services to our clients and conduct our business effectively.
If our contractors and subcontractors fail to satisfy their obligations to us or other parties, or if we are unable to maintain these relationships, our revenue, profitability and growth prospects could be adversely affected.
We depend on contractors and subcontractors in conducting our business. There is a risk that we may have disputes with our subcontractors arising from, among other things, the quality and timeliness of work performed by the subcontractor, client concerns about the subcontractor or our failure to extend existing task orders or issue new task orders under a subcontract. In addition, if a subcontractor fails to deliver on a timely basis the agreed-upon supplies, fails to perform the agreed-upon services or goes out of business, then we may be required to purchase the services or supplies from another source at a higher price, and our ability to fulfill our obligations as a prime contractor may be jeopardized. This may reduce the profit to be realized or result in a loss on a project for which the services or supplies are needed.
We also rely on relationships with other contractors when we act as their subcontractor or joint venture partner. The absence of qualified subcontractors with which we have a satisfactory relationship could adversely affect the quality of our service and our ability to perform under some of our contracts. Our future revenue and growth prospects could be adversely affected if other contractors eliminate or reduce their subcontracts or teaming arrangement relationships with us, or if a government agency terminates or reduces these other contractors’ programs, does not award them new contracts, or refuses to pay under a contract.
Our failure to meet contractual schedule or performance requirements that we have guaranteed could adversely affect our operating results.
In certain circumstances, we can incur liquidated or other damages if we do not achieve project completion by a scheduled date. If we or an entity for which we have provided a guarantee subsequently fails to complete the project as scheduled and the matter cannot be satisfactorily resolved with the client, we may be responsible for cost impacts to the client resulting from any delay or the cost to complete the project. Our costs generally increase from schedule delays and/or could exceed our projections and the anticipated revenue for a particular project. In addition, project performance can be affected by a number of factors beyond our control, including unavoidable delays from governmental inaction, public opposition, inability to obtain financing, weather conditions, unavailability of vendor materials, changes in the project scope of services requested by our clients, industrial accidents, environmental hazards, labor disruptions and other factors. As a result, material performance problems for existing and future contracts could cause actual results of operations to differ from those anticipated by us and could cause us to suffer damage to our reputation within our industry and client base.
Our failure to implement and comply with our safety program could adversely affect our operating results or financial condition.
Our project sites often put our employees and others in close proximity with mechanized equipment, moving vehicles, chemical and manufacturing processes and highly regulated materials. On some project sites, we may be responsible for safety, and, accordingly, we have an obligation to implement effective safety procedures. Our safety program is a fundamental element of our overall approach to risk management, and the implementation of the safety program is a significant issue in our dealings with our clients. We maintain an enterprise-wide group of health and safety professionals to help ensure that the services we provide are delivered safely and in accordance with standard work processes. Unsafe job sites and office environments have the potential to increase employee turnover, increase the cost of a project to our clients, expose us to types and levels of risk that are fundamentally unacceptable and raise our operating costs. The implementation of our safety processes and procedures are monitored by various agencies, including the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (“MSHA”), and rating bureaus and may be evaluated by certain clients in cases in which safety requirements have been established in our contracts. Our failure to meet these requirements or our failure to properly implement and comply with our safety program could result in reduced profitability, the loss of projects or clients or potential litigation, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results or financial condition.
Our business activities may require our employees to travel to and work in countries where there are high security risks, which may result in employee death or injury, repatriation costs or other unforeseen costs.
Certain of our contracts require our employees travel to and work in high-risk countries that are undergoing political, social and economic upheavals resulting from war, civil unrest, criminal activity, acts of terrorism or public health crises. As a result, we risk loss of or injury to our employees and may be subject to costs related to employee death or injury, repatriation or other unforeseen circumstances. We may choose or be forced to leave a country with little or no warning due to physical security risks.
Unavailability or cancellation of third-party insurance coverage would increase our overall risk exposure as well as disrupt the management of our business operations.
Our services involve significant risks of professional and other liabilities, which may substantially exceed the fees that we derive from our services. We maintain insurance coverage from third-party insurers as part of our overall risk management strategy and because some of our contracts require us to maintain specific insurance coverage limits. From time to time, we assume liabilities as a result of indemnification provisions contained in our service contracts. We cannot predict the magnitude of these potential liabilities.
We are liable to pay such liabilities from our assets if and when the aggregate settlement or judgment amount exceeds our insurance policy limits. Further, our insurance may not protect us against liability because our policies typically have various exceptions to the claims covered and also require us to assume some costs of the claim even though a portion of the claim may be covered. A partially or completely uninsured claim, if successful and of significant magnitude, could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity.
If any of our third-party insurers fail, suddenly cancel our coverage, or otherwise are unable to provide us with adequate insurance coverage, then our overall risk exposure and our operational expenses would increase and the management of our business operations would be disrupted. In addition, if we expand into new markets, we may not be able to obtain insurance coverage for these new activities or, if insurance is obtained, the dollar amount of any liabilities incurred could exceed our insurance coverage. There can be no assurance that any of our existing insurance coverage will be renewable upon the expiration of the coverage period or that future coverage will be affordable at the required limits.
Our inability to obtain adequate bonding could have a material adverse effect on our future revenue and business prospects.
Certain clients require bid bonds, and performance and payment bonds. These bonds indemnify the client should we fail to perform our obligations under a contract. If a bond is required for a certain project and we are unable to obtain an appropriate bond, we cannot pursue that project. In some instances, we are required to co-venture with a small or disadvantaged business to pursue certain government contracts. In connection with these ventures, we are sometimes required to utilize our bonding capacity to cover all of the obligations under the contract with the client. We have a bonding facility but, as is typically the case, the issuance of bonds under that facility is at the surety’s sole discretion. Moreover, bonding may be more difficult to obtain or may only be available at significant additional cost. There can be no assurance that bonds will continue to be available to us on reasonable terms. Additionally, even if we continue to access bonding capacity to sufficiently bond future work, we may be required to post collateral to secure bonds, which would decrease the liquidity available for other purposes. Our inability to obtain adequate bonding and, as a result, to bid on new work could have a material adverse effect on our future revenue and business prospects.
We may be precluded from providing certain services due to conflict of interest issues.
Many of our clients are concerned about potential or actual conflicts of interest in retaining management consultants. Many commercial and government clients have formal policies against continuing or awarding contracts that would create actual or potential conflicts of interest with other activities of a contractor. These policies may prevent us from bidding for or performing contracts resulting from or relating to certain work we have performed. We have, on occasion, declined to bid on projects due to conflict of interest issues. If we fail to address actual or potential conflicts properly, or even if we simply fail to recognize a perceived conflict, we may be in violation of our existing contracts, may otherwise incur liability, and may lose future business for not preventing the conflict from arising, and our reputation may suffer.
Our actual business and financial results could differ from the estimates and assumptions that we use to prepare our consolidated financial statements, which may significantly reduce or eliminate our profits.
To prepare consolidated financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the U.S. ("U.S. GAAP"), management is required to make estimates and assumptions as of the date of the consolidated financial statements. These estimates and assumptions affect the reported values of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses as well as disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities. For example, we typically recognize revenue over the life of a contract based on the proportion of costs incurred to date compared to the total costs estimated to be incurred for the entire project. Areas
requiring significant estimates by our management include: the application of the percentage-of-completion method of accounting and revenue recognition on contracts, change orders and contract claims, including related unbilled accounts receivable; unbilled accounts receivable, including amounts related to requests for equitable adjustment to contracts that provide for price redetermination, primarily with the U.S. federal government. These amounts are recorded only when they can be reliably estimated and realization is probable; provisions for uncollectible receivables, client claims and recoveries of costs from subcontractors, vendors and others; provisions for income taxes, research and development tax credits, valuation allowances and unrecognized tax benefits; and value of goodwill and recoverability of intangible assets.
Our actual business and financial results could differ from those estimates, which may significantly reduce or eliminate our profits.
Our profitability could suffer if we are not able to maintain adequate utilization of our workforce.
The cost of providing our services, including the extent to which we utilize our workforce, affects our profitability. The rate at which we utilize our workforce is affected by a number of factors, including: our ability to transition employees from completed projects to new assignments and to hire and assimilate new employees; our ability to forecast demand for our services and thereby maintain an appropriate headcount in each of our geographies and operating units; and our ability to manage attrition.
If we over-utilize our workforce, our employees may become disengaged, which could impact employee attrition. If we under-utilize our workforce, our profit margin and profitability could suffer.
Our use of the percentage-of-completion method of revenue recognition could result in a reduction or reversal of previously recorded revenue and profits.
We account for most of our contracts on the percentage-of-completion method of revenue recognition. Generally, our use of this method results in recognition of revenue and profit ratably over the life of the contract, based on the proportion of costs incurred to date to total costs expected to be incurred for the entire project. The effects of revisions to estimated revenue and costs, including the achievement of award fees and the impact of change orders and claims, are recorded when the amounts are known and can be reasonably estimated. Such revisions could occur in any period and their effects could be material. Although we have historically made reasonably reliable estimates of the progress towards completion of long-term contracts, the uncertainties inherent in the estimating process make it possible for actual costs to vary materially from estimates, including reductions or reversals of previously recorded revenue and profit.
If we are unable to accurately estimate and control our contract costs, then we may incur losses on our contracts, which could decrease our operating margins and reduce our profits. Specifically, our fixed-price contracts could increase the unpredictability of our earnings.
It is important for us to accurately estimate and control our contract costs so that we can maintain positive operating margins and profitability. We generally enter into three principal types of contracts with our clients: fixed-price, time-and-materials and cost-plus.
The U.S. federal government and certain other clients have increased the use of fixed-priced contracts. Under fixed-price contracts, we receive a fixed price irrespective of the actual costs we incur and, consequently, we are exposed to a number of risks. We realize a profit on fixed-price contracts only if we can control our costs and prevent cost over-runs on our contracts. Fixed-price contracts require cost and scheduling estimates that are based on a number of assumptions, including those about future economic conditions, costs and availability of labor, equipment and materials and other exigencies. We could experience cost over-runs if these estimates are originally inaccurate as a result of errors or ambiguities in the contract specifications or become inaccurate as a result of a change in circumstances following the submission of the estimate due to, among other things, unanticipated technical or equipment problems, difficulties in obtaining permits or approvals, changes in local laws or labor conditions, weather delays, changes in the costs of raw materials or the inability of our vendors or subcontractors to perform their obligations. If cost overruns occur, we could experience reduced profits or, in some cases, a loss for that project. If a project is significant, or if there are one or more common issues that impact multiple projects, costs overruns could increase the unpredictability of our earnings, as well as have a material adverse impact on our business and earnings.
Under our time-and-materials contracts, we are paid for labor at negotiated hourly billing rates and paid for other expenses. Profitability on these contracts is driven by billable headcount and cost control. Many of our time-and-materials contracts are subject to maximum contract values and, accordingly, revenue relating to these contracts is recognized as if these contracts were fixed-price contracts. Under our cost-plus contracts, some of which are subject to contract ceiling amounts, we are reimbursed for allowable costs and fees, which may be fixed or performance-based. If our costs exceed the contract ceiling or are not allowable under the provisions of the contract or any applicable regulations, we may not be able to obtain reimbursement for all of the costs we incur.
Profitability on our contracts is driven by billable headcount and our ability to manage our subcontractors, vendors and material suppliers. If we are unable to accurately estimate and manage our costs, we may incur losses on our contracts, which could decrease our operating margins and significantly reduce or eliminate our profits. Certain of our contracts require us to satisfy specific design, engineering, procurement or construction milestones in order to receive payment for the work completed or equipment or supplies procured prior to achievement of the applicable milestone. As a result, under these types of arrangements, we may incur significant costs or perform significant amounts of services prior to receipt of payment. If a client determines not to proceed with the completion of the project or if the client defaults on its payment obligations, we may face difficulties in collecting payment of amounts due to us for the costs previously incurred or for the amounts previously expended to purchase equipment or supplies.
Accounting for a contract requires judgments relative to assessing the contract’s estimated risks, revenue, costs and other technical issues. Due to the size and nature of many of our contracts, the estimation of overall risk, revenue and cost at completion is complicated and subject to many variables. Changes in underlying assumptions, circumstances or estimates may also adversely affect future period financial performance. If we are unable to accurately estimate the overall revenue or costs on a contract, then we may experience a lower profit or incur a loss on the contract.
Cyber security incidents affecting our systems and information technology could adversely impact our ability to operate and we could experience adverse consequences resulting from such compromises, including but not limited to regulatory investigations or actions; litigation; fines and penalties; disruptions of our business operations; reputational harm; loss of revenue or profits; and other adverse consequences.
We face the threat to our computer systems of unauthorized access, computer hackers, computer viruses, malicious code, organized cyber-attacks and other security problems and system disruptions, including possible unauthorized access to our and our clients' proprietary or classified information. We rely on industry-accepted security measures and technology to securely maintain all confidential and proprietary information on our information systems. In addition, we rely on the security of third-party service providers, vendors and cloud services providers to protect confidential data. In the ordinary course of business, we have been targeted by malicious cyber-attacks. A user who circumvents security measures could misappropriate confidential or proprietary information, including information regarding us, our personnel and/or our clients or cause interruptions or malfunctions in operations. As a result, we may be required to expend significant resources to protect against the threat of these system disruptions and security breaches or to alleviate problems caused by these disruptions and breaches.
We also rely in part on third-party software and information technology vendors to run our critical accounting, project management and financial information systems. Our software and information technology vendors may decide to discontinue further development, integration or long-term software and hardware support for our information systems, in which case we may need to abandon one or more of our current information systems and migrate some or all of our accounting, project management and financial information to other systems, thus increasing our operational expense, as well as disrupting the management of our business operations.
While we have implemented security measures designed to protect against security incidents, there can be no assurance that these measures will be effective. Vulnerabilities in our systems pose material risks to our business. Applicable data privacy and security obligations may require us to notify relevant stakeholders of security incidents. Such disclosures are costly, and the disclosure or the failure to comply with such requirements could lead to adverse consequences. Any of these events could damage our reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Risks Related to Our Clients
We derive a substantial amount of our revenue from U.S. federal, state and local government agencies, and any disruption in government funding or in our relationship with those agencies could adversely affect our business.
In fiscal 2023, we generated 44.1% of our revenue from contracts with U.S. federal, and state and local government agencies. A significant amount of this revenue is derived under multi-year contracts, many of which are appropriated on an annual basis. As a result, at the beginning of a project, the related contract may be only partially funded, and additional funding is normally committed only as appropriations are made in each subsequent year. These appropriations, and the timing of payment of appropriated amounts, may be influenced by numerous factors as noted below. Our backlog includes only the projects that have funding appropriated.
The demand for our U.S. government-related services is generally driven by the level of government program funding. A significant reduction in federal government spending, the absence of a bipartisan agreement on the federal government budget, a partial or full federal government shutdown or a change in budgetary priorities could reduce demand for our services, cancel or delay federal projects, result in the closure of federal facilities and significant personnel reductions and have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
There are several additional factors that could materially affect our U.S. government contracting business, which could cause U.S. government agencies to delay or cancel programs, to reduce their orders under existing contracts, to exercise their rights to terminate contracts or not to exercise contract options for renewals or extensions. Such factors, which include the following, could have a material adverse effect on our revenue or the timing of contract payments from U.S. government agencies: the failure of the U.S. government to complete its budget and appropriations process before its fiscal year-end; changes in and delays or cancellations of government programs, procurements, requirements or appropriations; budget constraints or policy changes resulting in delay or curtailment of expenditures related to the services we provide; and re-competes of government contracts.
Our failure to win new contracts and renew existing contracts with private and public sector clients could adversely affect our profitability.
Our business depends on our ability to win new contracts and renew existing contracts with private and public sector clients. Contract proposals and negotiations are complex and frequently involve a lengthy bidding and selection process, which is affected by a number of factors. These factors include market conditions, financing arrangements, required governmental approvals, client relationships and our professional reputation. If we are not able to replace the revenue from expiring contracts, either through follow-on contracts or new contracts, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be adversely affected. If negative market conditions continue to persist, or if we fail to secure adequate financial arrangements or the required government approval, we may not be able to pursue certain projects, which could adversely affect our profitability.
Our inability to win or renew U.S. government contracts during regulated procurement processes could harm our operations and significantly reduce or eliminate our profits.
U.S. government contracts are awarded through a regulated procurement process. The U.S. federal government has increasingly relied upon multi-year contracts with pre-established terms and conditions, such as indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity (“IDIQ”) contracts, which generally require those contractors who have previously been awarded the IDIQ to engage in an additional competitive bidding process before a task order is issued. As a result, new work awards tend to be smaller and of shorter duration, since the orders represent individual tasks rather than large, programmatic assignments. In addition, we believe that there has been an increase in the award of federal contracts based on a low-price, technically acceptable criteria emphasizing price over qualitative factors, such as past performance. As a result, pricing pressure may reduce our profit margins on future federal contracts. Moreover, even if we are qualified to work on a government contract, we may not be awarded the contract because of existing government policies designed to protect small businesses and under-represented minority contractors. Our inability to win or renew government contracts during regulated procurement processes could harm our operations and significantly reduce or eliminate our profits.
Each year, client funding for some of our U.S. government contracts may rely on government appropriations or public-supported financing. If adequate public funding is delayed or is not available, then our profits and revenue could decline.
A substantial portion of our revenue is derived from contracts with agencies and departments of federal, state and local governments. Each year, client funding for some of our U.S. government contracts may directly or indirectly rely on government appropriations or public-supported financing. Legislatures may appropriate funds for a given project on a year-by-year basis, even though the project may take more than one year to perform. In addition, public-supported financing such as U.S. state and local municipal bonds may be only partially raised to support existing projects. Similarly, an economic downturn may make it more difficult for governments to fund projects. In addition to the state of the economy and competing political priorities, public funds and the timing of payment of these funds may be influenced by, among other things, curtailments in the use of government contracting firms, increases in raw material costs, delays associated with insufficient numbers of government staff to oversee contracts, budget constraints, the timing and amount of tax receipts and the overall level of government expenditures. If adequate funding is not available or is delayed, then our profits and revenue could decline.
If we cannot collect our receivables or if payment is delayed, our business may be adversely affected by our inability to generate cash flow, provide working capital, or continue our business operations.
We depend on the timely collection of our receivables to generate cash flow, provide working capital, and continue our business operations. If the U.S. government or any other client or any prime contractor for whom we are a subcontractor fails to pay or delays the payment of invoices for any reason, our business and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected. Clients may delay or fail to pay invoices for a number of reasons, including lack of appropriated funds, lack of an approved budget, lack of revised or final settled billing rates as a result of open audit years, as a result of audit findings by government regulatory agencies or for a variety of other reasons.
Certain contracts may give clients the right to modify, delay, curtail, renegotiate or terminate existing contracts at their convenience at any time prior to their completion, which may result in a decline in our profits and revenue.
Certain projects in which we participate as a contractor or subcontractor may extend for several years. Generally, government contracts include the right to modify, delay, curtail, renegotiate or terminate contracts and subcontracts at the government’s convenience any time prior to their completion. Any decision by a client to modify, delay, curtail, renegotiate or terminate our contracts at their convenience may result in a decline in our profits and revenue. If one of these clients terminates their contract for convenience, we may only be able to bill the client for work completed prior to the termination, plus any commitments and settlement expenses such client agrees to pay, but not for any work not yet performed.
Our revenue and growth prospects may be harmed if we or our employees are unable to obtain government granted eligibility or other qualifications we and they need to perform services for our customers.
A number of government programs require contractors to have certain kinds of government granted eligibility, such as security clearance credentials. Depending on the project, eligibility can be difficult and time-consuming to obtain. If we or our employees are unable to obtain or retain the necessary eligibility, we may not be able to win new business, and our existing customers could terminate their contracts with us or decide not to renew them. To the extent we cannot obtain or maintain the required security clearances for our employees working on a particular contract, we may not derive the revenue or profit anticipated from such contract.
Risks Related to Our Indebtedness
Servicing our debt requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our debt.
Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on or to refinance our indebtedness, including our convertible notes, depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not continue to generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations.
We may not be able to obtain capital when desired on favorable terms, if at all, or without dilution to our stockholders, which may impact our ability to execute on our current or future business strategies.
If we do not generate sufficient cash flow from operations or otherwise, we may need additional financing to execute on our current or future business strategies, including developing new or enhancing existing service lines, expanding our business geographically, enhancing our operating infrastructure, acquiring complementary businesses, or otherwise responding to competitive pressures. We cannot assure that additional financing will be available to us on favorable terms, or at all. Furthermore, if we raise additional funds through the issuance of convertible debt or equity securities, the percentage ownership of our stockholders could be significantly diluted, and these newly issued securities may have rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of existing stockholders. If adequate funds are not available or are not available on acceptable terms, if and when needed, our ability to fund our operations, meet obligations in the normal course of business, take advantage of strategic business opportunities, or otherwise respond to competitive pressures would be significantly limited.
Restrictive covenants in our credit agreement may restrict our ability to pursue certain business strategies.
Our credit agreement limits or restricts our ability to, among other things: incur additional indebtedness; create liens securing debt or other encumbrances on our assets; make loans or advances; pay dividends or make distributions to our stockholders; purchase or redeem our stock; repay indebtedness that is junior to indebtedness under our credit agreement; acquire the assets of, or merge or consolidate with, other companies; and sell, lease or otherwise dispose of assets.
Our credit agreement also requires that we maintain certain financial ratios, which we may not be able to achieve. The covenants may impair our ability to finance future operations or capital needs or to engage in other favorable business activities. Failing to comply with these covenants could result in an event of default under the Credit Agreement, which could result in us being required to repay the amounts outstanding prior to maturity. These prepayment obligations could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Furthermore, if we are unable to repay the amounts due and payable under the Credit Agreement, the lenders could proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure that indebtedness. In the event the lenders accelerate the repayment of our borrowings, we and our subsidiaries may not have sufficient assets to repay that indebtedness.
We may not have the ability to raise the funds necessary to settle conversions of our convertible notes or to repurchase our convertible notes upon a fundamental change, and our future debt may contain limitations on our ability to pay cash upon conversion or repurchase of our convertible notes.
Holders of our convertible notes have the right, subject to certain conditions and limited exceptions, to require us to repurchase all or a portion of their convertible notes upon the occurrence of a fundamental change (as defined in the indenture governing the convertible notes) at a fundamental change repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the convertible notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any, to, but excluding, the fundamental change repurchase date. In addition, upon any conversion of our convertible notes, we will be required to make cash payments for each $1,000 in principal amount of our convertible notes converted of at least the lesser of $1,000 and the sum of the daily conversion values indenture governing our convertible notes. However, we may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to make repurchases of our convertible notes surrendered therefor or pay cash with respect to our convertible notes being converted. In addition, our ability to repurchase our convertible notes or to pay cash upon conversions of our convertible notes may be limited by law, by regulatory authority or by agreements governing our future indebtedness. Our failure to repurchase our convertible notes at a time when the repurchase is required by the indenture governing our convertible notes or to pay any cash payable on future conversions of our convertible notes as required by the indenture governing our convertible notes would constitute a default under the indenture governing our convertible notes. A default under the indenture governing our convertible notes or the fundamental change itself could also lead to a default under agreements governing our indebtedness. If the repayment of the related indebtedness were to be accelerated after any applicable notice or grace periods, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and repurchase our convertible notes or make cash payments upon conversions thereof.
The conditional conversion feature of our convertible notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
In the event the conditional conversion feature of our convertible notes is triggered, holders of our convertible notes will be entitled to convert their notes at any time during specified periods at their option. If one or more holders elect to convert their notes, we would be required to settle any converted principal amount of such notes through the payment of cash, which could adversely affect our liquidity. In addition, even if holders do not elect to convert their notes, we could be required under applicable accounting rules to reclassify all or a portion of the outstanding principal of our convertible notes as a current rather than long-term liability, which would result in a material reduction of our net working capital.
Changes in the accounting method for convertible debt securities that may be settled in cash, such as our convertible notes, could have a material effect on our reported financial results.
The accounting method for reflecting our convertible notes on our balance sheet, accruing interest expense for our convertible notes and reflecting the underlying shares of our common stock in our reported diluted earnings per share may adversely affect our reported earnings and financial condition.
In August 2020, the Financial Accounting Standards Board published Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2020-06 (“ASU 2020-06”), which simplified certain of the accounting standards that apply to convertible notes. ASU 2020-06 eliminated the cash conversion and beneficial conversion feature modes used to separately account for embedded conversion features as a component of equity. Instead, an entity would account for convertible debt or convertible preferred stock securities as a single unit of account, unless the conversion feature requires bifurcation and recognition as derivatives. Additionally, the guidance requires entities to use the “if-converted” method for all convertible instruments in the diluted earnings per share calculation and to include the effect of potential share settlement for instruments that may be settled in cash or shares. We adopted ASU 2020-06 in the first quarter of fiscal year 2020.
In accordance with ASU 2020-06, our convertible notes are reflected as a liability on our balance sheets, with the initial carrying amount equal to the principal amount of the convertible notes, net of issuance costs. The issuance costs were treated as contra debt for accounting purposes, which will be amortized into interest expense over the term of our convertible notes. As a result of this amortization, the interest expense that we expect to recognize for our convertible notes for accounting purposes will be greater than the cash interest payments we will pay on our convertible notes.
In addition, the shares of our common stock underlying our convertible notes will be reflected in our diluted earnings per share using the “if converted” method, in accordance with ASU 2020-06. Under the “if converted” method, diluted earnings per share would generally be calculated assuming that all our convertible notes were converted solely into shares of our common stock at the beginning of the reporting period, unless the result would be anti-dilutive. However, for convertible notes in which the principal amount must be settled in cash and the conversion spread value in shares or cash upon conversions (such as our convertible notes), the “if converted” method requires that interest expense is not adjusted in the numerator and the denominator only includes the net number of incremental shares that would be issued upon conversion. The application of the if-converted method may reduce our reported diluted earnings per share, to the extent the price of our common stock exceeds the conversion price. Accounting standards may change in the future in a manner that may adversely affect our diluted earnings per share.
Furthermore, if any of the conditions to the convertibility of our convertible notes is satisfied, then we may be required under applicable accounting standards to reclassify the liability carrying value of our convertible notes as a current, rather than
a long-term, liability. This reclassification could be required even if no holders convert their notes and could materially reduce our reported working capital.
Conversion of our convertible notes may dilute the ownership interest of our stockholders or may otherwise depress the price of our common stock.
The conversion of some or all of our convertible notes may dilute the ownership interests of our stockholders. Upon conversion of our convertible notes, we have the option to pay or deliver, as the case may be, cash, shares of our common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock in respect of the remainder, if any, of our conversion obligation in excess of the aggregate principal amount of our convertible notes being converted. If we elect to settle the remainder, if any, of our conversion obligation in excess of the aggregate principal amount of our convertible notes being converted in shares of our common stock or a combination of cash and shares of our common stock, any sales in the public market of our common stock issuable upon such conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. In addition, the existence of our convertible notes may encourage short selling by market participants because the conversion of our convertible notes could be used to satisfy short positions, or anticipated conversion of our convertible notes into shares of our common stock could depress the price of our common stock.
The capped call transactions may affect the value of our common stock.
In connection with the pricing of our convertible notes, we entered into privately negotiated capped call transactions with the option counterparties. The capped call transactions cover, subject to customary adjustments substantially similar to those applicable to our convertible notes, the number of shares of our common stock initially underlying our convertible notes. The capped call transactions are expected generally to reduce the potential dilution to our common stock upon any conversion of our convertible notes and/or offset any cash payments we are required to make in excess of the principal amount of converted notes (if and when we elect to settle the conversion spread value in cash), as the case may be, with such reduction and/or offset subject to a cap.
In addition, the option counterparties or their respective affiliates may modify their hedge positions by entering into or unwinding various derivatives with respect to our common stock and/or purchasing or selling our common stock or other securities of ours in secondary market transactions following the pricing of our convertible notes and prior to the maturity of our convertible notes (and are likely to do so during any observation period related to a conversion of our convertible notes or, to the extent we exercise the relevant election under the capped call transactions, following any repurchase or redemption of our convertible notes). This activity could also cause or avoid an increase or a decrease in the market price of our common stock.
In addition, if any such capped call transactions fail to become effective, the option counterparties or their respective affiliates may unwind their hedge positions with respect to our common stock, which could adversely affect the value of our common stock.
We are subject to counterparty risk with respect to the capped call transactions.
The option counterparties are financial institutions, and we are subject to the risk that any or all of them might default under the capped call transactions. Our exposure to the credit risk of the option counterparties is not secured by any collateral.
If an option counterparty becomes subject to insolvency proceedings, we will become an unsecured creditor in those proceedings with a claim equal to our exposure at that time under the capped call transaction with such option counterparty. Our exposure will depend on many factors but, generally, an increase in our exposure will be correlated to an increase in the market price and in the volatility of our common stock. In addition, upon a default by an option counterparty, we may suffer adverse tax consequences and more dilution than we currently anticipate with respect to our common stock. We can provide no assurances as to the financial stability or viability of the option counterparties.
Risks Related to Growth and Acquisitions
If we are not able to successfully manage our growth strategy, our business and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Our expected future growth presents numerous managerial, administrative, operational and other challenges. Our ability to manage the growth of our operations will require us to continue to improve our management information systems and our other internal systems and controls. In addition, our growth will increase our need to attract, develop, motivate and retain both our management and professional employees. The inability to effectively manage our growth or the inability of our employees to achieve anticipated performance could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We have made and expect to continue to make acquisitions. Acquisitions could disrupt our operations and adversely impact our business and operating results. Our failure to conduct due diligence effectively or our inability to successfully integrate acquisitions could impede us from realizing all of the benefits of the acquisitions, which could weaken our results of operations.
A key part of our growth strategy is to acquire other companies that complement our lines of business or that broaden our technical capabilities and geographic presence. However, our ability to make acquisitions is restricted under our credit agreement. Acquisitions involve certain known and unknown risks that could cause our actual growth or operating results to differ from our expectations or the expectations of securities analysts. For example: we may not be able to identify suitable acquisition candidates or to acquire additional companies on acceptable terms; we have completed and we will continue to pursue international acquisitions, which inherently pose more risk than domestic acquisitions; we compete with others to acquire companies, which may result in decreased availability of, or increased price for, suitable acquisition candidates; and we may not be able to obtain the necessary financing, on favorable terms or at all, to finance any of our potential acquisitions.
If we fail to conduct due diligence on our potential targets effectively, we may, for example, not identify problems at target companies, or fail to recognize incompatibilities or other obstacles to successful integration. The integration process may disrupt our business and, if implemented ineffectively, may preclude realization of the full benefits expected by us and could harm our results of operations.
Further, acquisitions may cause us to: issue common stock that would dilute our current stockholders’ ownership percentage; use a substantial portion of our cash resources; increase our interest expense, leverage and debt service requirements (if we incur additional debt to fund an acquisition); or record goodwill and non-amortizable intangible assets that are subject to impairment testing and potential impairment charges.
If our goodwill or other intangible assets become impaired, then our profits may be significantly reduced.
Because we have historically acquired a significant number of companies, goodwill and other intangible assets represent a substantial portion of our assets. As of October 1, 2023, our goodwill was $1.9 billion and other intangible assets were $173.9 million. We are required to perform a goodwill impairment test for potential impairment at least on an annual basis. We also assess the recoverability of the unamortized balance of our intangible assets when indications of impairment are present based on expected future profitability and undiscounted expected cash flows and their contribution to our overall operations. The goodwill impairment test requires us to determine the fair value of our reporting units, which are the components one level below our reportable segments. In determining fair value, we make significant judgments and estimates, including assumptions about our strategic plans with regard to our operations. We also analyze current economic indicators and market valuations to help determine fair value. To the extent economic conditions that would impact the future operations of our reporting units change, our goodwill may be deemed to be impaired, and we would be required to record a non-cash charge that could result in a material adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations. We had no goodwill impairment in fiscal 2023, 2022 or 2021.
Risks Related to Our Legal and Regulatory Environment
As a U.S. government contractor, we must comply with various procurement laws and regulations and are subject to regular government audits; a violation of any of these laws and regulations or the failure to pass a government audit could result in sanctions, contract termination, forfeiture of profit, harm to our reputation or loss of our status as an eligible government contractor and could reduce our profits and revenue.
We must comply with and are affected by U.S. federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations relating to the formation, administration and performance of government contracts. For example, we must comply with FAR, the Truth in Negotiations Act, CAS, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the Services Contract Act, the DoD security regulations as well as many other rules and regulations. In addition, we must comply with other government regulations related to employment practices, environmental protection, health and safety, tax, accounting, anti-fraud measures as well as many other regulations in order to maintain our government contractor status. These laws and regulations affect how we do business with our clients and, in some instances, impose additional costs on our business operations. Although we take precautions to prevent and deter fraud, misconduct and non-compliance, we face the risk that our employees or outside partners may engage in misconduct, fraud or other improper activities. U.S. government agencies, such as the DCAA, routinely audit and investigate government contractors. These government agencies review and audit a government contractor’s performance under its contracts and cost structure, and evaluate compliance with applicable laws, regulations and standards. In addition, during the course of its audits, the DCAA may question our incurred project costs. If the DCAA believes we have accounted for such costs in a manner inconsistent with the requirements for FAR or CAS, the DCAA auditor may recommend to our U.S. government corporate administrative contracting officer that such costs be disallowed. Historically, we have not experienced significant disallowed costs as a result of government audits. However, we can provide no assurance that the DCAA or other government audits will not result in material disallowances for incurred costs in the future. In addition, U.S. government contracts are subject to various other requirements relating to the formation, administration, performance and accounting for these contracts. We may also be subject to qui tam litigation brought by private individuals on behalf of the U.S. government under the Federal Civil False Claims Act, which could include claims for treble damages. For example, as discussed elsewhere in this report, on January 14, 2019, the Civil Division of the United States Attorney’s Office filed complaints in intervention in three qui tam actions filed against our subsidiary, Tetra Tech EC, Inc., in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California. U.S.
government contract violations could result in the imposition of civil and criminal penalties or sanctions, contract termination, forfeiture of profit and/or suspension of payment, any of which could make us lose our status as an eligible government contractor. We could also suffer serious harm to our reputation. Any interruption or termination of our U.S. government contractor status could reduce our profits and revenue significantly.
Legal proceedings, investigations and disputes could result in substantial monetary penalties and damages, especially if such penalties and damages exceed or are excluded from existing insurance coverage.
We engage in consulting, engineering, program management and technical services that can result in substantial injury or damages that may expose us to legal proceedings, investigations and disputes. For example, in the ordinary course of our business, we may be involved in legal disputes regarding personal injury claims, employee or labor disputes, professional liability claims and general commercial disputes involving project cost overruns and liquidated damages as well as other claims. In addition, in the ordinary course of our business, we frequently make professional judgments and recommendations about environmental and engineering conditions of project sites for our clients, and we may be deemed to be responsible for these judgments and recommendations if they are later determined to be inaccurate. Any unfavorable legal ruling against us could result in substantial monetary damages or even criminal violations. We maintain insurance coverage as part of our overall legal and risk management strategy to minimize our potential liabilities; however, insurance coverage contains exclusions and other limitations that may not cover our potential liabilities. Generally, our insurance program covers workers’ compensation and employer’s liability, general liability, automobile liability, professional errors and omissions liability, property and contractor’s pollution liability (in addition to other policies for specific projects). Our insurance program includes deductibles or self-insured retentions for each covered claim that may increase over time. In addition, our insurance policies contain exclusions that insurance providers may use to deny or restrict coverage. Excess liability and professional liability insurance policies provide for coverage on a “claims-made” basis, covering only claims actually made and reported during the policy period currently in effect. If we sustain liabilities that exceed or that are excluded from our insurance coverage, or for which we are not insured, it could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We could be adversely affected by violations of the FCPA and similar worldwide anti-bribery laws.
The FCPA and similar anti-bribery laws generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making direct or indirect improper payments to foreign government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. The FCPA also requires public companies to make and keep books and records that accurately and fairly reflect the transactions of the corporation and to devise and maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls. The U.K. Bribery Act of 2010 prohibits both domestic and international bribery, as well as bribery across both private and public sectors. In addition, an organization that “fails to prevent bribery” by anyone associated with the organization can be charged under the U.K. Bribery Act unless the organization can establish the defense of having implemented “adequate procedures” to prevent bribery. Improper payments are also prohibited under the Canadian Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act and the Brazilian Clean Companies Act. Local business practices in many countries outside the United States create a greater risk of government corruption than that found in the United States and other more developed countries. Our policies mandate compliance with anti-bribery laws, and we have established policies and procedures designed to monitor compliance with anti-bribery law requirements; however, we cannot ensure that our policies and procedures will prevent potential reckless or criminal acts committed by individual employees, agents or partners. If we are found to be liable for anti-bribery law violations, we could suffer from criminal or civil penalties or other sanctions that could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We could be adversely impacted if we fail to comply with domestic and international export control and sanctions laws.
To the extent we export technical services, data and products outside of the United States, we are subject to U.S. and international laws and regulations governing international trade and exports, including but not limited to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations, the Export Administration Regulations and trade sanctions. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit altogether the sale or supply of certain of our services to certain governments, persons, entities, countries, and territories, including those that are the target of comprehensive sanctions, unless there are license exceptions that apply or specific licenses are obtained. A failure to comply with these laws and regulations could result in civil or criminal sanctions, including the imposition of fines, the denial of export privileges and suspension or debarment from participation in U.S. government contracts, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
New legal requirements could adversely affect our operating results.
Our business and results of operations could be adversely affected by the passage of climate change, defense, environmental, infrastructure and other legislation, policies and regulations. Growing concerns about climate change may result in the imposition of additional environmental regulations. For example, legislation, international protocols, regulation or other restrictions on emissions could increase the costs of projects for our clients or, in some cases, prevent a project from going forward, thereby potentially reducing the need for our services. In addition, relaxation or repeal of laws and regulations, or changes in governmental policies regarding environmental, defense, infrastructure or other industries we serve could result in a
decline in demand for our services, which could in turn negatively impact our revenues. We cannot predict when or whether any of these various proposals may be enacted or what their effect will be on us or on our customers.
We may be subject to liabilities under environmental laws and regulations.
Our services are subject to numerous U.S. and international environmental protection laws and regulations that are complex and stringent. For example, we must comply with a number of U.S. federal government laws that strictly regulate the handling, removal, treatment, transportation and disposal of toxic and hazardous substances. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980, as amended (“CERCLA”), and comparable state laws, we may be required to investigate and remediate regulated hazardous materials. CERCLA and comparable state laws typically impose strict, joint and several liabilities without regard to whether a company knew of or caused the release of hazardous substances. The liability for the entire cost of clean-up could be imposed upon any responsible party. Other principal U.S. federal environmental, health and safety laws affecting us include, but are not limited to, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Air Act, the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 (the “Mine Act”), the Toxic Substances Control Act and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. Our business operations may also be subject to similar state and international laws relating to environmental protection. Further, past business practices at companies that we have acquired may also expose us to future unknown environmental liabilities. Liabilities related to environmental contamination or human exposure to hazardous substances, or a failure to comply with applicable regulations, could result in substantial costs to us, including clean-up costs, fines, civil or criminal sanctions, and third-party claims for property damage or personal injury or cessation of remediation activities. Our continuing work in the areas governed by these laws and regulations exposes us to the risk of substantial liability.
Uncertainties in the interpretation and application of existing, new and proposed tax laws and regulations could materially affect our tax obligations and effective tax rate.
The tax regimes to which we are subject or under which we operate are unsettled and may be subject to significant change. The issuance of additional guidance related to existing or future tax laws, or changes to tax laws, tax treaties or regulations proposed or implemented by the current or a future U.S. presidential administration, Congress, or taxing authorities in other jurisdictions, including jurisdictions outside of the United States, could materially affect our tax obligations and effective tax rate. To the extent that such changes have a negative impact on us, including as a result of related uncertainty, these changes may adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.
The amount of taxes we pay in different jurisdictions depends on the application of the tax laws of various jurisdictions, including the United States, to our international business activities, the relative amounts of income before taxes in the various jurisdictions in which we operate, new or revised tax laws, or interpretations of tax laws and policies, the outcome of current and future tax audits, examinations or administrative appeals, our ability to realize our deferred tax assets, and our ability to operate our business in a manner consistent with our corporate structure and intercompany arrangements. The taxing authorities of the jurisdictions in which we operate may challenge our methodologies for pricing intercompany transactions pursuant to our intercompany arrangements or disagree with our determinations as to the income and expenses attributable to specific jurisdictions. If such a challenge or disagreement were to occur, and our position was not sustained, we could be required to pay additional taxes, interest, and penalties, which could result in one-time tax charges, higher effective tax rates, reduced cash flows, and lower overall profitability of our operations. Our financial statements could fail to reflect adequate reserves to cover such a contingency. Similarly, a taxing authority could assert that we are subject to tax in a jurisdiction where we believe we have not established a taxable connection, often referred to as a “permanent establishment” under international tax treaties, and such an assertion, if successful, could increase our expected tax liability in one or more jurisdictions.
Employee, agent or partner misconduct, or our failure to comply with anti-bribery and other laws or regulations, could harm our reputation, reduce our revenue and profits and subject us to criminal and civil enforcement actions.
Misconduct, fraud, non-compliance with applicable laws and regulations or other improper activities by one of our employees, agents or partners could have a significant negative impact on our business and reputation. Such misconduct could include the failure to comply with government procurement regulations, regulations regarding the protection of classified information, regulations prohibiting bribery and other foreign corrupt practices, regulations regarding the pricing of labor and other costs in government contracts, regulations on lobbying or similar activities, regulations pertaining to the internal controls over financial reporting, environmental laws and any other applicable laws or regulations. Our policies mandate compliance with these regulations and laws, and we take precautions to prevent and detect misconduct. However, since our internal controls are subject to inherent limitations, including human error, it is possible that these controls could be intentionally circumvented or become inadequate because of changed conditions. As a result, we cannot assure that our controls will protect us from reckless or criminal acts committed by our employees, agents or partners. Our failure to comply with applicable laws or regulations or acts of misconduct could subject us to fines and penalties, loss of security clearances and suspension or debarment from contracting, any or all of which could harm our reputation, reduce our revenue and profits and subject us to criminal and civil enforcement actions.
If our reports and opinions are not in compliance with professional standards and other regulations, we could be subject to monetary damages and penalties.
We issue reports and opinions to clients based on our professional engineering expertise, as well as our other professional credentials. Our reports and opinions may need to comply with professional standards, licensing requirements, securities regulations and other laws and rules governing the performance of professional services in the jurisdiction in which the services are performed. In addition, the reports and other work product we produce for clients sometimes include projections, forecasts and other forward-looking statements. Such information by its nature is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, any of which could cause the information produced by us to ultimately prove inaccurate. While we include appropriate disclaimers in the reports that we prepare for our clients, once we produce such written work product, we do not always have the ability to control the manner in which our clients use such information. As a result, if our clients reproduce such information to solicit funds from investors for projects without appropriate disclaimers or the information proves to be incorrect, or if our clients reproduce such information for potential investors in a misleading or incomplete manner, our clients or such investors may threaten to or file suit against us for, among other things, securities law violations.
We have only a limited ability to protect our intellectual property rights, and our failure to protect our intellectual property rights could adversely affect our competitive position.
We rely upon a combination of nondisclosure agreements and other contractual arrangements, as well as copyright, trademark, patent and trade secret laws to protect our proprietary information. We also enter into proprietary information and intellectual property agreements with employees, which require them to disclose any inventions created during employment, to convey such rights to inventions to us, and to restrict any disclosure of proprietary information. Trade secrets are generally difficult to protect. Although our employees are subject to confidentiality obligations, this protection may be inadequate to deter or prevent misappropriation of our confidential information and/or the infringement of our patents and copyrights. Further, we may be unable to detect unauthorized use of our intellectual property or otherwise take appropriate steps to enforce our rights. Failure to adequately protect, maintain or enforce our intellectual property rights may adversely limit our competitive position.
Assertions by third parties of infringement, misappropriation or other violations by us of their intellectual property rights could result in significant costs and substantially harm our business, financial condition and operating results.
In recent years, there has been significant litigation involving intellectual property rights in technology industries. We may face from time to time, allegations that we or a supplier or customer have violated the rights of third parties, including patent, trademark and other intellectual property rights. If, with respect to any claim against us for violation of third-party intellectual property rights, we are unable to prevail in the litigation or retain or obtain sufficient rights or develop non-infringing intellectual property or otherwise alter our business practices on a timely or cost-efficient basis, our business, financial condition or results of operations may be adversely affected.
Any infringement, misappropriation or related claims, whether or not meritorious, are time consuming, divert technical and management personnel and are costly to resolve. As a result of any such dispute, we may have to develop non-infringing technology, pay damages, enter into royalty or licensing agreements, cease utilizing products or services or take other actions to resolve the claims. These actions, if required, may be costly or unavailable on terms acceptable to us.
We are subject to stringent and evolving U.S. and foreign laws, regulations, rules, contractual obligations, policies and other obligations related to data privacy and security. Our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could lead to regulatory investigations or actions; litigation (including class claims) and mass arbitration demands; fines and penalties; disruptions of our business operations; reputational harm; loss of revenue or profits; loss of customers or sales; and other adverse business consequences.
We develop, install and maintain information technology systems for ourselves, as well as for customers. Client contracts for the performance of information technology services, as well as various privacy and securities laws, require us to manage and protect sensitive and confidential information, including federal and other government information, from disclosure. We also need to protect our own internal trade secrets and other business confidential information, as well as personal data of our employees and contractors, from disclosure.
In the United States, federal, state, and local governments have enacted numerous data privacy and security laws, including data breach notification laws, personal data privacy laws, consumer protection laws (e.g., Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act), and other similar laws. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, as amended by the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020 (“CPRA”), (collectively, “CCPA”) applies to personal information of consumers, business representatives, and employees who are California residents, and requires businesses to provide specific disclosures in privacy notices and honor requests of such individuals to exercise certain privacy rights. The CCPA provides for administrative fines of up to $7,500 per violation and allows private litigants affected by certain data breaches to recover significant statutory damages. Other states, such as Virginia and Colorado, have also passed comprehensive privacy laws, and similar laws are being considered in several other states, as well as at the federal and local levels.
Outside the United States, an increasing number of laws, regulations, and industry standards govern data privacy and security. For example, the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation ("EU GDPR"), the United Kingdom’s GDPR, and Brazil’s General Data Protection Law (Lei Geral de Proteção de Dados Pessoais, or “LGPD”) (Law No. 13,709/2018) impose strict requirements for processing personal data. For example, the EU GDPR extends the scope of the European Union data protection laws to all companies processing data of European Union residents, regardless of the company's location.
In the ordinary course of business, we may transfer personal data from Europe and other jurisdictions to the United States or other countries. Europe and other jurisdictions have enacted laws requiring data to be localized or limiting the transfer of personal data to other countries. In particular, the European Economic Area (“EEA”) and the United Kingdom (“UK”) have significantly restricted the transfer of personal data to the United States and other countries whose privacy laws it generally believes are inadequate. Other jurisdictions may adopt similarly stringent interpretations of their data localization and cross-border data transfer laws.
Although there are currently various mechanisms that may be used to transfer personal data from the EEA and UK to the United States in compliance with law, such as the EEA and UK’s standard contractual clauses, the UK’s International Data Transfer Agreement / Addendum, and the EU-U.S. Data Privacy Framework (which allows for transfers for relevant U.S.-based organizations who self-certify compliance and participate in the Framework), these mechanisms are subject to legal challenges, and there is no assurance that we can satisfy or rely on these measures to lawfully transfer personal data to the United States.
If there is no lawful manner for us to transfer personal data from the EEA, the UK or other jurisdictions to the United States, or if the requirements for a legally-compliant transfer are too onerous, we could face significant adverse consequences, including the interruption or degradation of our operations, the need to relocate part of or all of our business or data processing activities to other jurisdictions (such as Europe) at significant expense, increased exposure to regulatory actions, substantial fines and penalties, the inability to transfer data and work with partners, vendors and other third parties, and injunctions against our processing or transferring of personal data necessary to operate our business. Additionally, companies that transfer personal data out of the EEA and UK to other jurisdictions, particularly to the United States, are subject to increased scrutiny from regulators, individual litigants, and activist groups.
General Risk Factors
We may not be able to continue, or may elect to discontinue, paying dividends which may adversely affect our stock price.
Current dividends may not be indicative of future dividends, and our ability to continue to pay or increase dividends to our stockholders is subject to our board of director’s discretion and depends on: our ability to comply with covenants imposed by our financing agreements that limit our ability to pay dividends and make certain restricted payments; difficulties in raising additional capital; our ability to re-finance our long-term debt before it matures; principal repayments and other capital needs; our results of operations and general business conditions; legal restrictions on the payment of dividends and other factors that our board of directors deems relevant. In the future we may elect not to pay dividends, be unable to pay dividends or maintain or increase our current level of dividends, which may negatively affect our stock price.
Delaware law and our organizational documents may impede or discourage a merger, takeover or other business combination with us even if the business combination would have been in the short-term best interests of our stockholders.
We are a Delaware corporation and the anti-takeover provisions of Delaware law impose various impediments to the ability of a third party to acquire control of us, even if a change in control would be beneficial to our stockholders. In addition, our Board of Directors has the power, without stockholder approval, to designate the terms of one or more series of preferred stock and issue shares of preferred stock, which could be used defensively if a takeover is threatened. These features, as well as provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, such as those relating to advance notice of certain stockholder proposals and nominations, could impede a merger, takeover or other business combination involving us, or discourage a potential acquirer from making a tender offer for our common stock, even if the business combination would have been in the best interests of our current stockholders.
Item 1B Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
At fiscal 2023 year-end, we leased approximately 550 operating facilities in domestic and foreign locations. Our significant lease agreements expire at various dates through 2032. We believe that our current facilities are adequate for the operation of our business, and that suitable additional space in various local markets is available to accommodate any needs that may arise.
The following table summarizes our ten most significant leased properties by location based on annual rental expenses (listed alphabetically, except for our corporate headquarters):
|Location|| ||Description|| ||Reportable Segment|
|Pasadena, CA|| ||Corporate Headquarters|| ||Corporate|
|Arlington, VA|| ||Office Building||GSG|
|Boston, MA||Office Building||GSG / CIG|
|Irvine, CA||Office Building||GSG / CIG|
|London, United Kingdom||Office Building||GSG / CIG|
|Melbourne, Australia||Office Building||CIG|
|New York, NY||Office Building||GSG /CIG|
|Orlando, FL||Office Building||GSG / CIG|
|Pittsburgh, PA||Office Building||GSG / CIG|
|Portland, OR||Office Building||GSG / CIG|
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
For a description of our material pending legal and regulatory proceedings and settlements, see Note 17, "Commitments and Contingencies" of the "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" included in Item 8.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Section 1503 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the "Dodd-Frank Act") requires domestic mine operators to disclose violations and orders issued under the Mine Act by MSHA. We do not act as the owner of any mines, but we may act as a mining operator as defined under the Mine Act where we may be an independent contractor performing services or construction at such mine. Information concerning mine safety violations or other regulatory matters required by Section 1503(a) of the Dodd-Frank Act and Item 104 of Regulation S-K is included in Exhibit 95.
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol TTEK. There were approximately 1,088 stockholders of record at October 1, 2023.
For information regarding our stock-based compensation, see Note 11, "Stockholders' Equity and Stock Compensation Plans" of the "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" included in Item 8.
The following graph shows a comparison of our cumulative total returns with those of the NASDAQ Market Index and the Standard & Poor's ("S&P") 1000 Index. At this time, we do not have a comparable peer group due to the combination of our differentiated high-end consulting services and our end-markets. Thus, we have selected the S&P 1000 Index. The graph assumes that the value of an investment in our common stock and in each such index was $100 on September 30, 2018, and that all dividends have been reinvested. Dividends declared and paid in fiscal 2023 totaled $0.98 per share. We declared and paid dividends in the first and second quarters totaling $0.46 per share ($0.23 each quarter) on our common stock and paid dividends in the third and fourth quarters totaling $0.52 per share ($0.26 each quarter) on our common stock. We declared and paid dividends totaling $0.86, $0.74, $0.64 and $0.54 per share in fiscal 2022, 2021, 2020 and 2019, respectively. The comparison in the graph below is based on historical data and is not intended to forecast the possible future performance of our common stock.
ASSUMES $100 INVESTED ON SEPTEMBER 30, 2018
ASSUMES DIVIDEND REINVESTED
FISCAL YEAR ENDED OCTOBER 1, 2023
|Tetra Tech, Inc.||$||100.00 ||$||125.39 ||$||135.75 ||$||227.19 ||$||193.42 ||$||230.26 |
|NASDAQ Market Index||100.00 ||99.77 ||138.47 ||186.08 ||136.12 ||171.65 |
|S&P 1000 Index||100.00 ||94.85 ||89.34 ||137.53 ||113.09 ||128.76 |
The performance graph above and related text are being furnished solely to accompany this annual report on Form 10-K pursuant to Item 201(e) of Regulation S-K, and are not being filed for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, and are not to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings with the SEC, whether made before or after the date hereof, regardless of any general incorporation language in such filing.
Stock Repurchase Program
On October 5, 2021, our Board of Directors authorized a new stock repurchase program under which we could repurchase up to $400 million of our common stock. In fiscal 2023, we did not repurchase any shares of our common stock. In fiscal 2022, we repurchased and settled 1,341,679 shares with an average price of $149.07 per share for a total cost of $200.0 million. At October 1, 2023, we had a remaining balance of $347.8 million under our stock repurchase program.
Item 6. [Reserved]
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with Part I of this report, as well as our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes in Item 8. The following analysis contains forward-looking statements about our future results of operations and expectations. Our actual results and the timing of events could differ materially from those described herein. See Part 1, Item 1A, "Risk Factors" for a discussion of the risks, assumptions and uncertainties affecting these statements.
OVERVIEW OF RESULTS AND BUSINESS TRENDS
General. In fiscal 2023, our revenue increased 29.1% compared to fiscal 2022. This growth includes approximately $600 million from the acquisition of RPS Group plc ("RPS"), which was completed in the second quarter of fiscal 2023. Excluding RPS, our revenue increased 12.0% in fiscal 2023 compared to last year. This year-over-year growth reflects increased activity in our U.S. Federal, U.S. Commercial and International client sectors.
U.S. Federal Government. Our U.S. federal government revenue increased 30.3% in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022. This increase was primarily due to more international development and broad-based increases across civilian agencies. During periods of economic volatility, our U.S. federal government business has historically been the most stable and predictable. We expect our U.S. federal government revenue to continue to grow in fiscal 2024. Approximately $1 trillion in new U.S. federal funding passed in 2021 through the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, the Inflation Reduction Act and the CHIPS and Science Act. Each of these programs include substantial planned investments in our key end markets including water, environment and sustainable infrastructure over the next five to ten years.
U.S. State and Local Government. Our U.S. state and local government revenue increased 0.6% in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022, which includes lower disaster response activity. Excluding disaster response and the contribution from RPS, our state and local government revenue increased 14.9% in fiscal 2023 compared to last year. The increase reflects continued broad-based growth in our U.S. state and local government infrastructure business, particularly with increased revenue from municipal water infrastructure work, including digital water projects. Most of our work for the U.S. state and local governments relates to critical water and environmental programs, which we expect to continue to grow in fiscal 2024.
U.S. Commercial. Our U.S. commercial revenue increased 16.1% in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022. Excluding the contribution from RPS, our U.S. commercial revenue increased 8.2% in fiscal 2023 compared to last year. This increase was primarily due to more activity on clean energy and environmental programs, including meeting net zero carbon goals and designing high performance buildings. We expect growth in our U.S. commercial work to continue in fiscal 2024.
International. Our international revenue increased 52.5% in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022. Excluding the contribution from RPS, our international revenue increased 10.2%, on a constant currency basis, compared to last year. This revenue growth reflects government stimulus spending on infrastructure and commercial activities related to an increased focus on sustainability. We expect growth in our international work to continue in fiscal 2024.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Fiscal 2023 Compared to Fiscal 2022
Consolidated Results of Operations
|Fiscal Year Ended|
|($ in thousands, except per share data)|
|Revenue||$||4,522,550 ||$||3,504,048 ||$||1,018,502 ||29.1%|
Revenue, net of subcontractor costs (1)
|3,751,089 ||2,835,580 ||915,509 ||32.3|
|Other costs of revenue||(3,026,060)||(2,260,021)||(766,039)||(33.9)|
|Gross profit||725,029 ||575,559 ||149,470 ||26.0|
|Selling, general and administrative expenses||(305,107)||(234,784)||(70,323)||(30.0)|
|Acquisition and integration expenses||(33,169)||— ||(33,169)||NM|
|Right-of-use operating lease asset impairment||(16,385)||— ||(16,385)||NM|
|Contingent consideration – fair value adjustments||(12,255)||(329)||(11,926)||NM|
|Income from operations||358,113 ||340,446 ||17,667 ||5.2|
|Interest expense – net||(46,537)||(11,584)||(34,953)||(301.7)|
|Other non-operating income||89,402 ||19,904 ||69,498 ||349.2|
|Income before income tax expense||400,978 ||348,766 ||52,212 ||15.0|
|Income tax expense||(127,526)||(85,602)||(41,924)||(49.0)|
|Net income||273,452 ||263,164 ||10,288 ||3.9|
|Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests||(32)||(39)||7 ||17.9|
|Net income attributable to Tetra Tech||$||273,420 ||$||263,125 ||$||10,295 ||3.9|
|Diluted earnings per share||$||5.10 ||$||4.86 ||$||0.24 ||4.9%|
(1) We believe that the presentation of "Revenue, net of subcontractor costs", which is a non-U.S. GAAP financial measure, enhances investors' ability to analyze our business trends and performance because it substantially measures the work performed by our employees. In the course of providing services, we routinely subcontract various services and, under certain international development programs, issue grants. Generally, these subcontractor costs and grants are passed through to our clients and, in accordance with U.S. GAAP and industry practice, are included in our revenue when it is our contractual responsibility to procure or manage these activities. Because subcontractor services can vary significantly from project to project and period to period, changes in revenue may not necessarily be indicative of our business trends. Accordingly, we segregate subcontractor costs from revenue to promote a better understanding of our business by evaluating revenue exclusive of costs associated with external service providers.
NM = not meaningful
In fiscal 2023, revenue and revenue, net of subcontractor costs, increased $1.02 billion, or 29.1%, and $915.5 million, or 32.3%, respectively, compared to fiscal 2022. Excluding the contribution from RPS, our revenue increased 12.0% in fiscal 2023 compared to last year. Our GSG segment's revenue and revenue, net of subcontractor costs, increased $338.0 million, or 18.6%, and $299.0 million, or 22.4%, respectively, in fiscal 2023 compared to the prior year. Our CIG segment's revenue increased $686.2 million, or 39.5%, and revenue, net of subcontractor costs, increased $616.5 million, or 41.1% in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022. Excluding the contribution from RPS, our CIG segment's revenue increased approximately 6.7% in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022 (9.5% on a constant currency basis). The fiscal 2023 results for GSG and CIG segments are described below under "Government Services Group" and "Commercial/International Services Group", respectively.
The following table reconciles our reported results to non-U.S. GAAP adjusted results, which exclude acquisition and integration costs related to the RPS acquisition and related lease impairment charge in fiscal 2023, adjustments to contingent consideration liabilities, and a non-operating benefit from Employee Retention Credits ("ERC's") received in fiscal 2022. Our adjusted earnings per share ("EPS") for fiscal 2023 also excludes non-operating gains on a foreign exchange contract of $89.4 million and non-recurring tax expense items. The foreign exchange gain is reported as "Other non-operating income" in our consolidated statements of income. The effective tax rates applied to the adjustments to EPS to arrive at adjusted EPS average 26% for both fiscal 2023 and 2022. We applied the relevant marginal statutory tax rate based on the nature of the adjustments and the tax jurisdiction in which it occurred. Both EPS and adjusted EPS were calculated using diluted weighted-average common shares outstanding for the respective periods as reflected in our consolidated statements of income.
|Fiscal Year Ended|
|($ in thousands, except per share data)|
|Income from operations||$||358,113 ||$||340,446 ||$||17,667 ||5.2%|
|Employee retention credits||— ||(6,486)||6,486 ||NM|
|Acquisition & integration expenses||33,169 ||— ||33,169 ||NM|
|Right-of-use operating lease asset impairment||16,385 ||— ||16,385 ||NM|
|Earn-out adjustments||12,255 ||— ||12,255 ||NM|
Adjusted income from operations (1)
|$||419,922 ||$||333,960 ||$||85,962 ||25.7%|
|EPS||$||5.10 ||$||4.86 ||$||0.24 ||4.9%|
|Employee retention credits||— ||(0.08)||0.08 ||NM|
|Acquisition & integration expenses||0.56 ||— ||0.56 ||NM|
|Right-of-use operating lease asset impairment||0.22 ||— ||0.22 ||NM|
|Earn-out adjustments||0.19 ||— ||0.19 ||NM|
|Foreign exchange forward contract gain||(1.24)||(0.28)||(0.96)||NM|
|Non-recurring tax items||0.38 ||— ||0.38 ||NM|
Adjusted EPS (1)
|$||5.21 ||$||4.50 ||$||0.71 ||15.8%|
NM = not meaningful
(1) Non-U.S. GAAP financial measure
Operating income increased $17.7 million, or 5.2%, in fiscal 2023 compared to last year. The fiscal 2023 results include $33.2 million of acquisition and integration expenses (primarily investment banking, legal and other professional fees) for the RPS acquisition and a related $16.4 million of right-of-use ("ROU") lease asset impairment expense. The fiscal 2023 results also include losses of $12.3 million, related to changes in the estimated fair value of contingent earn-out liabilities. The fiscal 2022 results include the benefit of ERC's totaling $6.5 million, which represents reimbursement from the U.S. federal government under the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act (the "CARES Act") for the costs that we incurred during fiscal 2020 to address the COVID-19 pandemic. These amounts were recognized in fiscal 2022 when the funds were received due to the uncertainty related to the computation of qualifying amounts and delayed processing times for our application. These amounts were primarily reflected as a reduction to "Other costs of revenue" in our consolidated statement of income and an increase to "Net cash provided by operating activities" in our consolidated statement of cash flows for fiscal 2022, consistent with the presentation of the related costs recognized in fiscal 2020.
Excluding the acquisition and integration expenses, ROU asset impairment, earn-out losses and the ERC's, our adjusted operating income increased $86.0 million, or 25.7% in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022. These increases reflect improved results in both GSG and CIG segments, which are described below under "Government Services Group" and "Commercial/International Group", respectively.
Our net interest expense was $46.5 million and $11.6 million in fiscal 2023 and 2022, respectively. Net interest expense in fiscal 2023 included $2.7 million of additional expense for the write-off of previously deferred debt origination fees due to the cancellation of the bridge loan facility that we entered to support our offer to acquire RPS, which was replaced with an amendment to our existing debt facility and $1.1 million of additional expense for the write-off of previously deferred debt origination fees due to the repayment and cancellation of RPS' debt facilities. Excluding these write-offs, our interest expense increased $31.2 million in fiscal 2023 compared to last year primarily due to the additional borrowings to fund the RPS acquisition.
Other non-operating income of $89.4 million in fiscal 2023, reflect gains on a foreign exchange forward contract integrated with the RPS acquisition. Although an effective economic hedge of our foreign exchange risk related to this transaction, the forward contract did not qualify for hedge accounting. As a result, the forward contract was marked-to-market with changes in fair value recognized in earnings each period. The forward contract was settled on January 23, 2023, together with the closing of the RPS acquisition, with a cumulative cash gain of approximately $109 million.
The effective tax rates for fiscal 2023 and 2022 were 31.8% and 24.5%, respectively. Income tax expense in fiscal 2023 included non-operating income tax expenses totaling $20.6 million to (i) increase the tax liability for uncertain tax positions related to certain U.S. tax credits and an intercompany financing transaction, (ii) to recognize the tax liability for
foreign earnings, primarily in the U.K. and Australia, that are no longer indefinitely reinvested. In addition, income tax expense was reduced by $4.6 million and $10.3 million of excess tax benefits on share-based payments in fiscal 2023 and 2022, respectively. Excluding the impact of the non-operating tax expenses in fiscal 2023 and the excess tax benefits on share-based payments in both years, our effective tax rates in fiscal 2023 and 2022 were 27.8% and 27.5%.
Our EPS was $5.10 in fiscal 2023, compared to $4.86 in fiscal 2022. Excluding the aforementioned non-operating items (including the foreign exchange gain and the non-operating tax items, which are both reported outside of operating income), our adjusted EPS was $5.21 in fiscal 2023, compared to $4.50 in fiscal 2022, an increase of 15.8%. For fiscal 2023, we estimate that RPS increased our adjusted EPS by $0.07 before intangible amortization, which reduced our EPS by $0.37. Excluding RPS, our adjusted EPS was $5.51 in fiscal 2023 representing an increase of 22.4%, compared to fiscal 2022.
Segment Results of Operations
Government Services Group ("GSG")
|Fiscal Year Ended|
| ||October 1,|
|($ in thousands)|
|Revenue||$||2,158,889 ||$||1,820,868 ||$||338,021 ||18.6%|
|Revenue, net of subcontractor costs||$||1,635,440 ||$||1,336,456 ||$||298,984 ||22.4|
|Income from operations||$||231,762 ||$||198,448 ||$||33,314 ||16.8%|
Revenue and revenue, net of subcontractor costs, increased $338.0 million, or 18.6%, and increased $299.0 million, or 22.4%, respectively, in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022. This increase includes approximately $70 million in revenue in the second quarter of fiscal 2023 related to a distinct international development funded energy program in Ukraine. In addition, the increases reflect higher U.S. state and local government activities related to digital water and U.S. federal programs, partially offset by lower disaster response revenue.
Operating income increased $33.3 million in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022. The increase in operating income is consistent with the revenue increase noted above. The fiscal 2023 results were reduced by $6.8 million of the aforementioned lease impairment charge and the fiscal 2022 results included $4.4 million of the aforementioned ERC's. Our operating margin, based on revenue, net of subcontractor costs, was 14.2% in fiscal 2023 compared to 14.8% last year. Excluding the lease impairment charge in fiscal 2023 and last year's ERC's, our operating margin increased to 14.6% in fiscal 2023 from 14.5% in fiscal 2022.
Commercial/International Services Group ("CIG")
| ||Fiscal Year Ended|
| ||October 1,|
|($ in thousands)|
|Revenue||$||2,424,649 ||$||1,738,436 ||$||686,213 ||39.5%|
|Revenue, net of subcontractor costs||$||2,115,649 ||$||1,499,124 ||$||616,525 ||41.1|
|Income from operations||$||243,750 ||$||194,142 ||$||49,608 ||25.6%|
Revenue and revenue, net of subcontractor costs, increased $686.2 million, or 39.5%, and increased $616.5 million, or 41.1%, respectively, in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022. The RPS acquisition contributed approximately $570 million to revenue growth in fiscal 2023. The remaining revenue growth in fiscal 2023 primarily reflects increased activity on high performance buildings, clean energy and international infrastructure.
Operating income increased $49.6 million in fiscal 2023 compared to fiscal 2022. The RPS acquisition contributed approximately $34 million to operating income in fiscal 2023. Conversely, the fiscal 2023 results were reduced by $8.3 million of the aforementioned lease impairment charge. The fiscal 2022 operating income included $1.9 million of the aforementioned ERC's. Our operating margin, based on revenue, net of subcontractor costs, was 11.5% in fiscal 2023 compared to 13.0% in
fiscal 2022. Excluding the lease impairment and RPS in fiscal 2023 and the ERC's in fiscal 2022, our operating margin was 13.3% in fiscal 2023 compared to 12.8% in fiscal 2022. The improved operating margin was primarily due to our increased focus on high-end consulting services, project execution and higher labor utilization.
Fiscal 2022 Compared to Fiscal 2021
Consolidated Results of Operations
|Fiscal Year Ended|
|October 3, 2021||Change|
|($ in thousands, except per share data)|
|Revenue||$||3,504,048 ||$||3,213,513 ||$||290,535 ||9.0%|
Revenue, net of subcontractor costs (1)
|2,835,580 ||2,552,172 ||283,408 ||11.1|
|Other costs of revenue||(2,260,021)||(2,053,772)||(206,249)||(10.0)|
|Gross profit||575,559 ||498,400 ||77,159 ||15.5|
|Selling, general and administrative expenses||(234,784)||(222,972)||(11,812)||(5.3)|
|Contingent consideration – fair value adjustments||(329)||3,273 ||(3,602)||(110.1)|
|Income from operations||340,446 ||278,701 ||61,745 ||22.2|
|Interest expense – net||(11,584)||(11,831)||247 ||2.1|
|Other income||19,904 ||— ||19,904 ||NM|
|Income before income tax expense||348,766 ||266,870 ||81,896 ||30.7|
|Income tax expense||(85,602)||(34,039)||(51,563)||(151.5)|
|Net income||263,164 ||232,831 ||30,333 ||13.0|
|Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests||(39)||(21)||(18)||(85.7)|
|Net income attributable to Tetra Tech||$||263,125 ||$||232,810 ||$||30,315 ||13.0|
|Diluted earnings per share||$||4.86 ||$||4.26 ||$||0.60 ||14.1%|
(1) We believe that the presentation of "Revenue, net of subcontractor costs", which is a non-U.S. GAAP financial measure, enhances investors' ability to analyze our business trends and performance because it substantially measures the work performed by our employees. In the course of providing services, we routinely subcontract various services and, under certain international development programs, issue grants. Generally, these subcontractor costs and grants are passed through to our clients and, in accordance with U.S. GAAP and industry practice, are included in our revenue when it is our contractual responsibility to procure or manage these activities. Because subcontractor services can vary significantly from project to project and period to period, changes in revenue may not necessarily be indicative of our business trends. Accordingly, we segregate subcontractor costs from revenue to promote a better understanding of our business by evaluating revenue exclusive of costs associated with external service providers.
NM = not meaningful
In fiscal 2022, revenue and revenue, net of subcontractor costs, increased $290.5 million, or 9.0%, and $283.4 million, or 11.1%, respectively, compared to fiscal 2021. Excluding the contributions from acquisitions, which did not have comparable revenue in fiscal 2021, our revenue increased 4.1% in fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021. Our GSG segment's revenue and revenue, net of subcontractor costs, increased $48.0 million, or 2.7%, and $70.7 million, or 5.6%, respectively, in fiscal 2022 compared to the prior year. Our CIG segment's revenue increased $238.4 million, or 15.9%, and revenue, net of subcontractor costs, increased $213.3 million, or 16.6% in fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021. The fiscal 2022 results for GSG and CIG segments are described below under "Government Services Group" and "Commercial/International Services Group", respectively.
The following table reconciles our reported results to non-U.S. GAAP adjusted results, which exclude a non-operating benefit from ERC's received in fiscal 2022 and gains from adjustments to contingent consideration liabilities in fiscal 2021. Our adjusted EPS for fiscal 2022 also excludes a non-operating $19.9 million unrealized gain on the aforementioned foreign exchange contract that served as an economic hedge related to our acquisition of RPS. This gain is reported as "Other non-operating income" in our Consolidated Statement of Income for fiscal 2022. Our adjusted EPS for fiscal 2021 also excludes non-recurring tax items. The effective tax rates applied to the adjustments to EPS to arrive at adjusted EPS average 26% and 25% for fiscal 2022 and 2021, respectively. We applied the relevant marginal statutory tax rate based on the nature of the adjustments and the tax jurisdiction in which it occurred. Both EPS and adjusted EPS were calculated using diluted weighted-average common shares outstanding for the respective periods as reflected in our consolidated statements of income.
|Fiscal Year Ended|
|October 3, 2021||Change|
|($ in thousands, except per share data)|
|Income from operations||$||340,446 ||$||278,701 ||$||61,745 ||22.2%|
|Earn-out adjustments||— ||(3,273)||3,273 ||NM|
|Employee Retention Credits||(6,486)||— ||(6,486)||NM|
Adjusted income from operations (1)
|$||333,960 ||$||275,428 ||$||58,532 ||21.3%|
|EPS||$||4.86 ||$||4.26 ||$||0.60 ||14.1%|
|Earn-out adjustments||— ||(0.04)||0.04 ||NM|
|Employee Retention Credits||(0.08)||— ||(0.08)||NM|
|Other income||(0.28)||— ||(0.28)||NM|
|Non-recurring tax benefits||— ||(0.43)||0.43 ||NM|
Adjusted EPS (1)
|$||4.50 ||$||3.79 ||$||0.71 ||18.7%|
NM = not meaningful
(1) Non-U.S. GAAP financial measure
Operating income increased $61.7 million, or 22.2%, in fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021. The fiscal 2022 results included the benefit of ERC's totaling $6.5 million. Excluding the ERC's and the contributions from acquisitions, which did not have comparable results in fiscal 2021, our adjusted operating income increased $31.5 million, or 11.5% in fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021. These increases reflect improved results in both GSG and CIG segments, which are described below under "Government Services Group" and "Commercial/International Services Group", respectively.
Our net interest expense was $11.6 million and $11.8 million in fiscal 2022 and 2021, respectively. The decrease primarily reflects lower average year-over-year borrowings, partially offset by higher borrowing rates.
The effective tax rates for fiscal 2022 and 2021 were 24.5% and 12.8%, respectively. The fiscal 2021 effective tax rate reflects a non-recurring net tax benefit of $21.6 million, primarily consisting of a valuation allowance in the United Kingdom that was released due to sufficient sustainable profitability being achieved in fiscal 2021. The valuation allowance was primarily related to net operating loss carry-forwards. In fiscal 2021, we repatriated approximately $80 million from Canada and recognized a related tax expense of $5.6 million. Also, income tax expense was reduced by $10.3 million and $12.9 million of excess tax benefits on share-based payments in fiscal 2022 and 2021, respectively. Excluding the impact of the fiscal 2021 valuation allowance benefit, the fiscal 2021 Canadian repatriation and the excess tax benefits on share-based payments in both fiscal years, our effective tax rates for fiscal 2022 and 2021 were 27.5% and 25.7%, respectively.
Our EPS was $4.86 in fiscal 2022, compared to $4.26 in fiscal 2021. Excluding the aforementioned non-operating and non-recurring items, our adjusted EPS was $4.50 in fiscal 2022, compared to $3.79 the prior year, an increase of 18.7%.
Segment Results of Operations
Government Services Group ("GSG")
|Fiscal Year Ended|
| ||October 2,|
|October 3, 2021||Change|
|($ in thousands)|
|Revenue||$||1,820,868 ||$||1,772,905 ||$||47,963 ||2.7%|
|Subcontractor costs||(484,412)||(507,132)||22,720 ||4.5|
|Revenue, net of subcontractor costs||$||1,336,456 ||$||1,265,773 ||$||70,683 ||5.6|
|Income from operations||$||198,448 ||$||174,755 ||$||23,693 ||13.6%|
Revenue and revenue, net of subcontractor costs, increased $48.0 million, or 2.7%, and increased $70.7 million, or 5.6%, respectively, in fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021. The increases primarily reflect higher U.S. state and local government activities related to water and environmental programs and disaster response projects.
Operating income increased $23.7 million in fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021. The fiscal 2022 results included $4.4 million of the aforementioned ERC's. Excluding this benefit, operating income increased 11.0% in fiscal 2022 compared the previous year. Our operating margin, based on revenue, net of subcontractor costs, improved to 14.8% in fiscal 2022 compared to 13.8% in fiscal 2021. Excluding the ERC's, our operating margin was 14.5% in fiscal 2022. The improved operating margin in fiscal 2022 was primarily due to our increased focus on high-end consulting services, including digital water, and improved labor utilization.
Commercial/International Services Group ("CIG")
| ||Fiscal Year Ended|
| ||October 2,|
|October 3, 2021||Change|
|($ in thousands)|
|Revenue||$||1,738,436 ||$||1,500,074 ||$||238,362 ||15.9%|
|Revenue, net of subcontractor costs||$||1,499,124 ||$||1,285,811 ||$||213,313 ||16.6|
|Income from operations||$||194,142 ||$||152,262 ||$||41,880 ||27.5%|
Revenue and revenue, net of subcontractor costs, increased $238.4 million, or 15.9%, and increased $213.3 million, or 16.6%, respectively, in fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021. The revenue growth primarily reflects increased activity on commercial environmental programs, including meeting net zero carbon goals and high performance buildings. These increases were also due to the international government stimulus spending on infrastructure. Additionally, the fiscal 2022 revenue included contributions from acquisitions, which did not have comparable revenue in fiscal 2021.
Operating income increased $41.9 million in fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021. The fiscal 2022 operating income included $1.9 million of the aforementioned ERC's. Excluding this benefit, operating income increased 26.2% in fiscal 2022 compared the prior fiscal year. Our operating margin, based on revenue, net of subcontractor costs, improved to 13.0% in fiscal 2022 compared to 11.8% in fiscal 2021. Excluding the ERC's, our operating margin was 12.8% for fiscal 2022. The improved operating margin was primarily due to our increased focus on high-end consulting services, project execution and labor utilization.
Remediation and Construction Management ("RCM")
RCM's projects were substantially complete at the end of fiscal 2018. In May 2022, we received a cash settlement for the last $11 million RCM claim. This settlement resulted in an immaterial gain in the third quarter of fiscal 2022. There were no significant operating activities in RCM for fiscal 2022 and 2021.
FINANCIAL CONDITION, LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Capital Requirements. As of October 1, 2023, we had $168.8 million of cash and cash equivalents and access to an additional $800 million of borrowing available under our credit facility. We generated $368.5 million of cash from operations
in fiscal 2023. Our primary sources of liquidity are cash flows from operations and borrowings under our credit facilities. Our primary uses of cash are to fund working capital, cash dividends, capital expenditures and repayment of debt, as well as to fund acquisitions and earn-out obligations from prior acquisitions. We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents, operating cash flows and borrowing capacity under our credit agreement as amended for the RPS acquisition in the second quarter of fiscal 2023, as described below, will be sufficient to meet our capital requirements for at least the next 12 months.
On October 5, 2021, our Board of Directors authorized a new stock repurchase program under which we could repurchase up to $400 million of our common stock. In fiscal 2023, we did not repurchase any shares of our common stock. At fiscal 2023 year-end, we had a remaining balance of $347.8 million under our stock repurchase program. We declared and paid common stock dividends totaling $52.1 million, or $0.98 per share, in fiscal 2023 compared to $46.1 million, or $0.86 per share, in fiscal 2022.
Subsequent Events. On November 13, 2023, our Board of Directors declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.26 per share payable on December 13, 2023 to stockholders of record as of the close of business on November 30, 2023.
Cash and Cash Equivalents. As of October 1, 2023, cash and cash equivalents were $168.8 million, a decrease of $16.3 million compared to the fiscal 2022 year-end.
Operating Activities. Cash provided by operating activities increased 9.6% from $336.2 million in fiscal 2022 to $368.5 million in fiscal 2023. The increase primarily reflects improved working capital, partially offset by approximately $37.0 million of additional payments made in fiscal 2023 for the RPS acquisition, primarily related to the acquisition and integration costs.
Investing Activities. Net cash used in investing activities was $771.2 million in fiscal 2023, an increase of $715.5 million compared to fiscal 2022. The increase was primarily due to the RPS acquisition in the second quarter of fiscal 2023.
Financing Activities. In fiscal 2023, net cash provided by financing activities was $382.4 million compared to net cash used in financing activities of $249.6 million in fiscal 2022. The financing activities in fiscal 2023 primarily consisted of additional borrowings to fund the RPS acquisition.
Debt Financing. On October 26, 2022, we entered into a Third Amended and Restated Credit Agreement that provides for an additional $500 million senior secured term loan facility (the "New Term Loan Facility") increasing our total borrowing capacity to $1.55 billion. On January 23, 2023, we drew the entire amount of the New Term Loan Facility to partially finance the RPS acquisition. The New Term Loan Facility is not subject to any amortization payments of principal and matures on the third anniversary of the RPS acquisition closing date.
On February 18, 2022, we entered into Amendment No. 2 to our Second Amended and Restated Credit Agreement (“Amended Credit Agreement”) with a total borrowing capacity of $1.05 billion that will mature in February 2027. The Amended Credit Agreement is a $750 million senior secured, five-year facility that provides for a $250 million term loan facility (the “Amended Term Loan Facility”) and a $500 million revolving credit facility (the “Amended Revolving Credit Facility”). In addition, the Amended Credit Agreement includes a $300 million accordion feature that allows us to increase the Amended Credit Agreement to $1.05 billion subject to lender approval. The Amended Credit Agreement provides for, among other things, (i) refinance indebtedness under our Credit Agreement dated as of July 30, 2018; (ii) finance open market repurchases of common stock, acquisitions and cash dividends and distributions; and (iii) utilize the proceeds for working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes. The Amended Credit Agreement provides for a reduction in the interest grid for meeting certain sustainability targets related to the (i) reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through the Company’s projects and operational sustainability initiatives and (ii) improvement of peoples’ lives as a result of the Company’s projects that provide environmental, social and governance benefits. The Amended Revolving Credit Facility includes a $100 million sublimit for the issuance of standby letters of credit, a $20 million sublimit for swingline loans and a $300 million sublimit for multicurrency borrowings and letters of credit.
The entire Amended Term Loan Facility was drawn on February 18, 2022. We may borrow on the Amended Revolving Credit Facility, at our option, at either (a) a benchmark rate plus a margin that ranges from 1.000% to 1.875% per annum, or (b) a base rate for loans in U.S. dollars (the highest of the U.S. federal funds rate plus 0.50% per annum, the bank’s prime rate or the Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("SOFR") rate plus 1.00%, plus a margin that ranges from 0% to 0.875% per annum. In each case, the applicable margin is based on our Consolidated Leverage Ratio, calculated quarterly. The Amended Term Loan Facility is subject to the same interest rate provisions. The Amended Credit Agreement expires on February 18, 2027, or earlier at our discretion upon payment in full of loans and other obligations.
On August 22, 2023, we issued $575.0 million in convertible notes that bear interest at 2.25% per annum payable semiannually in arrears on February 15 and August 15 of each year, beginning on February 15, 2024 with a maturity date of August 15, 2028 (the "Convertible Notes"). As of October 1, 2023, $560.8 million of the Convertible Notes was included in long-term debt in our consolidated balance sheets, which is net of $14.2 million of unamortized debt issuance costs. The net proceeds from the Convertible Notes were $560.5 million, $51.8 million of which were used to purchase related capped call transactions on the issue date. The remaining proceeds were used to prepay and terminate the $234.4 million outstanding under the Amended Term Loan Facility, to prepay $89.4 million outstanding under the New Term Loan Facility and to pay down
borrowings of $185.0 million under the Amended Revolving Credit Facility. See Note 9, "Long-Term Debt" of the "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" in Item 8 for further discussion).
At fiscal 2023 year-end, we had $320 million in outstanding borrowings under the Amended Credit Agreement, which was all under the New Term Loan Facility, and no borrowings under the Amended Revolving Credit Facility. The weighted-average interest rate of the outstanding borrowings during fiscal 2023 was 5.71%. In addition, we had $0.7 million in standby letters of credit under the Amended Credit Agreement. Our year-to-date weighted-average interest rate on borrowings outstanding during fiscal 2023 under the Amended Credit Agreement, including the effects of interest rate swap agreements described in Note 14, “Derivative Financial Instruments” of the "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" included in Item 8, was 5.37%. At October 1, 2023, we had $499.3 million of available credit under the Amended Revolving Credit Facility, all of which could be borrowed without a violation of our debt covenants. Commitment fees related to our revolving credit facilities were $0.6 million for fiscal year 2023 and $0.7 million each year for fiscal 2022 and 2021, respectively.
The Amended Credit Agreement contains certain affirmative and restrictive covenants, and customary events of default. The financial covenants provide for a maximum Consolidated Leverage Ratio of 3.25 to 1.00 (total funded debt/EBITDA, as defined in the Amended Credit Agreement) and a minimum Consolidated Interest Coverage Ratio of 3.00 to 1.00 (EBITDA/Consolidated Interest Charges, as defined in the Amended Credit Agreement). Our obligations under the Amended Credit Agreement are guaranteed by certain of our domestic subsidiaries and are secured by first priority liens on (i) the equity interests of certain of our subsidiaries, including those subsidiaries that are guarantors or borrowers under the Amended Credit Agreement, and (ii) the accounts receivable, general intangibles and intercompany loans, and those of our subsidiaries that are guarantors or borrowers. At October 1, 2023, we were in compliance with these covenants with a consolidated leverage ratio of 1.79x and a consolidated interest coverage ratio of 9.84x.
In addition to the Amended Credit Agreement, we maintain other credit facilities, which may be used for short-term cash advances and bank guarantees. At October 1, 2023, there were no outstanding borrowings under these facilities, and the aggregate amount of standby letters of credit outstanding was $54.9 million. As of October 1, 2023, we had no bank overdrafts related to our disbursement bank accounts.
Inflation. We believe our operations have not been, and, in the foreseeable future, are not expected to be, materially adversely affected by inflation or changing prices due to the average duration of our projects and our ability to negotiate prices as contracts end and new contracts begin.
Dividends. Our Board of Directors has authorized the following dividends:
|Dividend Per Share||Record Date||Total Maximum|
|November 7, 2022||$||0.23 ||November 21, 2022||$||12,186 ||December 9, 2022|
|January 30, 2023||$||0.23 ||February 13, 2023||$||12,242 ||February 24, 2023|
|May 8, 2023||$||0.26 ||May 24, 2023||$||13,840 ||June 6, 2023|
|August 7, 2023||$||0.26 ||August 23, 2023||$||13,845 ||September 6, 2023|
|November 13, 2023||$||0.26 ||November 30, 2023||N/A||December 13, 2023|
We evaluate the realizability of our deferred tax assets by assessing the valuation allowance and adjust the allowance, if necessary. The factors used to assess the likelihood of realization are our forecast of future taxable income and available tax planning strategies that could be implemented to realize the net deferred tax assets. The ability or failure to achieve the forecasted taxable income in the applicable taxing jurisdictions could affect the ultimate realization of deferred tax assets. Based on future operating results in certain jurisdictions, it is unlikely that the current valuation allowance positions of those jurisdictions could be adjusted in the next 12 months.
At the end of fiscal 2023 and 2022, the liability for income taxes associated with uncertain tax positions was $62.0 million and $10.6 million, respectively.
It is reasonably possible that the amount of the unrecognized benefit with respect to certain of our unrecognized tax positions may not significantly decrease within the next 12 months. These liabilities represent our current estimates of the additional tax liabilities that we may be assessed when the related audits are concluded. If these audits are resolved in a manner more unfavorable than our current expectations, our additional tax liabilities could be materially higher than the amounts currently recorded resulting in additional tax expense.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
In the ordinary course of business, we may use off-balance sheet arrangements if we believe that such arrangements would be an efficient way to lower our cost of capital or help us manage the overall risks of our business operations. We do not believe that such arrangements have had a material adverse effect on our financial position or our results of operations.
The following is a summary of our off-balance sheet arrangements:
•Letters of credit and bank guarantees are used primarily to support project performance and insurance programs. We are required to reimburse the issuers of letters of credit and bank guarantees for any payments they make under the outstanding letters of credit or bank guarantees. Our Amended Credit Agreement and additional letter of credit facilities cover the issuance of our standby letters of credit and bank guarantees and are critical for our normal operations. If we default on the Amended Credit Agreement or additional credit facilities, our inability to issue or renew standby letters of credit and bank guarantees would impair our ability to maintain normal operations. At fiscal 2023 year-end, we had $0.7 million in standby letters of credit outstanding under our Amended Credit Agreement and $54.9 million in standby letters of credit outstanding under our additional letter of credit facilities.
•From time to time, we provide guarantees and indemnifications related to our services. If our services under a guaranteed or indemnified project are later determined to have resulted in a material defect or other material deficiency, then we may be responsible for monetary damages or other legal remedies. When sufficient information about claims on guaranteed or indemnified projects is available and monetary damages or other costs or losses are determined to be probable, we recognize such guaranteed losses.
•In the ordinary course of business, we enter into various agreements as part of certain unconsolidated subsidiaries, joint ventures and other jointly executed contracts where we are jointly and severally liable. We enter into these agreements primarily to support the project execution commitments of these entities. The potential payment amount of an outstanding performance guarantee is typically the remaining cost of work to be performed by or on behalf of third parties under engineering and construction contracts. However, we are not able to estimate other amounts that may be required to be paid in excess of estimated costs to complete contracts and, accordingly, the total potential payment amount under our outstanding performance guarantees cannot be estimated. For cost-plus contracts, amounts that may become payable pursuant to guarantee provisions are normally recoverable from the client for work performed under the contract. For lump sum or fixed-price contracts, this amount is the cost to complete the contracted work less amounts remaining to be billed to the client under the contract. Remaining billable amounts could be greater or less than the cost to complete. In those cases where costs exceed the remaining amounts payable under the contract, we may have recourse to third parties, such as owners, co-venturers, subcontractors or vendors, for claims.
•In the ordinary course of business, our clients may request that we obtain surety bonds in connection with contract performance obligations that are not required to be recorded in our consolidated balance sheets. We are obligated to reimburse the issuer of our surety bonds for any payments made thereunder. Each of our commitments under performance bonds generally ends concurrently with the expiration of our related contractual obligation.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
The preparation of our financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires us to make estimates and assumptions in the application of certain accounting policies that affect amounts reported in our consolidated financial statements and accompanying footnotes included in Item 8 of this report. In order to understand better the changes that may occur to our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, readers should be aware of the critical accounting policies we apply and estimates we use in preparing our consolidated financial statements. Although such estimates and assumptions are based on management's best knowledge of current events and actions we may undertake in the future, actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
Our significant accounting policies are described in the "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" included in Item 8. Highlighted below are the accounting policies that management considers most critical to investors' understanding of our financial results and condition, and that require complex judgments by management.
Revenue Recognition and Contract Costs
To determine the proper revenue recognition method for contracts under ASC 606, we evaluate whether multiple contracts should be combined and accounted for as a single contract and whether the combined or single contract should be accounted for as having more than one performance obligation. The decision to combine a group of contracts or separate a combined or single contract into multiple performance obligations may impact the amount of revenue recorded in a given
period. Contracts are considered to have a single performance obligation if the promises are not separately identifiable from other promises in the contracts.
At contract inception, we assess the goods or services promised in a contract and identify, as a separate performance obligation, each distinct promise to transfer goods or services to the customer. The identified performance obligations represent the “units of account” for purposes of determining revenue recognition. In order to properly identify separate performance obligations, we apply judgment in determining whether each good or service provided is: (a) capable of being distinct, whereby the customer can benefit from the good or service either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the customer, and (b) distinct within the context of the contract, whereby the transfer of the good or service to the customer is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract.
Contracts are often modified to account for changes in contract specifications and requirements. We consider contract modifications to exist when the modification either creates new or changes the existing enforceable rights and obligations. Most of our contract modifications are for goods or services that are not distinct from existing contracts due to the significant integration provided or significant interdependencies in the context of the contract and are accounted for as if they were part of the original contract. The effect of a contract modification on the transaction price and our measure of progress for the performance obligation to which it relates, is recognized as an adjustment to revenue (either as an increase in or a reduction of revenue) on a cumulative catch-up basis.
We account for contract modifications as a separate contract when the modification results in the promise to deliver additional goods or services that are distinct and the increase in price of the contract is for the same amount as the stand-alone selling price of the additional goods or services included in the modification.
The transaction price represents the amount of consideration to which we expect to be entitled in exchange for transferring promised goods or services to our customers. The consideration promised within a contract may include fixed amounts, variable amounts or both. The nature of our contracts gives rise to several types of variable consideration, including claims, award fee incentives, fiscal funding clauses and liquidated damages. We recognize revenue for variable consideration when it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized for the contract will not occur. We estimate the amount of revenue to be recognized on variable consideration using either the expected value or the most likely amount method, whichever is expected to better predict the amount of consideration to be received. Project mobilization costs are generally charged to project costs as incurred when they are an integrated part of the performance obligation being transferred to the client.
For contracts with multiple performance obligations, we allocate the transaction price to each performance obligation using a best estimate of the standalone selling price of each distinct good or service in the contract. The standalone selling price is typically determined using the estimated cost of the contract plus a margin approach. For contracts containing variable consideration, we allocate the variability to a specific performance obligation within the contract if such variability relates specifically to our efforts to satisfy the performance obligation or transfer the distinct good or service, and the allocation depicts the amount of consideration to which we expect to be entitled.
We recognize revenue over time as the related performance obligation is satisfied by transferring control of a promised good or service to our customers. Progress toward complete satisfaction of the performance obligation is primarily measured using a cost-to-cost measure of progress method. The cost input is based primarily on contract cost incurred to date compared to total estimated contract cost. This measure includes forecasts based on the best information available and reflects our judgment to faithfully depict the value of the services transferred to the customer. For certain on-call engineering or consulting and similar contracts, we recognize revenue in the amount which we have the right to invoice the customer if that amount corresponds directly with the value of our performance completed to date.
Due to uncertainties inherent in the estimation process, it is possible that estimates of costs to complete a performance obligation will be revised in the near-term. For those performance obligations for which revenue is recognized using a cost-to-cost measure of progress method, changes in total estimated costs, and related progress towards complete satisfaction of the performance obligation, are recognized on a cumulative catch-up basis in the period in which the revisions to the estimates are made. When the current estimate of total costs indicates a loss, a provision for the entire estimated loss on the contract is made in the period in which the loss becomes evident.
Our services are performed under three principal types of contracts: fixed-price, time-and-materials and cost-plus. Customer payments on contracts are typically due within 60 days of billing, depending on the contract.
Fixed-Price. Under fixed-price contracts, clients pay us an agreed fixed-amount negotiated in advance for a specified scope of work.
Time-and-Materials. Under time-and-materials contracts, we negotiate hourly billing rates and charge our clients based on the actual time that we spend on a project. In addition, clients reimburse us for our actual out-of-pocket costs for materials and other direct incidental expenditures that we incur in connection with our performance under the contract. Most of our time-and-material contracts are subject to maximum contract values, and also may include annual billing rate adjustment provisions.
Cost-Plus. Under cost-plus contracts, we are reimbursed for allowed or otherwise defined costs incurred plus a negotiated fee. The contracts may also include incentives for various performance criteria, including quality, timeliness, ingenuity, safety and cost-effectiveness. In addition, our costs are generally subject to review by our clients and regulatory audit agencies, and such reviews could result in costs being disputed as non-reimbursable under the terms of the contract.
Goodwill and Intangibles
The cost of an acquired company is assigned to the tangible and intangible assets purchased and the liabilities assumed on the basis of their fair values at the date of acquisition. The determination of fair values of assets and liabilities acquired requires us to make estimates and use valuation techniques when a market value is not readily available. Any excess of purchase price over the fair value of net tangible and intangible assets acquired is allocated to goodwill. Goodwill typically represents the value paid for the assembled workforce and enhancement of our service offerings.
Identifiable intangible assets primarily include backlog, client relations and trade names. The costs of these intangible assets are amortized over their contractual or economic lives, which range from one to twelve years. We assess the recoverability of the unamortized balance of our intangible assets when indicators of impairment are present based on expected future profitability and undiscounted expected cash flows and their contribution to our overall operations. Should the review indicate that the carrying value is not fully recoverable, the excess of the carrying value over the fair value of the intangible assets would be recognized as an impairment loss.
Estimated fair value measurements for intangible assets are made using Level 3 inputs including discounted cash flow techniques. Fair value is estimated using a multi-period excess earnings method for backlog and client relations and a relief from royalty method for trade names. The significant assumptions used in estimating fair value of backlog and client relations include (i) the estimated life the asset will contribute to cash flows, such as remaining contractual terms, (ii) revenue growth rates and EBITDA margins, (iii) attrition rate of customers, and (iv) the estimated discount rates that reflect the level of risk associated with receiving future cash flows. The significant assumptions used in estimating fair value of trade names include the royalty rates and discount rates.
We perform our annual goodwill impairment review at the beginning of our fiscal fourth quarter. In addition, we regularly evaluate whether events and circumstances have occurred that may indicate a potential change in recoverability of goodwill. We perform interim goodwill impairment reviews between our annual reviews if certain events and circumstances have occurred, including a deterioration in general economic conditions, an increased competitive environment, a change in management, key personnel, strategy or customers, negative or declining cash flows or a decline in actual or planned revenue or earnings compared with actual and projected results of relevant prior periods (see Note 6, "Goodwill and Intangible Assets" of the "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" in Item 8 for further discussion).
We believe the methodology that we use to review impairment of goodwill, which includes a significant amount of judgment and estimates, provides us with a reasonable basis to determine whether impairment has occurred. However, many of the factors employed in determining whether our goodwill is impaired are outside of our control, and it is reasonably likely that assumptions and estimates will change in future periods. These changes could result in future impairments.
The goodwill impairment review involves the determination of the fair value of our reporting units, which for us are the components one level below our reportable segments. This process requires us to make significant judgments and estimates, including assumptions about our strategic plans with regard to our operations as well as the interpretation of current economic indicators and market valuations. Furthermore, the development of the present value of future cash flow projections includes assumptions and estimates derived from a review of our expected revenue growth rates, operating profit margins, business plans, discount rates and terminal growth rates. We also make certain assumptions about future market conditions, market prices, interest rates and changes in business strategies. Changes in assumptions or estimates could materially affect the determination of the fair value of a reporting unit. This could eliminate the excess of fair value over carrying value of a reporting unit entirely and, in some cases, result in impairment. Such changes in assumptions could be caused by a loss of one or more significant contracts, reductions in government or commercial client spending or a decline in the demand for our services due to changing economic conditions. In the event that we determine that our goodwill is impaired, we would be required to record a non-cash charge that could result in a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial position.
We use two methods to determine the fair value of our reporting units: (i) the Income Approach and (ii) the Market Approach. While each of these approaches is initially considered in the valuation of the business enterprises, the nature and characteristics of the reporting units indicate which approach is most applicable. The Income Approach utilizes the discounted cash flow method, which focuses on the expected cash flow of the reporting unit. In applying this approach, the cash flow
available for distribution is calculated for a finite period of years. Cash flow available for distribution is defined, for purposes of this analysis, as the amount of cash that could be distributed as a dividend without impairing the future profitability or operations of the reporting unit. The cash flow available for distribution and the terminal value (the value of the reporting unit at the end of the estimation period) are then discounted to present value to derive an indication of the value of the business enterprise. The Market Approach is comprised of the guideline company method and the similar transactions method. The guideline company method focuses on comparing the reporting unit to select reasonably similar (or "guideline") publicly traded companies. Under this method, valuation multiples are (i) derived from the operating data of selected guideline companies; (ii) evaluated and adjusted based on the strengths and weaknesses of the reporting units relative to the selected guideline companies; and (iii) applied to the operating data of the reporting unit to arrive at an indication of value. In the similar transactions method, consideration is given to prices paid in recent transactions that have occurred in the reporting unit's industry or in related industries. For our annual impairment analysis, we weighted the Income Approach and the Market Approach at 70% and 30%, respectively. The Income Approach was given a higher weight because it has the most direct correlation to the specific economics of the reporting unit, as compared to the Market Approach, which is based on multiples of broad-based (i.e., less comparable) companies. Our last review at July 3, 2023 (i.e., the first day of our fourth quarter in fiscal 2023), indicated that we had no impairment of goodwill, and all of our reporting units had estimated fair values that were in excess of their carrying values, including goodwill. We had no reporting units that had estimated fair values that exceeded their carrying values by less than 45%.
Certain of our acquisition agreements include contingent earn-out arrangements, which are generally based on the achievement of future operating income thresholds. The contingent earn-out arrangements are based upon our valuations of the acquired companies and reduce the risk of overpaying for acquisitions if the projected financial results are not achieved.
The fair values of these earn-out arrangements are included as part of the purchase price of the acquired companies on their respective acquisition dates. For each transaction, we estimate the fair value of contingent earn-out payments as part of the initial purchase price and record the estimated fair value of contingent consideration as a liability in "Estimated contingent earn-out liabilities" and "Long-term estimated contingent earn-out liabilities" on the consolidated balance sheets. We consider several factors when determining that contingent earn-out liabilities are part of the purchase price, including the following: (1) the valuation of our acquisitions is not supported solely by the initial consideration paid, and the contingent earn-out formula is a critical and material component of the valuation approach to determining the purchase price; and (2) the former shareholders of acquired companies that remain as key employees receive compensation other than contingent earn-out payments at a reasonable level compared with the compensation of our other key employees. The contingent earn-out payments are not affected by employment termination.
We measure our contingent earn-out liabilities at fair value on a recurring basis using significant unobservable inputs classified within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy (See Note 2, "Basis of Presentation and Preparation – Fair Value of Financial Instruments" of the "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" included in Item 8). We use a probability weighted discounted income approach as a valuation technique to convert future estimated cash flows to a single present value amount. The significant unobservable inputs used in the fair value measurements are operating income projections over the earn-out period (generally two or three years), and the probability outcome percentages we assign to each scenario. Significant increases or decreases to either of these inputs in isolation would result in a significantly higher or lower liability with a higher liability capped by the contractual maximum of the contingent earn-out obligation. Ultimately, the liability will be equivalent to the amount paid, and the difference between the fair value estimate and amount paid will be recorded in earnings. The amount paid that is less than or equal to the liability on the acquisition date is reflected as cash used in financing activities in our consolidated statements of cash flows. Any amount paid in excess of the liability on the acquisition date is reflected as cash used in operating activities in our consolidated statements of cash flows.
We review and re-assess the estimated fair value of contingent consideration on a quarterly basis, and the updated fair value could differ materially from the initial estimates. Changes in the estimated fair value of our contingent earn-out liabilities related to the time component of the present value calculation are reported in interest expense. Adjustments to the estimated fair value related to changes in all other unobservable inputs are reported in operating income.
RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
For a discussion of recent accounting standards and the effect they could have on the consolidated financial statements, see Note 2, "Basis of Presentation and Preparation" of the "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" included in Item 8.
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
We do not enter into derivative financial instruments for trading or speculation purposes. In the normal course of business, we have exposure to both interest rate risk and foreign currency transaction and translation risk, primarily related to the Canadian and Australian dollars, the Euro, and the British Pound.
We are exposed to interest rate risk under our Amended Credit Agreement. We can borrow, at our option, under both the Amended Term Loan Facility and Amended Revolving Credit Facility. We may borrow on the Amended Revolving Credit Facility, at our option, at either (a) a Eurocurrency rate plus a margin that ranges from 1.000% to 1.875% per annum, or (b) a base rate for loans in U.S. dollars (the highest of the U.S. federal funds rate plus 0.50% per annum, the bank’s prime rate or the SOFR rate plus 1.00%) plus a margin that ranges from 0% to 0.875% per annum. In each case, the applicable margin is based on our Consolidated Leverage Ratio, calculated quarterly. The Amended Term Loan Facility is subject to the same interest rate provisions. Borrowings at the base rate have no designated term and may be repaid without penalty any time prior to the Facility’s maturity date. Borrowings at a SOFR rate have a term no less than 30 days and no greater than 180 days and may be prepaid without penalty. Typically, at the end of such term, such borrowings may be rolled over at our discretion into either a borrowing at the base rate or a borrowing at a SOFR rate with similar terms, not to exceed the maturity date of the Facility. The Facility matures on February 18, 2027. At October 1, 2023, we had $320 million in outstanding borrowings under the Amended Credit Agreement, which was all under the New Term Loan Facility, and no borrowings under the Amended Revolving Credit Facility. The year-to-date weighted-average interest rate of the outstanding borrowings during fiscal 2023 was 5.71%.
In August 2018, we entered into five interest rate swap agreements with five banks to fix the variable interest rate on $250 million of our Amended Term Loan Facility. The objective of these interest rate swaps was to eliminate the variability of our cash flows on the amount of interest expense we pay under our Credit Agreement. The five swaps expired on July 31, 2023. Our year-to-date average effective interest rate on borrowings outstanding under the Credit Agreement, including the effects of interest rate swap agreements, at October 1, 2023, was 5.37%. For more information, see Note 14, “Derivative Financial Instruments” of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” in Item 8.
The majority of our transactions are in U.S. dollars; however, some of our subsidiaries conduct business in foreign currencies, primarily the Canadian and Australian dollars, the Euro, and British Pound. Therefore, we are subject to currency exposure and volatility because of currency fluctuations. We attempt to minimize our exposure to these fluctuations by matching revenue and expenses in the same currency for our contracts. We reported $0.1 million of foreign currency gains in fiscal 2023 and $0.2 million of foreign currency losses in fiscal 2022 in “Selling, general and administrative expenses” on our consolidated statements of income.
We have foreign currency exchange rate exposure in our results of operations and equity primarily because of the currency translation related to our foreign subsidiaries where the local currency is the functional currency. To the extent the U.S. dollar strengthens against foreign currencies, the translation of these foreign currency denominated transactions will result in reduced revenue, operating expenses, assets and liabilities. Similarly, our revenue, operating expenses, assets and liabilities will increase if the U.S. dollar weakens against foreign currencies. For fiscal 2023 and 2022, 36.7% and 31.0% of our consolidated revenue, respectively, was generated by our international business. For fiscal 2023, the effect of foreign exchange rate translation on the consolidated balance sheets was an increase in equity of $12.6 million compared to a decrease in equity of $94.9 million in fiscal 2022. These amounts were recognized as an adjustment to equity through other comprehensive income.
In the fourth quarter of fiscal 2022, we entered into a forward contract to acquire GBP 714.0 million at a rate of 1.0852 for a total of USD 774.8 million that was integrated with our plan to acquire RPS. This contract matured on December 30, 2022. On December 28, 2022, we entered into an extension of the integrated forward contract to acquire GBP 714.0 million at a rate of 1.086 for a total of USD 775.4 million, extending the maturity date to January 23, 2023, the closing date of the RPS acquisition. Although an effective economic hedge of our foreign exchange risk related to this transaction, the forward contract did not qualify for hedge accounting. As a result, the forward contract was marked-to-market with changes in fair value recognized in earnings each period. The intrinsic value of the forward contract was immaterial at inception as the GBP/USD spot and forward exchange rates were essentially the same. The fair value of the forward contract at October 2, 2022 was $19.9 million, and an unrealized gain of the same amount was recognized in our fourth quarter of fiscal 2022 results. On January 23, 2023, the forward contract was settled for cash proceeds of $109.3 million and we recognized additional gains of $89.4 million in fiscal 2023. All gains related to this transaction were reported in “Other non-operating income" on our consolidated income statements for the respective periods.
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULE
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of Tetra Tech, Inc.
Opinions on the Financial Statements and Internal Control over Financial Reporting
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Tetra Tech, Inc. and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of October 1, 2023 and October 2, 2022, and the related consolidated statements of income, of comprehensive income, of equity and of cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended October 1, 2023, including the related notes and financial statement schedule listed in the accompanying index (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). We also have audited the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of October 1, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO).
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of October 1, 2023 and October 2, 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended October 1, 2023 in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of October 1, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control - Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the COSO.
Basis for Opinions
The Company's management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting appearing under Item 9A. Our responsibility is to express opinions on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and on the Company's internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.
Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
Critical Audit Matters
The critical audit matters communicated below are matters arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (i) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (ii) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matters below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matters or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.
Revenue Recognition - Determination of Total Estimated Contract Cost for Fixed-price Contracts
As described in Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements, $1.64 billion of the Company’s total revenues for the year ended October 1, 2023 was generated from fixed-price contracts. As disclosed by management, under fixed-price contracts, the Company's clients pay an agreed fixed-amount negotiated in advance for a specified scope of work. Revenue is recognized over time as the related performance obligation is satisfied by transferring control of a promised good or service to the Company's customers. Progress toward complete satisfaction of the performance obligation is primarily measured using a cost-to-cost measure of progress method. The cost input is based primarily on contract cost incurred to date compared to total estimated contract cost. This measure includes forecasts based on the best information available and reflects management's judgment to faithfully depict the value of the services transferred to the customer. Due to uncertainties inherent in the estimation process, it is possible that estimates of costs to complete a performance obligation will be revised in the near-term. For those performance obligations for which revenue is recognized using a cost-to-cost measure of progress method, changes in total estimated costs, and related progress towards complete satisfaction of the performance obligation, are recognized on a cumulative catch-up basis in the period in which the revisions to the estimates are made. As a result, the Company recognized net favorable revenue and operating income adjustments of $11.0 million for the year ended October 1, 2023. Changes in revenue and cost estimates could also result in a projected loss, determined at the contract level, which would be recorded immediately in earnings. The anticipated losses and estimated cost to complete the related contracts was $8.5 million and approximately $68 million, respectively, as of October 1, 2023.
The principal considerations for our determination that performing procedures relating to revenue recognition - determination of total estimated contract cost for fixed-price contracts is a critical audit matter are (i) the significant judgment by management in developing the estimate of total contract cost for fixed-price contracts; and (ii) a high degree of auditor judgment, subjectivity, and effort in performing procedures and in evaluating audit evidence related to management’s estimate of total contract costs for fixed-price contracts with cumulative catch-up adjustments, anticipated losses or claims.
Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the consolidated financial statements. These procedures included testing the effectiveness of controls relating to the revenue recognition process, including controls over the total estimated contract cost for fixed-price contracts. These procedures also included, among others, (i) evaluating and testing management’s process for developing the estimate of total contract cost for a sample of contracts with cumulative catch-up adjustments, anticipated losses or claims, which included evaluating the contract terms and other documents that support those estimates, and testing of underlying contract costs; (ii) assessing management's ability to reasonably estimate total contract costs by performing a comparison of the total estimated contract cost as compared with prior period estimates, including evaluating the timely identification of circumstances that may warrant a modification to the total estimated contract cost; and (iii) evaluating, for certain contracts, management’s methodologies and assessing the consistency of management’s approach over the life of the contract.
Acquisition of RPS Group plc – Valuation of Certain Client Relations and Trade Name
As described in Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company completed its acquisition of RPS Group plc (“RPS”) on January 23, 2023 for a total purchase price of approximately $784 million. Of the total acquired intangible assets of $174.1 million, certain client relations and a trade name represent the majority. Fair value was estimated by management using a multi-period excess earnings method for client relations and a relief from royalty method for trade names. Management’s significant assumptions used in estimating fair value of client relations include (i) the estimated life the asset will contribute to cash flows, such as remaining contractual terms, (ii) revenue growth rates and EBITDA margins, (iii) attrition rate of customers, and (iv) the estimated discount rates that reflect the level of risk associated with receiving future cash flows. The significant assumptions used in estimating fair value of trade name include the royalty rates and discount rates.
The principal considerations for our determination that performing procedures relating to the valuation of certain client relations and trade name in the acquisition of RPS Group plc is a critical audit matter are (i) the significant judgment by management when developing the fair value estimate of certain client relations and trade name acquired, (ii) a high degree of auditor judgment, subjectivity, and effort in performing procedures and evaluating management’s significant assumptions related to estimated life, revenue growth rates, customer attrition rates, EBITDA margins and discount rates for certain client relations and a royalty rate and discount rate for a trade name, and (iii) the audit effort involved the use of professionals with specialized skill and knowledge.
Addressing the matter involved performing procedures and evaluating audit evidence in connection with forming our overall opinion on the consolidated financial statements. These procedures included testing the effectiveness of controls relating to the acquisition accounting, including controls over management’s valuation of certain client relations and trade name acquired. These procedures also included, among others, (i) reading the purchase agreement; (ii) testing management’s process for developing the fair value estimate of certain client relations and trade name acquired; (iii) evaluating the appropriateness of the multi-period excess earnings and relief from royalty methods used by management; (iv) testing the completeness and accuracy of the underlying data used in the multi-period excess earnings and relief from royalty methods; and (v) evaluating the reasonableness of the significant assumptions used by management related to the estimated life, revenue growth rates, customer attrition rates, EBITDA margins and discount rates for certain client relations and the royalty rate and discount rate for a trade name. Evaluating management’s assumptions related to the estimated life, revenue growth rates, customer attrition rates and EBITDA margins for client relations involved considering (i) the current and past performance of RPS; (ii) the consistency with external market and industry data; and (iii) whether the assumptions were consistent with evidence obtained in other areas of the audit. Professionals with specialized skill and knowledge were used to assist in evaluating (i) the appropriateness of the multi-period excess earnings and relief from royalty methods and (ii) the reasonableness of the discount rate assumption for certain client relations and trade name, as well as, the royalty rate for a trade name.
/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Los Angeles, California
November 22, 2023
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2004.
Tetra Tech, Inc.
Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in thousands, except par value)
|Current assets:|| || |
|Cash and cash equivalents||$||168,831 ||$||185,094 |
|Accounts receivable, net||974,535 ||755,112 |
|Contract assets||113,939 ||92,405 |
|Prepaid expenses and other current assets||89,096 ||115,400 |
|Income taxes receivable||9,623 ||10,205 |
|Total current assets||1,356,024 ||1,158,216 |
|Property and equipment, net||74,832 ||32,316 |
|Right-of-use assets, operating leases||175,932 ||182,319 |
|Goodwill||1,880,244 ||1,110,412 |
|Intangible assets, net||173,936 ||29,163 |
|Deferred tax assets||89,002 ||47,804 |
|Other non-current assets||70,507 ||62,546 |
|Total assets||$||3,820,477 ||$||2,622,776 |
|LIABILITIES AND EQUITY|| || |
|Current liabilities:|| || |
|Accounts payable||$||173,271 ||$||147,436 |
|Accrued compensation||302,755 ||237,669 |
|Contract liabilities||335,044 ||241,340 |
|Short-term lease liabilities, operating leases||65,005 ||57,865 |
|Current portion of long-term debt||— ||12,504 |
|Current contingent earn-out liabilities||51,108 ||28,797 |
|Other current liabilities||280,959 ||190,406 |
|Total current liabilities||1,208,142 ||916,017 |
|Deferred tax liabilities||14,256 ||15,161 |
|Long-term debt||879,529 ||246,250 |
|Long-term lease liabilities, operating leases||144,685 ||146,285 |
|Non-current contingent earn-out liabilities||22,314 ||36,769 |
|Other non-current liabilities||148,045 ||79,157 |
|Commitments and contingencies (Note 17)|
|Equity:|| || |
Preferred stock – Authorized, 2,000 shares of $0.01 par value; no shares issued and outstanding at October 1, 2023 and October 2, 2022
|— ||— |
Common stock – Authorized, 150,000 shares of $0.01 par value; issued and outstanding, 53,248 and 52,981 shares at October 1, 2023 and October 2, 2022, respectively
|532 ||530 |
|Additional paid-in capital||— ||— |
|Accumulated other comprehensive loss||(195,295)||(208,144)|
|Retained earnings||1,598,196 ||1,390,701 |
|Tetra Tech stockholders' equity||1,403,433 ||1,183,087 |
|Noncontrolling interests||73 ||50 |
|Total stockholders' equity||1,403,506 ||1,183,137 |
|Total liabilities and stockholders' equity||$||3,820,477 ||$||2,622,776 |
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Tetra Tech, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Income
(in thousands, except per share data)
| ||Fiscal Year Ended|
| ||October 1,|
|October 3, 2021|
|Revenue||$||4,522,550 ||$||3,504,048 ||$||3,213,513 |
|Other costs of revenue||(3,026,060)||(2,260,021)||(2,053,772)|
|Gross profit||725,029 ||575,559 ||498,400 |
|Selling, general and administrative expenses||(305,107)||(234,784)||(222,972)|
|Acquisition and integration expenses||(33,169)||— ||— |
|Right-of-use operating lease asset impairment||(16,385)||— ||— |
|Contingent consideration – fair value adjustments||(12,255)||(329)||3,273 |
|Income from operations||358,113 ||340,446 ||278,701 |
|Interest income||5,898 ||1,780 ||917 |
|Other non-operating income||89,402 ||19,904 ||— |
|Income before income tax expense||400,978 ||348,766 ||266,870 |
|Income tax expense||(127,526)||(85,602)||(34,039)|
|Net income||273,452 ||263,164 ||232,831 |
|Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests||(32)||(39)||(21)|
|Net income attributable to Tetra Tech||$||273,420 ||$||263,125 ||$||232,810 |
|Earnings per share attributable to Tetra Tech:|| || || |
|Basic||$||5.14 ||$||4.91 ||$||4.31 |
|Diluted||$||5.10 ||$||4.86 ||$||4.26 |
|Weighted-average common shares outstanding:|| || || |
|Basic||53,203 ||53,620 ||54,078 |
|Diluted||53,637 ||54,163 ||54,675 |
See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
Tetra Tech, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
| ||Fiscal Year Ended|
| ||October 1,|
|October 3, 2021|
|Net income||$||273,452 ||$||263,164 ||$||232,831 |
|Other comprehensive income, net of tax|
|12,622 ||(94,933)||30,644 |
|(Loss) gain on cash flow hedge valuations, net of tax||(2,412)||11,806 ||6,117 |
|Net pension adjustments||2,638 ||— ||— |
|Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax||12,848 ||(83,127)||36,761 |
|Comprehensive income, net of tax||$||286,300 |