10-Q 1 tw-20220331.htm 10-Q tw-20220331
Tradeweb Markets 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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
___________________________________________
FORM 10-Q
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2022
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number: 001-38860
TRADEWEB MARKETS INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
___________________________________________
Delaware
83-2456358
(State of other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1177 Avenue of the Americas
New York, New York
10036
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)
(646) 430-6000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A common stock, par value $0.00001
TW
Nasdaq Global Select Market
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No
Class of Stock
Shares Outstanding as of April 21, 2022
Class A Common Stock, par value $0.00001 per share
107,565,764 
Class B Common Stock, par value $0.00001 per share
96,933,192 
Class C Common Stock, par value $0.00001 per share
1,654,825 
Class D Common Stock, par value $0.00001 per share
28,320,533 


TRADEWEB MARKETS INC.
FORM 10-Q FOR THE QUARTERLY PERIOD ENDED MARCH 31, 2022
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021
2

INTRODUCTORY NOTE
The financial statements and other disclosures contained in this report include those of Tradeweb Markets Inc., which is the registrant, and those of its consolidating subsidiaries, including Tradeweb Markets LLC, which became the principal operating subsidiary of Tradeweb Markets Inc. on April 4, 2019 in a series of reorganization transactions (the “Reorganization Transactions”) that were completed in connection with Tradeweb Markets Inc.’s initial public offering (the “IPO”), which closed on April 8, 2019.
As a result of the Reorganization Transactions completed in connection with the IPO, Tradeweb Markets Inc. became a holding company whose only material assets consist of its equity interest in Tradeweb Markets LLC and related deferred tax assets. As the sole manager of Tradeweb Markets LLC, Tradeweb Markets Inc. operates and controls all of the business and affairs of Tradeweb Markets LLC and, through Tradeweb Markets LLC and its subsidiaries, conducts its business. As a result of this control, and because Tradeweb Markets Inc. has a substantial financial interest in Tradeweb Markets LLC, Tradeweb Markets Inc. consolidates the financial results of Tradeweb Markets LLC and its subsidiaries.
As used in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, unless the context otherwise requires, references to:
“We,” “us,” “our,” the “Company,” “Tradeweb” and similar references refer: (i) on or prior to the completion of the Reorganization Transactions to Tradeweb Markets LLC, which we refer to as “TWM LLC,” and, unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, all of its subsidiaries and any predecessor entities, and (ii) following the completion of the Reorganization Transactions to Tradeweb Markets Inc., and, unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, TWM LLC and all of its subsidiaries and any predecessor entities.
“Bank Stockholders” refer collectively to entities affiliated with the following clients: Barclays Capital Inc., BofA Securities, Inc. (a subsidiary of Bank of America Corporation), Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC, Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC, J.P. Morgan Securities LLC, Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC, RBS Securities Inc., UBS Securities LLC and Wells Fargo Securities, LLC, which, prior to the completion of the IPO, collectively held a 46% ownership interest in Tradeweb. Following the IPO and the application of the net proceeds therefrom, entities affiliated with BofA Securities, Inc., RBS Securities Inc. and UBS Securities LLC no longer hold LLC Interests and, except as otherwise indicated, are not considered Bank Stockholders for post-IPO periods.
“Continuing LLC Owners” refer collectively to (i) those “Original LLC Owners,” including Refinitiv (as defined below), certain of the Bank Stockholders and members of management, that continued to own LLC Interests (as defined below) after the completion of the IPO and Reorganization Transactions, that received shares of our Class C common stock, shares of our Class D common stock or a combination of both, as the case may be, in connection with the completion of the Reorganization Transactions, and that may redeem or exchange their LLC Interests for shares of our Class A common stock or Class B common stock and (ii) solely with respect to the Tax Receivable Agreement (as defined below), also include those Original LLC Owners, including certain Bank Stockholders, that disposed of all of their LLC Interests for cash in connection with the IPO.
“Investor Group” refer to certain investment funds affiliated with The Blackstone Group Inc. (f/k/a The Blackstone Group L.P.), an affiliate of Canada Pension Plan Investment Board, an affiliate of GIC Special Investments Pte. Ltd. and certain co-investors, which prior to the LSEG Transaction (as defined below) collectively held indirectly a 55% ownership interest in Refinitiv (as defined below).
“LLC Interests” refer to the single class of common membership interests of TWM LLC issued in connection with the Reorganization Transactions.
“LSEG Transaction” refer to the acquisition of the Refinitiv business by London Stock Exchange Group plc (“LSEG”), in an all share transaction, which closed on January 29, 2021.
“Original LLC Owners” refer to the owners of TWM LLC prior to the Reorganization Transactions.
“Refinitiv,” prior to the LSEG Transaction, refer to Refinitiv Holdings Limited, and unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, all of its direct and indirect subsidiaries, and subsequent to the LSEG Transaction, refer to Refinitiv Parent Limited, and unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, all of its subsidiaries. Refinitiv owns substantially all of the former financial and risk business of Thomson Reuters (as defined below), including, prior to and following the completion of the Reorganization Transactions, an indirect majority ownership interest in Tradeweb, and was controlled by the Investor Group prior to the LSEG Transaction.
3

“Refinitiv Transaction” refer to the transaction pursuant to which Refinitiv indirectly acquired on October 1, 2018 substantially all of the financial and risk business of Thomson Reuters and Thomson Reuters indirectly acquired a 45% ownership interest in Refinitiv.
“Thomson Reuters” or “TR” refer to Thomson Reuters Corporation, which prior to the LSEG Transaction indirectly held a 45% ownership interest in Refinitiv.
Numerical figures included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q have been subject to rounding adjustments. Accordingly, numerical figures shown as totals in various tables may not be arithmetic aggregations of the figures that precede them. In addition, we round certain percentages presented in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q to the nearest whole number. As a result, figures expressed as percentages in the text may not total 100% or, when aggregated, may not be the arithmetic aggregation of the percentages that precede them.
USE OF NON-GAAP FINANCIAL MEASURES
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains “non-GAAP financial measures,” which are financial measures that are not calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) has adopted rules to regulate the use in filings with the SEC and in other public disclosures of non-GAAP financial measures. These rules govern the manner in which non-GAAP financial measures are publicly presented and require, among other things:
a presentation with equal or greater prominence of the most comparable financial measure or measures calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP; and
a statement disclosing the purposes for which the registrant’s management uses the non-GAAP financial measure.
Specifically, we make use of the non-GAAP financial measures “Free Cash Flow,” “Adjusted EBITDA,” “Adjusted EBITDA margin,” “Adjusted EBIT,” “Adjusted EBIT margin,” “Adjusted Net Income” and “Adjusted Diluted EPS” in evaluating our past results and future prospects. For the definition of Free Cash Flow and a reconciliation to cash flow from operating activities, its most directly comparable financial measure presented in accordance with GAAP, see Part I, Item 2. – “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures.” For the definitions of Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBIT and Adjusted Net Income and reconciliations to net income and net income attributable to Tradeweb Markets Inc., as applicable, their most directly comparable financial measures presented in accordance with GAAP, see Part I, Item 2. – “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Non-GAAP Financial Measures.” Adjusted EBITDA margin and Adjusted EBIT margin are defined as Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBIT, respectively, divided by revenue for the applicable period. Adjusted Diluted EPS is defined as Adjusted Net Income divided by the diluted weighted average number of shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock outstanding for the applicable period (including the effect of potentially dilutive securities determined using the treasury stock method), the weighted average number of other participating securities reflected in earnings per share using the two-class method and assuming the full exchange of all outstanding LLC Interests held by non-controlling interests for shares of Class A common stock or Class B common stock.
We present Free Cash Flow because we believe it is a useful indicator of liquidity that provides information to management and investors about the amount of cash generated from our core operations after expenditures for capitalized software development costs and furniture, equipment and leasehold improvements.
We present Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA margin, Adjusted EBIT and Adjusted EBIT margin because we believe they assist investors and analysts in comparing our operating performance across reporting periods on a consistent basis by excluding items that we do not believe are indicative of our core operating performance. Management and our board of directors use Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBITDA margin, Adjusted EBIT and Adjusted EBIT margin to assess our financial performance and believe they are helpful in highlighting trends in our core operating performance, while other measures can differ significantly depending on long-term strategic decisions regarding capital structure, the tax jurisdictions in which we operate and capital investments. Further, our executive incentive compensation is based in part on components of Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA margin.
We use Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS as supplemental metrics to evaluate our business performance in a way that also considers our ability to generate profit without the impact of certain items. Each of the normal recurring adjustments and other adjustments described in the definition of Adjusted Net Income helps to provide management with a measure of our operating performance over time by removing items that are not related to day-to-day operations or are non-cash expenses.
4

Free Cash Flow, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS have limitations as analytical tools, and you should not consider such measures either in isolation or as substitutes for analyzing our results as reported under GAAP. Some of these limitations include the following:
Free Cash Flow, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS do not reflect every expenditure, future requirements for capital expenditures or contractual commitments;
Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS do not reflect changes in our working capital needs;
Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBIT do not reflect any interest expense, or the amounts necessary to service interest or principal payments on any debt obligations;
Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBIT do not reflect income tax expense, which in post-IPO periods is a necessary element of our costs and ability to operate;
although depreciation and amortization are eliminated in the calculation of Adjusted EBITDA, and the depreciation and amortization related to acquisitions and the Refinitiv Transaction are eliminated in the calculation of Adjusted EBIT, the assets being depreciated and amortized will often have to be replaced in the future, and Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBIT do not reflect any costs of such replacements;
in post-IPO periods, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS do not reflect the noncash component of certain employee compensation expense or payroll taxes associated with certain option exercises;
Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS do not reflect the impact of earnings or charges resulting from matters we consider not to be indicative, on a recurring basis, of our ongoing operations; and
other companies in our industry may calculate Free Cash Flow, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS or similarly titled measures differently than we do, limiting their usefulness as comparative measures.
We compensate for these limitations by relying primarily on our GAAP results and using Free Cash Flow, Adjusted EBITDA, Adjusted EBIT, Adjusted Net Income and Adjusted Diluted EPS only as supplemental information.
5

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). You can generally identify forward-looking statements by our use of forward-looking terminology such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “projection,” “seek,” “should,” “will” or “would,” or the negative thereof or other variations thereon or comparable terminology. In particular, statements about the markets in which we operate, including our expectations about market trends, our market opportunity and the growth of our various markets, our expansion into new markets, any potential tax savings we may realize as a result of our organizational structure, our dividend policy and our expectations, beliefs, plans, strategies, objectives, prospects or assumptions regarding future events, our performance or otherwise, contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are forward-looking statements. In addition, statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q relating to the COVID-19 pandemic (including any variants of COVID-19), the potential impacts of which are inherently uncertain, are forward-looking statements.
We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections. While we believe these expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections are reasonable, such forward-looking statements are only predictions and involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control. These and other important factors may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements, or could affect our share price.
Some of the factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements include:
changes in economic, political, social and market conditions and the impact of these changes on trading volumes;
our failure to compete successfully;
our failure to adapt our business effectively to keep pace with industry changes;
consolidation and concentration in the financial services industry;
our dependence on dealer clients that, in some cases, are also stockholders;
our dependence on third parties for certain market data and certain key functions;
our ability to implement our business strategies profitably;
our ability to successfully integrate any acquisition or to realize benefits from any strategic alliances, partnerships or joint ventures;
our inability to maintain and grow the capacity of our trading platforms, systems and infrastructure;
design defects, errors, failures or delays with our platforms or solutions;
systems failures, interruptions, delays in services, cybersecurity incidents, catastrophic events and any resulting interruptions;
inadequate protection of our intellectual property;
extensive regulation of our industry;
our ability to retain the services of certain members of our management;
limitations on operating our business and incurring additional indebtedness as a result of covenant restrictions under our $500.0 million senior secured revolving credit facility (the “Revolving Credit Facility”) with Citibank, N.A., as administrative agent and collateral agent, and the other lenders party thereto, and certain Refinitiv indebtedness;
our dependence on distributions from TWM LLC to fund our expected dividend payments and to pay our taxes and expenses, including payments under the tax receivable agreement (the “Tax Receivable Agreement”) entered into in connection with the IPO;
our ability to realize any benefit from our organizational structure;
6

Refinitiv’s, and indirectly LSEG’s, control of us and our status as a controlled company; and
other risks and uncertainties, including those listed under Part I, Item 1A. “Risk Factors” of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 (the “2021 Form 10-K”), filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and in other filings we may make from time to time with the SEC.
Given these risks and uncertainties, you are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are not guarantees of future performance and our actual results of operations, financial condition or liquidity, and the development of the industry and markets in which we operate, may differ materially from the forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. In addition, even if our results of operations, financial condition or liquidity, and events in the industry and markets in which we operate, are consistent with the forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, they may not be predictive of results or developments in future periods.
Any forward-looking statement that we make in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q speaks only as of the date of such statement. Except as required by law, we do not undertake any obligation to update or revise, or to publicly announce any update or revision to, any of the forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Investors and others should note that we announce material financial and operational information using our investor relations website, press releases, SEC filings and public conference calls and webcasts. Information about Tradeweb, our business and our results of operations may also be announced by posts on Tradeweb’s accounts on the following social media channels: Instagram, LinkedIn and Twitter. The information that we post through these social media channels may be deemed material. As a result, we encourage investors, the media and others interested in Tradeweb to monitor these social media channels in addition to following our investor relations website, press releases, SEC filings and public conference calls and webcasts. These social media channels may be updated from time to time on our investor relations website.
7

PART I — FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Tradeweb Markets Inc. and Subsidiaries
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
(Unaudited)
March 31,December 31,
20222021
Assets
Cash and cash equivalents$828,061 $972,048 
Restricted cash1,000 1,000 
Receivable from brokers and dealers and clearing organizations91,085  
Deposits with clearing organizations35,466 20,523 
Accounts receivable, net of allowance for credit losses of $73 and $273 at March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively
164,968 129,937 
Furniture, equipment, purchased software and leasehold improvements, net of accumulated depreciation and amortization35,141 31,060 
Lease right-of-use assets28,820 20,496 
Software development costs, net of accumulated amortization152,241 156,203 
Goodwill2,780,259 2,780,259 
Intangible assets, net of accumulated amortization1,153,216 1,180,016 
Receivable from affiliates2,441 3,313 
Deferred tax asset651,091 618,970 
Other assets77,334 76,355 
Total assets$6,001,123 $5,990,180 
Liabilities and Equity
Liabilities
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase$20,511 $ 
Payable to brokers and dealers and clearing organizations70,512  
Accrued compensation74,941 154,824 
Deferred revenue27,667 24,930 
Accounts payable, accrued expenses and other liabilities47,489 38,832 
Lease liabilities31,926 24,331 
Payable to affiliates4,574 4,860 
Deferred tax liability20,659 21,011 
Tax receivable agreement liability409,113 412,449 
Total liabilities707,392 681,237 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 12)


Equity
Preferred stock, $0.00001 par value; 250,000,000 shares authorized; none issued or outstanding
  
Class A common stock, $0.00001 par value; 1,000,000,000 shares authorized; 107,348,079 and 106,286,821 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively
1 1 
Class B common stock, $0.00001 par value; 450,000,000 shares authorized; 96,933,192 and 96,933,192 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively
1 1 
Class C common stock, $0.00001 par value; 350,000,000 shares authorized; 1,654,825 and 1,654,825 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively
  
Class D common stock, $0.00001 par value; 300,000,000 shares authorized; 28,320,533 and 28,873,139 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, respectively
  
Additional paid-in capital4,388,663 4,401,366 
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)(1,964)1,604 
Retained earnings261,915 242,623 
Total stockholders’ equity attributable to Tradeweb Markets Inc.4,648,616 4,645,595 
Non-controlling interests645,115 663,348 
Total equity5,293,731 5,308,943 
Total liabilities and equity$6,001,123 $5,990,180 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
8

Tradeweb Markets Inc. and Subsidiaries
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended
March 31,
20222021
Revenues
Transaction fees and commissions$251,805 $217,816 
Subscription fees41,455 37,868 
Refinitiv market data fees15,558 15,117 
Other2,668 2,598 
Total revenue311,486 273,399 
Expenses
Employee compensation and benefits117,991 103,622 
Depreciation and amortization44,450 40,966 
Technology and communications15,776 13,544 
General and administrative10,313 3,459 
Professional fees7,857 9,728 
Occupancy3,497 3,753 
Total expenses199,884 175,072 
Operating income111,602 98,327 
Net interest income (expense)(447)(493)
Income before taxes111,155 97,834 
Provision for income taxes(13,710)(16,269)
Net income97,445 81,565 
Less: Net income attributable to non-controlling interests14,480 13,706 
Net income attributable to Tradeweb Markets Inc.$82,965 $67,859 
Earnings per share attributable to Tradeweb Markets Inc. Class A and B common stockholders:
Basic$0.41 $0.34 
Diluted$0.40 $0.33 
Weighted average shares outstanding:
Basic204,061,347199,064,607
Diluted207,497,102205,028,717
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
9

Tradeweb Markets Inc. and Subsidiaries
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
(in thousands)
(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended
March 31,
20222021
Net income$97,445 $81,565 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax:
Foreign currency translation adjustments, with no tax benefit for each of the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021
(4,098)(343)
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax(4,098)(343)
Comprehensive income93,347 81,222 
Less: Net income attributable to non-controlling interests14,480 13,706 
Less: Foreign currency translation adjustments attributable to non-controlling interests(530)(46)
Comprehensive income attributable to Tradeweb Markets Inc.$79,397 $67,562 
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20222021
Comprehensive income - Tradeweb Markets Inc.
Net income attributable to Tradeweb Markets Inc.$82,965 $67,859 
Other comprehensive income (loss):
Foreign currency translation adjustments attributable to Tradeweb Markets Inc.(3,568)(297)
Comprehensive income attributable to Tradeweb Markets Inc.$79,397 $67,562 
Comprehensive income - Non-controlling interests
Net income attributable to non-controlling interests$14,480 $13,706 
Other comprehensive income (loss):
Foreign currency translation adjustments attributable to non-controlling interests(530)(46)
Comprehensive income attributable to non-controlling interests$13,950 $13,660 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
10

Tradeweb Markets Inc. and Subsidiaries
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
(Unaudited)
Tradeweb Markets Inc. Stockholders’ Equity
Class A
Common Stock
Class B
Common Stock
Class C
Common Stock
Class D
Common Stock
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Retained
Earnings
Non-
Controlling
Interests
Total
Equity
SharesAmountSharesAmountSharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 2021106,286,821 $1 96,933,192 $1 1,654,825 $ 28,873,139 $ $4,401,366 $1,604 $242,623 $663,348 $5,308,943 
Activities related to exchanges of LLC Interests552,606 — — — — — (552,606)— — — — — — 
Issuance of common stock from equity incentive plans1,068,080 — — — — — — — 692 — — — 692 
Share repurchases pursuant to the Share Repurchase Program(559,428)— — — — — — — — — (47,323)— (47,323)
Tax receivable agreement liability and deferred taxes arising from LLC Interest ownership exchanges and the issuance of common stock from equity incentive plans— — — — — — — — 38,676 — — — 38,676 
Adjustments to non-controlling interests— — — — — — — — 30,005 — — (30,005) 
Distributions to non-controlling interests— — — — — — — — — — — (2,178)(2,178)
Dividends ($0.08 per share)
— — — — — — — — — — (16,350)— (16,350)
Stock-based compensation expense under the PRSU Plan— — — — — — — — 6,351 — — — 6,351 
Stock-based compensation expense under the RSU Plan— — — — — — — — 6,102 — — — 6,102 
Stock-based compensation expense under the Option Plan— — — — — — — — 1,229 — — — 1,229 
Payroll taxes paid for stock-based compensation— — — — — — — — (95,758)— — — (95,758)
Net income— — — — — — — — — — 82,965 14,480 97,445 
Foreign currency translation adjustments— — — — — — — — — (3,568)— (530)(4,098)
Balance at March 31, 2022107,348,079 $1 96,933,192 $1 1,654,825 $ 28,320,533 $ $4,388,663 $(1,964)$261,915 $645,115 $5,293,731 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

11

Tradeweb Markets Inc. and Subsidiaries
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity – (Continued)
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)
(Unaudited)
Tradeweb Markets Inc. Stockholders’ Equity
Class A
Common Stock
Class B
Common Stock
Class C
Common Stock
Class D
Common Stock
Additional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Income (Loss)
Retained
Earnings
Non-
Controlling
Interests
Total
Equity
SharesAmountSharesAmountSharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance at December 31, 202098,075,465 $1 96,933,192 $1 3,139,821 $ 30,871,381 $ $4,143,094 $4,314 $156,041 $715,712 $5,019,163 
Activities related to exchanges of LLC Interests3,479,269 — — — (1,484,996)— (1,994,273)— — — — — — 
Tax receivable agreement liability and deferred taxes arising from LLC Interest ownership exchanges— — — — — — — — 65,177 — — — 65,177 
Issuance of common stock from equity incentive plans3,088,545 — — — — — — — 46,397 — — — 46,397 
Deferred taxes arising from issuance of common stock from equity incentive plans— — — — — — — — 6,417 — — — 6,417 
Adjustments to non-controlling interests— — — — — — — — 80,665 85 — (80,750) 
Distributions to non-controlling interests— — — — — — — — — — — (2,504)(2,504)
Dividends ($0.08 per share)
— — — — — — — — — — (16,030)— (16,030)
Stock-based compensation expense under the PRSU Plan— — — — — — — — 5,997 — — — 5,997 
Stock-based compensation expense under the RSU Plan— — — — — — — — 2,523 — — — 2,523 
Stock-based compensation expense under the Option Plan— — — — — — — — 2,240 — — — 2,240 
Payroll taxes paid for stock-based compensation— — — — — — — — (45,464)— — — (45,464)
Net income— — — — — — — — — — 67,859 13,706 81,565 
Foreign currency translation adjustments— — — — — — — — — (297)— (46)(343)
Balance at March 31, 2021104,643,279 $1 96,933,192 $1 1,654,825 $ 28,877,108 $ $4,307,046 $4,102 $207,870 $646,118 $5,165,138 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
12

Tradeweb Markets Inc. and Subsidiaries
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(in thousands)
(Unaudited)
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20222021
Cash flows from operating activities
Net income$97,445 $81,565 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization44,450 40,966 
Stock-based compensation expense13,712 10,760 
Deferred taxes11,640 15,997 
(Increase) decrease in operating assets:
Receivable from/payable to brokers and dealers and clearing organizations, net(20,573)(101)
Deposits with clearing organizations(14,996)906 
Accounts receivable(36,437)(38,831)
Receivable from/payable to affiliates, net692 (6,491)
Other assets(1,079)7,226 
Increase (decrease) in operating liabilities:
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase20,511  
Accrued compensation(81,025)(59,275)
Deferred revenue2,766 3,995 
Accounts payable, accrued expenses and other liabilities8,137 770 
Employee equity compensation payable (1,915)
Net cash provided by operating activities45,243 55,572 
Cash flows from investing activities
Purchases of furniture, equipment, software and leasehold improvements(9,061)(4,359)
Capitalized software development costs(8,979)(8,266)
Net cash used in investing activities(18,040)(12,625)
Cash flows from financing activities
Share repurchases pursuant to the Share Repurchase Program(47,323) 
Proceeds from stock-based compensation exercises692 46,397 
Dividends(16,350)(16,030)
Distributions to non-controlling interests(2,178)(2,504)
Payroll taxes paid for stock-based compensation(93,927)(45,464)
Payments on tax receivable agreement liability(8,995)(6,849)
Net cash used in financing activities(168,081)(24,450)
Effect of exchange rate changes on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(3,109)161 
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash(143,987)18,658 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash
Beginning of period973,048 792,280 
End of period$829,061 $810,938 
Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information
Income taxes paid, net of (refunds)$2,764 $(4,175)
Non-cash financing activities
Withholding taxes payable relating to stock-based compensation settlements included in accrued compensation$1,831 $ 
Items arising from LLC Interest ownership changes:
Establishment of liabilities under tax receivable agreement$5,659 $27,666 
Deferred tax asset$44,335 $99,260 
March 31,December 31,
Reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash as shown on the statements of financial condition:20222021
Cash and cash equivalents$828,061 $972,048 
Restricted cash1,000 1,000 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash shown in the statement of cash flows$829,061 $973,048 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.
13

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Unaudited)
14

Tradeweb Markets Inc. and Subsidiaries
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements
(Unaudited)
1.    Organization
Tradeweb Markets Inc. (the “Corporation”) was incorporated as a Delaware corporation on November 7, 2018 to carry on the business of Tradeweb Markets LLC (“TWM LLC”) following the completion of a series of reorganization transactions on April 4, 2019 (the “Reorganization Transactions”), in connection with Tradeweb Markets Inc.’s initial public offering (the “IPO”), which closed on April 8, 2019. Following the Reorganization Transactions, Refinitiv Holdings Limited (unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, together with all of its direct and indirect subsidiaries, “Refinitiv”) owned an indirect majority ownership interest in the Company (as defined below).
On January 29, 2021, London Stock Exchange Group plc (“LSEG”) completed its acquisition of Refinitiv from a consortium, including certain investment funds affiliated with The Blackstone Group Inc. (f/k/a The Blackstone Group L.P.) (“Blackstone”) as well as Thomson Reuters Corporation (“TR”), in an all share transaction (the “LSEG Transaction”).
In connection with the LSEG Transaction, the Corporation became a consolidating subsidiary of LSEG. Prior to the LSEG Transaction, the Corporation was a consolidating subsidiary of BCP York Holdings (“BCP”), a company owned by certain investment funds affiliated with Blackstone, through BCP’s previous majority ownership interest in Refinitiv.
The Corporation is a holding company whose principal asset is LLC Interests (as defined below) of TWM LLC. As the sole manager of TWM LLC, the Corporation operates and controls all of the business and affairs of TWM LLC and, through TWM LLC and its subsidiaries, conducts the Corporation’s business. As a result of this control, and because the Corporation has a substantial financial interest in TWM LLC, the Corporation consolidates the financial results of TWM LLC and reports a non-controlling interest in the Corporation’s condensed consolidated financial statements.  As of March 31, 2022, Tradeweb Markets Inc. owns 87.2% of TWM LLC and the non-controlling interest holders own the remaining 12.8% of TWM LLC.  As of December 31, 2021, Tradeweb Markets Inc. owned 86.9% of TWM LLC and the non-controlling interest holders owned the remaining 13.1% of TWM LLC. 
Unless the context otherwise requires, references to the “Company” refer to Tradeweb Markets Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, including TWM LLC, following the completion of the Reorganization Transactions, and TWM LLC and its consolidated subsidiaries prior to the completion of the Reorganization Transactions.
The Company is a leader in building and operating electronic marketplaces for a global network of clients across the institutional, wholesale and retail client sectors. The Company’s principal subsidiaries include:
Tradeweb LLC (“TWL”), a registered broker-dealer under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”), a registered independent introducing broker with the Commodities Future Trading Commission (“CFTC”) and a member of the National Futures Association (“NFA”).
Dealerweb Inc. (“DW”) (formerly known as Hilliard Farber & Co., Inc.), a registered broker-dealer under the Exchange Act and a member of FINRA. DW is also registered as an introducing broker with the CFTC and a member of the NFA.
Tradeweb Direct LLC (“TWD”) (formerly known as BondDesk Trading LLC), a registered broker-dealer under the Exchange Act and a member of FINRA.
Execution Access, LLC (“EA”), acquired in June 2021 in connection with the NFI Acquisition (as defined below), a registered broker-dealer under the Exchange Act and a member of FINRA.
Tradeweb Europe Limited (“TEL”), a Multilateral Trading Facility regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority (the “FCA”) in the UK, which maintains branches in Asia which are regulated by certain Asian securities regulators.
TW SEF LLC (“TW SEF”), a Swap Execution Facility (“SEF”) regulated by the CFTC.
DW SEF LLC (“DW SEF”), a SEF regulated by the CFTC.
Tradeweb Japan K.K. (“TWJ”), a security house regulated by the Japanese Financial Services Agency (“JFSA”) and the Japan Securities Dealers Association (“JSDA”).
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Tradeweb EU B.V. (“TWEU”), a Trading Venue and Approved Publication Arrangement regulated by the Netherlands Authority for the Financial Markets (“AFM”).
Tradeweb Execution Services Limited (“TESL”), an Investment Firm (“BIPRU Firm”) regulated by the FCA in the UK.
Tradeweb Commercial Information Consulting (Shanghai) Co., Ltd. a wholly-owned foreign enterprise (WOFE) for the purpose of providing consulting and marketing activities in China. The Tradeweb offshore electronic trading platform is recognized by the People’s Bank of China for the provision of Bond Connect and CIBM Direct.
In June 2021, the Company acquired Nasdaq’s U.S. fixed income electronic trading platform, formerly known as eSpeed (the “NFI Acquisition”), which was a fully executable central order limit book (CLOB) for electronic trading in on-the-run (OTR) U.S. government bonds.
A majority interest of Refinitiv (formerly the Thomson Reuters Financial & Risk Business) was acquired by BCP on October 1, 2018 (the “Refinitiv Transaction”) from TR. The Refinitiv Transaction resulted in a new basis of accounting for certain of the Company’s assets and liabilities beginning on October 1, 2018. See Note 2 – Significant Accounting Policies for a description of pushdown accounting applied as a result of the Refinitiv Transaction.
In connection with the Reorganization Transactions, TWM LLC’s limited liability company agreement (the “TWM LLC Agreement”) was amended and restated to, among other things, (i) provide for a new single class of common membership interests in TWM LLC (the “LLC Interests”), (ii) exchange all of the then existing membership interests in TWM LLC for LLC Interests and (iii) appoint the Corporation as the sole manager of TWM LLC. As used herein, references to “Continuing LLC Owners” refer collectively to (i) those “Original LLC Owners, including an indirect subsidiary of Refinitiv, certain investment and commercial banks (collectively, the “Bank Stockholders”) and members of management, that continued to own LLC Interests after the completion of the IPO and Reorganization Transactions, that received shares of Class C common stock, par value $0.00001 per share, of the Corporation (the “Class C common stock”), shares of Class D common stock, par value $0.00001 per share, of the Corporation (the “Class D common stock”) or a combination of both, as the case may be, in connection with the completion of the Reorganization Transactions, and that may redeem or exchange their LLC Interests for shares of Class A common stock, par value $0.00001 per share, of the Corporation (the “Class A common stock”) or Class B common stock, par value $0.00001 per share, of the Corporation (the “Class B common stock”) and (ii) solely with respect to the Tax Receivable Agreement (as defined in Note 6 – Tax Receivable Agreement), also includes those Original LLC Owners, including certain Bank Stockholders, that disposed of all of their LLC Interests for cash in connection with the IPO.
As of March 31, 2022:
The public investors collectively owned 107,348,079 shares of Class A common stock, representing 7.9% of the combined voting power of Tradeweb Markets Inc.’s issued and outstanding common stock and indirectly, through Tradeweb Markets Inc., owned 45.8% of the economic interest in TWM LLC;
Refinitiv collectively owned 96,933,192 shares of Class B common stock and 22,988,329 shares of Class D common stock, representing 88.1% of the combined voting power of Tradeweb Markets Inc.’s issued and outstanding common stock and directly and indirectly, through Tradeweb Markets Inc., owned 51.2% of the economic interest in TWM LLC; and
The Bank Stockholders that continue to own LLC Interests collectively owned 1,654,825 shares of Class C common stock and 5,220,129 shares of Class D common stock, representing 4.0% of the combined voting power of Tradeweb Markets Inc.’s issued and outstanding common stock and directly own 2.9% of the economic interest in TWM LLC. As of March 31, 2022, only Credit Suisse Securities (USA) LLC remained as Bank Stockholders.
Other stockholders that continue to own LLC Interests also collectively owned 112,075 shares of Class D common stock, representing less than 0.1% of the combined voting power of Tradeweb Markets Inc.’s issued and outstanding common stock and directly own less than 0.1% of the economic interest in TWM LLC.
In addition, for the three months ended March 31, 2022, the Company’s basic and diluted earnings per share calculation is impacted by 53,756 of weighted average shares resulting from unvested restricted stock units and unsettled vested performance-based restricted stock units that were considered participating securities for purposes of calculating earnings per share in accordance with the two-class method, and the Company’s diluted earnings per share calculation includes 3,435,755 weighted average shares resulting from the dilutive effect of its equity incentive plans. See Note 13 – Earnings Per Share for additional details.
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2.    Significant Accounting Policies
The following is a summary of significant accounting policies:
Basis of Presentation
The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation. As discussed in Note 1 – Organization, as a result of the Reorganization Transactions, Tradeweb Markets Inc. consolidates TWM LLC and its subsidiaries and TWM LLC is considered to be the predecessor to Tradeweb Markets Inc. for financial reporting purposes. Tradeweb Markets Inc. had no business transactions or activities and no substantial assets or liabilities prior to the Reorganization Transactions. The condensed consolidated financial statements represent the financial condition and results of operations of the Company and report a non-controlling interest related to the LLC Interests held by the Continuing LLC Owners.
These condensed consolidated financial statements are unaudited and should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021. The consolidated financial information as of December 31, 2021 has been derived from audited financial statements not included herein. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) and the rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) with respect to interim financial reporting and Form 10-Q. In accordance with such rules and regulations, certain disclosures that are normally included in annual financial statements have been omitted. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all normal and recurring adjustments that are, in the opinion of management, necessary for a fair statement of the results for the interim periods presented. Operating results for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the full year.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates and the difference may be material to the condensed consolidated financial statements.
Business Combinations
Business combinations are accounted for under the purchase method of accounting pursuant to Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 805, Business Combinations (“ASC 805”). The total cost of an acquisition is allocated to the underlying net assets based on their respective estimated fair values. The excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair values of the net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. The fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed is determined based on assumptions that reasonable market participants would use in the principal (or most advantageous) market for the asset or liability. Determining the fair value of certain assets acquired and liabilities assumed is judgmental in nature and often involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions, including assumptions with respect to future cash flows, discount rates, growth rates, customer attrition rates and asset lives.
Transaction costs incurred to effect a business combination are expensed as incurred. During the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, the Company incurred a total of none and $1.8 million, respectively in transaction costs included as a component of professional fees in the condensed consolidated statements of income. The transaction costs related to the NFI Acquisition.
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Pushdown Accounting
In connection with the Refinitiv Transaction, a majority interest of Refinitiv was acquired by BCP on October 1, 2018 from TR. The Refinitiv Transaction was accounted for by Refinitiv in accordance with the acquisition method of accounting pursuant to ASC 805, and pushdown accounting was applied to Refinitiv to record the fair value of the assets and liabilities of Refinitiv as of October 1, 2018, the date of the Refinitiv Transaction. The Company, as a consolidating subsidiary of Refinitiv, also accounted for the Refinitiv Transaction using pushdown accounting which resulted in a new fair value basis of accounting for certain of the Company’s assets and liabilities beginning on October 1, 2018. Under the pushdown accounting applied, the excess of the fair value of the Company above the fair value accounting basis of the net assets and liabilities of the Company as of October 1, 2018 was recorded as goodwill. The fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed was determined based on assumptions that reasonable market participants would use in the principal (or most advantageous) market for the asset or liability. The adjusted valuations primarily affected the values of the Company’s long-lived and indefinite-lived intangible assets, including software development costs.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consists of cash and highly liquid investments (such as short-term money market instruments) with original maturities at the time of purchase of three months or less.
Allowance for Credit Losses
The Company continually monitors collections and payments from its clients and maintains an allowance for credit losses. The allowance for credit losses is based on an estimate of the amount of potential credit losses in existing accounts receivable, as determined from a review of aging schedules, past due balances, historical collection experience and other specific account data. Careful analysis of the financial condition of the Company’s counterparties is also performed.
Additions to the allowance for credit losses are charged to credit loss expense, which is included in general and administrative expenses in the condensed consolidated statements of income. Aged balances that are determined to be uncollectible, are written off against the allowance for credit losses. See Note 11 – Credit Risk for additional information.
Receivable from and Payable to Brokers and Dealers and Clearing Organizations
Receivable from and payable to brokers and dealers and clearing organizations consists of proceeds from transactions executed on the Company’s wholesale platform which failed to settle due to the inability of a transaction party to deliver or receive the transacted security. These securities transactions are generally collateralized by those securities. Until the failed transaction settles, a receivable from (and a matching payable to) brokers and dealers and clearing organizations is recognized for the proceeds from the unsettled transaction.
Deposits with Clearing Organizations
Deposits with clearing organizations are comprised of cash deposits.
Furniture, Equipment, Purchased Software and Leasehold Improvements
Furniture, equipment, purchased software and leasehold improvements are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation for furniture, equipment and purchased software is computed on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the related assets, ranging from three to seven years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the lesser of the estimated useful lives of the leasehold improvements or the remaining term of the lease for office space.
Furniture, equipment, purchased software and leasehold improvements are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances suggest that an asset’s carrying value may not be fully recoverable.
As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, accumulated depreciation related to furniture, equipment, purchased software and leasehold improvements totaled $60.2 million and $56.0 million, respectively. Depreciation expense for furniture, equipment, purchased software and leasehold improvements was $4.7 million and $5.4 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
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Software Development Costs
The Company capitalizes costs associated with the development of internal use software at the point at which the conceptual formulation, design and testing of possible software project alternatives have been completed. The Company capitalizes employee compensation and related benefits and third party consulting costs incurred during the application development stage which directly contribute to such development. Such costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over three years. Software development costs acquired as part of the NFI Acquisition are amortized over one year. Costs capitalized as part of the Refinitiv Transaction pushdown accounting allocation are amortized over nine years. The Company reviews the amounts capitalized for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts of the assets may not be fully recoverable, or that their useful lives are shorter than originally expected. Non-capitalized software costs and routine maintenance costs are expensed as incurred.
As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, accumulated amortization related to software development costs totaled $127.4 million and $114.5 million, respectively. Amortization expense for software development costs was $12.9 million and $10.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Goodwill
Goodwill includes the excess of the fair value of the Company above the fair value accounting basis of the net assets and liabilities of the Company as previously applied under pushdown accounting in connection with the Refinitiv Transaction. Goodwill also includes the cost of acquired companies in excess of the fair value of identifiable net assets at the acquisition date, including the NFI Acquisition. Goodwill is not amortized, but is tested for impairment annually on October 1st and between annual tests, whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be fully recoverable. Goodwill is tested at the reporting unit level, which is defined as an operating segment or one level below the operating segment. The Company consists of one reporting unit for goodwill impairment testing purposes. An impairment loss is recognized if the estimated fair value of a reporting unit is less than its net book value. Such loss is calculated as the difference between the estimated fair value of goodwill and its carrying value.
Goodwill was last tested for impairment on October 1, 2021 and no impairment of goodwill was identified.
Intangible Assets
Intangible assets with a finite life are amortized over the estimated lives, ranging from seven to thirteen years. These intangible assets subject to amortization are tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances suggest that an asset’s or asset group’s carrying value may not be fully recoverable. Intangible assets with an indefinite useful life are tested for impairment at least annually. An impairment loss is recognized if the sum of the estimated discounted cash flows relating to the asset or asset group is less than the corresponding book value.
As of March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, accumulated amortization related to intangible assets totaled $353.8 million and $327.0 million, respectively. Amortization expense for definite-lived intangible assets was $26.8 million and $24.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Equity Investments Without Readily Determinable Fair Values
Equity Investments without a readily determinable fair value are measured at cost, less impairment, plus or minus observable price changes (in orderly transactions) of an identical or similar investment of the same issuer. If the Company determines that the equity investment is impaired on the basis of a qualitative assessment, the Company will recognize an impairment loss equal to the amount by which the investment’s carrying amount exceeds its fair value. Equity investments are included as a component of other assets on the condensed consolidated statements of financial condition.
Securities Sold Under Agreements to Repurchase
From time to time, the Company sells securities under agreements to repurchase in order to facilitate the clearance of securities. Securities sold under agreements to purchase are treated as collateralized financings and are presented in the condensed consolidated statements of financial condition at the amounts of cash received. Receivables and payables arising from these agreements are not offset in the condensed consolidated statements of financial condition.
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Leases
At lease commencement, a right-of-use asset and a lease liability are recognized for all leases with an initial term in excess of twelve months based on the initial present value of the fixed lease payments over the lease term. The lease right-of-use asset also reflects the present value of any initial direct costs, prepaid lease payments and lease incentives. The Company’s leases do not provide a readily determinable implicit discount rate. Therefore, management estimates the Company’s incremental borrowing rate used to discount the lease payments based on the information available at lease commencement. The Company includes the term covered by an option to extend a lease when the option is reasonably certain to be exercised. The Company has elected not to separate non-lease components from lease components for all leases. Significant assumptions and judgments in calculating the lease right-of-use assets and lease liabilities include the determination of the applicable borrowing rate for each lease. Operating lease expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term and included as a component of occupancy expense in the consolidated statements of income.
Deferred IPO and Follow-On Offering Costs
Deferred IPO and follow-on offering costs consist of legal, accounting, and other costs directly related to the Company’s efforts to raise capital. These costs are recognized as a reduction in additional paid-in capital within the condensed consolidated statements of financial condition when the offering is effective. As of both March 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, $15.9 million of deferred costs related to the IPO and $5.2 million of deferred costs related to follow-on offerings were included as a component of the additional paid-in capital balance in the condensed consolidated statements of financial condition. No offering costs were incurred during each of the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021.
Revenue Recognition
The Company’s classification of revenues in the condensed consolidated statements of income represents revenues from contracts with customers disaggregated by type of revenue. See Note 4 – Revenue for additional details regarding revenue types and the Company’s policies regarding revenue recognition.
Translation of Foreign Currency and Foreign Currency Forward Contracts
Revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities denominated in non-functional currencies are recorded in the appropriate functional currency for the legal entity at the rate of exchange prevailing at the transaction date. Monetary assets and liabilities that are denominated in non-functional currencies are then remeasured at the end of each reporting period at the exchange rate prevailing at the end of the reporting period. Foreign currency remeasurement gains or losses on monetary assets and liabilities in nonfunctional currencies are recognized in the condensed consolidated statements of income within general and administrative expenses. The realized and unrealized losses totaled $0.3 million and $1.9 million during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Since the condensed consolidated financial statements are presented in U.S. dollars, the Company also translates all non-U.S. dollar functional currency revenues, expenses, assets and liabilities into U.S. dollars. All non-U.S. dollar functional currency revenue and expense amounts are translated into U.S. dollars monthly at the average exchange rate for the month. All non-U.S. dollar functional currency assets and liabilities are translated at the rate prevailing at the end of the reporting period. Gains or losses on translation in the financial statements, when the functional currency is other than the U.S. dollar, are included as a component of other comprehensive income.
The Company enters into foreign currency forward contracts to mitigate its U.S. dollar and British pound sterling versus Euro exposure, generally with a duration of less than twelve months. The Company’s foreign currency forward contracts are not designated as hedges for accounting purposes and changes in the fair value of these contracts during the period are recognized in the condensed consolidated statements of income within general and administrative expenses. The Company does not use derivative instruments for trading or speculative purposes. Realized and unrealized gains on foreign currency forward contracts totaled $0.7 million and $5.7 million during the three months ended March 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. See Note 10 – Fair Value of Financial Instruments for additional details on the Companys derivative instruments.
Income Tax
The Corporation is subject to U.S. federal, state and local income taxes with respect to its taxable income, including its allocable share of any taxable income of TWM LLC, and is taxed at prevailing corporate tax rates. TWM LLC is a multiple member limited liability company taxed as a partnership and accordingly any taxable income generated by TWM LLC is passed through to and included in the taxable income of its members, including the Corporation. Income taxes also include unincorporated business taxes on income earned or losses incurred for conducting business in certain state and local jurisdictions, income taxes on income earned or losses incurred in foreign jurisdictions on certain operations and federal and state income taxes on income earned or losses incurred, both current and deferred, on subsidiaries that are taxed as corporations for U.S. tax purposes.
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The Company records deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities. The Company measures deferred taxes using the enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when such temporary differences are expected to reverse. The Company evaluates the need for valuation allowances based on the weight of positive and negative evidence. The Company records valuation allowances wherever management believes it is more likely than not that the Company will not be able to realize its deferred tax assets in the foreseeable future.
The Company records uncertain tax positions on the basis of a two-step process whereby (i) the Company determines whether it is more likely than not that the tax positions will be sustained on the basis of the technical merits of the position and (ii) for those tax positions that meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, the Company recognizes the amount of tax benefit that is more than 50 percent likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement with the related tax authority.
The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to income taxes within the provision for income taxes in the condensed consolidated statements of income. Accrued interest and penalties are included within accounts payable, accrued expenses and other liabilities in the condensed consolidated statements of financial condition.
The Company has elected to treat taxes due on future U.S. inclusions in taxable income under the global intangible low-taxed income (“GILTI”) provision of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act as a current period expense when incurred.
Stock-Based Compensation
The stock-based payments received by the employees of the Company are accounted for as equity awards. The Company measures and recognizes the cost of employee services received in exchange for awards of equity instruments based on their estimated fair values measured as of the grant date. These costs are recognized as an expense over the requisite service period, with an offsetting increase to additional paid-in capital. The grant-date fair value of stock-based awards that do not require future service (i.e., vested awards) are expensed immediately. Forfeitures of stock-based compensation awards are recognized as they occur.
For grants made during the post-IPO period, the fair value of the equity instruments is determined based on the price of the Class A common stock on the grant date.
Prior to the IPO, the Company awarded options to management and other employees (collectively, the “Special Option Award”) under the Amended and Restated Tradeweb Markets Inc. Option Plan (the “Option Plan”). The significant assumptions used to estimate the fair value as of grant date of the options awarded prior to the IPO did not reflect changes that would have occurred to these assumptions as a result of the IPO. The non-cash stock-based compensation expense associated with the Special Option Award began being expensed in the second quarter of 2019.