|TEV||140,873||TEV/EBIT||17||TTM 2019-09-30, in MM, except price, ratios|
|Item 16. Form 10 - K Summary|
|Balance Sheet||Income Statement||Cash Flow|
Rev, G Profit, Net Income
Ops, Inv, Fin
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from __________ to ____________
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incorporation or organization)
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Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
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Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
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As of June 30, 2020, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s Common Stock held by non-affiliates (using the New York Stock Exchange closing price) was $
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UNION PACIFIC CORPORATION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
February 5, 2021
2020 was a year that no one anticipated. The COVID-19 pandemic impacted our country, economy, and Company in unimaginable ways. Our dedicated employees persevered throughout the year to deliver on our commitments to our customers while maintaining focus on the health and safety of themselves and their families. Despite this monumental challenge, we took another step on our journey to operational excellence. In 2020, we are reporting earnings per share of $7.88, which is a 6% decrease versus 2019, despite volume declines of 7%. Our operating ratio was a record 59.9%, 0.7 points better than last year’s 60.6%. These results were negatively impacted by a one-time $278 million non-cash impairment charge that reduced earnings per share by $0.31 and increased operating ratio by 140 basis points.
Union Pacific’s goal remains to be the best freight railroad in North America. Our strategy to achieve this goal is driven by a Proud and Engaged Workforce. Recognizing that a diverse workforce provides access to the skills and character we need to foster innovation and drive growth, in 2020 we announced long term goals to increase the representation of women and minorities in our workforce. Our employees are at the core of everything we do and critical to our success.
To achieve operational excellence, we must provide the Safest and Most Reliable Freight Rail Products and Services. Our 2020 safety results demonstrate substantial improvement on rail incidents, while we held the line on personal injuries in a very challenging environment. We want our employees to return home safely every day and to eliminate derailments; our performance in 2020 has us moving in the right direction toward that goal.
We also made great strides in 2020 to improve the reliability of our service product despite tremendous volume swings as the U.S. economy first shut down, and then reopened. Trip plan compliance for both Intermodal and Manifest/Autos improved 6 points while we also improved freight car velocity 6%, demonstrating how we balanced asset utilization with meeting customer commitments.
Maintaining our focus on Highly Efficient Operations, we took significant steps to manage our assets better in 2020 as Locomotive and Workforce Productivity improved 14% and 11% year-over-year, respectively. Moving freight in a sustainable manner is tied to efficiency and is a priority for all stakeholders. Every carload of freight we take off the highway saves fuel, lowers emissions, and reduces highway congestion. In 2020, we announced our intention to set science-based targets in accordance with the Paris Agreement to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions. We took steps toward that target, reducing our fuel consumption rate by 2% versus 2019.
Combining an enhanced service product with advancing technology allows us to provide an Industry-Leading Customer Experience that is enabling us to Secure Appropriate Business. We are the industry leader in providing our customers with application programming interfaces (API), with over 30 services launched and more to come. These innovative offerings are allowing customers to integrate their systems with ours, creating a more seamless customer experience. We are winning in the marketplace with this approach as we welcomed new customers to our railroad in the intermodal, agricultural, industrial, and automotive industries, to name a few.
Together, our actions in 2020 position us to generate Best-in-Industry Cash Returns. We paid dividends in 2020 of $2.6 billion, as we maintained our dividend through the economic downturn. In addition, we repurchased 22 million Union Pacific shares, decreasing our full-year average share count by 4%. Combining dividends and share repurchases, Union Pacific returned $6.3 billion to our shareholders in 2020.
In 2020, we remained focused on Optimal Investments as we invested $2.84 billion. We completed 36 siding extensions, focused primarily in our Southern region, to invest for growth and productivity. Additionally, we continue to invest in energy management systems to reduce fuel consumption. Our new operating model is opening up capacity across our asset base, allowing us to be a more capital efficient business going forward.
While the economic outlook for 2021 remains uncertain, we are focused on building off our solid foundation to drive our efficiency and service to new heights. We plan to leverage this enhanced service product to drive growth and outpace what the markets naturally provide. We are committed to providing value to all of our stakeholders, understanding that we have a great responsibility to be a positive force in sustainability efforts. While the ride may have gotten a little bumpy in 2020, our confidence in our ability to drive growth and excellent returns has never been greater. Thank you for taking this journey with us.
Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer
DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Andrew H. Card, Jr.
Deborah C. Hopkins
Bhavesh V. Patel
Former White House
Former Chief Executive Officer
Chief Executive Officer
Chief of Staff
LyondellBasell Industries N.V.
Board Committees: Compensation
and Benefits, Corporate Governance
Former Chief Innovation Officer
Board Committees: Finance,
Compensation and Benefits
Board Committees: Audit, Finance
Jose H. Villarreal
William J. DeLaney
Jane H. Lute
Former Chief Executive Officer,
President and Chief Executive Officer
Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer, &
SICPA, North America
Board Committees: Audit,
Board Committees: Audit, Corporate
Board Committees: Compensation
Compensation and Benefits (Chair)
Governance and Nominating
and Benefits, Corporate Governance
David B. Dillon
Michael R. McCarthy
Christopher J. Williams
The Kroger Company
McCarthy Group, LLC
Board Committees: Audit (Chair),
Lead Independent Director
Siebert Williams Shank & Co.
Compensation and Benefits
Board Committees: Corporate
Board Committees: Audit, Finance
Governance and Nominating (Chair),
Lance M. Fritz
Chairman, President, and
Chief Executive Officer
Thomas F. McLarty III
Union Pacific Corporation and
Union Pacific Railroad Company
Board Committees: Finance (Chair),
Corporate Governance and
Lance M. Fritz
Jennifer L. Hamann
Craig V. Richardson
Chairman, President, and
Executive Vice President
Executive Vice President, Chief Legal
Chief Executive Officer
and Chief Financial Officer
Officer, and Corporate Secretary
Prentiss W. Bolin, Jr.
Kenny G. Rocker
Vice President-External Relations
Senior Vice President-Information
Executive Vice President-Marketing
Technologies and Chief Information
Bryan L. Clark
Todd M. Rynaski
Scott D. Moore
Vice President and Controller
Eric J. Gehringer
Senior Vice President-Corporate
Executive Vice President-Operations
V. James Vena
Chief Administrative Officer
Gary W. Grosz
Vice President and Treasurer
Jon T. Panzer
Elizabeth F. Whited
Senior Vice President-Strategic
Executive Vice President and
Chief Human Resource Officer
Clark J. Ponthier
Senior Vice President-Supply Chain
and Continuous Improvement
*Senior management are elected officers of both Union Pacific Corporation and Union Pacific Railroad Company, except Messrs. Gehringer, Ponthier, and Rocker are elected officers for Union Pacific Railroad Company.
Item 1. Business
Union Pacific Railroad Company is the principal operating company of Union Pacific Corporation. One of America's most recognized companies, Union Pacific Railroad Company connects 23 states in the western two-thirds of the country by rail, providing a critical link in the global supply chain. The Railroad’s diversified business mix includes Bulk, Industrial, and Premium. Union Pacific serves many of the fastest-growing U.S. population centers, operates from all major West Coast and Gulf Coast ports to eastern gateways, connects with Canada's rail systems, and is the only railroad serving all six major Mexico gateways. Union Pacific provides value to its roughly 10,000 customers by delivering products in a safe, reliable, fuel-efficient, and environmentally responsible manner.
Union Pacific Corporation was incorporated in Utah in 1969 and maintains its principal executive offices at 1400 Douglas Street, Omaha, NE 68179. The telephone number at that address is (402) 544-5000. The common stock of Union Pacific Corporation is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) under the symbol “UNP”.
For purposes of this report, unless the context otherwise requires, all references herein to “UPC”, “Corporation”, “Company”, “we”, “us”, and “our” shall mean Union Pacific Corporation and its subsidiaries, including Union Pacific Railroad Company, which we separately refer to as “UPRR” or the “Railroad”.
Union Pacific’s strategy is predicated on being the best freight railroad in North America, which is established through safety, service, reliability, and efficiency. That sets the foundation for growth, which, combined with increasing margins, creates long term enterprise value. We expect to generate growth in three ways – increasing profitable carloads that fit our network and transportation plan; providing more products and services to our customers; and increasing the geographic reach of our franchise.
The “how” also is evident. Operational excellence and an engaged workforce with deep market knowledge and strong customer relationships will result in best-in-class safety, a customer experience that drives growth, and shareholder returns. The following individual strategic elements work together driving Union Pacific forward:
Safest and Most Reliable Freight Rail Products and Services.
Highly Efficient Operations.
Industry-Leading Customer Experience.
Secure Appropriate Business.
Best-in-industry Cash Returns.
Proud and Engaged Workforce.
As we transform our railroad into the safest, most reliable, and most efficient in North America, our values will continue guiding us: Our passion for performance will help us win; our high ethical standards will ensure we do not win at the expense of any one stakeholder; and our teamwork will make sure we win together.
To assist us in accomplishing our goal of being the best freight railroad in North America, we announced our efficiency and business growth initiative of G55+0 (grow to an operating ratio of 55 with zero injuries), which was launched in late 2015. Additionally, beginning in October 2018, we began conversion to precision scheduled railroading (PSR) in an effort to streamline operations with four principles:
1.Shift the focus of operations from moving trains to moving cars.
2.Minimize car dwell, car classification events, and locomotive power requirements.
3.Utilize general-purpose trains by blending existing train service.
4.Balance train movements to improve the utilization of crews and rail assets.
We want to move cars faster, reducing the number of times each is touched, resulting in terminal consolidation opportunities, improved asset utilization, and fewer car classifications, allowing product to get to the market quicker and more reliably. The end result is we are delivering a better customer experience, which will enable us to grow our market share.
The Railroad, along with its subsidiaries and rail affiliates, is our one reportable operating segment. Although we provide revenue by commodity group, we analyze the net financial results of the Railroad as one segment due to the integrated nature of our rail network. Additional information regarding our business and operations, including revenues, financial information and data, and other information regarding environmental matters, is presented in Risk Factors, Item 1A; Legal Proceedings, Item 3; Selected Financial Data, Item 6; Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, Item 7; and the Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Item 8 (which include information regarding revenues, statements of income, and total assets).
Operations – UPRR is a Class I railroad operating in the U.S. We have 32,313 route miles, connecting Pacific Coast and Gulf Coast ports with the Midwest and eastern U.S. gateways and providing several corridors to key Mexican gateways. We serve the Western two-thirds of the country and maintain coordinated schedules with other rail carriers to move freight to and from the Atlantic Coast, the Pacific Coast, the Southeast, the Southwest, Canada, and Mexico. Export and import traffic moves through Gulf Coast and Pacific Coast ports and across the Mexican and Canadian borders. In 2020, we generated freight revenues totaling $18.3 billion from the following three commodity groups:
2020 Freight Revenue
Bulk – The Company's Bulk shipments consist of grain and grain products, fertilizer, food and refrigerated, and coal and renewables. In 2020, this group generated 33% of our freight revenue. We access most major grain markets, connecting the Midwest and Western U.S. producing areas to export terminals in the Pacific Northwest and Gulf Coast ports, as well as Mexico. We also serve significant domestic markets, including grain processors, animal feeders, and ethanol producers in the Midwest and West. Fertilizer movements originate in the Gulf Coast region, Midwest, western U.S., and Canada (through interline access) for delivery to major agricultural users in those areas as well as abroad. The Railroad’s network supports the transportation of coal shipments to independent and regulated power companies and industrial facilities throughout the U.S. Through interchange gateways and ports, UPRR’s reach extends to eastern U.S. utilities as well as to Mexico and other international destinations. Coal traffic originating in the Powder River Basin (PRB) area of Wyoming is the largest segment of the Railroad’s coal business. Renewable shipments for customers committed to sustainability consist primarily of biomass exports and wind turbine components.
Industrial – Our extensive network facilitates the movement of numerous commodities between thousands of origin and destination points throughout North America. The Industrial group consists of several categories, including construction, industrial chemicals, plastics, forest products, specialized products (primarily waste, salt, roofing, and government), metals and ores, petroleum, liquid petroleum gases (LPG), and soda ash. Transportation of these products accounted for 36% of our freight revenue in 2020. Commercial, residential, and governmental infrastructure investments drive shipments of steel, aggregates, cement, and wood products. Industrial and light manufacturing plants receive steel, nonferrous materials, minerals, and other raw materials.
The industrial chemicals market consists of a vast number of chemical compounds that support the manufacturing of more complex chemicals. Plastics shipments support automotive, housing, and the durable and disposable consumer goods markets. Forest product shipments include lumber and paper commodities. Lumber shipments originate primarily in the Pacific Northwest or western Canada and move
throughout the U.S. for use in new home construction and repairs and remodeling. Paper shipments primarily support packaging needs. Oil and gas drilling generates demand for raw steel, finished pipe, stone, and drilling fluid commodities. The Company’s petroleum and LPG shipments are primarily impacted by refinery utilization rates, regional crude pricing differentials, pipeline capacity, and the use of asphalt for road programs. Soda ash originates in southwestern Wyoming and California, destined for chemical and glass producing markets in North America and abroad.
Premium – In 2020, Premium shipments generated 31% of Union Pacific’s total freight revenue. Premium includes finished automobiles, automotive parts, and merchandise in intermodal containers, both domestic and international. International business consists of import and export traffic moving in 20 or 40-foot shipping containers, that mainly pass through West Coast ports served by UP’s extensive terminal network. Domestic business includes container and trailer traffic picked up and delivered within North America for intermodal marketing companies (primarily shipper agents and logistics companies) as well as truckload carriers.
We are the largest automotive carrier west of the Mississippi River and operate or access 38 vehicle distribution centers. The Railroad’s extensive franchise serves five vehicle assembly plants and connects to West Coast ports, all six major Mexico gateways, and the Port of Houston to accommodate both import and export shipments. In addition to transporting finished vehicles, UPRR provides expedited handling of automotive parts in both boxcars and intermodal containers destined for Mexico, the U.S., and Canada.
Seasonality – Some of the commodities we carry have peak shipping seasons, reflecting either or both the nature of the commodity and the demand cycle for the commodity (such as certain agricultural and food products that have specific growing and harvesting seasons). The peak shipping seasons for these commodities can vary considerably each year depending upon various factors, including the strength of domestic and international economies and currencies and the strength of harvests and market prices for agricultural products.
Proud & Engaged Workforce – We recruit and develop talented individuals dedicated to our mission of service and who are passionate about performing to the best of their abilities while working as one team. We recognize and value that people come from all backgrounds and walks of life, and we value diversity. Union Pacific wants employees from all groups to launch and grow their career within the Company.
Attracting, acquiring, and maintaining a diverse workforce provides access to the skills and character we need to foster innovative ideas and drive optimal business growth. Drawing on different experiences and expertise is critical for strategic decision-making, problem-solving, leadership development, and creativity.
Union Pacific’s commitment – today and for the long run, is to further improve and strengthen performance through an inclusive workforce that reflects the diverse markets and communities we serve. Recognizing we still have work to do, we continue to focus on building an inclusive culture and a talented workforce and marketplace with a goal to reach 40% minority and 11% female representation in total for the Company by 2030. As of December 31, 2020, workforce representation of minorities and females was approximately 30% and 6%, respectively.
Safety is Union Pacific’s first priority. We continue to improve technology, enhance processes, and foster a culture focused on operating safely as well as remaining focused on identifying and managing risks and training our employees. Our success is measured by our personal injury rate (the number of reportable injuries for every 200,000 employee-hours worked), and our equipment incident rate (the number of reportable equipment incidents per million train miles). We provide both measures to the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). Personal injuries are defined as on duty incidents or occupational illnesses that require employees to lose time away from work, modify their normal duties, or receive certain types of medical treatment. Equipment incidents are defined as any occurrence that causes damage to assets above the monetary reporting threshold regardless of ownership ($10,700 for 2020 and $11,200 for 2021).
Our goal is to have every employee return home safely every day. Unfortunately, our 2020 personal injury rate of 0.90 and equipment incident rate of 3.54 illustrates that we have not met our ultimate goal of an incident free environment. Our 2020 personal injury rate was flat and our equipment incident rate improved 17% versus 2019. (See further discussion in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, Item 7, of this report.)
Providing employees with fulfilling, family-supporting careers is important to us. We offer competitive compensation to our employees and leadership. Our Board of Directors evaluates our compensation plans
and reviews recommendations from the Compensation and Benefits Committee. The median annual compensation for all our employees who were employed as of December 31, 2020, was $77,778 (excluding the CEO).
Approximately 83% of our full-time employees are represented by 13 major rail unions. Pursuant to the Railway Labor Act (RLA), our collective bargaining agreements are subject to modification every five years. The RLA procedures include mediation, potential arbitration, cooling-off periods, and the possibility of Presidential Emergency Boards and Congressional intervention. The current round of negotiations began on January 1, 2020, related to years 2020-2024. Contract negotiations historically continue for an extended period of time, and work stoppages during negotiations are rare (see “Strikes or Work Stoppages Could Adversely Affect Our Operations” in the Risk Factors in Item 1A of this report).
Railroad Security – Our security efforts consist of a wide variety of measures, including employee training, engagement with our customers, training of emergency responders, and partnerships with numerous federal, state, and local government agencies. While federal law requires us to protect the confidentiality of our security plans designed to safeguard against terrorism and other security incidents, the following provides a general overview of our security initiatives.
UPRR Security Measures – We maintain a comprehensive security plan designed to both deter and respond to any potential or actual threats as they arise. The plan includes four levels of alert status, each with its own set of countermeasures. We employ our own police force, consisting of commissioned and highly-trained officers. The police are certified state law enforcement officers with investigative and arrest powers. The Union Pacific Police Department has achieved accreditation under the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies, Inc. (CALEA) for complying with the highest law enforcement standards. Our employees also undergo recurrent security and preparedness training as well as federally-mandated hazardous materials and security training. We regularly review the sufficiency of our employee training programs. We maintain the capability to move critical operations to back-up facilities in different locations.
We operate an emergency response management center 24 hours a day. The center receives reports of emergencies, dangerous or potentially dangerous conditions, and other safety and security issues from our employees, the public, law enforcement, and other government officials. In cooperation with government officials, we monitor both threats and public events, and, as necessary, we may alter rail traffic flow at times of concern to minimize risk to communities and our operations. We comply with the hazardous materials routing rules and other requirements imposed by federal law. We also design our operating plan to expedite the movement of hazardous material shipments to minimize the time rail cars remain idle at yards and terminals located in or near major population centers. Additionally, in compliance with Transportation Security Agency regulations, we deployed information systems and instructed employees in tracking and documenting the handoff of Rail Security Sensitive Materials with customers and interchange partners.
We also have established a number of our own innovative safety and security-oriented initiatives ranging from various investments in technology to The Officer on Train program, which provides local law enforcement officers with the opportunity to ride with train crews to enhance their understanding of railroad operations and risks. Our staff of information security professionals continually assesses cyber security risks and implements mitigation programs that evolve with the changing technology threat environment. To date, we have not experienced any material disruption of our operations due to a cyber threat or attack directed at us. We also evaluated details regarding the SolarWinds supply chain attack, and do not believe our systems were affected.
Cooperation with Federal, State, and Local Government Agencies – We work closely on physical and cyber security initiatives with government agencies, including the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), as well as local police departments, fire departments, and other first responders. In conjunction with the Association of American Railroads (AAR), we sponsor Ask Rail, a mobile application which provides first responders with secure links to electronic information, including commodity and emergency response information required by emergency personnel to respond to accidents and other situations. We also participate in the National Joint Terrorism Task Force, a multi-agency effort established by the U.S. Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Investigation to combat and prevent terrorism.
We work with the Coast Guard, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), and the Military Transport Management Command, which monitor shipments entering the UPRR rail network at U.S. border crossings and ports. We were the first railroad in the U.S. to be named a partner in CBP’s Customs-Trade Partnership
Against Terrorism, a partnership designed to develop, enhance, and maintain effective security processes throughout the global supply chain.
Cooperation with Customers and Trade Associations – Through TransCAER (Transportation Community Awareness and Emergency Response), we work with the AAR, the American Chemistry Council, the American Petroleum Institute, and other chemical trade groups to provide communities with preparedness tools, including the training of emergency responders. In cooperation with the FRA and other interested groups, we are also working to develop additional improvements to tank car design that will further limit the risk of releases of hazardous materials.
Competition – see “We Face Competition from Other Railroads and Other Transportation Providers” in the Risk Factors in Item 1A of this report.
Key Suppliers – see “We Are Dependent on Certain Key Suppliers of Locomotives and Rail” in the Risk Factors in Item 1A of this report.
Available Information – Our Internet website is www.up.com. We make available free of charge on our website (under the “Investors” caption link) our Annual Reports on Form 10-K; our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q; our current reports on Form 8-K; our proxy statements; Forms 3, 4, and 5, filed on behalf of our directors and certain executive officers; and amendments to such reports filed or furnished pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act). We provide these reports and statements as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). We also make available on our website previously filed SEC reports and exhibits via a link to EDGAR on the SEC’s Internet site at www.sec.gov. Additionally, our corporate governance materials, including By-Laws, Board Committee charters, governance guidelines and policies, and codes of conduct and ethics for directors, officers, and employees are available on our website. From time to time, the corporate governance materials on our website may be updated as necessary to comply with rules issued by the SEC and the NYSE or as desirable to promote the effective and efficient governance of our Company. Any security holder wishing to receive, without charge, a copy of any of our SEC filings or corporate governance materials should send a written request to: Secretary, Union Pacific Corporation, 1400 Douglas Street, Omaha, NE 68179.
References to our website address in this report, including references in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, Item 7, are provided as a convenience and do not constitute, and should not be deemed, an incorporation by reference of the information contained on, or available through, the website. Therefore, such information should not be considered part of this report.
GOVERNMENTAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION
Governmental Regulation – Our operations are subject to a variety of federal, state, and local regulations, generally applicable to all businesses. (See also the discussion of certain regulatory proceedings in Legal Proceedings, Item 3.)
The operations of the Railroad are also subject to the regulatory jurisdiction of the Surface Transportation Board (STB). The STB has jurisdiction over rates charged on certain regulated rail traffic; common carrier service of regulated traffic; freight car compensation; transfer, extension, or abandonment of rail lines; and acquisition of control of rail common carriers. The STB continues its efforts to explore expanding rail regulation and is reviewing proposed rulemaking in various areas, including reciprocal switching, commodity exemptions, and expanding and easing procedures for smaller rate complaints. The STB also continues to develop a methodology for determining railroad revenue adequacy and the possible use of a revenue adequacy constraint in regulating railroad rates. The STB posts quarterly reports on rate reasonableness cases and maintains a database on service complaints, and has the authority to initiate investigations, among other things.
The operations of the Railroad also are subject to the regulations of the FRA and other federal and state agencies. In 2010, the FRA issued initial rules governing installation of Positive Train Control (PTC). PTC is a safety technology intended to prevent certain accidents caused by human error, such as train-to-train collisions, derailments caused by overspeed, movement of a train through a misaligned switch, and unauthorized movement of trains into work zones. The Surface Transportation Extension Act of 2015 amended the Rail Safety Improvement Act to require implementation of PTC by the end of 2018, which was extended to December 31, 2020. On December 10, 2018, we received FRA approval for an alternative schedule to implement, test, and refine our PTC system during 2019-2020. As of December 31, 2020, PTC
has been implemented and installed on 100 percent of our required rail lines, including required passenger train routes, and interoperability has been established with all other PTC host and tenant railroads. Through 2020, we have invested approximately $2.9 billion in the implementation and ongoing development of PTC. We are now moving to further leverage the PTC system through development and implementation of new operating technologies, such as fuel and in-train forces management systems.
DOT, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, and DHS, along with other federal agencies, have jurisdiction over certain aspects of safety, movement of hazardous materials and hazardous waste, emissions requirements, and equipment standards. Additionally, various state and local agencies have jurisdiction over disposal of hazardous waste and seek to regulate movement of hazardous materials in ways not preempted by federal law.
Environmental Regulation – We are subject to extensive federal and state environmental statutes and regulations pertaining to public health and the environment. The statutes and regulations are administered and monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and by various state environmental agencies. The primary laws affecting our operations are the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, regulating the management and disposal of solid and hazardous wastes; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, regulating the cleanup of contaminated properties; the Clean Air Act, regulating air emissions; and the Clean Water Act, regulating waste water discharges.
Information concerning environmental claims and contingencies and estimated remediation costs is set forth in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Critical Accounting Policies – Environmental, Item 7, and Note 17 to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
The following discussion addresses significant factors, events, and uncertainties that make an investment in our securities risky and provides important information for the understanding of our “forward-looking statements,” which are discussed immediately preceding Item 7A of this Form 10-K and elsewhere. The risk factors set forth in this Item 1A should be read in conjunction with the rest of the information included in this report, including Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, Item 7, and Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, Item 8.
We urge you to consider carefully the factors described below and the risks that they present for our operations as well as the risks addressed in other reports and materials that we file with the SEC and the other information included or incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K. When the factors, events, and contingencies described below or elsewhere in this Form 10-K materialize, our business, reputation, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, or prospects can be materially adversely affected. In such case, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you could lose part or all of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also materially adversely affect our business, reputation, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and prospects.
Strategic and Operational Risks
We Must Manage Fluctuating Demand for Our Services and Network Capacity – If there are significant reductions in demand for rail services with respect to one or more commodities or changes in consumer preferences that affect the businesses of our customers, we may experience increased costs associated with resizing our operations, including higher unit operating costs and costs for the storage of locomotives, rail cars, and other equipment; work-force adjustments; and other related activities, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. If there is significant demand for our services that exceeds the designed capacity of our network, we may experience network difficulties, including congestion and reduced velocity, that could compromise the level of service we provide to our customers. This level of demand may also compound the impact of weather and weather-related events on our operations and velocity. Although we continue to improve our transportation plan, add capacity, improve operations at our yards and other facilities, and improve our ability to address surges in demand for any reason with adequate resources, we cannot be sure that these measures will fully or adequately address any service shortcomings resulting from demand exceeding our planned capacity. We may experience other operational or service difficulties related to network capacity, dramatic and unplanned fluctuations in our customers’ demand for rail service with respect to one or more commodities or operating
regions, or other events that could negatively impact our operational efficiency, which could all have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
We Transport Hazardous Materials – We transport certain hazardous materials and other materials, including crude oil, ethanol, and toxic inhalation hazard (TIH) materials, such as chlorine, that pose certain risks in the event of a release or combustion. Additionally, U.S. laws impose common carrier obligations on railroads that require us to transport certain hazardous materials regardless of risk or potential exposure to loss. A rail accident or other incident or accident on our network, at our facilities, or at the facilities of our customers involving the release or combustion of hazardous materials could involve significant costs and claims for personal injury, property damage, and environmental penalties and remediation in excess of our insurance coverage for these risks, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
We Rely on Technology and Technology Improvements in Our Business Operations – We rely on information technology in all aspects of our business, including technology systems operated by us or under control of third parties. If we do not have sufficient capital to acquire, develop, or implement new technology or maintain or upgrade current systems, such as PTC or the latest version of our transportation control systems, we may suffer a competitive disadvantage within the rail industry and with companies providing other modes of transportation service, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
We Are Subject to Cybersecurity Risks – We rely on information technology in all aspects of our business, including technology systems operated by us or under control of third parties. Although we devote significant resources to protect our technology systems and proprietary data, we have experienced and will continue to experience varying degrees of cyber incidents in the normal course of business. While there can be no assurance that the systems we have designed to prevent or limit the effects of cyber incidents or attacks will be sufficient to prevent or detect such incidents or attacks, or to avoid a material adverse impact on our systems after such incidents or attacks do occur, we are continually evaluating attackers’ techniques and tactics, and we are diligent in our monitoring, training, planning, and prevention. However, due to the rising rates and increasing sophistication of cyber-attacks, an increasingly complex IT supply chain, and the nature of zero-day exploits, we may be unable to anticipate or implement adequate preventative measures to prevent a security breach, including by ransomware, human error, or other cyber-attack methods, from disrupting our systems or the systems of third parties. A successful cyber-attack may result in significant service interruption; safety failure; other operational difficulties; unauthorized access to (or the loss of access to) competitively sensitive, confidential, or other critical data or systems; loss of customers; financial losses; regulatory fines; and misuse or corruption of critical data and proprietary information, which could all have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. We also may experience security breaches that could remain undetected for an extended period and, therefore, have a greater impact on the services we offer.
Severe Weather Could Result in Significant Business Interruptions and Expenditures – As a railroad with a vast network, we are exposed to severe weather conditions and other natural phenomena, including earthquakes, hurricanes, fires, floods, mudslides or landslides, extreme temperatures, avalanches, and significant precipitation. Line outages and other interruptions caused by these conditions can adversely affect our entire rail network, potentially negatively affecting revenue, costs, and liabilities, despite efforts we undertake to plan for these events. Our revenues can also be adversely affected by severe weather that causes damage and disruptions to our customers. These impacts caused by severe weather could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
A Significant Portion of Our Revenue Involves Transportation of Commodities to and from International Markets – Although revenues from our operations are attributable to transportation services provided in the U.S., a significant portion of our revenues involves the transportation of commodities to and from international markets, including Mexico, Canada, and Southeast Asia, by various carriers and, at times, various modes of transportation. Significant and sustained interruptions of trade with Mexico, Canada, or countries in Southeast Asia, including China, could adversely affect customers and other entities that, directly or indirectly, purchase or rely on rail transportation services in the U.S. as part of their operations, and any such interruptions could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. Any one or more of the following could cause a significant and sustained interruption of trade with Mexico, Canada, or countries in Southeast Asia: (a) a deterioration of security for international trade and businesses; (b) the adverse impact of new laws, rules, and regulations or the interpretation of laws, rules, and regulations by government entities, courts, or regulatory bodies, including the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) and a “Phase One” trade agreement with China; (c) actions
of taxing authorities that affect our customers doing business in foreign countries; (d) any significant adverse economic developments, such as extended periods of high inflation, material disruptions in the banking sector or in the capital markets of these foreign countries, and significant changes in the valuation of the currencies of these foreign countries that could materially affect the cost or value of imports or exports; (e) shifts in patterns of international trade that adversely affect import and export markets; (f) a material reduction in foreign direct investment in these countries; and (g) public health crises, including the outbreak of pandemic or contagious disease, such as the novel coronavirus and its variant strains.
We Are Dependent on Certain Key Suppliers of Locomotives and Rail – Due to the capital intensive nature and sophistication of locomotive equipment, parts, and maintenance, potential new suppliers face high barriers to entry. Therefore, if one of the domestic suppliers of high horsepower locomotives discontinues manufacturing locomotives, supplying parts or providing maintenance for any reason, including bankruptcy or insolvency, we could experience significant cost increases and reduced availability of the locomotives that are necessary for our operations. Additionally, for a high percentage of our rail purchases, we utilize two steel producers (one domestic and one international) that meet our specifications. Rail is critical to our operations for rail replacement programs, maintenance, and for adding additional network capacity, new rail and storage yards, and expansions of existing facilities. This industry similarly has high barriers to entry, and if one of these suppliers discontinues operations for any reason, including bankruptcy or insolvency, we could experience both significant cost increases for rail purchases and difficulty obtaining sufficient rail for maintenance and other projects. Changes to trade agreements or policies that result in increased tariffs on goods imported into the United States could also result in significant cost increases for rail purchases and difficulty obtaining sufficient rail.
Human Capital Risks
Strikes or Work Stoppages Could Adversely Affect Our Operations – The U.S. Class I railroads are party to collective bargaining agreements with various labor unions. The majority of our employees belong to labor unions and are subject to these agreements. Disputes with regard to the terms of these agreements or our potential inability to negotiate acceptable contracts with these unions could result in, among other things, strikes, work stoppages, slowdowns, or lockouts, which could cause a significant disruption of our operations and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. Additionally, future national labor agreements, or renegotiation of labor agreements or provisions of labor agreements, could compromise our service reliability or significantly increase our costs for health care, wages, and other benefits, which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. Labor disputes, work stoppages, slowdowns or lockouts at loading/unloading facilities, ports, or other transport access points could compromise our service reliability and have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. Labor disputes, work stoppages, slowdowns or lockouts by employees of our customers or our suppliers could compromise our service reliability and have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
The Availability of Qualified Personnel Could Adversely Affect Our Operations – Changes in demographics, training requirements, and the availability of qualified personnel, including the effects on availability from pandemic illnesses or restrictions, could negatively affect our ability to meet demand for rail service. Unpredictable increases in demand for rail services and a lack of network fluidity may exacerbate such risks, which could have a negative impact on our operational efficiency and otherwise have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
Legal and Regulatory Risks
We Are Subject to Significant Governmental Regulation – We are subject to governmental regulation by a significant number of federal, state, and local authorities covering a variety of health, safety, labor, environmental, economic (as discussed below), tax, and other matters. Many laws and regulations require us to obtain and maintain various licenses, permits, and other authorizations, and we cannot guarantee that we will continue to be able to do so. Our failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on us. Governments or regulators may change the legislative or regulatory frameworks within which we operate without providing us any recourse to address any adverse effects on our business, including, without limitation, regulatory determinations or rules regarding dispute resolution, increasing the amount of our traffic subject to common carrier regulation, business relationships with other railroads, calculation of our cost of capital or other inputs relevant to computing our revenue adequacy, the prices we charge, changes in tax rates, enactment of new tax laws, and revision in tax regulations. Significant legislative activity in Congress or regulatory activity by the STB could expand regulation of
railroad operations and prices for rail services, which could reduce capital spending on our rail network, facilities, and equipment, and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. For example, enacted federal legislation mandated the implementation of PTC technology by December 31, 2020, which we invested approximately $2.9 billion to develop. Additionally, one or more consolidations of Class I railroads also could lead to increased regulation of the rail industry.
We May Be Subject to Various Claims and Lawsuits That Could Result in Significant Expenditures – As a railroad with operations in densely populated urban areas and a vast rail network, we are exposed to the potential for various claims and litigation related to labor and employment, personal injury, property damage, environmental liability, and other matters. Any material changes to litigation trends or a catastrophic rail accident or series of accidents involving any or all of property damage, personal injury, and environmental liability that exceed our insurance coverage for such risks could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
We Are Subject to Significant Environmental Laws and Regulations – Due to the nature of the railroad business, our operations are subject to extensive federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations concerning, among other things, emissions to the air; discharges to waters; handling, storage, transportation, and disposal of waste and other materials; and hazardous material or petroleum releases. We generate and transport hazardous and non-hazardous waste in our operations. Environmental liability can extend to previously owned or operated properties, leased properties, properties owned by third parties, as well as properties we currently own. Environmental liabilities have arisen and may also arise from claims asserted by adjacent landowners or other third parties in toxic tort litigation. We have been and may be subject to allegations or findings that we have violated, or are strictly liable under, these laws or regulations. We currently have certain obligations at existing sites for investigation, remediation, and monitoring, and we likely will have obligations at other sites in the future. Liabilities for these obligations affect our estimate based on our experience and, as necessary, the advice and assistance of our consultants. However, actual costs may vary from our estimates due to any or all of several factors, including changes to environmental laws or interpretations of such laws, technological changes affecting investigations and remediation, the participation and financial viability of other parties responsible for any such liability, and the corrective action or change to corrective actions required to remediate any existing or future sites. We could incur significant costs as a result of any of the foregoing, and we may be required to incur significant expenses to investigate and remediate known, unknown, or future environmental contamination, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
Macroeconomic and Industry Risks
We Face Competition from Other Railroads and Other Transportation Providers – We face competition from other railroads, motor carriers, ships, barges, and pipelines. Our main railroad competitor is Burlington Northern Santa Fe LLC. Its primary subsidiary, BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), operates parallel routes in many of our main traffic corridors. In addition, we operate in corridors served by other railroads and motor carriers. Motor carrier competition exists for all three of our commodity groups (excluding most coal shipments). Because of the proximity of our routes to major inland and Gulf Coast waterways, barges can be particularly competitive, especially for grain and bulk commodities in certain areas where we operate. In addition to price competition, we face competition with respect to transit times, quality, and reliability of service from motor carriers and other railroads. Motor carriers in particular can have an advantage over railroads with respect to transit times and timeliness of service. However, railroads are much more fuel-efficient than trucks, which reduces the impact of transporting goods on the environment and public infrastructure, and we have been making efforts to convert truck traffic to rail. Additionally, we must build or acquire and maintain our rail system, while trucks, barges, and maritime operators are able to use public rights-of-way maintained by public entities. Any of the following could also affect the competitiveness of our transportation services for some or all of our commodities, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity: (i) improvements or expenditures materially increasing the quality or reducing the costs of these alternative modes of transportation, such as autonomous or more fuel efficient trucks, (ii) legislation that eliminates or significantly increases the size or weight limitations applied to motor carriers, or (iii) legislation or regulatory changes that impose operating restrictions on railroads or that adversely affect the profitability of some or all railroad traffic. Many movements face product or geographic competition where our customers can use different products (e.g. natural gas instead of coal, sorghum instead of corn) or commodities from different locations (e.g. grain from states or countries that we do not serve, crude oil from different regions). Sourcing different commodities or different locations allows shippers to substitute different carriers and such competition may reduce our volume or constrain prices. Additionally, any future consolidation of the rail industry could materially affect our competitive environment.
We May Be Affected by Climate Change and Market or Regulatory Responses to Climate Change – Climate change, including the impact of global warming, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. Restrictions, caps, taxes, or other controls on emissions of greenhouse gasses, including diesel exhaust, could significantly increase our operating costs. Restrictions on emissions could also affect our customers that (a) use commodities that we carry to produce energy, (b) use significant amounts of energy in producing or delivering the commodities we carry, or (c) manufacture or produce goods that consume significant amounts of energy or burn fossil fuels, including chemical producers, farmers and food producers, and automakers and other manufacturers. Significant cost increases, government regulation, or changes of consumer preferences for goods or services relating to alternative sources of energy or emissions reductions could materially affect the markets for the commodities we carry, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. Government incentives encouraging the use of alternative sources of energy also could affect certain of our customers and the markets for certain of the commodities we carry in an unpredictable manner that could alter our traffic patterns, including, for example, increasing royalties charged to producers of PRB coal by the U.S. Department of Interior and the impacts of ethanol incentives on farming and ethanol producers. We could face increased costs related to defending and resolving legal claims and other litigation related to climate change and the alleged impact of our operations on climate change. Violent weather caused by climate change, including earthquakes, hurricanes, fires, floods, extreme temperatures, avalanches, and significant precipitation could cause line outages and other interruptions to our infrastructure. Any of these factors, individually or in operation with one or more of the other factors, or other unforeseen impacts of climate change could reduce the amount of traffic we handle and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
Our business, financial condition, and results of operations have been adversely affected and in the future could be materially adversely affected by pandemics – Our business, financial condition, and results of operations have been adversely affected by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and may be affected by other pandemics. COVID-19 has caused, and is expected to continue to cause, a global slowdown of economic activity (including the decrease in demand for a broad variety of goods), disruptions in global supply chains, and significant volatility and disruption of financial markets and that also has adversely affected workforces, customers, and regional and local economies. Other future pandemics may cause these same or similar consequences. Because the severity, magnitude, and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and its economic consequences are uncertain, rapidly changing, and difficult to predict, the impact on our business and financial condition remains uncertain and difficult to predict. The ultimate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our results of operations and financial condition remains uncertain and depends on numerous evolving factors, which we may not be able to effectively respond to and are not entirely within our control. These factors also may be of importance for other pandemics, including, but not limited to: governmental, business, and individuals’ actions that have been and continue to be taken in response to a global pandemic (including restrictions on travel and transport, workforce pressures, and social distancing, and shelter-in-place orders); the effect of a pandemic on economic activity and actions taken in response; the effect on our customers and their demand for our services; the effect of a pandemic on the credit-worthiness of our customers; national or global supply chain challenges or disruption; facility closures; commodity cost volatility; general economic uncertainty in key global markets and financial market volatility; global economic conditions and levels of economic growth; and the pace of recovery as the pandemic subsides as well as response to a potential reoccurrence. Further, a pandemic, and the volatile regional and global economic conditions stemming from a pandemic, could also precipitate and aggravate the other risk factors that we identify, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations (including revenues and profitability), and/or stock price. Additionally, a pandemic also may affect our operating and financial results in a manner that is not presently known to us or that we currently do not consider to present significant risks to our operations.
We Are Affected By Fluctuating Fuel Prices – Fuel costs constitute a significant portion of our transportation expenses. Diesel fuel prices can be subject to dramatic fluctuations, and significant price increases could have a material adverse effect on our operating results. Although we currently are able to recover a significant amount of our fuel expenses from our customers through revenue from fuel surcharges, we cannot be certain that we will always be able to mitigate rising or elevated fuel costs through our fuel surcharges. Additionally, future market conditions or legislative or regulatory activities could adversely affect our ability to apply fuel surcharges or adequately recover increased fuel costs through fuel surcharges. As fuel prices fluctuate, our fuel surcharge programs trail such fluctuations in fuel price by approximately two months, and may be a significant source of quarter-over-quarter and year-over-year
volatility, particularly in periods of rapidly changing prices. International, political, and economic factors, events and conditions affect the volatility of fuel prices and supplies. Weather can also affect fuel supplies and limit domestic refining capacity. A severe shortage of, or disruption to, domestic fuel supplies could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. Alternatively, lower fuel prices could have a positive impact on the economy by increasing consumer discretionary spending that potentially could increase demand for various consumer products we transport. However, lower fuel prices could have a negative impact on other commodities we transport, such as coal and domestic drilling-related shipments, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity.
We Rely on Capital Markets – Due to the significant capital expenditures required to operate and maintain a safe and efficient railroad, we rely on the capital markets to provide some of our capital requirements. We utilize long-term debt instruments, bank financing, and commercial paper from time-to-time, and we pledge certain of our receivables. Significant instability or disruptions of the capital markets, including the credit markets, or deterioration of our financial condition due to internal or external factors could restrict or prohibit our access to, and significantly increase the cost of, commercial paper and other financing sources, including bank credit facilities and the issuance of long-term debt, including corporate bonds. A significant deterioration of our financial condition could result in a reduction of our credit rating to below investment grade, which could restrict or, at certain credit levels below investment grade, may prohibit us from utilizing our current receivables securitization facility. This may also limit our access to external sources of capital and significantly increase the costs of short and long-term debt financing.
General Risk Factors
We Are Affected by General Economic Conditions – Prolonged, severe adverse domestic and global economic conditions or disruptions of financial and credit markets may affect the producers and consumers of the commodities we carry and may have a material adverse effect on our access to liquidity, results of operations, and financial condition.
We May Be Affected by Acts of Terrorism, War, or Risk of War – Our rail lines, facilities, and equipment, including rail cars carrying hazardous materials, could be direct targets or indirect casualties of terrorist attacks. Terrorist attacks, or other similar events, any government response thereto, and war or risk of war may adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity. In addition, insurance premiums for some or all of our current coverages could increase dramatically, or certain coverages may not be available to us in the future.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
We employ a variety of assets in the management and operation of our rail business. Our rail network covers 23 states in the western two-thirds of the U.S.
Our rail network includes 32,313 route miles. We own 26,069 miles and operate on the remainder pursuant to trackage rights or leases. The following table describes track miles at December 31, 2020 and 2019:
Other main line
Passing lines and turnouts
Switching and classification yard lines
We own our headquarters building in Omaha, Nebraska. The facility has 1.2 million square feet of space that can accommodate approximately 4,000 employees.
HARRIMAN DISPATCHING CENTER
The Harriman Dispatching Center (HDC), located in Omaha, Nebraska, is our primary dispatching facility. It is linked to regional dispatching and locomotive management facilities at various locations along our network. HDC employees coordinate moves of locomotives and trains, manage traffic and train crews on
our network, and coordinate interchanges with other railroads. Approximately 700 employees currently work on-site in the facility. In the event of a disruption of operations at HDC due to a cyber-attack, flooding or severe weather, pandemic outbreak, or other event, we maintain the capability to conduct critical operations at back-up facilities in different locations.
In addition to our track structure, we operate numerous facilities, including terminals for intermodal and other freight; rail yards for building trains (classification yards), switching, storage-in-transit (the temporary storage of customer goods in rail cars prior to shipment), and other activities; offices to administer and manage our operations; dispatching centers to direct traffic on our rail network; crew on duty locations for train crews along our network; and shops and other facilities for fueling, maintenance, and repair of locomotives and repair and maintenance of rail cars and other equipment. The following table includes the major yards and terminals on our system:
Major Classification Yards
Major Intermodal Terminals
North Platte, Nebraska
Joliet (Global 4), Illinois
North Little Rock, Arkansas
East Los Angeles, California
Englewood (Houston), Texas
ICTF (Los Angeles), California
Global II (Chicago), Illinois
West Colton, California
City of Industry, California
Proviso (Chicago), Illinois
LATC (Los Angeles), California
Salt Lake City, Utah
Our equipment includes owned and leased locomotives and rail cars; heavy maintenance equipment and machinery; other equipment and tools in our shops, offices, and facilities; and vehicles for maintenance, transportation of crews, and other activities. As of December 31, 2020, we owned or leased the following units of equipment:
Total freight cars
Highway revenue equipment
Total highway revenue equipment
We continuously assess our need for equipment to run an efficient and reliable network. Many factors cause us to adjust the size of our active fleets, including changes in carload volume, weather events, seasonality, customer preferences, and productivity initiatives. As some of these factors are difficult to assess or can change rapidly, we maintain a surge fleet to remain agile. Without the surge fleet, our ability to react quickly is hindered as equipment suppliers are limited and lead times to acquire equipment are long and may be in excess of a year. We believe our locomotive and freight car fleets are appropriately sized to meet our current and future business requirements. These fleets serve as the most reliable and efficient equipment to facilitate growth without additional acquisitions. Locomotive and freight car in service utilization percentages for the year ended December 31, 2020, were 58% and 71%, respectively.
Our rail network requires significant annual capital investments for replacement, improvement, and expansion. These investments enhance safety, support the transportation needs of our customers, and improve our operational efficiency. Additionally, we add new locomotives and freight cars to our fleet to replace older equipment and to support growth and customer demand.
2020 Capital Program – During 2020, our capital program totaled approximately $2.84 billion. (See the cash capital investments table in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources, Item 7, of this report)
2021 Capital Plan – In 2021, we expect our capital plan to be approximately $2.9 billion, essentially flat with 2020. (See further discussion of our 2021 capital plan in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources, Item 7, of this report)
Equipment Encumbrances – Equipment with a carrying value of approximately $1.3 billion and $1.6 billion at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, served as collateral for finance leases and other types of equipment obligations in accordance with the secured financing arrangements utilized to acquire or refinance such railroad equipment.
Environmental Matters – Certain of our properties are subject to federal, state, and local laws and regulations governing the protection of the environment. (See discussion within this report of environmental issues in Business – Governmental and Environmental Regulation, Item 1; Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Critical Accounting Policies – Environmental, Item 7; and Note 17 of the Consolidated Financial Statements.)
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
From time to time, we are involved in legal proceedings, claims, and litigation that occur in connection with our business. We routinely assess our liabilities and contingencies in connection with these matters based upon the latest available information, and, when necessary, we seek input from our third-party advisors when making these assessments. Consistent with SEC rules and requirements, we describe below material pending legal proceedings (other than ordinary routine litigation incidental to our business), material proceedings known to be contemplated by governmental authorities, other proceedings arising under federal, state, or local environmental laws and regulations (including governmental proceedings involving potential fines, penalties, or other monetary sanctions in excess of $1,000,000), and such other pending matters that we may determine to be appropriate.
We receive notices from the EPA and state environmental agencies alleging that we are or may be liable under federal or state environmental laws for remediation costs at various sites throughout the U.S., including sites on the Superfund National Priorities List or state superfund lists. We cannot predict the ultimate impact of these proceedings and suits because of the number of potentially responsible parties involved, the degree of contamination by various wastes, the scarcity and quality of volumetric data related to many of the sites, and the speculative nature of remediation costs.
Information concerning environmental claims and contingencies and estimated remediation costs is set forth in this report in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Critical Accounting Policies – Environmental, Item 7, and Note 17 of the Consolidated Financial Statements.