10-Q 1 uso-20220630x10q.htm 10-Q
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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-Q

Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2022.

or

Transition report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 for the transition period from                      to                     .

Commission file number: 001-32834

United States Oil Fund, LP

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

    

20-2830691

(State or other jurisdiction of

(I.R.S. Employer

incorporation or organization)

Identification No.)

1850 Mt. Diablo Boulevard, Suite 640

Walnut Creek, California 94596

(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

(510) 522-9600

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

N/A

(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.

Title of each class:

    

Trading Symbol(s)

    

Name of each exchange
on which registered:

Shares of United States Oil Fund, LP

USO

NYSE Arca, Inc.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes    No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes    No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large Accelerated Filer

Accelerated Filer

Non-Accelerated Filer

Smaller Reporting Company

Emerging Growth Company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided in Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.).   Yes    No

The registrant had 30,323,603 outstanding shares as of July 22, 2022.

United States Oil Fund, LP

Condensed Statements of Financial Condition

At June 30, 2022 (Unaudited) and December 31, 2021

    

June 30, 2022

    

December 31, 2021

Assets

Cash and cash equivalents (at cost $1,434,603,377 and $1,565,100,289, respectively) (Notes 2 and 5)

$

1,434,603,377

$

1,565,100,289

Equity in trading accounts:

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents (at cost $1,286,218,242 and $699,318,107, respectively)

 

1,286,218,242

 

699,318,107

Unrealized gain (loss) on open commodity futures contracts

44,958,530

114,437,224

Unrealized gain (loss) on open swap contracts

(2,396)

Dividends receivable

 

1,314,804

 

33,715

Interest receivable

 

78,625

 

53,541

Prepaid insurance*

 

463,490

 

144,695

ETF transaction fees receivable

5,000

Total Assets

$

2,767,639,672

$

2,379,087,571

Liabilities and Partners’ Capital

 

 

Payable due to Broker

$

26,283,935

$

Payable for shares redeemed

89,465,669

General Partner management fees payable (Note 3)

1,101,492

938,440

Professional fees payable

 

1,638,455

 

3,616,000

Brokerage commissions payable

 

118,733

 

200,588

Directors’ fees payable*

 

43,587

 

44,337

License fees payable

132,847

128,940

Total Liabilities

 

118,784,718

 

4,928,305

Commitments and Contingencies (Notes 3, 4 & 5)

 

 

Partners’ Capital

 

 

General Partners

 

 

Limited Partners

 

2,648,854,954

 

2,374,159,266

Total Partners’ Capital

 

2,648,854,954

 

2,374,159,266

Total Liabilities and Partners’ Capital

$

2,767,639,672

$

2,379,087,571

Limited Partners’ shares outstanding

 

33,023,603

 

43,823,603

Net asset value per share

$

80.21

$

54.18

Market value per share

$

80.35

$

54.36

*Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified for consistency with the current presentation.

See accompanying notes to condensed financial statements.

2

United States Oil Fund, LP

Condensed Schedule of Investments (Unaudited)

At June 30, 2022

Fair Value/

Unrealized Gain

(Loss) on Open

Notional

Number of

Commodity

% of Partners’

    

Amount

    

Contracts

    

Contracts

    

Capital

Open Commodity Futures Contracts - Long

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

United States Contracts

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

NYMEX WTI Crude Oil Futures CL August 2022 contracts, expiring July 2022

$

431,110,215

4,366

$

30,637,945

1.16

NYMEX WTI Crude Oil Futures CL September 2022 contracts, expiring August 2022

453,958,450

4,479

7,826,450

0.29

NYMEX WTI Crude Oil Futures CL October 2022 contracts, expiring September 2022

337,169,270

3,454

9,163,310

0.35

NYMEX WTI Crude Oil Futures CL November 2022 contracts, expiring October 2022

375,667,448

3,543

(29,339,198)

(1.11)

NYMEX WTI Crude Oil Futures CL December 2022 contracts, expiring November 2022

301,452,859

3,624

44,856,581

1.69

NYMEX WTI Crude Oil Futures CL January 2023 contracts, expiring December 2022

129,759,563

1,232

(14,358,123)

(0.54)

NYMEX WTI Crude Oil Futures CL June 2023 contracts, expiring May 2023

234,707,135

2,635

(3,828,435)

(0.14)

Total Open Futures Contracts*

$

2,263,824,940

 

23,333

$

44,958,530

 

1.70

Shares/Principal

Market

% of Partners’

    

Amount

    

Value

    

Capital

Cash Equivalents

 

  

 

  

 

  

United States Money Market Funds

 

  

 

  

 

  

Dreyfus Institutional Preferred Government Money Market Fund - Institutional Shares, 1.41%#

444,250,000

$

444,250,000

16.77

Goldman Sachs Financial Square Government Fund - Institutional Shares, 1.36%#

72,850,000

72,850,000

2.75

Morgan Stanley Institutional Liquidity Funds - Government Portfolio - Institutional Shares, 1.38%#

917,500,000

917,500,000

34.64

Total United States Money Market Funds

$

1,434,600,000

54.16

3

Open OTC Commodity Swap Contracts

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

    

Unrealized

Fair

Gain (Loss)

Value/Open

Upfront

on

Fund Receives

Commodity

Payments/

Commodity

from

Fund Pays

Payment

Expiration

Notional

Swap

(Premiums

Swap

Counterparty

Counterparty

Counterparty

Frequency

Date

Amount

Contracts

Received)

Contracts(a)

MQCP361E Index(b)

 

0.26

 

Macquarie Bank Ltd.

 

monthly

 

07/21/2022

 

196,315,798

 

196,314,400

 

 

(1,398)

SGIXCWTI Index(b)

 

0.25

 

Societe Generale

 

monthly

 

12/30/2022

 

143,660,116

 

143,659,118

 

 

(998)

Total Open OTC Commodity Swap Contracts˄

 

339,975,914

 

339,973,518

 

 

(2,396)

(a)Reflects the value at reset date of June 30, 2022.
(b)Custom index comprised of a basket of underlying instruments.
#Reflects the 7-day yield at June 30, 2022.

˄

Collateral amounted to $26,710,000 on open OTC commodity swap contracts.

*Collateral amounted to $1,259,508,242 on open commodity futures contracts.

See accompanying notes to condensed financial statements.

4

United States Oil Fund, LP

Condensed Statements of Operations (Unaudited)

For the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021

    

Three months ended

    

Three months ended

    

Six months ended

    

Six months ended

June 30, 2022

June 30, 2021

June 30, 2022

June 30, 2021

Income

 

  

 

  

Gain (loss) on trading of commodity futures contracts:

 

  

 

  

Realized gain (loss) on closed commodity futures contracts

$

471,939,536

$

538,294,832

$

1,108,359,853

$

1,313,768,002

Realized gain (loss) on swap contracts

1,153,417

32,677,694

Change in unrealized gain (loss) on open commodity futures contracts

(224,381,296)

122,354,167

 

(69,478,694)

 

74,340,926

Change in unrealized gain (loss) on open OTC commodity swap contracts

(1,109)

(2,396)

Dividend income

2,525,762

126,472

 

2,831,044

 

208,947

Interest income*

471,492

199,631

 

668,554

 

505,963

ETF transaction fees

47,000

31,000

99,000

96,000

Total Income (Loss)

$

251,754,802

$

661,006,102

$

1,075,155,055

$

1,388,919,838

Expenses

 

 

General Partner management fees (Note 3)

$

3,330,584

$

3,451,899

$

6,516,976

$

7,265,487

Professional fees

153,974

2,321,524

 

928,348

 

3,473,598

Brokerage commissions

190,980

350,906

 

414,909

 

655,585

Directors’ fees and insurance

206,305

214,176

 

416,048

 

316,344

License fees

111,020

115,063

 

217,233

 

242,183

Registration fees

315,041

1,260,041

Total Expenses

$

3,992,863

$

6,768,609

$

8,493,514

$

13,213,238

Net Income (Loss)

$

247,761,939

$

654,237,493

$

1,066,661,541

$

1,375,706,600

Net Income (Loss) per limited partner share

$

6.38

$

9.47

$

26.03

$

16.80

Net Income (Loss) per weighted average limited partner share

$

6.77

$

9.56

$

26.83

$

17.54

Weighted average limited partner shares outstanding

36,623,603

68,423,603

 

39,757,305

 

78,421,393

*Interest income does not exceed paid in kind of 5%.

See accompanying notes to condensed financial statements.

5

United States Oil Fund, LP

Condensed Statement of Changes in Partners’ Capital (Unaudited)

For the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021

Limited Partners*

Three months ended

Three months ended

Six months ended

Six months ended

    

June 30, 2022

    

June 30, 2021

    

June 30, 2022

    

June 30, 2021

Balances at beginning of period

 

$

3,213,230,089

 

$

2,942,173,105

$

2,374,159,266

$

3,625,217,746

Addition of 4,300,000, 5,100,000, 19,700,000 and 8,800,000 partnership shares, respectively

375,778,547

221,563,337

1,490,617,191

367,102,802

Redemption of (14,800,000), (16,300,000), (30,500,000) and (56,800,000) partnership shares, respectively

(1,187,915,621)

(744,591,625)

(2,282,583,044)

(2,294,644,838)

Net income (loss)

247,761,939

654,237,493

1,066,661,541

1,375,706,600

Balances at end of period

 

$

2,648,854,954

 

$

3,073,382,310

$

2,648,854,954

$

3,073,382,310

*General Partners’ shares outstanding and capital for the periods presented were zero.

See accompanying notes to condensed financial statements.

6

United States Oil Fund, LP

Condensed Statements of Cash Flows (Unaudited)

For the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021

    

Six months ended

    

Six months ended

June 30, 2022

June 30, 2021

Cash Flows from Operating Activities:

 

  

 

  

Net income (loss)

$

1,066,661,541

$

1,375,706,600

Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:

 

 

Change in unrealized (gain) loss on open commodity futures contracts

 

69,478,694

 

(74,340,926)

Change in unrealized (gain) loss on open swap contracts

2,396

(Increase) decrease in dividends receivable

 

(1,281,089)

 

(35,562)

(Increase) decrease in interest receivable

 

(25,084)

 

87,707

(Increase) decrease in prepaid insurance*

 

(318,795)

 

(434,933)

(Increase) decrease in prepaid registration fees

 

 

1,260,041

(Increase) decrease in ETF transaction fees receivable

(5,000)

2,000

Increase (decrease) in payable due to Broker

 

26,283,935

 

139,009,153

Increase (decrease) in General Partner management fees payable

 

163,052

 

(250,875)

Increase (decrease) in professional fees payable

 

(1,977,545)

 

(305,477)

Increase (decrease) in brokerage commissions payable

 

(81,855)

 

(49,053)

Increase (decrease) in directors’ fees payable*

 

(750)

 

(5,301)

Increase (decrease) in license fees payable

 

3,907

 

(25,434)

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities

 

1,158,903,407

 

1,440,617,940

Cash Flows from Financing Activities:

 

 

Addition of partnership shares

 

1,490,617,191

 

367,102,802

Redemption of partnership shares

 

(2,193,117,375)

 

(2,354,050,659)

Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities

 

(702,500,184)

 

(1,986,947,857)

Net Increase (Decrease) in Cash and Cash Equivalents

 

456,403,223

 

(546,329,917)

Total Cash, Cash Equivalents and Equity in Trading Accounts, beginning of period

 

2,264,418,396

 

3,309,238,139

Total Cash, Cash Equivalents and Equity in Trading Accounts, end of period

$

2,720,821,619

$

2,762,908,222

Components of Cash and Cash Equivalents:

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

$

1,434,603,377

$

2,029,621,313

Equity in Trading Accounts:

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

1,286,218,242

 

733,286,909

Total Cash, Cash Equivalents and Equity in Trading Accounts

$

2,720,821,619

$

2,762,908,222

*Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified for consistency with the current presentation.

See accompanying notes to condensed financial statements.

7

United States Oil Fund, LP

Notes to Condensed Financial Statements (Unaudited)

For the period ended June 30, 2022

NOTE 1 — ORGANIZATION AND BUSINESS

The United States Oil Fund, LP (“USO”) was organized as a limited partnership under the laws of the state of Delaware on May 12, 2005. USO is a commodity pool that issues limited partnership interests (“shares”) that may be purchased and sold on the NYSE Arca, Inc. (the “NYSE Arca”). Prior to November 25, 2008, USO’s shares traded on the American Stock Exchange (the “AMEX”). USO will continue in perpetuity, unless terminated sooner upon the occurrence of one or more events as described in its Seventh Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership dated as of December 15, 2017 (the “LP Agreement”), which grants full management control to its general partner, United States Commodity Funds LLC (“USCF”). The investment objective of USO is for the daily changes in percentage terms of its shares’ per share net asset value (“NAV”) to reflect the daily changes in percentage terms of the spot price of light, sweet crude oil delivered to Cushing, Oklahoma, as measured by the daily changes in the price of the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract, plus interest earned on USO’s collateral holdings, less USO’s expenses. The Benchmark Oil Futures Contract is the futures contract for light, sweet crude oil as traded on the New York Mercantile Exchange (the “NYMEX”) that is the near month contract to expire, except when the near month contract is within two weeks of expiration, in which case it will be measured by the futures contract that is the next month contract to expire.

Specifically, USO seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing so that the average daily percentage change in USO’s NAV for any period of 30 successive valuation days will be within plus/minus ten percent (10)% of the average daily percentage change in the price of the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract over the same period. USO is currently unable to pursue its investment objective with the same high degree of success that it has in the past due to its limited ability to invest in the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract and certain other Oil Futures Contracts, as defined below, to the same extent it was able to before the market conditions that occurred in 2020, as described herein, and the resulting regulatory requirements imposed on USO, and risk mitigation measures taken, including those taken by USO’s FCMs. As a result of such market conditions, the regulatory conditions that were and could again be imposed and the risk mitigation measures described below, there is still uncertainty as to whether USO will be able to achieve its investment objective within as narrow a percentage change difference in its NAV for any period of 30 successive valuation days and the average daily percentage change in the price of the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract as it typically had prior to the Spring of 2020 due to the foregoing factors.

Investors should be aware that USO’s investment objective is not for its NAV or market price of shares to equal, in dollar terms, the spot price of light, sweet crude oil or any particular futures contract based on light, sweet crude oil, nor is USO’s investment objective for the percentage change in its NAV to reflect the percentage change of the price of any particular futures contract as measured over a time period greater than one day. This is because natural market forces called contango and backwardation have impacted the total return on an investment in USO’s shares relative to a hypothetical direct investment in crude oil and, in the future, it is likely that the relationship between the market price of USO’s shares and changes in the spot prices of light, sweet crude oil will continue to be so impacted by contango and backwardation. While USO’s shares may be impacted by contango and backwardation, the potential costs associated with physically owning and storing crude oil, could be substantial. USCF believes that it is not practical to manage the portfolio to achieve the foregoing investment objective when investing in Oil Futures Contracts (as defined below) and Other Oil-Related Investments (as defined below).

USO accomplishes its objective through investments in futures contracts for light, sweet crude oil and other types of crude oil, diesel-heating oil, gasoline, natural gas and other petroleum-based fuels that are traded on the NYMEX, ICE Futures or other U.S. and foreign exchanges (collectively, “Oil Futures Contracts”) and other oil-related investments such as cash-settled options on Oil Futures Contracts, forward contracts for oil, cleared swap contracts and over-the-counter (“OTC”) transactions that are based on the price of crude oil, diesel-heating oil, gasoline, natural gas and other petroleum-based fuels, Oil Futures Contracts and indices based on the foregoing (collectively, “Other Oil-Related Investments”). As of June 30, 2022, USO held 23,333 Oil Futures Contracts for light, sweet crude oil traded on the NYMEX and did not hold any Oil Futures Contracts for light, sweet crude oil traded on the ICE Futures Europe.

USO commenced investment operations on April 10, 2006 and has a fiscal year ending on December 31. USCF is a member of the National Futures Association (the “NFA”) and became registered as a commodity pool operator with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (the “CFTC”) effective December 1, 2005 and a swaps firm on August 8, 2013.

8

USCF is also the general partner of the United States Natural Gas Fund, LP (“UNG”), the United States 12 Month Oil Fund, LP (“USL”) and the United States Gasoline Fund, LP (“UGA”), which listed their limited partnership shares on the AMEX under the ticker symbols “UNG” on April 18, 2007, “USL” on December 6, 2007 and “UGA” on February 26, 2008, respectively. As a result of the acquisition of the AMEX by NYSE Euronext, each of UNG’s, USL’s and UGA’s shares commenced trading on the NYSE Arca on November 25, 2008. USCF is also the general partner of the United States 12 Month Natural Gas Fund, LP (“UNL”) and the United States Brent Oil Fund, LP (“BNO”), which listed their limited partnership shares on the NYSE Arca under the ticker symbols “UNL” on November 18, 2009 and “BNO” on June 2, 2010, respectively.

USCF is also the sponsor of the United States Commodity Index Funds Trust (“USCIFT”), a Delaware statutory trust and each of its series: the United States Commodity Index Fund (“USCI”) and the United States Copper Index Fund (“CPER”). USCI and CPER listed their shares on the NYSE Arca under the ticker symbols “USCI” on August 10, 2010 and “CPER” on November 15, 2011, respectively.

USO, UNG, UGA, UNL, USL, BNO, USCI and CPER are referred to collectively herein as the “Related Public Funds.”

USO issues shares to certain authorized purchasers (“Authorized Participants”) by offering baskets consisting of 100,000 shares (“Creation Baskets”) through ALPS Distributors, Inc., as the marketing agent (the “Marketing Agent”). The purchase price for a Creation Basket is based upon the NAV of a share calculated shortly after the close of the core trading session on the NYSE Arca on the day the order to create the basket is properly received.

Authorized Participants pay USO a transaction fee of $1,000 for each order placed to create one or more Creation Baskets or to redeem one or more baskets (“Redemption Baskets”), consisting of 100,000 shares. Shares may be purchased or sold on a nationally recognized securities exchange in smaller increments than a Creation Basket or Redemption Basket. Shares purchased or sold on a nationally recognized securities exchange are not purchased or sold at the per share NAV of USO but rather at market prices quoted on such exchange.

On April 28, 2020, after the close of trading on the NYSE Arca, USO effected a 1-for-8 reverse share split and post-split shares of USO began trading on April 29, 2020. As a result of the reverse share split, every eight pre-split shares of USO were automatically exchanged for one post-split share. Immediately prior to the reverse split, there were 1,482,900,000 shares of USO issued and outstanding, representing a per share NAV of $2.04. Immediately after the effect of the reverse share split, the number of issued and outstanding shares of USO decreased to 185,362,500, not accounting for fractional shares, and the per share NAV increased to $16.35. In connection with the reverse share split, the CUSIP number for USO’s shares changed to 91232N207. USO’s ticker symbol, “USO,” remains the same. The accompanying financial statements have been adjusted to reflect the effect of the reverse share split on a retroactive basis.

In April 2006, USO initially registered 17,000,000 shares on Form S-1 with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). On April 10, 2006, USO listed its shares on the AMEX under the ticker symbol “USO” and switched to trading on the NYSE Arca under the same ticker symbol on November 25, 2008. On that day, USO established its initial per share NAV by setting the price at $67.39 and issued 200,000 shares in exchange for $13,479,000. USO also commenced investment operations on April 10, 2006, by purchasing Oil Futures Contracts traded on the NYMEX based on light, sweet crude oil. As of June 30, 2022, USO had registered a total of 5,627,000,000 shares.

The accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Rule 10-01 of Regulation S-X promulgated by the SEC and, therefore, do not include all information and footnote disclosure required under generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”). The financial information included herein is unaudited; however, such financial information reflects all adjustments, consisting only of normal recurring adjustments, which are, in the opinion of USCF, necessary for the fair presentation of the condensed financial statements for the interim period.

NOTE 2 — SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Basis of Presentation

The condensed financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. GAAP as detailed in the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification. USO is an investment company for accounting purposes and follows the accounting and reporting guidance in FASB Topic 946.

9

Revenue Recognition

Commodity futures contracts, swap and forward contracts, physical commodities and related options are recorded on the trade date. All such transactions are recorded on the identified cost basis and marked to market daily. Unrealized gains or losses on open contracts are reflected in the condensed statements of financial condition and represent the difference between the original contract amount and the market value (as determined by exchange settlement prices for futures contracts and related options and cash dealer prices at a predetermined time for swap and forward contracts, physical commodities, and their related options) as of the last business day of the year or as of the last date of the condensed financial statements. Changes in the unrealized gains or losses between periods are reflected in the condensed statements of operations. USO earns income on funds held at the custodian or futures commission merchants (“FCMs”) at prevailing market rates earned on such investments.

Brokerage Commissions

Brokerage commissions on all open commodity futures contracts are accrued on a full-turn basis.

Income Taxes

USO is not subject to federal income taxes; each partner reports his/her allocable share of income, gain, loss deductions or credits on his/her own income tax return.

In accordance with U.S. GAAP, USO is required to determine whether a tax position is more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by the applicable taxing authority, including resolution of any tax related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. USO files an income tax return in the U.S. federal jurisdiction and may file income tax returns in various U.S. states. USO is not subject to income tax return examinations by major taxing authorities for years before 2018. The tax benefit recognized is measured as the largest amount of benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. De-recognition of a tax benefit previously recognized results in USO recording a tax liability that reduces net assets. However, USO’s conclusions regarding this policy may be subject to review and adjustment at a later date based on factors including, but not limited to, on-going analysis of and changes to tax laws, regulations and interpretations thereof. USO recognizes interest accrued related to unrecognized tax benefits and penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits in income tax fees payable, if assessed. No interest expense or penalties have been recognized as of and for the period ended June 30, 2022.

Creations and Redemptions

Authorized Participants may purchase Creation Baskets or redeem Redemption Baskets only in blocks of 100,000 shares at a price equal to the NAV of the shares calculated shortly after the close of the core trading session on the NYSE Arca on the day the order is placed.

USO receives or pays the proceeds from shares sold or redeemed within two business days after the trade date of the purchase or redemption. The amounts due from Authorized Participants are reflected in USO’s condensed statements of financial condition as receivable for shares sold and amounts payable to Authorized Participants upon redemption are reflected as payable for shares redeemed.

Authorized Participants pay USO a $1,000 transaction fee for each order placed to create one or more Creation Baskets or to redeem one or more Redemption Baskets.

Partnership Capital and Allocation of Partnership Income and Losses

Profit or loss shall be allocated among the partners of USO in proportion to the number of shares each partner holds as of the close of each month. USCF may revise, alter or otherwise modify this method of allocation as described in the LP Agreement.

Calculation of Per Share NAV

USO’s per share NAV is calculated on each NYSE Arca trading day by taking the current market value of its total assets, subtracting any liabilities and dividing that amount by the total number of shares outstanding. USO uses the closing price for the contracts on the relevant exchange on that day to determine the value of contracts held on such exchange.

10

Net Income (Loss) Per Share

Net income (loss) per share is the difference between the per share NAV at the beginning of each period and at the end of each period. The weighted average number of shares outstanding was computed for purposes of disclosing net income (loss) per weighted average share. The weighted average shares are equal to the number of shares outstanding at the end of the period, adjusted proportionately for shares added and redeemed based on the amount of time the shares were outstanding during such period. There were no shares held by USCF at June 30, 2022.

Offering Costs

Offering costs incurred in connection with the registration of additional shares after the initial registration of shares are borne by USO. These costs include registration fees paid to regulatory agencies and all legal, accounting, printing and other expenses associated with such offerings. These costs are accounted for as a deferred charge and thereafter amortized to expense over twelve months on a straight-line basis or a shorter period if warranted.

Cash Equivalents

Cash equivalents include money market funds and overnight deposits or time deposits with original maturity dates of six months or less.

Reclassification

Certain amounts in the accompanying condensed financial statements were reclassified to conform to the current presentation.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of condensed financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires USCF to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed financial statements, and the reported amounts of the revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results may differ from those estimates and assumptions.

NOTE 3 — FEES PAID BY THE FUND AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

USCF Management Fee

Under the LP Agreement, USCF is responsible for investing the assets of USO in accordance with the objectives and policies of USO. In addition, USCF has arranged for one or more third parties to provide administrative, custody, accounting, transfer agency and other necessary services to USO. For these services, USO is contractually obligated to pay USCF a fee, which is paid monthly, equal to 0.45% per annum of average daily total net assets.

Ongoing Registration Fees and Other Offering Expenses

USO pays all costs and expenses associated with the ongoing registration of its shares subsequent to the initial offering. These costs include registration or other fees paid to regulatory agencies in connection with the offer and sale of shares, and all legal, accounting, printing and other expenses associated with such offer and sale. For the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, USO incurred $0 and $1,260,041, respectively, in registration fees and other offering expenses.

Independent Directors’ and Officers’ Expenses

USO is responsible for paying its portion of the directors’ and officers’ liability insurance for USO and the other Related Public Funds and the fees and expenses of the independent directors who also serve as audit committee members of USO and the other Related Public Funds. USO shares the fees and expenses on a pro rata basis with each other Related Public Fund, as described above, based on the relative assets of each Related Public Fund computed on a daily basis. These fees and expenses for the year ending December 31, 2022 are estimated to be a total of $846,000 for USO and, in the aggregate for USO and the other Related Public Funds, $1,258,000.

11

Licensing Fees

As discussed in Note 4 below, USO entered into a licensing agreement with the NYMEX on April 10, 2006, as amended on October 20, 2011. Pursuant to the agreement, USO and the other Related Public Funds, other than BNO, USCI and CPER, pay a licensing fee that is equal to 0.015% on all net assets. During the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021, USO incurred $217,233 and $242,183, respectively under this arrangement.

Investor Tax Reporting Cost

The fees and expenses associated with USO’s audit expenses and tax accounting and reporting requirements are paid by USO. These costs are estimated to be $2,300,000 for the year ending December 31, 2022. Tax reporting costs fluctuate between years due to the number of shareholders during any given year.

Other Expenses and Fees

In addition to the fees described above, USO pays all brokerage fees and other expenses in connection with the operation of USO, excluding costs and expenses paid by USCF as outlined in Note 4 – Contracts and Agreements below.

NOTE 4 — CONTRACTS AND AGREEMENTS

Marketing Agent Agreement

USO is party to a marketing agent agreement, dated as of March 13, 2006, as amended from time to time, with the Marketing Agent and USCF, whereby the Marketing Agent provides certain marketing services for USO as outlined in the agreement. The fees of the Marketing Agent, which are borne by USCF, include a marketing fee of $425,000 per annum plus the following incentive fee: 0.00% on USO’s assets from $0 – $500 million; 0.04% on USO’s assets from $500 million – $4 billion and 0.03% on USO’s assets in excess of $4 billion. In no event may the aggregate compensation paid to the Marketing Agent and any affiliate of USCF for distribution-related services exceed 10% of the gross proceeds of USO’s offering.

The above fee does not include website construction and development, which are also borne by USCF.

Custody, Transfer Agency and Fund Administration and Accounting Services Agreements

USCF engaged The Bank of New York Mellon, a New York corporation authorized to conduct a banking business (“BNY Mellon”), to provide USO and each of the other Related Public Funds with certain custodial, administrative and accounting, and transfer agency services, pursuant to the following agreements with BNY Mellon dated as of March 20, 2020 (together, the “BNY Mellon Agreements”), which were effective as of April 1, 2020: (i) a Custody Agreement; (ii) a Fund Administration and Accounting Agreement; and (iii) a Transfer Agency and Service Agreement. USCF pays the fees of BNY Mellon for its services under the BNY Mellon Agreements and such fees are determined by the parties from time to time.

12

Brokerage and Futures Commission Merchant Agreements

USO entered into a brokerage agreement with RBC Capital Markets LLC (“RBC”) to serve as USO’s FCM effective October 10, 2013. USO has engaged each of RCG Division of Marex Spectron (“RCG”), E D & F Man Capital Markets Inc. (“MCM”) and Macquarie Futures USA LLC (“MFUSA”) to serve as additional FCMs to USO effective on May 28, 2020, June 5, 2020, and December 3, 2020, respectively. The agreements with USO’s FCMs require the FCMs to provide services to USO in connection with the purchase and sale of Oil Futures Contracts and Other Oil-Related Investments that may be purchased and sold by or through the applicable FCM for USO’s account. In accordance with the FCM agreements, USO pays each FCM commissions of approximately $7 to $8 per round-turn trade, including applicable exchange, clearing and NFA fees for Oil Futures Contracts and options on Oil Futures Contracts. Such fees include those incurred when purchasing Oil Futures Contracts and options on Oil Futures Contracts when USO issues shares as a result of a Creation Basket, as well as fees incurred when selling Oil Futures Contracts and options on Oil Futures Contracts when USO redeems shares as a result of a Redemption Basket. Such fees are also incurred when Oil Futures Contracts and options on Oil Futures Contracts are purchased or redeemed for the purpose of rebalancing the portfolio. USO also incurs commissions to brokers for the purchase and sale of Oil Futures Contracts, Other Oil-Related Investments or short-term obligations of the United States of two years or less (“Treasuries”).

    

Six months ended

Six months ended

  

    

June 30, 2022

    

June 30, 2021

Total commissions accrued to brokers

$

414,909

$

655,585

Total commissions as annualized percentage of average total net assets

 

0.03

%

 

0.04

%

Commissions accrued as a result of rebalancing

$

293,827

$

511,882

Percentage of commissions accrued as a result of rebalancing

 

70.82

%

 

78.08

%

Commissions accrued as a result of creation and redemption activity

$

121,082

$

143,703

Percentage of commissions accrued as a result of creation and redemption activity

 

29.18

%

 

21.92

%

The decrease in total commissions accrued to brokers for the six months ended June 30, 2022, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2021, was due primarily to a lower number of crude oil futures contracts being held and traded.

Swap Dealer Agreements

USO entered into ISDA 2002 Master Agreements with each of Macquarie Bank Limited the (“Macquarie ISDA”) and Société Générale (“Société Générale ISDA”) on November 30, 2021 and June 13, 2022, respectively, pursuant to which each of Macquarie Bank Limited and Société Générale has agreed to serve as an over-the-counter (“OTC”) swap counterparty for USO. The Macquarie ISDA and the Société Générale ISDA each provide USO with the ability to invest in OTC swaps in furtherance of USO’s investment objective by providing it with investment flexibility in light of market conditions, liquidity, regulatory requirements, and risk diversification. USO may enter into OTC swap transactions under each of the Macquarie ISDA and Société Générale ISDA in light of the foregoing. Any OTC swap transactions of USO that are outstanding under the Macquarie ISDA and the Société Générale ISDA, along with USO’s other holdings, will be published on USO’s webpage, www.uscfinvestments.com.  In accordance with each of the swap agreements described above, USO pays each swap dealer a flat fee in a range between 0.20% and 0.30% on the daily notional value of each OTC swap transaction.

NYMEX Licensing Agreement

USO and the NYMEX entered into a licensing agreement on April 10, 2006, as amended on October 20, 2011, whereby USO was granted a non-exclusive license to use certain of the NYMEX’s settlement prices and service marks. Under the licensing agreement, USO and the other Related Public Funds, other than BNO, USCI, and CPER, pay the NYMEX an asset-based fee for the license, the terms of which are described in Note 3. USO expressly disclaims any association with the NYMEX or endorsement of USO by the NYMEX and acknowledges that “NYMEX” and “New York Mercantile Exchange” are registered trademarks of the NYMEX.

13

NOTE 5 — FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS, OFF-BALANCE SHEET RISKS AND CONTINGENCIES

USO may engage in the trading of futures contracts, options on futures contracts, cleared swaps and OTC swaps (collectively, “derivatives”). USO is exposed to both market risk, which is the risk arising from changes in the market value of the contracts, and credit risk, which is the risk of failure by another party to perform according to the terms of a contract.

USO may enter into futures contracts, options on futures contracts, cleared swaps, and OTC-swaps to gain exposure to changes in the value of an underlying commodity. A futures contract obligates the seller to deliver (and the purchaser to accept) the future delivery of a specified quantity and type of a commodity at a specified time and place. Some futures contracts may call for physical delivery of the asset, while others are settled in cash. The contractual obligations of a buyer or seller may generally be satisfied by taking or making physical delivery of the underlying commodity or by making an offsetting sale or purchase of an identical futures contract on the same or linked exchange before the designated date of delivery. Cleared swaps are agreements that are eligible to be cleared by a clearinghouse, e.g., ICE Clear Europe, and provide the efficiencies and benefits that centralized clearing on an exchange offers to traders of futures contracts, including credit risk intermediation and the ability to offset positions initiated with different counterparties. OTC swaps are entered into between two parties in private contracts. In an OTC swap, each party bears credit risk to the other party, i.e., the risk that the other party may not be able to perform its obligations under the OTC swap.

The purchase and sale of futures contracts, options on futures contracts and cleared swaps require margin deposits with an FCM. Additional deposits may be necessary for any loss on contract value. The Commodity Exchange Act requires FCMs to segregate all customer transactions and assets from the FCM’s proprietary transactions and assets. To reduce the credit risk that arises in connection with OTC swaps, USO will generally enter into an agreement with each counterparty based on the Master Agreement published by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc., which provides for the netting of its overall exposure to its counterparty. The Master Agreement is negotiated as between the parties and would address, among other things, the exchange of margin between the parties.

Futures contracts, options on futures contracts and cleared swaps involve, to varying degrees, elements of market risk (specifically commodity price risk) and exposure to loss in excess of the amount of variation margin. The face or contract amounts reflect the extent of the total exposure USO has in the particular classes of instruments. Additional risks associated with the use of futures contracts are an imperfect correlation between movements in the price of the futures contracts and the market value of the underlying securities and the possibility of an illiquid market for a futures contract. Buying and selling options on futures contracts exposes investors to the risks of purchasing or selling futures contracts.

As to OTC swaps, valuing OTC derivatives is less certain than valuing actively traded financial instruments such as exchange-traded futures contracts and securities or cleared swaps, because the price and terms on which such OTC derivatives are entered into or can be terminated are individually negotiated, and those prices and terms may not reflect the best price or terms available from other sources. In addition, while market makers and dealers generally quote indicative prices or terms for entering into or terminating OTC contracts, they typically are not contractually obligated to do so, particularly if they are not a party to the transaction. As a result, it may be difficult to obtain an independent value for an outstanding OTC derivatives transaction.

Significant market volatility has recently occurred in the crude oil markets and the crude oil futures markets. Such volatility is attributable in part to the COVID-19 pandemic, related supply chain disruptions, war, including the war in Ukraine, and continuing disputes among oil-producing countries. These factors could cause continuing or increased volatility in the future, which may affect the value, pricing and liquidity of some investments or other assets, including those held by or invested in by USO and the impact of which could limit USO’s ability to have a substantial portion of its assets invested in the Futures Contracts and/or Other Oil-Related Investments.

All of the futures contracts held by USO through June 30, 2022 were exchange-traded. The risks associated with exchange-traded contracts are generally perceived to be less than those associated with OTC swaps since, in OTC swaps, a party must rely solely on the credit of its respective individual counterparties. USO entered OTC swaps during the period ended March 31, 2022. These OTC swaps are subject to the credit risk associated with counterparty non-performance. The credit risk from counterparty non-performance associated with such instruments is the net unrealized gain, if any, on the transaction. USO also has credit risk to the sole counterparty to all domestic and foreign futures contracts, the clearinghouse for the exchange on which the relevant contracts are traded. In addition, USO bears the risk of financial failure by the clearing broker.

USO’s cash and other property, such as Treasuries, deposited with its FCMs are considered commingled with all other customer funds, subject to such FCM’s segregation requirements. In the event of an FCM’s insolvency, recovery may be limited to a pro rata share of

14

segregated funds available. It is possible that the recovered amount could be less than the total of cash and other property deposited. The insolvency of an FCM could result in the complete loss of USO’s assets posted with that FCM; however, the majority of USO’s assets are held in investments in Treasuries, cash and/or cash equivalents with USO’s custodian and would not be impacted by the insolvency of an FCM. The failure or insolvency of USO’s custodian, however, could result in a substantial loss of USO’s assets.

USCF invests a portion of USO’s cash in money market funds that seek to maintain a stable per share NAV. USO is exposed to any risk of loss associated with an investment in such money market funds. As of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, USO held investments in money market funds in the amounts of $1,434,600,000 and $1,544,534,000, respectively. USO also holds cash deposits with its custodian. As of June 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, USO held cash deposits and investments in Treasuries in the amounts of $1,286,221,619 and $719,884,396 respectively, with the custodian and FCMs. Some or all of these amounts may be subject to loss should USO’s custodian and/or FCMs cease operations.

For derivatives, risks arise from changes in the market value of the contracts. Theoretically, USO is exposed to market risk equal to the value of futures contracts purchased and unlimited liability on such contracts sold short or that the value of the futures contract could fall below zero. As both a buyer and a seller of options, USO pays or receives a premium at the outset and then bears the risk of unfavorable changes in the price of the contract underlying the option.

USO’s policy is to continuously monitor its exposure to market and counterparty risk through the use of a variety of financial, position and credit exposure reporting controls and procedures. In addition, USO has a policy of requiring review of the credit standing of each broker or counterparty with which it conducts business.

The financial instruments held by USO are reported in its condensed statements of financial condition at market or fair value, or at carrying amounts that approximate fair value, because of their highly liquid nature and short-term maturity.

Optimum Strategies Action

On April 6, 2022, USO and USCF were named as defendants in an action filed by Optimum Strategies Fund I, LP, a purported investor in call option contracts on USO (the “Optimum Strategies Action”). The action is pending in the U.S. District Court for the District of Connecticut at Civil Action No. 3:22-cv-00511.

The Optimum Strategies Action asserts claims under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “1934 Act”), Rule 10b-5 thereunder, and the Connecticut Uniform Securities Act. It purports to challenge statements in registration statements that became effective in February 2020, March 2020, and on April 20, 2020, as well as public statements between February 2020 and May 2020, in connection with certain extraordinary market conditions and the attendant risks that caused the demand for oil to fall precipitously, including the COVID-19 global pandemic and the Saudi Arabia-Russia oil price war. The complaint seeks damages, interest, costs, attorney’s fees, and equitable relief.

USCF and USO intend to vigorously contest such claims.

Settlement of SEC and CFTC Investigations

On November 8, 2021, USCF and USO announced a resolution with each of the SEC and the CFTC relating to matters set forth in certain Wells Notices issued by the staffs of each of the SEC and CFTC as more fully described below.

On August 17, 2020, USCF, USO, and John Love received a “Wells Notice” from the staff of the SEC (the “SEC Wells Notice”). The SEC Wells Notice stated that the SEC staff made a preliminary determination to recommend that the SEC file an enforcement action against USCF, USO, and Mr. Love alleging violations of Sections 17(a)(1) and 17(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “1933 Act”), and Section 10(b) of the 1934 Act, and Rule 10b-5 thereunder.

Subsequently, on August 19, 2020, USCF, USO, and Mr. Love received a Wells Notice from the staff of the CFTC (the “CFTC Wells Notice”). The CFTC Wells Notice stated that the CFTC staff made a preliminary determination to recommend that the CFTC file an enforcement action against USCF, USO, and Mr. Love alleging violations of Sections 4o(1)(A) and (B) and 6(c)(1) of the Commodity Exchange Act of 1936, as amended (the “CEA”), 7 U.S.C. §§ 6o(1)(A) and (B) and 9(1) (2018), and CFTC Regulations 4.26, 4.41, and 180.1(a), 17 C.F.R. §§ 4.26, 4.41, 180.1(a) (2019).

15

On November 8, 2021, acting pursuant to an offer of settlement submitted by USCF and USO, the SEC issued an order instituting cease-and-desist proceedings, making findings, and imposing a cease-and-desist order pursuant to Section 8A of the 1933 Act, directing USCF and USO to cease and desist from committing or causing any violations of Section 17(a)(3) of the 1933 Act, 15 U.S.C. § 77q(a)(3) (the “SEC Order”). In the SEC Order, the SEC made findings that, from April 24, 2020 to May 21, 2020, USCF and USO violated Section 17(a)(3) of 1933 Act, which provides that it is “unlawful for any person in the offer or sale of any securities to engage in any transaction, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon the purchaser.” USCF and USO consented to entry of the SEC Order without admitting or denying the findings contained therein, except as to jurisdiction.

Separately, on November 8, 2021, acting pursuant to an offer of settlement submitted by USCF, the CFTC issued an order instituting cease-and-desist proceedings, making findings, and imposing a cease-and-desist order pursuant to Section 6(c) and (d) of the CEA, directing USCF to cease and desist from committing or causing any violations of Section 4o(1)(B) of the CEA, 7 U.S.C. § 6o(1) (B), and CFTC Regulation 4.41(a)(2), 17 C.F.R. § 4.41(a)(2) (the “CFTC Order”). In the CFTC Order, the CFTC made findings that, from on or about April 22, 2020 to June 12, 2020, USCF violated Section 4o(1)(B) of the CEA and CFTC Regulation 4.41(a)(2), which make it unlawful for any commodity pool operator (“CPO”) to engage in “any transaction, practice, or course of business which operates as a fraud or deceit upon any client or participant or prospective client or participant” and prohibit a CPO from advertising in a manner which “operates as a fraud or deceit upon any client or participant or prospective client or participant,” respectively. USCF consented to entry of the CFTC Order without admitting or denying the findings contained therein, except as to jurisdiction.

Pursuant to the SEC Order and the CFTC Order, in addition to the command to cease and desist from committing or causing any violations of Section 17(a)(3) of the 1933 Act, Section 4o(1)(B) of the CEA, and CFTC Regulation 4.14(a)(2), civil monetary penalties totaling two million five hundred thousand dollars ($2,500,000) in the aggregate were required to be paid to the SEC and CFTC, of which one million two hundred fifty thousand dollars ($1,250,000) was paid by USCF to each of the SEC and the CFTC, respectively, pursuant to the offsets permitted under the orders.

In re: United States Oil Fund, LP Securities Litigation

On June 19, 2020, USCF, USO, John P. Love, and Stuart P. Crumbaugh were named as defendants in a putative class action filed by purported shareholder Robert Lucas (the “Lucas Class Action”). The Court thereafter consolidated the Lucas Class Action with two related putative class actions filed on July 31, 2020 and August 13, 2020, and appointed a lead plaintiff. The consolidated class action is pending in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York under the caption In re: United States Oil Fund, LP Securities Litigation, Civil Action No. 1:20-cv-04740.

On November 30, 2020, the lead plaintiff filed an amended complaint (the “Amended Lucas Class Complaint”). The Amended Lucas Class Complaint asserts claims under the 1933 Act, the Exchange Act, and Rule 10b-5. The Amended Lucas Class Complaint challenges statements in registration statements that became effective on February 25, 2020 and March 23, 2020 as well as subsequent public statements through April 2020 concerning certain extraordinary market conditions and the attendant risks that caused the demand for oil to fall precipitously, including the COVID-19 global pandemic and the Saudi Arabia-Russia oil price war. The Amended Lucas Class Complaint purports to have been brought by an investor in USO on behalf of a class of similarly-situated shareholders who purchased USO securities between February 25, 2020 and April 28, 2020 and pursuant to the challenged registration statements. The Amended Lucas Class Complaint seeks to certify a class and to award the class compensatory damages at an amount to be determined at trial as well as costs and attorney’s fees. The Amended Lucas Class Complaint named as defendants USCF, USO, John P. Love, Stuart P. Crumbaugh, Nicholas D. Gerber, Andrew F Ngim, Robert L. Nguyen, Peter M. Robinson, Gordon L. Ellis, and Malcolm R. Fobes III, as well as the marketing agent, ALPS Distributors, Inc., and the Authorized Participants: ABN Amro, BNP Paribas Securities Corporation, Citadel Securities LLC, Citigroup Global Markets, Inc., Credit Suisse Securities USA LLC, Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., Goldman Sachs & Company, J.P. Morgan Securities Inc., Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corporation, Morgan Stanley & Company Inc., Nomura Securities International Inc., RBC Capital Markets LLC, SG Americas Securities LLC, UBS Securities LLC, and Virtu Financial BD LLC.

The lead plaintiff has filed a notice of voluntary dismissal of its claims against BNP Paribas Securities Corporation, Citadel Securities LLC, Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Credit Suisse Securities USA LLC, Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., Morgan Stanley & Company, Inc., Nomura Securities International, Inc., RBC Capital Markets, LLC, SG Americas Securities LLC, and UBS Securities LLC.

USCF, USO, and the individual defendants in In re: United States Oil Fund, LP Securities Litigation intend to vigorously contest such claims and have moved for their dismissal.

16

Wang Class Action

On July 10, 2020, purported shareholder Momo Wang filed a putative class action complaint, individually and on behalf of others similarly situated, against defendants USO, USCF, John P. Love, Stuart P. Crumbaugh, Nicholas D. Gerber, Andrew F Ngim, Robert L. Nguyen, Peter M. Robinson, Gordon L. Ellis, Malcolm R. Fobes, III, ABN Amro, BNP Paribas Securities Corp., Citadel Securities LLC, Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Credit Suisse Securities USA LLC, Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., Goldman Sachs & Company, JP Morgan Securities Inc., Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp., Morgan Stanley & Company Inc., Nomura Securities International Inc., RBC Capital Markets LLC, SG Americas Securities LLC, UBS Securities LLC, and Virtu Financial BD LLC, in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California as Civil Action No. 3:20-cv-4596 (the “Wang Class Action”).

The Wang Class Action asserted federal securities claims under the 1933 Act, challenging disclosures in a March 19, 2020 registration statement. It alleged that the defendants failed to disclose to investors in USO certain extraordinary market conditions and the attendant risks that caused the demand for oil to fall precipitously, including the COVID-19 global pandemic and the Saudi Arabia-Russia oil price war. The Wang Class Action was voluntarily dismissed on August 4, 2020.

Mehan Action

On August 10, 2020, purported shareholder Darshan Mehan filed a derivative action on behalf of nominal defendant USO, against defendants USCF, John P. Love, Stuart P. Crumbaugh, Nicholas D. Gerber, Andrew F Ngim, Robert L. Nguyen, Peter M. Robinson, Gordon L. Ellis, and Malcolm R. Fobes, III (the “Mehan Action”). The action is pending in the Superior Court of the State of California for the County of Alameda as Case No. RG20070732.

The Mehan Action alleges that the defendants breached their fiduciary duties to USO and failed to act in good faith in connection with a March 19, 2020 registration statement and offering and disclosures regarding certain extraordinary market conditions that caused demand for oil to fall precipitously, including the COVID-19 global pandemic and the Saudi Arabia-Russia oil price war. The complaint seeks, on behalf of USO, compensatory damages, restitution, equitable relief, attorney’s fees, and costs. All proceedings in the Mehan Action are stayed pending disposition of the motion(s) to dismiss in In re: United States Oil Fund, LP Securities Litigation.

USCF, USO, and the other defendants intend to vigorously contest such claims.

In re United States Oil Fund, LP Derivative Litigation

On August 27, 2020, purported shareholders Michael Cantrell and AML Pharm. Inc. DBA Golden International filed two separate derivative actions on behalf of nominal defendant USO, against defendants USCF, John P. Love, Stuart P. Crumbaugh, Andrew F Ngim, Gordon L. Ellis, Malcolm R. Fobes, III, Nicholas D. Gerber, Robert L. Nguyen, and Peter M. Robinson in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York at Civil Action No. 1:20-cv-06974 (the “Cantrell Action”) and Civil Action No. 1:20-cv-06981 (the “AML Action”), respectively.

The complaints in the Cantrell and AML Actions are nearly identical. They each allege violations of Sections 10(b), 20(a), and 21D of the Exchange Act, Rule 10b-5 thereunder, and common law claims of breach of fiduciary duties, unjust enrichment, abuse of control, gross mismanagement, and waste of corporate assets. These allegations stem from USO’s disclosures and defendants’ alleged actions in light of the extraordinary market conditions in 2020 that caused demand for oil to fall precipitously, including the COVID-19 global pandemic and the Saudi Arabia-Russia oil price war. The complaints seek, on behalf of USO, compensatory damages, restitution, equitable relief, attorney’s fees, and costs. The plaintiffs in the Cantrell and AML Actions have marked their actions as related to the Lucas Class Action.

The Court consolidated the Cantrell and AML Actions under the caption In re United States Oil Fund, LP Derivative Litigation, Civil Action No. 1:20-cv-06974 and appointed co-lead counsel. All proceedings in In re United States Oil Fund, LP Derivative Litigation are stayed pending disposition of the motion(s) to dismiss in In re: United States Oil Fund, LP Securities Litigation.

USCF, USO, and the other defendants intend to vigorously contest the claims in In re United States Oil Fund, LP Derivative Litigation.

17

NOTE 6 — FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS

The following table presents per share performance data and other supplemental financial data for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2021 for the shareholders. This information has been derived from information presented in the condensed financial statements.

    

Three months ended

    

Three months ended

    

Six months ended

    

Six months ended

  

June 30, 2022

June 30, 2021

June 30, 2022

June 30, 2021

(Unaudited)

(Unaudited)

(Unaudited)

(Unaudited)

Per Share Operating Performance:

 

  

 

  

 

Net asset value, beginning of period

$

73.83

$

40.40

$

54.18

$

33.07

Total income (loss)

 

6.49

 

9.57

26.24

16.97

Total expenses

 

(0.11)

 

(0.10)

(0.21)

(0.17)

Net increase (decrease) in net asset value

 

6.38

 

9.47

26.03

16.80

Net asset value, end of period

$

80.21

$

49.87

$

80.21

$

49.87

Total Return

 

8.64

%  

 

23.44

%

48.04

%

50.80

%

Ratios to Average Net Assets

 

 

Total income (loss)

 

8.48

%  

 

21.48

%

36.81

%

42.66

%

Management fees#

 

0.45

%  

 

0.45

%

0.45

%

0.45

%

Total expenses excluding management fees#

 

0.09

%  

 

0.43

%

0.14

%

0.37

%

Net income (loss)

 

8.35

%  

 

21.26

%

36.52

%

42.25

%

#Annualized.

Total returns are calculated based on the change in value during the period. An individual shareholder’s total return and ratio may vary from the above total returns and ratios based on the timing of contributions to and withdrawals from USO.

NOTE 7 — FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

USO values its investments in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification 820 – Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures (“ASC 820”). ASC 820 defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value in generally accepted accounting principles, and expands disclosures about fair value measurement. The changes to past practice resulting from the application of ASC 820 relate to the definition of fair value, the methods used to measure fair value, and the expanded disclosures about fair value measurement. ASC 820 establishes a fair value hierarchy that distinguishes between: (1) market participant assumptions developed based on market data obtained from sources independent of USO (observable inputs) and (2) USO’s own assumptions about market participant assumptions developed based on the best information available under the circumstances (unobservable inputs). The three levels defined by the ASC 820 hierarchy are as follows:

Level I – Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the reporting entity has the ability to access at the measurement date.

Level II – Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level I that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly.

Level II assets include the following: quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability, and inputs that are derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data by correlation or other means (market-corroborated inputs).

Level III – Unobservable pricing input at the measurement date for the asset or liability. Unobservable inputs shall be used to measure fair value to the extent that observable inputs are not available.

In some instances, the inputs used to measure fair value might fall within different levels of the fair value hierarchy. The level in the fair value hierarchy within which the fair value measurement in its entirety falls shall be determined based on the lowest input level that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety.

18

The following table summarizes the valuation of USO’s securities at June 30, 2022 using the fair value hierarchy:

At June 30, 2022

    

Total

    

Level I

    

Level II

    

Level III

Short-Term Investments

$

1,434,600,000

$

1,434,600,000

$

$

Exchange-Traded Futures Contracts

 

 

 

  

 

  

United States Contracts

 

44,958,530

 

44,958,530

 

 

OTC Commodity Swap Contracts

(2,396)

(2,396)

The following table summarizes the valuation of USO’s securities at December 31, 2021 using the fair value hierarchy:

At December 31, 2021

    

Total

    

Level I

    

Level II

    

Level III

Short-Term Investments

$

1,544,534,000

$

1,544,534,000

$

$

Exchange-Traded Futures Contracts

 

 

 

  

 

  

United States Contracts

 

114,437,224

 

114,437,224

 

 

Effective January 1, 2009, USO adopted the provisions of Accounting Standards Codification 815 — Derivatives and Hedging, which require presentation of qualitative disclosures about objectives and strategies for using derivatives, quantitative disclosures about fair value amounts and gains and losses on derivatives.

Fair Value of Derivative Instruments

    

    

    

    

Condensed Statements of

    

Fair Value

    

Fair Value

 Financial

at June 30, 

at December 31, 

Derivatives not Accounted for as Hedging Instruments

Condition Location

2022

2021

Futures - Commodity Contracts

 

Assets

$

44,958,530

$

114,437,224

Swap - Commodity Contracts

Liabilities

$

(2,396)

$

The volume of open OTC swap positions relative to the net assets of USO at the date of this report is generally representative of open positions throughout the reporting period.

The Effect of Derivative Instruments on the Condensed Statements of Operations

For the six months ended

For the six months ended

June 30, 2022

June 30, 2021

Change in

Change in

Location of

Realized

Unrealized

Realized

Unrealized

Derivatives not

Gain (Loss)

gain (Loss)

Gain (Loss) on

Gain (Loss)

Gain (Loss) on

Accounted for

on Derivatives

on Derivatives

Derivatives

in Derivatives

Derivatives

as Hedging

Recognized in

Recognized in

Recognized in

Recognized in

Recognized in

Instruments

    

Income

    

Income

    

Income

    

Income

    

Income

Futures - Commodity Contracts

 

Realized gain (loss) on closed positions

$

1,108,359,853

$

1,313,768,002

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

Change in unrealized gain (loss) on open positions

 

  

$

(69,478,694)

 

  

$

74,340,926

OTC Swap - Commodity Contracts

Realized gain (loss) on closed positions

$

32,677,694

$

Change in unrealized gain (loss) on open positions

$

(2,396)

$

19

NOTE 8 — SUBSEQUENT EVENTS

USO has performed an evaluation of subsequent events through the date the condensed financial statements were issued. This evaluation did not result in any subsequent events that necessitated disclosures and/or adjustments.

20

Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the condensed financial statements and the notes thereto of the United States Oil Fund, LP (“USO”) included elsewhere in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q.

Forward-Looking Information

This quarterly report on Form 10-K, including this “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” contains forward-looking statements regarding the plans and objectives of management for future operations. This information may involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause USO’s actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by any forward-looking statements. USO believes these factors include, but are not limited to, the following: changes in inflation in the United States, movements in U.S. and foreign currencies, market volatility in the crude oil markets and futures markets in part attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic in February 2020 and Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February 2022. Forward-looking statements, which involve assumptions and describe USO’s future plans, strategies and expectations, are generally identifiable by use of the words “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “believe,” “intend” or “project,” the negative of these words, other variations on these words or comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements are based on assumptions that may be incorrect, and USO cannot assure investors that the projections included in these forward-looking statements will come to pass. USO’s actual results could differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors.

USO has based the forward-looking statements included in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q on information available to it on the date of this annual report on Form 10-K, and USO assumes no obligation to update any such forward-looking statements. Although USO undertakes no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, investors are advised to consult any additional disclosures that USO may make directly to them or through reports that USO files in the future with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), including annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K.

Introduction

USO, a Delaware limited partnership, is a commodity pool that issues shares that may be purchased and sold on the NYSE Arca. The investment objective of USO is for the daily changes in percentage terms of its shares’ per share NAV to reflect the daily changes in percentage terms of the spot price of light, sweet crude oil delivered to Cushing, Oklahoma, as measured by the daily changes in the price of the futures contract for light, sweet crude oil traded on the NYMEX that is the near month contract to expire, except when the near month contract is within two weeks of expiration, in which case it will be measured by the futures contract that is the next month contract to expire (the “Benchmark Oil Futures Contract”), plus interest earned on USO’s collateral holdings, less USO’s expenses. “Near month contract” means the next contract traded on the NYMEX due to expire. “Next month contract” means the first contract traded on the NYMEX due to expire after the near month contract. USO seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing so that the average daily percentage change in USO’s NAV for any period of 30 successive valuation days will be within plus/minus ten percent (10%) of the average daily percentage change in the price of the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract over the same period. As described below, USO is currently unable to pursue its investment objective with the same high degree of success that it has in the past due to its limited ability to invest in the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract and certain other Oil Futures Contracts, as defined below, to the same extent it was able to before the market conditions and regulatory limitations imposed on USO, which occurred in the Spring of 2020, and risk mitigation measures taken by USO’s FCMs as a result, as described herein, arose. As a result of such market conditions, the regulatory conditions that were and could again be imposed, and the risk mitigation measures imposed by its FCMs, there is still uncertainty as to whether USO will be able to achieve its investment objective within as narrow a percentage change difference in its NAV for any period of 30 successive valuation days and the average daily percentage change in the price of the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract as it typically had prior to the Spring of 2020 due to the foregoing factors.

21

USO’s investment objective is not for its NAV or market price of shares to equal, in dollar terms, the spot price of light, sweet crude oil or any particular futures contract based on light, sweet crude oil, nor is USO’s investment objective for the percentage change in its NAV to reflect the percentage change of the price of any particular futures contract as measured over a time period greater than one day. The general partner of USO, United States Commodity Funds, LLC (“USCF”), believes that it is not practical to manage the portfolio to achieve such an investment goal when investing in Oil Futures Contracts and Other Oil-Related Investments.

USO invests primarily in futures contracts for light, sweet crude oil, other types of crude oil, heating oil, gasoline, natural gas and other petroleum-based fuels that are traded on the NYMEX, ICE Futures or other U.S. and foreign exchanges (collectively, “Oil Futures Contracts”) and to a lesser extent, in order to comply with regulatory requirements, risk mitigation measures, liquidity requirements, or in view of market conditions, other oil-related investments such as cash-settled options on Oil Futures Contracts, forward contracts for oil, cleared swap contracts and OTC swaps that are based on the price of oil, other petroleum-based fuels, Oil Futures Contracts and indices based on the foregoing (collectively, “Other Oil-Related Investments”). For convenience and unless otherwise specified, Oil Futures Contracts and Other Oil-Related Investments collectively are referred to as “Oil Interests” in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q.

USCF believes that market arbitrage opportunities will cause daily changes in USO’s share price on the NYSE Arca on a percentage basis to closely track daily changes in USO’s per share NAV on a percentage basis but there can be no assurance of that. USCF further believes that daily changes in prices of the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract have historically closely tracked the daily changes in spot prices of light, sweet crude oil. USCF believes that the net effect of these relationships will be that the daily changes in the price of USO’s shares on the NYSE Arca on a percentage basis will closely track the daily changes in the spot price of a barrel of light, sweet crude oil on a percentage basis, plus interest earned on USO’s collateral holdings, less USO’s expenses.

As noted above, USO seeks to achieve its investment objective by investing so that the average daily percentage change in USO’s NAV for any period of 30 successive valuation days will be within plus/minus ten percent (10%) of the average daily percentage change in the price of the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract over the same period. Historically, USO has achieved its investment objective by primarily investing in the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract and Oil Futures Contracts for light, sweet crude oil traded on NYMEX and ICE Futures with the same maturity month as the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract Certain circumstances could cause and have caused, as discussed below, USO to invest in Oil Futures Contracts other than the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract and may cause USO to invest in Other Oil-Related Investments, including OTC swaps. Such circumstances include: the need to comply with regulatory requirements (including, but not limited to, exchange accountability levels and position limits imposed by NYMEX discussed below); market conditions (including but not limited to those allowing USO to obtain greater liquidity (i.e., liquidity requirements) or to execute transactions with more favorable pricing); and risk mitigation measures taken, or that could be taken in the future, by one of USO’s FCMs.

As a result of market and regulatory conditions, including significant market volatility, large numbers of USO shares purchased during a short period of time, and applicable regulatory accountability levels and position limits on oil futures contracts that were imposed on USO in 2020, including as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and the state of crude oil markets, USO has invested in Oil Futures Contracts (as defined above) in months other than the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract. The foregoing has impacted the performance of USO and its ability meet its investment objective within as narrow a percentage difference between the average daily percentage change in USO’s NAV for any period of 30 successive valuation days and the average daily percentage change in the price of the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract as it typically had prior to the Spring of 2020.

USO’s investment in Oil Futures Contracts in months other than the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract, other Oil Futures Contracts and Other Oil-Related Investments (as defined below), is intended to be temporary but may continue indefinitely if the aforementioned market and regulatory conditions do not abate. Until such time as USO is able to return to investing in the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract, its performance and ability to meet its investment objective will continue to be impacted.

22

The following chart shows, for the period ending June 30, 2022, the rolling 30-day average difference between USO’s NAV and the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract. This is measured by subtracting the return of the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract from the return on USO’s NAV for each of the last thirty business days, and then averaging those thirty differences. The calculation is repeated daily.

*PAST PERFORMANCE IS NOT NECESSARILY INDICATIVE OF FUTURE RESULTS

Graphic

In 2020, significant market volatility occurred in the crude oil markets and the oil futures markets. Such volatility was attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic, related supply chain disruptions and ongoing disputes among oil-producing countries over the potential limits on the production of crude oil, and a corresponding collapse in demand for crude oil and a lack of on-land storage for crude oil. These conditions, together with the prospect that such conditions could reoccur, severely limited and continue to significantly limit USO’s ability to have a substantial portion of its assets invested in the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract and certain other Oil Futures Contracts

23

of the same month, such as cash-settled, but substantially similar, oil futures contracts traded on ICE Futures (the “ICE WTI Contract”). Specifically:

In 2020, NYMEX and ICE Futures imposed accountability levels and position limits on USO’s investments in the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract and the ICE WTI Contract, respectively. While those limits no longer apply, NYMEX’s current accountability level for any one month in the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract is 10,000 contracts, and the accountability level for all months is 20,000 net futures contracts for light sweet crude oil, do apply. In addition, the ICE WTI Contract is subject to spot month and all-months-combined position limits established under the European Union’s Market in Financial Instruments Directive, as implemented by the Financial Conduct Authority in the United Kingdom. ICE Futures also imposes accountability levels and position limits on the ICE WTI Contract. Investors should note that the foregoing accountability levels and position limits are subject to change and could change the amount and type of permitted investments in which USO invests. See “Accountability Levels, Position Limits and Position Limits and Price Fluctuation Limits” below.
In 2020, RBC imposed risk mitigation measures that constrained USO’s ability to invest in the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract and other Oil Futures Contracts. RBC, which at the time was USO’s only FCM, expressly informed USO that USO may not hold positions in the June Benchmark Oil Futures Contract expiring on May 19, 2020. At the time it imposed this restriction, RBC continued to trade and clear other Oil Futures Contracts for USO, including in connection with rolls and rebalances of its portfolio. RBC also advised USO at that time, that, going forward, it may only purchase additional Benchmark Oil Futures Contracts and other Oil Futures Contracts through RBC for rolls and rebalances of USO’s portfolio and not as investments for the proceeds of new Creation Baskets. The limits on positions imposed by RBC on holdings in USO’s portfolio applied regardless of whether the Oil Futures Contracts purchased would be within the accountability levels and position limits permitted by NYMEX and ICE. RBC has since informed USO that USO may resume repurchasing Oil Futures Contracts for investment of the proceeds from Creation Baskets.
Subsequent to RBC’s imposition of risk mitigation measures in 2020, USO entered into agreements with RCG, MCM and MFUSA to become additional FCMs for USO. These FCMs have not precluded USO from purchasing, holding, or reinvesting the proceeds from the purchases of Creation Baskets in Oil Futures Contracts, including the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract consistent with USO’s announced investment strategy. USO cannot predict whether, or to what extent, any FCM may impose limitations on its holding certain positions in Oil Future Contracts at any time. USO may enter into agreements with other FCMs and it cannot predict whether or when it will enter into such agreements.
A large number of USO shares were purchased during a relatively short period of time in March and April 2020.

Commencement of investing in investments other than the Benchmark Futures Contract. The foregoing events significantly limited USO’s ability to have a substantial portion of its assets invested in the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract and, during the Spring of 2020, in other Oil Futures Contracts. During that time, USO had to invest in other permitted Oil Futures Contracts and had to more frequently rebalance and adjust the types of holdings in its portfolio than it has in the past. In addition, the limitations imposed by the exchanges and FCMs, especially during the Spring of 2020, limited USO’s ability to invest in certain Oil Futures Contracts, including the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract. As a result, USO has and may be required to invest in other permitted investments including Other Oil-Related Investments, including OTC swaps, and may hold larger amounts of Treasuries, cash and cash equivalents, which could further impair USO’s ability to meet its investment objective. USO continues to invest in other Oil Futures Contracts and Other Oil-Related Investments, which may impact USO’s ability to pursue its investment objective with the same high degree of success as it had prior to the Spring of 2020.

Current Investment Parameters. As noted above, USO has had the ability to invest in Oil Futures Contracts beyond the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract and in Other Oil-Related Investments but, until the market and other events occurring in 2020 described herein, USO’s need to exercise this ability to make such investments had been limited. Certain circumstances including market conditions, regulatory requirements and risk mitigation measures imposed by FCMs, counterparties or other market participants, have required and continue to require USO to exercise greater discretion in investing than in the past. The current parameters for the decision-making regarding the permitted investments USO will hold and the intended order of priority it will consider in selecting investments to be held in USO’s portfolio are set forth and discussed in greater detail below. The application of these parameters requires USO to exercise its discretion. If, due to market conditions (including liquidity requirements), regulatory requirements, risk mitigation measures, or other factors, USO is not able to invest in accordance with such parameters and the intended order of priority, such methodology may change. The type and percentages of investments to be held by USO at the end of the monthly roll period as well as for any rebalances are published on USO’s website at www.uscfinvestments.com.

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Accordingly, for the foreseeable future, to address and comply with the market conditions (including liquidity requirements), regulatory requirements, risk mitigation measures or other factors that have influenced, and may continue to influence, its investment decisions, USO intends to buy or sell the following permitted investments taking into account the order, or waterfall, set forth below when USO increases or decreases either its portfolio overall or its holdings of particular investments:

1.The current or front month (“first month”) Oil Futures Contracts based on the price of the light, sweet crude oil known as West Texas Intermediate (“WTI”) or, which are priced off of the oil futures contracts based on WTI as traded on the NYMEX including the Benchmark Oil Futures Contracts and the ICE WTI Contract (“WTI Oil Futures Contracts”); then
2.The first month, the next or following month (“second month”, with months thereafter being numerically designated, i.e., the third month, the fourth month, the fifth month, etc.) and the third month WTI Oil Futures Contracts; then
3.The first through the sixth month WTI Oil Futures Contracts, plus the next nearest June WTI Oil Futures Contracts or the next nearest December WTI Oil Futures Contracts that is not included in the first through sixth months; then
4.The first through the twelfth month WTI Oil Futures Contracts; then
5.The first through the twelfth month WTI Oil Futures Contracts plus the second through thirteenth month Oil Futures Contracts based on Brent Crude Oil traded on ICE Futures (“Brent Oil Futures Contracts”); then
6.The first through the twelfth month WTI Oil Futures Contracts plus the second through thirteenth month Brent Oil Futures Contracts plus the first through the twelfth month Oil Futures Contracts based on Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Oil Futures Contract traded on NYMEX (“USDL Oil Futures Contract”); then
7.The first through the twelfth month WTI Oil Futures Contracts plus the second through thirteenth month Brent Oil Futures Contracts plus the first through the twelfth month USDL Oil Futures Contracts plus the first through the twelfth month RBOB Gasoline Oil Futures Contracts (“Gasoline Futures Contract”); then
8.USO may also utilize the Oil Futures Contracts based on WTI, WTI Oil Futures Contacts or other types of crude oil traded on the Dubai, Singapore, and Houston exchanges, if and when these contracts reach sufficient scale and liquidity to meaningfully contribute to USO’s investment objective, in addition to the foregoing investments; then, finally,
9.Other Oil-Related Investments, in addition to the foregoing investments.

USO will progress through the stages of the above-described waterfall of permitted investments as it approaches regulatory or other limits or as necessary to address market conditions (including liquidity requirements), regulatory requirements, risk mitigation measures, or other factors, including additional investments in USO, requiring consideration of particular levels of the waterfall. Generally, USO will invest in each stage of the waterfall in the order described above. However, USO, in its sole discretion, may proceed to invest in a further stage of the waterfall (i.e., skipping over a particular stage) if it determines it may exceed position limits in the immediately following stage of the above waterfall within the next month or due to other regulatory requirements, risk mitigation measures, market conditions, liquidity requirements or other factors.

If, due to market conditions (including liquidity requirements), regulatory requirements, risk mitigation measures, or other factors, USO is not able to invest in a particular month contract described above, then it will adjust the methodology incrementally beginning from the nearest month contract available to it that it is reasonable or feasible to hold in light of such factors.

USO uses OTC swaps or other instruments, to provide exposure to one or more of the same above-described permitted investments in varying months or contracts. USO also anticipates that to the extent it invests in Oil Futures Contracts other than WTI Oil Futures Contacts and Other Oil- Related Investments, it may enter into various non-exchange-traded derivative contracts to hedge the short-term price movements of such Oil Futures Contracts and Other Oil-Related Investments against the current Benchmark Oil Futures Contract.

The progression from one stage of permitted investments described in the above waterfall to the next stage, including the specific target weights for the particular portfolio investments to be held by USO, will take into account, to the extent applicable, the relative levels of open interest, position limits, and other factors. The specific permitted investments and the identified target weights for such investments, consistent with progression from one stage of the above-described waterfall to the next stage, will be published on the website the day

25

before the start of (i) any monthly roll/rebalance period for the end of such roll/rebalance period, and (ii) any rebalancing to be done outside of the monthly roll period due to market conditions, regulatory requirements or other factors described herein. In extreme circumstances, changes may need to be made intraday. In such circumstances, the changes will be published on the website at the end of the day. USO will attempt to execute rebalances required over several days to minimize market impact. However, it may be necessary to execute these risk measures rapidly and with minimal notice. Published portfolio changes will be implemented by USO over the course of the roll/rebalance period as indicated on the website or over the course of another day or period with respect to a particular change outside of the roll.

The investment intention announced by USO could change as a result of any or all of the following: evolving market conditions (including liquidity requirements), a change in regulator accountability levels and position limits imposed on USO with respect to its investment in Oil Futures Contracts, additional or different risk mitigation measures taken, or that could be taken, by market participants, generally, including USO, with respect to USO acquiring additional Oil Futures contracts, or USO selling additional shares USO’s ability to invest in the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract could be limited by any of these occurrences. In addition, while determining the appropriate investments for USO’s portfolio in accordance with its current intention, or to address the foregoing changes in market conditions (including liquidity requirements), regulatory requirements or risk mitigation measures, USO may need to hold significant portions of its portfolio in cash beyond what it has historically held in order to satisfy potential margin requirements.

USCF may not be able to fully invest USO’s assets in Benchmark Oil Futures Contracts or other Oil Futures Contracts having an aggregate notional amount exactly equal to USO’s NAV. For example, as standardized contracts, the Benchmark Oil Futures Contracts and other Oil Futures Contracts are for a specified amount of a particular commodity, and USO’s NAV and the proceeds from the sale of a Creation Basket are unlikely to be an exact multiple of the amounts of those contracts. As a result, in such circumstances, USO may be better able to achieve the exact amount of exposure to changes in price of the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract and other Oil Futures Contracts through the use of Other Oil-Related Investments, such as OTC contracts (e.g., swaps) that have better correlation with changes in price of the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract.

USCF does not anticipate letting USO’s Oil Futures Contracts expire and taking delivery of the underlying commodity. Instead, USCF will close existing positions, e.g., when it changes the Benchmark Oil Futures Contracts or Other Oil-Related Investments or it otherwise determines it would be appropriate to do so and reinvests the proceeds in new Oil Futures Contracts or Other Oil-Related Investments. Positions may also be closed out to meet orders for Redemption Baskets and in such case proceeds for such baskets will not be reinvested.

As a result of market conditions and the regulatory response that occurred in the Spring of 2020 and thereafter, large numbers of USO shares that were purchased during a short period of time, and regulatory accountability levels and position limits on oil futures contracts that were imposed on USO, and risk mitigation measures imposed by its FCMs, USO invested, and continues to invest, in Oil Futures Contracts in months other than the Benchmark Oil Futures Contracts as well as Other Oil Interests. While it is USO’s expectation that at some point in the future it will return to primarily investing in the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract, there can be no guarantee of when, if ever, that will occur. In addition, because of the limitations imposed on USO for example, by its regulators and its FCMs, or other conditions, USO may be limited in investing in other Oil Futures Contracts in addition to the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract. Limitations on USO may negatively impact the ability of USO (i) to reallocate its investments to more favorably meet its investment objective or (ii) in connection with the purchase of Creation Baskets, to invest the proceeds of such purchases in Oil Futures Contracts. Investors in USO should expect USO’s ability to invest in the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract and other Oil Futures Contracts may be limited and USO may be required to invest in Other Oil-Related Investments. The foregoing has impacted the performance of USO and its ability meet its investment objective within as narrow a percentage difference between the average daily percentage change in USO’s NAV for any period of 30 successive valuation days and the average daily percentage change in the price of the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract as it typically has prior to the Spring of 2020.

USO’s investment in Oil Futures Contracts in months other than the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract, other Oil Futures Contracts and Other-Oil Related Investments, is intended to be temporary but may continue indefinitely if the developments resulting from the aforementioned market and regulatory conditions do not abate. Until such time as USO is able to return to investing in the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract, its performance and ability to meet its investment objective will continue to be impacted.

USO has not leveraged, and does not intend to leverage, its assets through borrowings or otherwise, and makes its investments accordingly. Consistent with the foregoing, USO’s announced investment intentions, and any changes thereto, will take into account the need for USO to make permitted investments that also allow it to maintain adequate liquidity to meet its margin and collateral requirements and to avoid, to the extent reasonably possible, USO becoming leveraged. If market conditions require it, these risk reduction procedures may occur on short notice if they occur other than during a roll or rebalance period.

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Regulatory Disclosure

The regulation of commodity interest trading in the United States and other countries is an evolving area of the law. Below are certain key regulatory requirements that are, or may be, relevant to USO. The various statements made in this summary are subject to modification by legislative action and changes in the rules and regulations of the SEC, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”), CFTC, NFA, the futures exchanges, clearing organizations and other regulatory bodies. Pending final resolution of all applicable regulatory requirements, some examples of how new rules and regulations could impact USO are discussed in “Item 1. Business” in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q.

Exchange Accountability Levels, Position Limits and Price Fluctuation Limits. Designated contract markets (“DCMs”), such as the NYMEX and ICE Futures, have established accountability levels and position limits on the maximum net long or net short futures contracts in commodity interests that any person or group of persons under common trading control (other than as a hedge, which an investment by USO is not) may hold, own or control. These levels and position limits apply to the futures contracts that USO invests in to meet its investment objective. In addition to accountability levels and position limits, the NYMEX and ICE Futures also set daily price fluctuation limits on futures contracts. The daily price fluctuation limit establishes the maximum amount that the price of a futures contract may vary either up or down from the previous day’s settlement price. Once the daily price fluctuation limit has been reached in a particular futures contract, no trades may be made at a price beyond that limit.

The accountability levels for the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract and other Oil Futures Contracts traded on U.S.-based futures exchanges, such as the NYMEX, are not a fixed ceiling, but rather a threshold above which the NYMEX may exercise greater scrutiny and control over an investor’s positions. The current accountability level for investments for any one month in the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract is 10,000 contracts. In addition, the NYMEX imposes an accountability level for all months of 20,000 net futures contracts for light, sweet crude oil. In addition, the ICE Futures maintains the same accountability levels, position limits and monitoring authority for its light, sweet crude oil contract as the NYMEX. If USO and the other Related Public Funds exceed these accountability levels for investments in the futures contracts for light, sweet crude oil, the NYMEX and ICE Futures will monitor such exposure and may ask for further information on their activities including the total size of all positions, investment and trading strategy, and the extent of liquidity resources of USO and the other Related Public Funds. If deemed necessary by the NYMEX and/or ICE Futures, USO could be ordered to reduce its Crude Oil Futures CL contracts to below the 10,000 single month and/or 20,000 all month accountability level. As of June 30, 2022, USO held 23,333 NYMEX WTI Crude Oil Futures CL contracts and did not hold any ICE WTI Crude Oil Futures contracts. USO exceeded accountability levels of the NYMEX during the six months ended June 30, 2022, including when it held a maximum of 34,632 Crude Oil Futures CL contracts on the NYMEX, exceeding the “any” month limit. No action was taken by the NYMEX and USO did not have to reduce the number of positions held.

Position limits differ from accountability levels in that they represent fixed limits on the maximum number of futures contracts that any person may hold and cannot allow such limits to be exceeded without express CFTC authority to do so. In addition to accountability levels and position limits that may apply at any time, the NYMEX and ICE Futures impose position limits on contracts held in the last few days of trading in the near month contract to expire. For the six months ended June 30, 2022, USO did not exceed any position limits imposed by the NYMEX and ICE Futures. The foregoing accountability levels and position limits are subject to change. Due to evolving market conditions, remaining within relevant accountability levels and position limits, and, any additional or different risk mitigation measures taken by USO’s FCMs in the future with respect to USO acquiring additional Oil Futures contracts, USO has invested and intends to invest in other permitted investments, beyond the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract.

Commencing with the monthly roll that occurred in May 2020, USO’s positions in Oil Futures Contracts and Other Oil Related Investments roll over a ten-day period, whereas previously USO’s positions would roll over a four-day period. As of May 1, 2020, the type and percentages of investments to be held by USO at the end of the monthly roll period as well as for any rebalances are published on its website www.uscfinvestments.com.

Federal Position Limits

In October 2020, the CFTC adopted a rule to establish federal position limits for 25 core referenced futures contracts (comprised of agricultural, energy and metals futures contracts), futures and options linked to the core referenced futures contracts, and swaps that are economically equivalent to the core referenced futures contracts (the “Position Limits Rule”). The limits for futures contracts are currently in effect; the limits for economically equivalent swaps will become effective in 2023.

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The Benchmark Oil Futures Contract is subject to position limits under the Position Limits Rule, and USO’s trading does not qualify for an exemption therefrom. Accordingly, the Position Limits Rule could negatively impact the ability of USO to meet its investment objective by inhibiting USCF’s ability to effectively invest the proceeds from sales of Creation Baskets of USO in particular amounts and types of its permitted investments.

Mandatory Trading and Clearing of Swaps

CFTC regulations require that certain swap transactions be executed on organized exchanges or “swap execution facilities” and cleared through regulated clearing organizations (“derivative clearing organizations” (“DCOs”)), if the CFTC mandates the central clearing of a particular class of swap and such swap is “made available to trade” on a swap execution facility. Currently, swap dealers, major swap participants, commodity pools, certain private funds and entities predominantly engaged in activities that are financial in nature are required to execute on a swap execution facility, and clear, certain interest rate swaps and index-based credit default swaps. As a result, if USO enters into an interest rate or index-based credit default swap that is subject to these requirements, such swap will be required to be executed on a swap execution facility and centrally cleared. Mandatory clearing and “made available to trade” determinations with respect to additional types of swaps may be issued in the future, and, when finalized, could require USO to electronically execute and centrally clear certain OTC instruments presently entered into and settled on a bi-lateral basis. If a swap is required to be cleared, initial and variation margin requirements are set by the relevant clearing organization, subject to certain regulatory requirements and guidelines. Additional margin may be required and held by USO’s FCMs.

Margin for OTC Swaps

Rules put in place by U.S. federal banking regulators, the CFTC and the SEC require the daily exchange of variation margin and initial margin for swaps between swap dealers, major swap participants, security-based swap dealers, and major security-based swap participants (“Swap Entities”) and swaps between Swap Entities and their counterparties that are “financial end-users” (such rules, the “Margin Rules”). The Margin Rules require Swap Entities to exchange variation margin with all of their counterparties who are financial end-users. The minimum variation margin amount is the daily mark-to-market change in the value of the swap, taking into account the amount of variation margin previously posted or collected. Swap Entities are required to exchange initial margin with their financial end-users who have “material swaps exposure” (i.e., an average daily aggregate notional of $8 billion or more in non-cleared swaps calculated in accordance with the Margin Rules). The Margin Rules specify the types of collateral that may be posted or collected as initial margin or variation margin (generally cash, certain government, government-sponsored enterprise securities, certain liquid debt, certain equity securities, certain eligible publicly traded debt, and gold) and sets forth haircuts for certain collateral asset classes.

USO is not a Swap Entity under the Margin Rules, but it is a financial end-user. Accordingly, USO will be subject to the variation margin requirements of the Margin Rules for any swaps that it enters into. However, USO does not have material swaps exposure and, accordingly, USO will not be subject to the initial margin requirements of the Margin Rules.

Other Requirements for Swaps

In addition to the margin requirements described above, swaps that are not required to be cleared and executed on a SEF but that are executed bilaterally are also subject to various requirements pursuant to CFTC regulations, including, among other things, reporting and recordkeeping requirements and, depending on the status of the counterparties, trading documentation requirements and dispute resolution requirements.

Derivatives Regulations in Non-U.S. Jurisdictions

In addition to U.S. laws and regulations, USO may be subject to non-U.S. derivatives laws and regulations if it engages in futures and/or swap transactions with non-U.S. persons. For example, USO may be impacted by European laws and regulations to the extent that it engages in futures transactions on European exchanges or derivatives transactions with European entities. Other jurisdictions impose requirements applicable to futures and derivatives that are similar to those imposed by the U.S., including position limits, margin, clearing and trade execution requirements.

The CFTC is generally prohibited by statute from regulating trading on non-U.S. futures exchanges and markets. The CFTC, however, has adopted regulations relating to the marketing of non-U.S. futures contracts in the United States. These regulations permit certain contracts on non-U.S. exchanges to be offered and sold in the United States.

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In a rising rate environment, USO may not be able to fully invest at prevailing rates until any current investments in Treasury Bills mature in order to avoid selling those investments at a loss.

When interest rates rise, the value of fixed income securities typically falls. In a rising interest rate environment, USO may not be able to fully invest at prevailing rates until any current investments in Treasury Bills mature in order to avoid selling those investments at a loss. Interest rate risk is generally lower for shorter term investments and higher for longer term investments. The risk to USO of rising interest rates may be greater in the future due to the end of a long period of historically low rates, the effect of potential monetary policy initiatives, including actions taken by the U.S. Federal Reserve and other foreign equivalents to curb inflation, and resulting market reaction to those initiatives. When interest rates fall, USO may be required to reinvest the proceeds from the sale, redemption or early prepayment of a Treasury Bill or money market security at a lower interest rate.

USO may lose money by investing in government money market funds.

USO invests in government money market funds. Although such government money market funds seek to preserve the value of an investment at $1.00 per share, there is no guarantee that they will be able to do so and USO may lose money by investing in a government money market fund. An investment in a government money market fund is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, referred to herein as the FDIC, or any other government agency. The share price of a government money market fund can fall below the $1.00 share price. USO cannot rely on or expect a government money market fund’s adviser or its affiliates to enter into support agreements or take other actions to maintain the government money market fund’s $1.00 share price. The credit quality of a government money market fund’s holdings can change rapidly in certain markets, and the default of a single holding could have an adverse impact on the government money market fund’s share price. Due to fluctuations in interest rates, the market value of securities held by a government money market fund may vary. A government money market fund’s share price can also be negatively affected during periods of high redemption pressures and/or illiquid markets.

Price Movements

Crude oil futures prices were volatile during the six months ended June 30, 2022. The price of the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract started the period at $75.21 per barrel. The high of the period was on March 8, 2022 when the price reached $121.68 per barrel. The low of the period was on December 31, 2021 when the price dropped to $75.21 per barrel. The period ended with the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract at $105.76 per barrel, an increase of approximately 40.62% over the period. USO’s per share NAV began the period at $54.18 and ended the period at $80.21 on June 30, 2022, an increase of approximately 48.04% over the period. The Benchmark Oil Futures Contract prices listed above began with the February 2022 contracts and ended with the August 2022 contracts. The increase of approximately 40.62% on the Benchmark Oil Futures Contract listed above is a hypothetical return only and would not actually be realized by an investor holding Oil Futures Contracts. An investment in Oil Futures Contracts would need to be rolled forward during the time period described in order to simulate such a result. Furthermore, the change in the nominal price of these differing Oil Futures Contracts, measured from the start of the year to the end of the year, does not represent the actual benchmark results that USO seeks to track, which are more fully described below in the section titled “Tracking USO’s Benchmark.”

During the six months ended June 30, 2022, the crude oil futures market alternated between conditions of contango and backwardation. On days when the market was in contango the price of the near month crude Oil Futures Contract was lower than the price of the next month crude Oil Futures Contract, or contracts further away from expiration. On days when the market was in backwardation, the price of the near month crude Oil Futures Contract was higher than the price of the next month crude Oil Futures Contract or contracts further away from expiration. For a discussion of the impact of backwardation and contango on total returns, see “Term Structure of Crude Oil Prices and the Impact on Total Returns” below.

Valuation of Oil Futures Contracts and the Computation of the Per Share NAV

The per share NAV of USO’s shares is calculated once each NYSE Arca trading day. The per share NAV for a particular trading day is released after 4:00 p.m. New York time. Trading during the core trading session on the NYSE Arca typically closes at 4:00 p.m. New York time. USO’s Administrator uses the settlement price determined by NYMEX at 2:30 p.m. Eastern time for the Oil Futures Contracts held on the NYMEX and the settlement price determined by ICE Futures at 2:30 p.m. Eastern time for the Oil Futures Contracts held on ICE Futures, but calculates or determines the value of all other USO investments, other futures contracts, as of the earlier of the close of the NYSE Arca or 4:00 p.m. New York time.

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Results of Operations and the Crude Oil Market

Results of Operations. On April 10, 2006, USO listed its shares on the AMEX under the ticker symbol “USO.” On that day, USO established its initial offering price at $67.39 per share and issued 200,000 shares to the initial Authorized Participant, KV Execution Services, LLC, in exchange for $13,479,000 in cash. As a result of the acquisition of the AMEX by NYSE Euronext, USO’s shares ceased trading on the AMEX and commenced trading on the NYSE Arca on November 25, 2008.

As of June 30, 2022, USO had issued 4,689,900,000 shares, 33,023,603 of which were outstanding. As of June 30, 2022, there were 937,100,000 shares registered but not yet issued. USO has registered 5,627,000,000 shares since inception. On April 28, 2020, after the close of trading on the NYSE Arca, USO effected a 1-for-8 reverse share split and post-split shares of USO began trading on April 29, 2020. As a result of the reverse share split, every eight pre-split shares of USO were automatically exchanged for one post-split share. Immediately prior to the reverse split, there were 1,482,900,000 shares of USO issued and outstanding, representing a per share NAV of $2.04. Immediately after the effect of the reverse share split, the number of issued and outstanding shares of USO decreased to 185,362,500, not accounting for fractional shares, and the per share NAV increased to $16.35. In connection with the reverse share split, the CUSIP number for USO’s shares changed to 91232N207. USO’s ticker symbol, “USO,” remained the same. The accompanying unaudited financial statements have been adjusted to reflect the effect of the reverse share split on a retroactive basis.

More shares may have been issued by USO than are outstanding due to the redemption of shares. Unlike funds that are registered under the 1940 Act, shares that have been redeemed by USO cannot be resold by USO. As a result, USO contemplates that additional offerings of its shares will be registered with the SEC in the future in anticipation of additional issuances and redemptions.

As of June 30, 2022, USO had the following Authorized Participants: ABN Amro, BNP Paribas Securities Corp., Citadel Securities LLC, Citigroup Global Markets Inc., Credit Suisse Securities USA LLC, Goldman Sachs & Company, JP Morgan Securities LLC, Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp., Morgan Stanley & Company Inc., RBC Capital Markets LLC, SG Americas Securities LLC, UBS Securities LLC and Virtu Financial BD LLC.

For the Six Months Ended June 30, 2022 Compared to the Six Months Ended June 30, 2021

Six months

Six months

 ended  

 ended

    

June 30, 2022

    

June 30, 2021

Average daily total net assets

$

2,920,437,582

$

3,255,866,404

Dividend and interest income earned on Treasuries, cash and/or cash equivalents

$

3,499,598

$

714,910

Annualized yield based on average daily total net assets

 

0.24

%

 

0.04

%

Management fee

$

6,516,976

$

7,265,487

Total fees and other expenses excluding management fees

$

1,976,538

$

5,947,751

Fees and expenses related to the registration or offering of additional shares

$

$

1,260,041

Total commissions accrued to brokers

$

414,909

$

655,585

Total commissions as annualized percentage of average total net assets

 

0.03

%

 

0.04

%

Commissions accrued as a result of rebalancing