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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 30, 2023

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from               to

Commission file number 1-31429

Valmont Industries, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

47-0351813

(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

15000 Valmont Plaza,

Omaha,

Nebraska

68154

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

(402) 963-1000

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $1.00 par value

VMI

New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Sections 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No

As of February 23, 2024, there were 20,216,385 of the Company’s common shares outstanding. The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the Company based on the closing sale price of the common shares as reported on the New York Stock Exchange as of July 1, 2023 was $5,766,436,565.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the Registrant’s proxy statement for its annual meeting of shareholders to be held on May 6, 2024 (the “Proxy Statement”), to be filed within 120 days of the fiscal year ended December 30, 2023, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

VALMONT INDUSTRIES, INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART I

Item 1

Business

2

Item 1A

Risk Factors

9

Item 1B

Unresolved Staff Comments

17

Item 1C

Cybersecurity

17

Item 2

Properties

17

Item 3

Legal Proceedings

18

Item 4

Mine Safety Disclosures

18

PART II

Item 5

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

19

Item 6

[Reserved]

20

Item 7

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

20

Item 7A

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

38

Item 8

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

39

Item 9

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

80

Item 9A

Controls and Procedures

80

Item 9B

Other Information

82

Item 9C

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

83

PART III

Item 10

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

84

Item 11

Executive Compensation

84

Item 12

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

84

Item 13

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

84

Item 14

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

84

PART IV

Item 15

Exhibit and Financial Statement Schedules

85

Item 16

Form 10-K Summary

87

Signatures

88

1

PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

Valmont Industries, Inc., along with its subsidiaries (collectively, the “Company”, “Valmont”, “we”, “us”, or “our”), is a diversified manufacturer of products and services for infrastructure and agriculture markets. We were founded in 1946, went public in 1968, and our shares trade on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “VMI”. We are headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska. Our purpose as a company is to conserve resources and improve life.

Segments

We have two reportable segments based on our management structure. Both reportable segments are global in nature with a manager responsible for operational performance and allocation of capital. Corporate expense is net of certain service-related expenses that are allocated to business units generally based on employee headcounts and sales dollars.

Customers and end-users of our Infrastructure products include utility and telecommunication companies, municipalities and government entities, manufacturers of commercial lighting fixtures, and contractors. Customers of our Agriculture segment are primarily dealers who resell mechanized irrigation equipment to their end-customer, the farmer. Both segments service the general manufacturing sector as well. In fiscal 2023, approximately 31% of our net sales were either sold in markets or produced by our manufacturing plants outside of North America.

Our reportable segments are as follows:

Infrastructure: This segment consists of the manufacture and distribution of products and solutions to serve the infrastructure markets of utility, solar, lighting, transportation, and telecommunications, along with coatings services to protect metal products.

Agriculture: This segment consists of the manufacture of center pivot components and linear irrigation equipment for agricultural markets, including parts and tubular products, and advanced technology solutions for precision agriculture.

In addition to these two reportable segments, we had a business and related activities that were not more than 10% of consolidated sales, operating income, or assets. These activities comprised the offshore wind energy structures business until its divestiture in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2022.

Information concerning the principal products produced and services rendered, markets, competition, and distribution methods for each of our two reportable segments is set forth below.

Infrastructure Segment

Products

Transmission, Distribution, and Substation (“TD&S”): We engineer and manufacture steel, pre-stressed concrete, and composite structures to support the lines and equipment that carry and transform power for electrical transmission, substation, and distribution applications for the utility industry. Transmission refers to moving high-voltage power from where it is produced to where it is used. Substations transform the electricity from the generation source so that it can be carried on the transmission lines. A substation is then required to transform the high-voltage electricity from the transmission lines to low voltage so it can be distributed to the end-user. These innovative structures are offered to meet the growing demand for reliable energy. These solutions also support grid hardening across the globe, where fires, storms, and floods are occurring with increasing regularity.

TD&S projects are often complex and include large structures, therefore product design engineering is important to the function and safety of these solutions. Our engineering process considers weather and loading conditions, such as wind speeds, ice loads, and power line requirements, to arrive at the final design.

Lighting and Transportation (“L&T”): We design, engineer, and manufacture steel, aluminum, wood, and composite poles and structures for a wide range of lighting and transportation applications. The demand for these products is driven by infrastructure, commercial, and residential construction and by consumers’ desire for

2

well-lit streets, highways, parking lots, and common areas. Beyond technical and engineering needs, customers also want product designs that are visually appealing and meet local aesthetic requirements.

Our traffic and sign structures contribute to the orderly flow of automobile traffic. These structures support traffic signals and overhead signs. They are engineered to meet customer specifications to ensure the proper function and safety of the structure. Product engineering considers factors such as weather (e.g., wind, ice) and the products loaded on the structure (e.g., lighting fixtures, traffic signals, overhead signs) to determine the design. We have expanded our capabilities in the traffic market with the development of patented vibration mitigation technology which continuously improves the safety of traffic and roadway structures by reducing the effects of wind and fatigue. Our L&T product line also includes highway safety system products that are designed and engineered to enhance roadway safety. These systems include guardrail barriers, wire rope safety barriers, crash attenuation barriers, and other products which primarily serve the Australian and Indian markets.

Coatings: We provide finishing services that inhibit corrosion, extend service lives, and enhance the aesthetics of a wide range of materials and products. With a variety of finish options, including galvanizing, anodizing, and painting, we can meet customer-specific requirements for a variety of applications. Hot-dip galvanizing is a process that protects and prolongs the life of steel with a zinc coating that is bonded to the product surface to inhibit rust and corrosion. CorroCote® adds protection to steel against the corrosive effects of soil and underground moisture for those products that are anchored below ground. Anodizing is a process applied to aluminum that oxidizes the surface of the aluminum in a controlled manner, which protects the aluminum from corrosion and allows the material to be dyed a variety of colors. We also paint products using powder coating for certain industries and markets.
Telecommunications: We engineer, manufacture, and distribute products including towers, small cell structures, camouflage concealment solutions, passive intermodulation (“PIM”) mitigation equipment, and components serving the wireless communication market. These solutions support expanded 5G requirements and the ever-growing demand for data. A wireless communication cell site mainly consists of a steel pole or tower, shelter (enclosure where the radio equipment is located), antennas (devices that receive and transmit data and voice information to and from wireless communication devices), and components (items that are used to mount antennas to a structure and to connect cabling and other parts from the antennas to the shelter). Small cell applications are utilized to enhance signal densification in urban environments and enhance the signal from the tower. Concealment solutions, such as faux trees, convert traditional telecommunication structures and camouflage them to fit seamlessly into the surrounding environment. PIM mitigation solutions are provided to solve issues with signal interference. Our telecommunication structures are engineered and designed to customer specifications, which include factors such as equipment and antenna requirements, wind and soil conditions, and aesthetic standards, all while ensuring that they meet safety specifications.
Solar: Our solar single-axis tracker product is an integrated system of steel structures, electric motors, and electronic controllers. Trackers move solar panels throughout the day to maintain an optimal orientation to the sun, which materially increases their energy production. Our trackers utilize a simple, modular design allowing ease of installation and low operational maintenance. Further, the flexibility of our trackers’ design allows for improved site utilization, which is especially valuable to our customers considering that solar projects are being constructed on increasingly challenging sites. We sell our products to engineering, procurement, and construction firms that build solar energy projects as well as solar developers, independent power producers, and utilities.

Markets

The key markets across the Infrastructure product lines have a portion of their funding supported through local, state, and federal government programs. Currently, the United States of America (“U.S.”) government is supporting infrastructure improvement through the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (“IIJA”) and the Inflation Reduction Act (“IRA”). These acts will allocate funding to reinforce the nation’s bridges, increase safety for the traveling public, update vital infrastructure, improve highway safety, and harden the electrical grid.

The utility industry in North America is a significant market for the Infrastructure segment. The key drivers are significant upgrades in the electrical grid to support enhanced reliability standards, policy changes encouraging more generation from renewable energy sources, and increased electrical consumption, which has outpaced transmission investment in the past decades. According to the Edison Electric Institute, the electrical transmission grid in the U.S. requires significant investment in the coming years to respond to compelling industry drivers and lack of investment prior to 2008.

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Electrical consumption is also expected to increase within international markets. This will require substantial investment in new electricity generation capacity and growth in transmission grid development. We expect these factors to result in increased demand for electrical utility structures to transport electricity from source to user, as is used in U.S. markets today.

We also serve the transportation, construction, and industrial markets. Many products from our transportation product portfolio will be utilized when making enhancements to traffic structures, bridge systems, roadway and street lighting, and high-mast lighting. A combination of state and federal funding, including the IIJA, supports transportation projects throughout the U.S. Public and private partnerships have also recently emerged as an additional funding source. In the U.S., there are approximately four million miles of public roadways, with approximately 24% carrying over 80% of the traffic. Accordingly, the need to improve traffic flow through traffic controls and lighting is a priority for many communities. The commercial construction market is mostly privately funded and includes lighting for applications such as parking lots, shopping centers, sports stadiums, and business parks. This market is driven by macroeconomic factors such as general economic growth rates, interest rates, and the commercial construction economy. We have many long-standing relationships with lighting and equipment manufacturers who also serve this market. Industrial markets are typically driven by infrastructure, industrial, and commercial construction spending.

Markets for our Coatings products are varied and our profitability is not substantially dependent on any one industry or external customer. However, a meaningful percentage of demand is internal, driven by our other product lines and their market demand. Demand for coatings services generally follows the local industrial economies. Galvanizing is used in a wide variety of industrial applications where corrosion protection of steel is desired. While markets are varied, our markets for anodized or painted products are more directly dependent on consumer markets than industrial markets.

The market for our Telecommunications products is driven by demand for wireless communication and data. Our customers are wireless network providers and companies that own and maintain cell sites. We also sell products to state and federal governments for two-way radio communication, radar, broadcasting, and security applications. We believe long-term growth should mainly be driven by increased data usage and technologies such as 5G, which demands higher network density. Improved emergency response systems, as part of U.S. Department of Homeland Security initiatives, create additional demand.

The solar market is driven by the transition to clean energy sources globally and incentives for renewable energy investment. As utilities increase the development of large-scale solar power and micro-grid applications, single-axis solar tracker solutions will be an essential tool for achieving higher energy production.

Competition

Our competitive strategy is to provide high-value solutions to the customer at the appropriate price. We compete based on product quality, engineering expertise, high levels of customer service, and timely, complete, and accurate delivery of the product. We leverage the production capacity at our network of plants to ensure that the customer receives quality and timely service. There are numerous competitors in North America as well as in international markets. Pricing can be very competitive, especially when demand is weak or when strong local currencies result in increased competition from imported products. Infrastructure sales are often made through a competitive bid process, whereby the lowest bidder is awarded the contract, provided the bidder meets all other qualifying criteria. We also sell on a preferred-provider basis to certain large customers. These contractual arrangements often last between three and five years and are frequently renewed.

The Coatings product line markets have traditionally been very fragmented with a large number of competitors. Most of these competitors are relatively small, privately held companies that compete based on price and personal relationships with their customers. Our strategy is to compete based on the quality of the coating finish and timely delivery of the coated product to the customer.

The Solar product line offers solutions that are specific to the solar industry. We primarily compete with other mid-sized market participants and differentiate ourselves based on the quality of service and ability to combine offerings from the TD&S product line to provide full-grid solutions.

Distribution Methods

Infrastructure sales and distribution activities are handled through a combination of a direct sales force and commissioned agents. Working with end-users and distributors, our sales force represents Valmont as well as light fixture and traffic-signal manufacturers. This enables our agents to provide the pole, fixtures, and other equipment to the end-user as a complete package. Commercial lighting, wireless communication products and components, access systems, and highway

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safety sales are normally made through our sales employees, although some sales are made through independent commissioned sales agents. Our TD&S and Solar products are normally sold directly to electrical utilities, developers, or energy providers with some sales sold through commissioned sales agents.

Due to freight costs, a galvanizing location has an effective service area of an approximate 300-to-500-mile radius. While we believe that we are globally one of the largest custom galvanizers, our sales are a small percentage of the total market. Sales and customer service are provided directly to the user by a direct sales force, generally assigned to each specific location.

Agriculture Segment

Products

Irrigation Equipment and Parts: We manufacture and distribute mechanical irrigation equipment and related service parts under the Valley® brand name. A Valley® irrigation machine is powered by electricity (via a grid, solar, or diesel generator), propels itself over a farm field, and applies water and chemicals to crops. Water and chemicals are applied through sprinklers attached to a pipeline that is supported by a series of towers, each of which is propelled via a drivetrain and tires. A standard mechanized irrigation machine (also known as a center pivot) rotates in a circle, although we also manufacture and distribute center pivot extensions that can irrigate corners of square and rectangular farm fields as well as conform to irregular field boundaries (referred to as a corner machine). Our irrigation machines can also irrigate fields by moving up and down the field as opposed to rotating in a circle (referred to as a linear machine). Irrigation machines can be configured to irrigate fields in sizes from four acres to over 500 acres, with a standard size in the U.S. configured for a 160-acre tract of ground. The irrigation machine used in international markets is substantially the same as the one produced for the North American market. We also manufacture tubular products for industrial customers primarily in the agriculture industry as well as in transportation and other industries.
Technology Products and Services: Through over 100,000 connected devices, Valley® has paired sustainable infrastructure with technology to help growers see crop production issues before they become problems. Our suite of advanced technology solutions offers capabilities to assist in reducing water and energy use as the center pivot is the only infrastructure on the farm that is continually in the field every day of the year. During fiscal 2021, we purchased Prospera Technologies, Ltd., a leading global artificial intelligence and machine learning provider of advanced agronomy monitoring solutions. Our crop anomaly detection can alert growers of pivot-related water issues with artificial intelligence and machine learning (in select markets) to help farmers determine where and how much to irrigate.

Markets

Market drivers in North American and international markets are essentially the same. Since the purchase of an irrigation machine is a capital expenditure, the purchase decision is based on the expected return on investment. The benefits a grower may realize through investment in mechanical irrigation include improved yields through better irrigation, cost savings through reduced labor, and lower water and energy usage. The purchase decision is also affected by current and expected net farm income, commodity prices, interest rates, the status of government support programs, and water regulations in local areas. In many international markets, the relative strength or weakness of local currencies as compared with the U.S. dollar may affect net farm income, as export markets are generally denominated in U.S. dollars. In addition, governments are sponsoring irrigation projects for self-sufficiency in food production to help alleviate food security concerns.

The demand for mechanized irrigation comes from the following sources:

conversion from flood irrigation;
replacement of existing mechanized irrigation machines; and
converting land that is not irrigated to mechanized irrigation.

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One of the key drivers in our Agriculture segment worldwide is that the usable water supply is limited. We estimate that:

only 2.5% of the total worldwide water supply is freshwater;
of that 2.5%, only 30% of freshwater is available to humans; and
the largest user of that freshwater is agriculture.

We believe these factors, along with the trends of a growing worldwide population, improving diets, and governments’ efforts to address food security, reflect the need to use water more efficiently while increasing food production to feed the growing population. We believe that mechanized irrigation can improve water application efficiency by 40% to 90% compared with traditional irrigation methods by applying water uniformly near the root zone and reducing water runoff. Furthermore, reduced water runoff improves water quality in nearby rivers, aquifers, and streams, thereby providing environmental benefits in addition to the conservation of water.

Competition

In North America, there are a number of entities that provide irrigation products and services to agricultural customers. We believe we are the leader of the four main participants in the mechanized irrigation business. Participants compete for sales based on product durability and reliability, price, quality, and service capabilities of the local dealer. We continue to innovate and expand our technology offerings as growers continue to seek more solutions to increase their crop yields. Pricing can become very competitive, especially in periods when market demand is low. In international markets, our competitors are a combination of our major U.S. competitors and privately owned local companies. Competitive factors are similar to those in North America, although pricing tends to be a more prevalent competitive strategy in international markets. Since competition in international markets is local, we believe local manufacturing capability is important to competing effectively in international markets and we have that capability in key regions.

Distribution Methods

We market our irrigation machines, technology offerings, and service parts through independent dealers. There are approximately 250 dealer locations in North America, with another approximately 400 dealers serving international markets in over 60 countries. The dealer determines the grower’s requirements, designs the configuration of the machine, installs the machine (including providing ancillary products that deliver water and electrical power to the machine), and provides after‑sales service. Our dealer network is supported and trained by our technical and sales teams. Our international dealers are supported through our regional operations in South America, South Africa, Western Europe, Australia, China, and the United Arab Emirates, as well as our manufacturing facility in Valley, Nebraska.

General

Certain information generally applicable to our two reportable segments is set forth below.

Business Strategy

Our strategy is to pursue growth opportunities that leverage our existing product portfolio, knowledge of our principal end-markets and customers, and engineering capabilities to increase our sales, earnings, and cash flow, including:

Increasing the Market Penetration of Our Existing Products: Our strategy is to increase our market penetration by differentiating our products from our competitors through superior customer service, engineering proficiency, technological innovation, and consistent high quality. Our Agriculture segment experienced international sales growth in fiscal 2023 which we believe was partially due to the continuing importance of our precision agriculture and technology offerings.

Bringing Our Existing Products to New Markets: Our strategy is to expand the sales of our existing products into geographic areas where there is market opportunity, where we do not currently serve, and where end-users do not currently purchase our type of products. For example, we have a manufacturing presence in Poland and India to expand our offering of structures for L&T, TD&S, and Telecommunications to these markets and we have expanded our manufacturing presence in the United Arab Emirates to serve growing Middle East markets. Our Agriculture segment has a long history of developing new emerging markets for mechanized irrigation around the world. For example, in January 2023, we secured an approximately $85.0 million multi-year agreement for projects in Africa.

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Developing New Products for Markets That We Currently Serve: Our strategy is to grow by developing new products for markets using our comprehensive understanding of end-user requirements and leveraging longstanding relationships with key distributors and end-users. In recent years, in North America, we developed and sold structures for spun concrete distribution poles and steel bridge girders. Additionally, we began offering concealment solutions for the wireless communication markets.

Developing New Products for New Markets or Leveraging Core Competencies to Further Diversify Our Business Is a Path to Increase Sales: For example, the establishment and growth of our Coatings product line was based on using our expertise in galvanizing to develop what is now a global product line. We have grown sales through expanding our presence in the decorative lighting market, which has different requirements and preferences than our traditional transportation and commercial markets. Acquisitions are a key component of our strategy to expand the markets we serve through new products and services. In fiscal 2023, we acquired HR Products, a leading wholesale supplier of irrigation parts in Australia, expanding our geographic footprint and growing our parts presence in a key agriculture market. In fiscal 2022, we acquired a majority interest in ConcealFab, a 5G infrastructure and passive intermodulation mitigation solutions company, expanding our portfolio of telecommunications products that support 5G technology.

Acquisitions

We have grown organically and by acquisition. Our significant business acquisitions during the past two fiscal years include the following (including the segment in which the business reports):

2023

Acquisition of HR Products, a leading wholesale supplier of irrigation parts in Australia (Agriculture)

2022

Acquisition of 51% of ConcealFab, a 5G infrastructure and PIM mitigation solutions company in Colorado (Infrastructure)
Acquisition of the remaining 9% not previously owned of Convert Italia S.p.A. (Infrastructure)
Acquisition of the remaining 20% not previously owned of Valmont West Coast Engineering, Ltd. (Infrastructure)

Divestitures

Our business divestitures during the past two fiscal years include the following (including the segment in which the business reported):

2023

Divestiture of Torrent Engineering and Equipment, an integrator of prepackaged pump stations in Indiana (Agriculture)

2022

Divestiture of Valmont SM, an offshore wind energy structures business in Denmark (Other)

Suppliers and Availability of Raw Materials

Hot rolled steel coil and plate, zinc, and other carbon steel products are the primary raw materials utilized in the manufacture of finished products for all segments. We purchase these essential items from steel mills, steel service centers, and zinc producers where these materials are usually readily available. While we may experience increased lead times to acquire materials and volatility in our purchase costs, we do not believe that key raw materials would be unavailable for extended periods. We have not experienced extended or widespread shortages of steel in the past several years, due to what we believe are strong relationships with some of the major steel producers. In the past several years, we experienced volatility in steel, zinc, and natural gas prices, but we did not experience any disruptions to our operations due to availability.

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Patents, Licenses, Franchises, and Concessions

We have a number of patents for our manufacturing machinery, structures, solar trackers, highway guardrails, and irrigation designs. We also have a number of registered trademarks. We do not believe the loss of any individual patent or trademark would have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity.

Seasonal Factors in Business

Sales can be somewhat seasonal based on the agricultural growing season and the infrastructure construction season. Sales of mechanized irrigation equipment to farmers are traditionally higher during the spring and fall and lower in the summer. Sales of infrastructure products are traditionally higher in the summer and fall and lower in the winter.

Customers

We are not dependent upon a single customer or upon very few customers for a material part of any segment’s business. The loss of any one customer would not have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity.

Backlog

As of December 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, the backlog of orders for our principal products manufactured and marketed was $1,465.5 million and $1,656.4 million, respectively. An order is reported in our backlog upon receipt of a purchase order from the customer or execution of a sales order contract. We anticipate that most of the fiscal 2023 backlog of orders will be filled during fiscal 2024. The total backlog by segment as of December 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 was as follows:

    

December 30,

December 31,

Dollars in millions

2023

    

2022

Infrastructure

$

1,299.6

$

1,339.1

Agriculture

 

165.9

 

317.3

Total backlog

$

1,465.5

$

1,656.4

Environmental Protection

We are subject to various federal, state, and local laws and regulations pertaining to environmental protection and the discharge of materials into the environment. Although we continually incur expenses and make capital expenditures related to environmental protection, we do not anticipate that future expenditures will materially impact our financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity.

Number of Employees

As of December 30, 2023, we had 11,125 employees.

Human Capital Resources

Our policies and practices with respect to human capital resources are generally set forth in our Code of Business Conduct, our Human Rights Policy, and the principles described on our website at www.valmont.com. Essential to our success is a company-wide commitment to customer service and innovation and the ability to provide the best value to our customers for our products and services. Our employees are the cornerstone of our accomplishments, and we pride ourselves on being people of passion and integrity who excel and deliver results. Our Code of Business Conduct and our culture require each employee to act responsibly and to treat each other fairly and with the utmost respect.

Our businesses require skilled workers and management in order to meet our customers’ needs, grow our sales, and maintain competitive advantages. We require employees with skills in engineering, welding, equipment maintenance, and the operation of complex manufacturing machinery. Management talent is critical, as well, to help grow our businesses and effectively plan for the succession of key employees upon retirement.

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As of December 30, 2023, we had 6,356 employees in the U.S. and 4,769 employees in countries outside the U.S. We place a high value on diversity and inclusion, seeking employees with diverse backgrounds and experiences who share a common interest in profitable development, improving corporate culture, and delivering sustainable business results.

We have adopted a Human Rights Policy which is published on our website. We expect our employees, suppliers, vendors, dealers, and distributors to share our commitment to human rights. We prohibit discrimination based on age, race, disability, ethnicity, marital or family status, national origin, religion, gender, sexual orientation, veteran status, gender identity, or any other characteristic protected by law.

We are committed to voluntary employment, and we strictly prohibit all forms of compulsory labor, including child labor, forced labor, slavery, and human trafficking. We respect internally recognized human rights standards, and this policy is guided by the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights.

We require full compliance with applicable wage, work hours, overtime, and benefits laws. We are committed to creating a culture where a healthy and safe workplace is recognized by everyone as essential to our success. Any employee can always contact our compliance officer, and confidential reporting of a situation or the ability to ask a question is available on a secure website maintained by a third party. Employees are eligible for health insurance, paid and unpaid leaves, retirement plans, and life, disability, and accident coverage.

When positions come open at Valmont, we try first to fill them from within. We like to reward the hard-working members of our Valmont community with new opportunities that are not only a chance to expand their worlds but to also recognize and reward their dedication. We have found them to be our richest talent resource.

Our program for succession and management development has our highest level of attention with our Chief Executive Officer (“CEO”) responsible for reporting on the program directly to our Board of Directors.

For additional information, please see the “Governance” and “Sustainability” pages on our website and the section titled “Governance, Human Capital and Sustainability Highlights” in our 2024 Proxy Statement.

Available Information

We make available, free of charge on the “Investors” page of our website at www.valmont.com, our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). Additionally, we use our website, through the “Investors” page, as a channel for routine distribution of important information, including news releases, analyst presentations, and financial information. The information on our website is not, and will not be deemed to be, a part of this annual report on Form 10-K or incorporated into any of our other filings with the SEC.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

The following risk factors describe various risks that may affect our business, financial condition, and operations.

Economic and Business Risks

The ultimate consumers of our products operate in cyclical industries that have been subject to significant downturns which have adversely impacted our sales in the past and may again in the future.

Our sales are sensitive to the market conditions present in the industries in which the ultimate consumers of our products operate, which in some cases have been highly cyclical and subject to substantial downturns. For example, a significant portion of our sales of support structures is to the electric utility industry. Our sales to the U.S. electric utility industry were over $1.0 billion in fiscal 2023. Purchases of our products are deferrable to the extent that utilities may reduce capital expenditures for reasons such as unfavorable regulatory environments, a slow U.S. economy, or financing constraints. In the event of weakness in the demand for utility structures due to reduced or delayed spending for electrical generation and transmission projects, our sales and operating income likely will decrease.

The end-users of our mechanized irrigation equipment are farmers. Accordingly, economic changes within the agriculture industry, particularly the level of farm income, may affect sales of these products. From time to time, lower levels of farm income resulted in reduced demand for our mechanized irrigation and tubing products. Farm income decreases when

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commodity prices, acreage planted, crop yields, government subsidies, and export levels decrease. In addition, weather conditions, which may be exacerbated by climate change, such as extreme drought, may result in reduced availability of water for irrigation and can affect farmers’ buying decisions. Farm income can also decrease as farmers’ operating costs increase. Increases in oil and natural gas prices result in higher costs of energy and nitrogen‑based fertilizer (which uses natural gas as a major ingredient).

Furthermore, uncertainty as to future government agricultural policies may cause indecision on the part of farmers. The status and trend of government farm supports, financing aids, and policies regarding the ability to use water for agricultural irrigation can affect the demand for our irrigation equipment. In the U.S., certain parts of the country are considering policies that would restrict usage of water for irrigation. All of these factors may cause farmers to delay capital expenditures for farm equipment. Consequently, downturns in the agricultural industry will likely result in a slower, and possibly a negative, rate of growth in irrigation equipment and tubing sales. In February 2024, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (“USDA”) forecasted U.S. 2024 net farm income to be $116.1 billion, a decrease of $39.8 billion (or -25.5%), relative to 2023. The decrease was primarily related to a decrease in cash receipts from crops and livestock, in addition to a decrease in direct government support payments and higher production expenses. With this projected decline, net farm income in 2024 would be 1.7% below its 20-year average.

We have also experienced cyclical demand for those of our products that we sell to the wireless communications industry. Sales of wireless structures and components to wireless carriers and build-to-suit companies that serve the wireless communications industry have historically been cyclical. These customers may elect to curtail spending on new capacity to focus on cash flow and capital management. Changes in the competitive structure of the wireless industry, due to industry consolidation or reorganization, may interrupt capital plans of the wireless carriers as they assess their networks.

Due to the cyclical nature of these markets, we have experienced, and in the future we may experience, significant fluctuations in our sales and operating income with respect to a substantial portion of our total product offering, and such fluctuations could be material and adverse to our overall financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity.

Changes in prices and reduced availability of key commodities such as steel, aluminum, zinc, natural gas, and fuel may increase our operating costs and likely reduce our net sales and profitability.

Hot rolled steel coil and other carbon steel products have historically constituted approximately one-third of the cost of manufacturing our products. We also use large quantities of aluminum for lighting structures and zinc for the galvanization of most of our steel products. Our facilities use large quantities of natural gas for heating and processing tanks in our galvanizing operations. We use gasoline and diesel fuel to transport raw materials to our locations and to deliver finished goods to our customers. The markets for these commodities can be volatile. The following factors increase the cost and reduce the availability of these commodities:

increased demand, which occurs when we and other industries require greater quantities of these commodities, which can result in higher prices and lengthen the time it takes to receive these commodities from suppliers;
lower production levels of these commodities, due to reduced production capacities or shortages of materials needed to produce these commodities (such as coke and scrap steel for the production of steel) which could result in reduced supplies of these commodities, higher costs for us, and increased lead times;
increased cost of major inputs, such as scrap steel, coke, iron ore, and energy;
fluctuations in foreign exchange rates can impact the relative cost of these commodities, which may affect the cost effectiveness of imported materials and limit our options in acquiring these commodities; and
international trade disputes, import duties, tariffs, and quotas since we import some steel and aluminum finished components and products for various product lines.

Increases in the selling prices of our products may not fully recover higher commodity costs and generally lag increases in our costs of these commodities. Consequently, an increase in these commodities will increase our operating costs and likely reduce our profitability.

Rising steel prices, as seen for example in the first half of fiscal 2021 and the first quarter of fiscal 2023, can put pressure on gross profit margins, especially in our Infrastructure segment product lines. The elapsed time between the release of a customer’s purchase order and the manufacturing of the product ordered can be several months. As some of the sales in the Infrastructure segment are fixed-price contracts, rapid increases in steel costs likely will result in lower operating income. Steel prices for both hot rolled coil and plate can also decrease substantially in a given period, which occurred, for example,

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in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2021 and through much of fiscal 2022. Steel is most significant for our TD&S product line where the cost of steel has been approximately 50% of the net sales, on average. Assuming a similar sales mix, a hypothetical 20% change in the price of steel would have affected our net sales in this product line by approximately $100.0 million for the fiscal year ended December 30, 2023.

We believe the volatility over the past several years was due to significant increases in global steel production and rapid changes in consumption (especially in rapidly growing economies, such as China and India). The speed with which steel suppliers impose price increases on us may prevent us from fully recovering these price increases particularly in our lighting, traffic, and utility businesses. In the same respect, rapid decreases in the price of steel can also result in reduced operating margins in our utility businesses due to the long production lead times.

Demand for our infrastructure products including coating services is highly dependent upon the overall level of infrastructure spending.

We manufacture and distribute engineered infrastructure products for lighting and traffic, utility, and other specialty applications. Our Coatings product line serves many construction‑related industries. Because these products are used primarily in infrastructure construction, sales in these businesses are highly correlated with the level of construction activity, which historically has been cyclical. Construction activity by our private and government customers is affected by, and can decline because of, a number of factors, including, but not limited to:

weakness in the general economy, which may negatively affect tax revenues, resulting in reduced funds available for construction;
interest rate increases, which increase the cost of construction financing; and
adverse weather conditions, which slow construction activity.

The current economic uncertainty in the U.S. and Europe will have some negative effects on our business. In our L&T product line, some of our lighting structure sales are for new residential and commercial areas. When residential and commercial construction is weak, we have experienced some negative impact on our light pole sales to these markets. In a broader sense, in the event of an overall downturn in the economies in Europe, Australia, or China, we may experience decreased demand if our customers in these countries have difficulty securing credit for their purchases from us.

In addition, sales in our Infrastructure segment, particularly our lighting, transportation, and highway safety products, are highly dependent upon federal, state, local, and foreign government spending on infrastructure development projects. U.S. federal funding initiatives, such as the IIJA and the IRA, support multi-year demand for our infrastructure products, although the timing and amount of funding appropriations from these initiatives can be difficult to predict. The level of spending on such projects may decline for a number of reasons beyond our control, including, among other things, budgetary constraints affecting government spending generally or transportation agencies in particular, decreases in tax revenues, and changes in the political climate, including legislative delays, with respect to infrastructure appropriations.

We are subject to currency fluctuations from our international sales, which can negatively impact our reported earnings.

We sell our products in many countries around the world. Approximately 31% of our fiscal 2023 sales were in markets outside the U.S. and are often made in foreign currencies, mainly the Australian dollar, Brazilian real, Canadian dollar, Chinese renminbi, and Euro. Because our Consolidated Financial Statements are denominated in U.S. dollars, fluctuations in exchange rates between the U.S. dollar and other currencies have had and will continue to have an impact on our reported earnings. If the U.S. dollar weakens or strengthens versus the foreign currencies mentioned above, the result will be an increase or decrease in our reported sales and earnings, respectively. Currency fluctuations have affected our financial performance in the past and may affect our financial performance in any given period. In cases where local currencies are strong, the relative cost of goods imported from outside our country of operation becomes lower and affects our ability to compete profitably in our home markets.

We also face risks arising from the imposition of foreign exchange controls and currency devaluations. Exchange controls may limit our ability to convert foreign currencies into U.S. dollars or to remit dividends and other payments by our foreign subsidiaries or businesses located in or conducted within a country imposing controls. Currency devaluations result in a diminished value of funds denominated in the currency of the country instituting the devaluation. Actions of this nature could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition in any given period.

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In addition to the discussion above of economic and business risks, please see our further discussion on interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates, and commodity prices included in “Market Risk” within “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 in this report.

Legal and Regulatory Risks

We may lose some of our foreign investment or our foreign sales and profits may decline because of risks of doing business in foreign markets, including trade relations and tariffs.

We are an international manufacturing company with operations around the world. As of December 30, 2023, we operated over 80 manufacturing plants located on six continents and sold our products in more than 100 countries. In fiscal 2023, approximately 31% of our net sales were either sold in markets or produced by our manufacturing plants outside of North America (primarily the U.S., Canada, and Mexico). We have operations in geographic markets that have recently experienced political instability, such as the Middle East, and economic uncertainty, such as Western Europe. Our geographic diversity also requires that we hire, train, and retain competent management for our various local markets, which not only impacts our operational results but also our managing and reporting functions.

Demand for our products and our profitability are affected by trade relations between countries. We have a significant manufacturing presence in Australia, Brazil, Europe, and China. These operations are affected by U.S. trade policies, such as additional tariffs on a broad range of imports and retaliatory actions by foreign countries, most recently China, which have impacted sales of our products. In addition, there can be a derived indirect impact on demand for our products arising from quotas, restrictions, and retaliatory tariffs (e.g., China tariffs on imported soybeans affect U.S. net farm income).

We expect that international sales will continue to account for a significant percentage of our net sales in the future. Accordingly, our foreign business operations and our foreign sales and profits are subject to the following potential risks:

political and economic instability, resulting in the reduction of the value of, or the loss of, our investment;
recessions in economies of countries in which we have business operations, decreasing our international sales;
natural disasters and public health issues in our geographic markets, negatively impacting our workforce, manufacturing capability, and sales;
difficulties and costs of staffing and managing our foreign operations, increasing our foreign operating costs and decreasing profits, with additional risk to our managing and reporting functions;
potential violation of local laws or unsanctioned management actions that could affect our profitability or ability to compete in certain markets;
difficulties in enforcing our rights outside the U.S. for patents on our manufacturing machinery, poles, and irrigation designs;
increases in tariffs, export controls, taxes, and other trade barriers reducing our international sales and our profit on these sales; and
acts of war or terrorism.

As a result, we may lose some of our foreign investment, or our foreign sales and profits may be materially reduced, because of risks of doing business in foreign markets.

Failure to comply with any applicable anti-corruption legislation could result in fines, criminal penalties, and an adverse effect on our business.

We must comply with all applicable laws, which include the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the United Kingdom (“U.K.”) Bribery Act, and other anti-corruption laws. These anti-corruption laws generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments or providing anything of value to improperly influence government officials or private individuals for the purpose of obtaining or retaining a business advantage regardless of whether those practices are legal or culturally expected in a particular jurisdiction. Recently, there has been a substantial increase in the global enforcement of anti-corruption laws. Although we have a compliance program in place designed to reduce the likelihood of potential violations of such laws, violations of these laws could result in criminal or civil sanctions and an adverse effect on our reputation, business, and results of operations and financial condition.

12

We could incur substantial costs as the result of violations of, or liabilities under, environmental laws.

Our facilities and operations are subject to U.S. and foreign laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment, including those governing the discharge of pollutants into the air and water, the management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes, and the cleanup of contamination. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations, or with the permits required for our operations, could result in fines or civil or criminal sanctions, third-party claims for property damage or personal injury, and investigation and cleanup costs. Potentially significant expenditures could be required in order to comply with environmental laws that regulators may adopt or impose in the future.

Certain of our facilities have been in operation for many years and, over time, we and other predecessor operators of these facilities have generated, used, handled, and disposed of hazardous and other regulated wastes. We detected contaminants at some of our present and former sites, principally in connection with historical operations. In addition, from time to time, we have been named as a potentially responsible party under Superfund or similar state laws. While we are not aware of any contaminated sites that are not provided for in our Consolidated Financial Statements, including third‑party sites, at which we may have material obligations, the discovery of additional contaminants or the imposition of additional cleanup obligations at these sites could result in significant liability beyond amounts provided for in our Consolidated Financial Statements.

Failure to successfully commercialize or protect our intellectual property rights may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.

The successful commercialization and protection of our current and future patents, trademarks, trade secrets, copyrights, unpatented proprietary processes, methods, and other technologies are critical to our business and competitive position. We rely on our business expertise to commercialize these intellectual property rights. We rely on patents, trademarks, trade secrets, copyrights, and contractual restrictions to protect our intellectual property rights. We may fail to apply the appropriate business expertise to successfully commercialize an intellectual property right, particularly with respect to new and developing technologies. Our intellectual property rights protections could be challenged, invalidated, circumvented, or rendered unenforceable. Third parties may infringe or misappropriate our intellectual property rights. We may incur substantial unrecoverable litigation costs in seeking to protect our intellectual property rights. Failure to successfully commercialize or protect our intellectual property rights may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.

We have been and may be subject to or involved in litigation or threatened litigation, the outcome of which may be difficult to predict, and which may be costly to defend, divert management attention, require us to pay damages, or restrict the operation of our business.

From time to time, we have been and may be subject to disputes and litigation, with and without merit, which may be costly, and which may divert the attention of our management and our resources in general, whether or not any dispute actually proceeds to litigation. The results of complex legal proceedings are difficult to predict. Moreover, complaints filed against us may not specify the amount of damages that plaintiffs seek, and we therefore may be unable to estimate the possible range of damages that might be incurred should these lawsuits be resolved against us. Even if we are able to estimate losses related to these actions, the ultimate amount of loss may be materially higher than our estimates. Any resolution of litigation, or threatened litigation, could involve the payment of damages or expenses by us, which may be significant or involve an agreement with terms that restrict the operation of our business. Even if any future lawsuits are not resolved against us, the costs of defending such lawsuits may be significant. These costs may exceed the dollar limits or may not be covered at all by our insurance policies.

Design patent litigation related to guardrails could reduce demand for such products and raise litigation risk.

Certain of our foreign subsidiaries in India, New Zealand, and Australia manufacture highway safety products, primarily for sale in non-U.S. markets, and license certain design patents related to guardrails to third parties. There are currently domestic U.S. product liability lawsuits against some companies that manufacture and install certain guardrail products. Such lawsuits, some of which have at times involved a foreign subsidiary based on its design patent, could lead to a decline in demand for such products or approval for use of such products by government purchasers both domestically and internationally, and potentially raise litigation risk for foreign subsidiaries and negatively impact their sales and license fees.

13

Liquidity and Capital Resources Risks

We have, from time to time, maintained a substantial amount of outstanding indebtedness, which could impair our ability to operate our business and react to changes in our business, remain in compliance with debt covenants, and make payments on our debt.

As of December 30, 2023, we had $1,138.1 million of total outstanding indebtedness, of which $379.9 million matures within the next five fiscal years. We also had $421.9 million of capacity to borrow under our revolving credit facility as of December 30, 2023. We occasionally borrow money to make business acquisitions and repurchase shares. From time to time, our borrowings have been significant. Most of our interest‑bearing debt is borrowed by U.S. entities. Rising interest rates have increased our cost of indebtedness.

Our level of indebtedness could have important consequences, including:

our ability to satisfy our obligations under our debt agreements could be affected and any failure to comply with the requirements, including significant financial and other restrictive covenants, of any of our debt agreements could result in an event of default under the agreements governing our indebtedness;
a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations will be required to make interest and principal payments and will not be available for operations, working capital, capital expenditures, expansion, or general corporate and other purposes, including possible future acquisitions that we believe would be beneficial to our business;
our ability to obtain additional financing in the future may be impaired;
we may be more highly leveraged than our competitors, which may place us at a competitive disadvantage;
our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and industry may be limited; and
our degree of leverage may make us more vulnerable in the event of a downturn in our business, our industry, or the economy in general.

The restrictions and covenants in our debt agreements could limit our ability to obtain future financings, make needed capital expenditures, withstand a future downturn in our business or the economy in general, or otherwise conduct necessary corporate activities. These covenants may prevent us from taking advantage of business opportunities that arise.

A breach of any of these covenants would result in a default under the applicable debt agreement. A default, if not waived, could result in acceleration of the debt outstanding under our agreement and a default or acceleration of the debt outstanding under our other debt agreements. The accelerated debt would become immediately due and payable. If that were to occur, we may not be able to pay all such debt or to borrow sufficient funds to refinance it. Even if new financing were then available, it may not be on terms that are favorable to us.

As of December 30, 2023, we had $203.0 million of cash and cash equivalents. Approximately 80% of our consolidated cash balance is outside the U.S. In the event that we would have to repatriate cash from international operations to meet cash needs in the U.S., we may be subject to legal, contractual, or other restrictions. In addition, as we use cash for acquisitions and other purposes, any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and business prospects.

We assumed an underfunded pension liability as part of the fiscal 2010 acquisition of Delta Ltd., and the combined company may be required to increase funding of the plan and/or be subject to restrictions on the use of excess cash.

Delta Ltd. is the sponsor of a U.K. defined benefit pension plan (the “Plan”) that, as of December 30, 2023, covered approximately 5,400 inactive or retired former Delta employees. The Plan has no active employees as members. As of December 30, 2023, the Plan was, for accounting purposes, overfunded by approximately £12.1 million ($15.4 million). The current agreement with the trustees of the Plan for annual funding is approximately £13.1 million ($16.7 million) in respect of the funding shortfall at the time of acquisition and approximately £1.3 million ($1.7 million) in respect of administrative expenses. Although this funding obligation was considered in the acquisition price for the Delta shares, the underfunded position may adversely affect the combined company as follows:

Laws and regulations in the U.K. normally require the Plan trustees to agree on a new funding plan with us every three years. The last funding plan was developed in fiscal 2022. Changes in actuarial assumptions, including future discount, inflation, and interest rates, investment returns, and mortality rates may increase the

14

underfunded position of the Plan and cause the combined company to increase its funding levels in the Plan to cover underfunded liabilities.
The U.K. regulates the Plan, and the trustees represent the interests of covered workers. Laws and regulations, under certain circumstances, could create an immediate funding obligation to the Plan, which could be significantly greater than the asset recognized for accounting purposes as of December 30, 2023. Such immediate funding is calculated by reference to the cost of buying out liabilities on the insurance market and could affect our ability to fund the future growth of the business or finance other obligations.

General Risks

Our businesses require skilled labor and management talent, and we may be unable to attract and retain qualified employees.

Our businesses require skilled factory workers and management in order to meet our customers’ needs, grow our sales, and maintain competitive advantages. Skills such as welding, equipment maintenance, and operating complex manufacturing machinery may be in short supply in certain geographic areas, leading to shortages of skilled labor and increased labor costs. Management talent is critical, as well, to help grow our businesses and effectively plan for succession of key employees upon retirement. In some geographic areas, skilled management talent for certain positions may be difficult to find. To the extent we have difficulty in finding and retaining these skills in the workforce, there may be an adverse effect on our ability to grow profitably in the future.

We face strong competition in our markets.

We face competitive pressures from a variety of companies in each of the markets we serve. Our competitors include companies who provide the technologies that we provide as well as companies who provide competing technologies, such as drip irrigation. Our competitors include international, national, and local manufacturers, some of whom may have greater financial, manufacturing, marketing, and technical resources than we do or greater penetration in, or familiarity with, a particular geographic market than we have.

In addition, certain of our competitors, particularly with respect to our TD&S and Telecommunications product lines, have sought bankruptcy protection in recent years and may emerge with reduced debt service obligations, which could allow them to operate at pricing levels that put pressure on our margins. Some of our customers have moved manufacturing operations or product sourcing overseas, which can negatively impact our sales of galvanizing and anodizing services.

To remain competitive, we will need to invest continuously in manufacturing, product development, and customer service, and we may need to reduce our prices, particularly with respect to customers in industries that are experiencing downturns. We cannot provide assurance that we will be able to maintain our competitive position in each of the markets that we serve.

We may not realize the improved operating results that we anticipate from acquisitions we may make in the future, and we may experience difficulties in integrating the acquired businesses or may inherit significant liabilities related to such businesses.

We explore opportunities to acquire businesses that we believe are related to our core competencies from time to time, some of which may be material to us. We expect such acquisitions will produce operating results better than those historically experienced or presently expected to be experienced in the future by us in the absence of the acquisition. We cannot provide assurance that this assumption will prove correct with respect to any acquisition.

Any future acquisitions may present significant challenges for our management due to the time and resources required to properly integrate management, employees, information systems, accounting controls, personnel, and administrative functions of the acquired business with those of Valmont and to manage the combined company going forward. We may not be able to completely integrate and streamline overlapping functions or, if such activities are successfully accomplished, such integration may be more costly to accomplish than originally contemplated. We may also have difficulty in successfully integrating our product offerings with those of acquired businesses to improve our collective product offering. Our efforts to integrate acquired businesses could be affected by a number of factors beyond our control, including general economic conditions. In addition, the process of integrating acquired businesses could cause the interruption of, or loss of momentum in, the activities of our existing business. The diversion of management’s attention and any delays or difficulties encountered in connection with the integration of acquired businesses could adversely impact our

15

business, results of operations, and liquidity, and the benefits we anticipate may never materialize. These factors are relevant to any acquisition we undertake.

In addition, although we conduct reviews of businesses we acquire, we may be subject to unexpected claims or liabilities, including environmental cleanup costs, as a result of these acquisitions. Such claims or liabilities could be costly to defend or resolve and be material in amount, and thus could materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations, and liquidity.

We may incur significant warranty or contract management costs.

In our Infrastructure segment, we manufacture large structures for electrical transmission. These products may be highly engineered for very large, complex contracts and subject to terms and conditions that penalize us for late delivery and result in consequential and compensatory damages. From time to time, we may have a product quality issue on a large utility structures order and the related costs may be significant. Our products in the Infrastructure segment also include structures for a wide range of outdoor lighting, traffic, and wireless communication applications.

Our Agriculture products carry warranty provisions, some of which may span several years. In the event we have widespread product reliability issues with certain components, we may be required to incur significant costs to remedy the situation.

Our operations could be adversely affected if our information technology systems and networks are compromised or otherwise subjected to cyberattacks.

Global cyberattacks continually increase in sophistication and pose significant risks to the security of our information technology systems and networks which, if breached, could materially adversely affect the confidentiality, availability, and integrity of our data. Our operations involve transferring data across international borders, and we must comply with increasingly complex and rigorous standards to protect business and personal data in the U.S. and foreign countries, including members of the European Union.

The primary objective of our risk management and strategy is maintaining and protecting the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information for our business and customers. We rely on our information security program which covers a range of cybersecurity activities. More information on these measures may be found in Part I, Item 1C in this report. While these measures are designed to prevent, detect, respond to, and mitigate unauthorized activity, there is no guarantee that they will be sufficient to prevent or mitigate the risk of a cyberattack whether experienced directly through our information technology systems and networks or third-party service providers, or allow us to detect, report, or respond adequately in a timely manner.

Successful cybersecurity attacks or other security incidents could result in the loss of key innovations in artificial intelligence, Internet of Things, or other disruptive technologies; the loss of access to critical data or systems through ransomware, crypto mining, destructive attacks, or other means; and business delays, service or system disruptions, or denials of service. This could lead to legal risk, fines and penalties, negative publicity, theft, modification or destruction of proprietary information or key information, manufacture of defective products, production downtimes, and operational disruptions, which could adversely affect our reputation, competitiveness, and results of operations.

Regulatory and business developments regarding climate change could adversely impact our operations and demand for our products.

Regulatory and business developments regarding climate change could adversely impact our operations. We follow the scientific discussion on climate change and related legislative and regulatory enactments, including those under consideration, to deliberate the potential impact on our operations and demand for our products. The scientific discussion on the presence and scope of climate change and the attention that domestic and international legislatures and regulatory authorities have given to enacting or considering laws or rules related to climate change are expected to continue. The production and market for our products are subject to the impact of laws and rules related to climate change. Our customers and our operating segments are exposed to risks of increased costs to comply with such laws and rules, including increased costs for raw materials and transportation, as well as exposure to damage to our respective business reputations upon any failure of compliance. Other adverse consequences of climate change could include an increased frequency of severe weather events and rising sea levels that could affect operations at our manufacturing facilities, the price of insuring our assets, or other unforeseen disruptions of our operations, systems, property, or equipment.

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ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY

Risk Management and Strategy

Our information security program covers a range of cybersecurity activities with a primary objective of maintaining the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information for our business and customers. The program and our systems are designed to identify and mitigate information security risks and data privacy breaches. Our risk mitigation processes include a cybersecurity incident response plan that is exercised regularly with tabletop exercises, security awareness training with attack simulations to reinforce the training, cybersecurity risk assessment integrated with technology acquisition processes and utilization of third-party partnerships for threat intelligence, incident response and escalation, and attack surface monitoring.

We measure our security performance against the International Organization for Standardization 27001 Framework and Enterprise Risk Management strategies. We implement policies and practices to mitigate risks to organization data and operational processes.

Our Global Data Privacy Program continues to align with environmental, social, and corporate governance standards and considers both risks and benefits of privacy-driven spending. The program operating model is based on the General Data Protection Regulation, which is adjusted for specific local requirements. The operating model is scalable to manage strategic, operational, legal, compliance, and financial risks and benefits, and uses technology to automate portions of the program, such as data subject access requests and consent and preference management.

Our membership on the Data Privacy Board, a group comprised of some of the world’s largest companies with a mission to help members engage in confidential, leader-level discussion, presents opportunities using unbiased benchmarking and support from peers in various industries. We continue to build privacy resilience across international operating environments.

We work with third-party vendors to enhance our processes against the occurrences and impact of unauthorized access to our network, computers, programs, and data. Risk is inherent in risk management and strategy for cybersecurity. See “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A in this report for further discussion.

Governance

The Board of Directors has oversight responsibility for cyber risks affecting the Company. The Board has delegated risk oversight with respect to operational, compliance, and financial matters, including cybersecurity and information technology risk, to the Audit Committee.

Our Director of Security has extensive experience implementing and managing cybersecurity policies including oversight of investments in tools, resources, and processes that allows for the continued maturity of our cybersecurity program. Team members who support our information security program have relevant educational and industry experience. Our CEO, Chief Financial Officer, and Audit Committee receive regular reports provided by our Director of Security on the Company’s risk and compliance with respect to cybersecurity matters including data privacy, incidents, and industry trends, along with prevention, detection, mitigation, and remediation of cyber incidents.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Our corporate headquarters are located in Omaha, Nebraska. The headquarters facility is leased through fiscal 2046 and houses the majority of our executive offices, reportable segment business units, and administrative functions. We also maintain a management headquarters in Sydney, Australia. Most of our significant manufacturing locations are owned or are subject to long-term renewable leases. Our principal manufacturing locations are in Valley, Nebraska; McCook, Nebraska; Tulsa, Oklahoma; Brenham, Texas; Charmeil, France; Uberaba, Brazil; Monterrey, Mexico; Siedlce, Poland; Shanghai, China; and Dubai, United Arab Emirates. All of these facilities are owned by us. We believe that our manufacturing capabilities and capacities are adequate for us to effectively serve our customers. Our capital spending programs consist of investment for replacement, achieving operational efficiencies, and expanding capacities where needed. Our principal operating locations by reportable segment are listed below.

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Infrastructure segment North American manufacturing operations are located in Alabama, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Jersey, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Canada, and Mexico. The largest of these operations are in Valley, Nebraska; Brenham, Texas; Tulsa, Oklahoma; and Monterrey, Mexico, all of which are owned facilities. We have communication component distribution locations in California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Maryland, Nebraska, Nevada, New York, Oregon, and Texas. International locations are in Australia, China, England, Estonia, Finland, France, India, Indonesia, Italy, Malaysia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Philippines, Poland, and Thailand. The largest of these operations are in Charmeil, France, and Shanghai, China, both of which are owned facilities.

Agriculture segment North American manufacturing operations are located in Nebraska. Our principal manufacturing operations serving international markets are located in Uberaba, Brazil; Dubai, United Arab Emirates; and Shandong, China; along with a technology research and development center in Israel. All facilities are owned except for China and Israel, which are leased.

Operations in the Other segment, which were divested in fiscal 2022, were located in Denmark.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

We are not a party to, nor are any of our properties subject to, any material legal proceedings. We are, from time to time, engaged in routine litigation incidental to our businesses. For further information on legal proceedings, please refer to Note 18 to the Consolidated Financial Statements contained in this report.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

The names, ages, positions, and business experiences of the last five years of our current executive officers are as follows:

Avner M. Applbaum, age 52, President and Chief Executive Officer since July 2023. Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer from March 2020 to July 2023. Chief Financial Officer and Chief Operating Officer of Double E Company, an equipment manufacturer, from 2017 to March 2020.

Timothy P. Francis, age 47, Interim Chief Financial Officer since July 2023 and Interim Chief Accounting Officer since December 2023. Senior Vice President and Finance Business Partner of Global Operations from June 2022 to July 2023. Senior Vice President and Controller from June 2014 to June 2022.

Diane M. Larkin, age 59, Executive Vice President of Global Operations since June 2020. Senior Vice President of Operations and Global Supply for Pentair, a water treatment company, from 2017 to June 2020.

T. Mitchell Parnell, age 58, Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer since January 2019.

Aaron M. Schapper, age 50, Group President of Agriculture and Chief Strategy Officer since July 2023. Group President of Infrastructure from February 2020 to July 2023. Group President of Utility Support Structures from October 2016 to February 2020.

J. Timothy Donahue, age 59, Group President of Infrastructure since July 2023. Executive Vice President of Corporate and Business Development from January 2023 to July 2023. President of Global Engineered Support Structures from December 2019 to January 2023. Vice President of North America Engineered Support Structures from April 2018 to December 2019.

Renee L. Campbell, age 54, Senior Vice President of Investor Relations and Treasurer since February 2022. Vice President of Investor Relations and Corporate Communications from October 2017 to February 2022.

Ellen S. Dasher, age 54, Vice President of Global Taxation since December 2015.

R. Andrew Massey, age 54, Vice President, Chief Legal Officer, and Corporate Secretary since July 2006.

18

PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND

ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information

Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “VMI”.

Holders

As of December 30, 2023, we had approximately 57,128 shareholders of common stock.

Dividends

Cash dividends on our common stock are paid quarterly. We paid a total of $49.5 million and $45.8 million in dividends in fiscal 2023 and 2022, respectively. The Board of Directors determines whether to declare dividends, the timing, and the amount based on financial condition and other factors it deems relevant. We currently expect that dividends comparable to those paid historically will continue to be paid in the future.

Purchase of Equity Securities By the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

Total Number of

Shares Purchased

Approximate Dollar

Total

as Part of

Value of

Number

Average

Publicly

Shares that May Yet

of Shares

Price Paid

Announced Plans

Be Purchased

Period

    

Purchased

    

per Share

    

or Programs

    

Under the Program (1)

October 1, 2023 to October 28, 2023

 

$

 

$

314,724,000

October 29, 2023 to December 2, 2023

 

Non-Accelerated Share Repurchase

240,120

 

211.69

 

240,120

 

263,883,000

November 2023 Accelerated Share Repurchase (2)

438,917

(2)

438,917

143,883,000

December 3, 2023 to December 30, 2023

 

35,000

 

222.11

 

35,000

 

136,108,000

Total

 

714,037

$

250.15

 

714,037

$

136,108,000

(1)On May 13, 2014, we announced a capital allocation philosophy that covered both the quarterly dividend rate as well as a share repurchase program. The Board of Directors at that time authorized the purchase of up to $500.0 million of the Company’s outstanding common stock from time to time over twelve months at prevailing market prices, through open market or privately negotiated transactions. On February 24, 2015, and again on October 31, 2018, the Board of Directors authorized additional purchases of up to $250.0 million of the Company’s outstanding common stock with no stated expiration date. On February 27, 2023, the Board of Directors increased the amount remaining under the program by an additional $400.0 million, with no stated expiration date, bringing the total authorization to $1,400.0 million. As of December 30, 2023, we have acquired 7,895,724 shares for approximately $1,263.9 million under this share repurchase program.
(2)In November 2023, we entered into an accelerated purchase agreement to repurchase $120.0 million of the Company’s outstanding common stock (“November 2023 ASR”) with CitiBank, N.A. as counterparty. The November 2023 ASR was entered into under our previously announced share repurchase program described above. In the fourth quarter of fiscal 2023, the Company pre-paid $120.0 million and received an initial delivery of 438,917 shares of common stock from CitiBank, which represented 75% of the prepayment amount divided by the closing price of $205.05 per share on November 28, 2023. The final number of shares to be delivered and the average price paid per share will be based on the daily volume weighted average share price during the term of the November 2023 ASR less a discount, which will be completed during the first quarter of fiscal 2024.

The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, which was enacted into law on August 16, 2022, imposed a nondeductible 1% excise tax on the net value of certain stock repurchases made after December 31, 2022. Excise tax accrued for the fiscal year ended December 30, 2023 totaled $2.8 million.

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ITEM 6. [RESERVED]

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS

OF OPERATIONS

ForwardLooking Statements

Management’s discussion and analysis, and other sections of this annual report, contain forward‑looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward‑looking statements are based on assumptions that management has made in light of experience in the industries in which the Company operates, as well as management’s perceptions of historical trends, current conditions, expected future developments, and other factors believed to be appropriate under the circumstances. These statements are not guarantees of performance or results. They involve risks, uncertainties (some of which are beyond the Company’s control), and assumptions. Management believes that these forward‑looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions. Many factors could affect the Company’s actual financial results and cause them to differ materially from those anticipated in the forward‑looking statements. These factors include, among other things, risk factors described from time to time in the Company’s reports to the SEC, as well as future economic and market circumstances, industry conditions, company performance and financial results, operating efficiencies, availability and price of raw materials, availability and market acceptance of new products, product pricing, domestic and international competitive environments, and actions and policy changes of domestic and foreign governments.

The following discussion and analysis provide information that management believes is relevant to an assessment and understanding of the Company’s consolidated results of operations and financial position. This discussion should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes.

This section of the Form 10-K generally discusses fiscal 2023 items, fiscal 2022 items, and year-to-year comparisons between fiscal 2023 and fiscal 2022. Discussions of fiscal 2021 items and year-to-year comparisons between fiscal 2022 and fiscal 2021 that are not included on Form 10-K can be found in "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in Part II, Item 7 of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.

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General

Fiscal Year Ended

Fiscal Year Ended

December 30,

December 31,

Percent

December 25,

Percent

Dollars in millions, except per share amounts

2023

2022

Change

2021

Change

Consolidated

Net sales

$

4,174.6

$

4,345.2

 

(3.9)

%  

$

3,501.6

 

24.1

%

Gross profit

 

1,236.0

 

1,126.3

 

9.8

%  

 

883.9

 

27.4

%

as a percent of net sales

 

29.6

%  

 

25.9

%  

  

 

25.2

%  

  

Selling, general, and administrative expenses

 

768.4

 

693.0

 

10.9

%  

 

590.6

 

17.3

%

as a percent of net sales

 

18.4

%  

 

15.9

%  

  

 

16.9

%  

  

Impairment of goodwill and intangible assets

140.8

 

 

NM

 

6.5

 

NM

Realignment charges

35.2

 

 

NM

 

 

NM

Operating income

 

291.6

 

433.3

 

(32.7)

%  

 

286.8

 

51.1

%

as a percent of net sales

 

7.0

%  

 

10.0

%  

  

 

8.2

%  

  

Net interest expense

 

50.6

 

45.5

 

11.2

%  

 

41.4

 

9.9

%

Effective tax rate

 

38.1

%  

 

29.9

%  

  

 

23.6

%  

  

Net earnings attrib. to Valmont Industries, Inc.

 

150.8

 

250.9

 

(39.9)

%  

 

195.6

 

28.3

%

Diluted earnings per share

$

6.78

$

11.62

 

(41.7)

%  

$

9.10

 

27.7

%

Infrastructure

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Net sales

$

2,999.6

$

2,909.7

 

3.1

%  

$

2,361.5

 

23.2

%

Gross profit

 

842.1

 

736.6

 

14.3

%  

 

603.6

 

22.0

%

Selling, general, and administrative expenses

 

424.9

 

382.1

 

11.2

%  

 

330.0

 

15.8

%

Impairment of goodwill and intangible assets

3.6

 

 

NM

 

 

NM

Realignment charges

17.3

 

 

NM

 

 

NM

Operating income

 

396.3

 

354.5

 

11.8

%  

 

273.6

 

29.6

%

Agriculture

 

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Net sales

$

1,175.0

$

1,335.3

 

(12.0)

%  

$

1,017.1

 

31.3

%

Gross profit

 

393.9

 

381.8

 

3.2

%  

 

297.7

 

28.2

%

Selling, general, and administrative expenses

 

230.7

 

202.5

 

13.9

%  

 

160.6

 

26.1

%

Impairment of goodwill and intangible assets

137.2

 

 

NM

 

 

NM

Realignment charges

9.1

 

 

NM

 

 

NM

Operating income

 

16.9

 

179.3

 

(90.6)

%  

 

137.1

 

30.8

%

Other

Net sales

$

$

100.2

NM

$

123.0

(18.5)

%

Gross profit (loss)

7.9

NM

(18.2)

NM

Selling, general, and administrative expenses

5.6

NM

15.5

(63.9)

%

Impairment of goodwill and intangible assets

NM

6.5

NM

Operating income (loss)

2.3

NM

(40.2)

NM

Corporate

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

Gross profit

$

$

 

NM

$

0.8

 

NM

Selling, general, and administrative expenses

 

112.8

 

102.8

 

9.7

%  

 

84.5

 

21.7

%

Realignment charges

8.8

 

 

NM

 

 

NM

Operating loss

 

(121.6)

 

(102.8)

 

18.3

%  

 

(83.7)

 

22.8

%

NM = not meaningful

21

FISCAL 2023 COMPARED WITH FISCAL 2022

Overview

The decrease in net sales in fiscal 2023, as compared with fiscal 2022, was the result of lower sales in the Agriculture segment, partially offset by higher sales in the Infrastructure segment. Fiscal 2023 included 52 weeks, while fiscal 2022 included 53 weeks. The estimated impact on the Company's results of operations due to the extra week in fiscal 2022 was additional net sales of approximately $80.8 million and additional net earnings of approximately $5.3 million.

Dollars in millions

    

Infrastructure

Agriculture

Other

    

Total

Net sales - fiscal 2022

$

2,909.7

$

1,335.3

$

100.2

$

4,345.2

Volume

 

9.6

 

(175.5)

 

 

(165.9)

Pricing and mix

 

85.1

 

(1.2)

 

 

83.9

Acquisition

 

12.2

 

14.0

 

 

26.2

Divestiture

(100.2)

(100.2)

Currency translation

 

(17.0)

 

2.4

 

 

(14.6)

Net sales - fiscal 2023

$

2,999.6

$

1,175.0

$

$

4,174.6

Volume impacts are estimated based on physical production or sales measure. Since products we sell are not uniform in nature, pricing and mix relate to a combination of changes in sales prices and the attributes of the products sold. Accordingly, pricing and mix changes do not necessarily result in operating income changes.

Steel prices for both hot rolled coil and plate have remained volatile over the past two fiscal years, especially in North America. Decreases in the average cost of consumed steel combined with recent customer pricing strategy mechanisms more than offset the overall decrease in volumes on a consolidated basis in fiscal 2023, as compared to fiscal 2022.

During the third quarter of fiscal 2023, management initiated a plan to streamline segment support across the Company and reduce costs through an organizational realignment program (the “Realignment Program”). The Realignment Program provided for a reduction in force through a voluntary early retirement program and other headcount reduction actions, which were completed by the end of fiscal 2023. The Board of Directors authorized the incurrence of cash charges up to $36.0 million in connection with the Realignment Program of which $35.2 million were incurred in fiscal 2023. Severance and other employee benefit costs totaled approximately $17.3 million within the Infrastructure segment, $9.1 million within the Agriculture segment, and $8.8 million within Corporate expense.

Items Impacting Comparability

Items of note impacting the comparability of results from net earnings for fiscal 2023 included:

charges of $140.8 million ($136.5 million after-tax) related to the impairment of long-lived assets, namely goodwill,
charges of $35.2 million ($26.5 million after-tax) related to the Realignment Program,
charges of $5.6 million ($4.2 million after-tax) related to non-recurring charges related to major scope changes for two strategic projects initiated by departed senior leadership,

Items of note impacting the comparability of results from net earnings for fiscal 2022 included:

charges of $33.3 million (no associated tax benefit) related to the divestiture of the offshore wind energy structures business,
charges of $6.6 million ($5.1 million after-tax) related to amortization of identified intangible assets from the Prospera subsidiary, and
charges of $9.9 million ($8.9 million after-tax) related to stock-based compensation expense for the employees from the Prospera subsidiary acquired in the second quarter of fiscal 2021.

22

Acquisitions

The Company acquired the following businesses in fiscal 2023 and fiscal 2022:

HR Products, a leading wholesale supplier of irrigation parts in Australia, in the third quarter of fiscal 2023, for $37.3 million, included in the Agriculture segment, and
51% of ConcealFab, a Colorado-based 5G infrastructure and passive intermodulation mitigation solutions company, in the second quarter of fiscal 2022, for $39.3 million, included in the Infrastructure segment.

Divestitures

The Company divested the following businesses in fiscal 2023 and fiscal 2022:

Torrent Engineering and Equipment in the second quarter of fiscal 2023, which resulted in a gain of $3.0 million. The integrator of prepackaged pump stations in Indiana was included in the Agriculture segment and the gain was recorded in “Other income (expenses)” in the Consolidated Statements of Earnings, and
Valmont SM in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2022, which resulted in a loss of $33.3 million with no associated tax benefit. The offshore wind energy structures business in Denmark was included in the Other segment and the loss was recorded in “Other income (expenses)” in the Consolidated Statements of Earnings.

Macroeconomic Impacts on Financial Results and Liquidity

We continue to monitor several macroeconomic and geopolitical uncertainties that have impacted or may impact our business, including inflationary cost pressures, supply chain disruptions, changes in foreign currency exchange rates against the U.S. dollar, rising interest rates, ongoing international armed conflicts, and labor shortages.

Reportable Segments

In addition to the two reportable segments, the Company had a business and related activities in fiscal 2022 that were not more than 10% of consolidated sales, operating income, or assets. This business, the offshore wind energy structures business, was reported in the Other segment until its divestiture in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2022. All prior period information has been recast to reflect this change in reportable segments. See Note 21 to our Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

Backlog

The consolidated backlog of unshipped orders was approximately $1.5 billion as of December 30, 2023 as compared to approximately $1.7 billion as of December 31, 2022. The decrease is attributed to the Agriculture segment, while Infrastructure segment backlog remains comparable to the prior year end.

Gross Profit, Selling, General, and Administrative Expenses (“SG&A”), and Operating Income

On a consolidated basis, gross profit and gross profit as a percentage of sales increased in fiscal 2023, as compared to fiscal 2022. Gross profit and gross profit as a percentage of sales increased for both the Infrastructure and Agriculture segments in fiscal 2023 primarily due to increased average selling prices and activities executed to improve overall costs of goods sold, partially offset by decreased volumes.

Consolidated SG&A increased in fiscal 2023, as compared to fiscal 2022, due to increased employment costs and increased professional fees, partially offset by slightly decreased incentive expenses.

Consolidated operating income in fiscal 2023, as compared to fiscal 2022, was impacted by the impairment of certain goodwill and intangible assets totaling $140.8 million primarily within the Agriculture Technology reporting unit and realignment charges totaling $35.2 million, along with higher SG&A partially offset by increased gross profit.

Net Interest Expense

Consolidated interest expense increased in fiscal 2023, as compared to fiscal 2022, primarily due to additional borrowings on the revolving line of credit along with increased interest rates.

23

Other Income / Expenses (including Gain (Loss) on Investments – Unrealized)

Amounts in “Gain (loss) on investments - unrealized" included changes in the market value of deferred compensation assets which were offset by an equal opposite amount included in SG&A for the corresponding change in the valuation of deferred compensation liabilities. Other items included in “Other income (expenses)” were pension expense, a gain related to the sale of Torrent Engineering and Equipment in the second quarter of fiscal 2023 totaling approximately $3.0 million, and a loss related to Argentine peso hyperinflation totaling approximately $5.1 million. Pension expense in fiscal 2023 was $0.2 million compared to a pension benefit of $10.1 million in fiscal 2022.

Income Tax Expense

Our effective income tax rate in fiscal 2023 and fiscal 2022 was 38.1% and 29.9%, respectively. In fiscal 2023, the effective tax rate was the result of goodwill impairment charges for which no tax benefits were recorded. In fiscal 2022, the effective tax rate was the result of a change in geographical earnings and the approximately $33.3 million loss from divestiture of the offshore wind energy structures business which had no associated income tax benefit.

Loss (Earnings) Attributable to Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests

Loss (earnings) attributable to redeemable noncontrolling interests reflects the operating results of the subsidiaries the Company does not own 100%. Two of the subsidiaries not 100% owned generated net losses in fiscal 2023 whereas these two subsidiaries generated net earnings in fiscal 2022.

Infrastructure Segment

Fiscal Year Ended

December 30,

December 31,

Dollar

Percent

Dollars in millions

    

2023

    

2022

    

Change

    

Change

Transmission, Distribution, and Substation

$

1,243.8

$

1,184.7

 

$

59.1

 

5.0

%

Lighting and Transportation

964.1

940.5

 

23.6

 

2.5

%

Coatings

354.3

356.7

 

(2.4)

 

(0.7)

%

Telecommunications

252.2

320.3

 

(68.1)

 

(21.3)

%

Solar

195.7

126.2

 

69.5

 

55.1

%

Total sales

$

3,010.1

$

2,928.4

$

81.7

 

2.8

%

Operating income

$

396.3

$

354.5

$

41.8

 

11.8

%

Infrastructure segment sales increased in fiscal 2023, as compared to fiscal 2022, due to increased average selling prices across all product lines and increased volumes in TD&S and Solar, partially offset by unfavorable foreign currency translation effects and much lower volumes in Telecommunications. Infrastructure segment sales increased in North America in fiscal 2023, as compared to fiscal 2022, while decreasing slightly internationally in the same period.

Transmission, Distribution, and Substation product line sales increased in fiscal 2023, as compared to fiscal 2022, due to increased average selling prices and increased sales volumes, partially offset by unfavorable foreign currency translation effects totaling approximately $4.0 million.

Lighting and Transportation product line sales increased in fiscal 2023, as compared to fiscal 2022, due to increased average selling prices and increased sales volumes, partially offset by an unfavorable currency translation effect totaling approximately $8.1 million.

Coatings product line sales decreased in fiscal 2023, as compared to fiscal 2022, due to decreased sales volumes along with an unfavorable currency translation effect totaling approximately $6.5 million partially offset by increased average selling prices.

Telecommunications product line sales decreased in fiscal 2023, as compared to fiscal 2022, due to decreased sales volumes partially offset by increased average selling prices and incremental sales from the second quarter of fiscal 2022 acquisition of ConcealFab totaling $12.2 million. We expect sales for Telecommunications to remain lower until network enhancement spending of the major carriers returns to more elevated levels. As the continued rollout and expansion of 5G wireless technology accelerates globally, sales for our products are expected to grow.

24

Solar product line sales increased in fiscal 2023, as compared to fiscal 2022, due to increased sales volumes primarily attributable to increased market share and throughput in the North American and European markets.

We expect Infrastructure segment sales to increase mid-single digits in fiscal 2024 from growth in the TD&S and Solar product lines attributed to the grid hardening efforts in the U.S. and the global energy transition.

Infrastructure segment gross profit and gross profit margin increased in fiscal 2023, as compared to fiscal 2022, due to contractual customer pricing mechanisms and selling price management leading to increased average selling prices and deliberate actions to improve overall costs of goods sold. These items, partially offset by a decrease in sales volumes in the Telecommunications product line, resulted in an overall increase in the amount of gross profit.

Infrastructure segment SG&A increased in fiscal 2023, as compared to fiscal 2022, due to increased compensation and incentive costs, increased bad debt reserve charges including approximately $2.7 million related to a Telecommunications customer that became insolvent, increased research and development expenses, and incremental SG&A from the June 2022 acquisition of ConcealFab.

We incurred severance and other employee benefit costs totaling $17.3 million within the Infrastructure segment in fiscal 2023 related to the Realignment Program.

Infrastructure segment operating income increased in fiscal 2023, as compared to fiscal 2022, due to gross profit improvements, driven by favorable pricing and deliberate actions to improve overall costs of goods sold more than offsetting increased SG&A.

Agriculture Segment

Fiscal Year Ended

December 30,

December 31,

Dollar

Percent

Dollars in millions

    

2023

    

2022

    

Change

    

Change

North America

$

587.1

$

766.9

 

$

(179.8)

 

(23.4)

%

International

595.1

579.8

 

15.3

 

2.6

%

Total sales

$

1,182.2

$

1,346.7

$

(164.5)

 

(12.2)

%

Operating income

$

16.9

$

179.3

$

(162.4)

 

(90.6)

%

Agriculture segment sales decreased in fiscal 2023, as compared to fiscal 2022. In North America, the decrease in sales in fiscal 2023, as compared to fiscal 2022, was primarily due to notably lower sales volumes of irrigation equipment. This was impacted by lower net farm income, growers’ decisions to delay capital investments due to general economic uncertainty, and a number of macroeconomic factors including higher interest rates, continued inflationary pressures, and recessionary fears. International sales growth was driven by higher project sales and incremental sales from the HR Products acquisition totaling $14.0 million partially offset by lower sales volumes in Brazil due to muted farmer sentiment attributed to lower agricultural commodity prices. Sales of technology-related products and services in fiscal 2023 were similar to fiscal 2022.

Our Agriculture business is cyclical and is impacted by changes in net farm income, commodity prices, weather volatility, geopolitical factors, and farmer sentiment related to future economic uncertainty. We continue to monitor potential impacts of these factors on our financial results including estimated U.S. net farm income, as released periodically by the USDA. In Brazil, we also actively track changes in soybean and other crop prices and projected farm input costs to evaluate grower sentiment.

Irrigation equipment and aftermarket part sales in North America are expected to remain below prior year levels in fiscal 2024. The previous three fiscal years benefited from record levels of disaster relief and pandemic-related stimulus for farmers in North America which contributed to higher demand.

Agriculture segment gross profit increased in fiscal 2023, as compared to fiscal 2022, due to deflation in the cost of steel and other favorable changes in input costs more than offsetting the impact of lower sales volumes.

Agriculture segment SG&A increased in fiscal 2023, as compared to fiscal 2022, due to increased bad debt reserve charges, particularly in Brazil, and increased employment costs, partially offset by decreased incentive expenses.

25

We incurred severance and other employee benefit costs totaling $9.1 million within the Agriculture segment in fiscal 2023 related to the Realignment Program.

Agriculture segment operating income decreased in fiscal 2023, as compared to fiscal 2022, primarily due to the impairment of certain goodwill and other intangible assets in the third quarter of fiscal 2023 totaling approximately $137.2 million, along with decreased sales volumes offset by gross profit improvements.

Other

In November 2022, we completed the sale of Valmont SM, an offshore wind energy structures business with operations in Denmark. We realized an approximate $33.3 million loss on the sale that was recorded in “Other income (expenses)” in the Consolidated Statements of Earnings. The final payment of $2.2 million was received in January 2024, subsequent to the fiscal year ended December 30, 2023.

Corporate

Corporate SG&A increased in fiscal 2023, as compared to fiscal 2022, due to increased employment costs, increased professional fees, and incremental expense from changes in the valuation of deferred compensation plan liabilities. Charges related to changes in deferred compensation plan liabilities are offset by an opposite change in an equal amount included in “Other income (expenses)” for the change in deferred compensation plan assets.

We incurred severance and other employee benefit costs totaling $8.8 million within Corporate expense in fiscal 2023 related to the Realignment Program.

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

Capital Allocation Philosophy

We have historically funded our growth, capital spending, and acquisitions through a combination of operating cash flows and debt financing. The following are the capital allocation priorities for cash generated:

working capital and capital expenditure investments necessary for future sales growth;
dividends on common stock generally in the range of 15% of the prior fiscal year’s fully diluted net earnings;
acquisitions; and
return of capital to shareholders through share repurchases.

We intend to manage our capital structure to maintain our investment grade debt rating. Our most recent ratings were Baa3 by Moody’s Investors Service, Inc., BBB- by Fitch Ratings, Inc., and BBB+ by S&P Global Ratings. We would be willing to allow our debt rating to fall to BBB- to finance a special acquisition or other opportunity. We expect to maintain a ratio of debt to invested capital which will support our current investment grade debt rating.

In May 2014, the Board of Directors authorized the purchase of up to $500.0 million of the Company’s outstanding common stock from time to time over twelve months at prevailing market prices, through open market or privately negotiated transactions. The Board of Directors authorized an additional $250.0 million of share repurchases in February 2015 and again in October 2018, and authorized an additional $400.0 million of share repurchases in February 2023. These authorizations have no expiration date. The purchases are funded from available working capital and short-term borrowings and will be made subject to market and economic conditions. We are not obligated to make any repurchases and may discontinue the program at any time. As of December 30, 2023, we have acquired approximately 7.9 million shares for approximately $1,263.9 million under this share repurchase program.

In November 2023, we entered into an accelerated purchase agreement to repurchase $120.0 million of the Company’s outstanding common stock, under our previously announced share repurchase program described above. In the fourth quarter of fiscal 2023, we pre-paid $120.0 million and received an initial delivery of a number of shares of common stock which represented 75% of the prepayment amount. The accelerated share repurchase will be completed during the first quarter of fiscal 2024.

26

In February 2023, the Company announced that the Board of Directors approved an increase to the quarterly cash dividend on the common stock to $0.60 per share, or a rate of $2.40 per share on an annualized basis, an increase of 9% from the prior quarterly cash dividend of $0.55 per share.

Supplier Finance Program

We have a supplier finance program agreement with a financial institution which allows qualifying suppliers, at their election and on terms they negotiate directly with the financial institution, to sell their receivables from the Company. A supplier’s voluntary participation in the program does not change our payment terms, amounts paid, payment timing, or impact our liquidity, and we have no economic interest in a supplier’s decision to participate. As of December 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, our accounts payable on our Consolidated Balance Sheets included $41.9 million and $48.9 million, respectively, of our payment obligations under this program.

Sources of Financing

Our debt financing as of December 30, 2023 consisted primarily of long‑term debt and borrowings on our revolving credit facility. Our long‑term debt as of December 30, 2023, principally consisted of:

$450.0 million face value ($433.5 million carrying value) of senior unsecured notes that bear interest at 5.00% per annum and are due in October 2044, and
$305.0 million face value ($295.2 million carrying value) of senior unsecured notes that bear interest at 5.25% per annum and are due in October 2054.

We are allowed to repurchase the notes subject to the payment of a make-whole premium. Both tranches of these notes are guaranteed by certain of our subsidiaries.

Our revolving credit facility with JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as Administrative Agent, and the other lenders party thereto, has a maturity date of October 18, 2026.

The revolving credit facility provides for $800.0 million of committed unsecured revolving credit loans with available borrowings thereunder to $400.0 million in foreign currencies. We may increase the credit facility by up to an additional $300.0 million at any time, subject to lenders increasing the amount of their commitments. The Company and our wholly-owned subsidiaries, Valmont Industries Holland B.V. and Valmont Group Pty. Ltd., are authorized borrowers under the credit facility. The obligations arising under the revolving credit facility are guaranteed by the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Valmont Telecommunications, Inc., Valmont Coatings, Inc., Valmont Newmark, Inc., and Valmont Queensland Pty. Ltd.

The interest rate on our borrowings will be, at our option, either:

(a)term Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) (based on a 1-, 3-, or 6-month interest period, as selected by the Company) plus a 10 basis point adjustment plus a spread of 100 to 162.5 basis points, depending on the credit rating of the Company’s senior unsecured long-term debt published by S&P Global Ratings and Moody’s Investors Service, Inc.;
(b)the higher of
the prime lending rate,
the overnight bank rate plus 50 basis points, and
term SOFR (based on a one-month interest period) plus 100 basis points,

plus, in each case, 0 to 62.5 basis points, depending on the credit rating of our senior unsecured long-term debt published by S&P Global Ratings and Moody’s Investors Service, Inc.; or

(c)daily simple SOFR plus a 10 basis point adjustment plus a spread of 100 to 162.5 basis points, depending on the credit rating of the Company’s senior unsecured long-term debt published by S&P Global Ratings and Moody’s Investors Service, Inc.

A commitment fee is also required under the revolving credit facility which accrues at 10 to 25 basis points, depending on the credit rating of our senior unsecured long-term debt published by S&P Global Ratings and Moody’s Investors Service, Inc., on the average daily unused portion of the commitments under the revolving credit agreement.

27

As of December 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, we had outstanding borrowings of $377.9 million and $140.5 million, respectively, under the revolving credit facility. The revolving credit facility has a maturity date of October 18, 2026 and contains a financial covenant that may limit our additional borrowing capability under the agreement. As of December 30, 2023, we had the ability to borrow $421.9 million under this facility, after consideration of standby letters of credit of $0.2 million associated with certain insurance obligations. We also maintain certain short‑term bank lines of credit totaling $39.3 million, of which $36.1 million were unused as of December 30, 2023.

Our senior unsecured notes and revolving credit agreement each contain cross-default provisions which permit the acceleration of our indebtedness to them if we default on other indebtedness that results in, or permits, the acceleration of such other indebtedness.

The revolving credit facility requires maintenance of a financial leverage ratio, measured as of the last day of each of our fiscal quarters, of 3.50 or less. The leverage ratio is the ratio of: (a) interest-bearing debt minus unrestricted cash in excess of $50.0 million (but not exceeding $500.0 million) to (b) earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization, adjusted for non-cash stock-based compensation and non-cash charges or gains that are non-recurring in nature, subject to certain limitations (“Adjusted EBITDA”). The leverage ratio is permitted to increase from 3.50 to 3.75 for the four consecutive fiscal quarters after certain material acquisitions.

The revolving credit agreement also contains customary affirmative and negative covenants or credit facilities of this type, including, among others, limitations on us and our subsidiaries with respect to indebtedness, liens, mergers and acquisitions, investments, dispositions of assets, restricted payments, transactions with affiliates, and prepayments of indebtedness. The revolving credit agreement also provides for acceleration of the obligations thereunder and exercise of other enforcement remedies upon the occurrence of customary events of default (subject to customary grace periods, as applicable).

As of December 30, 2023, we were in compliance with all covenants related to these debt agreements.

The calculation of Adjusted EBITDA and the leverage ratio are presented in the tables below in Selected Financial Measures.

Cash Uses

Our principal cash requirements include working capital, capital expenditures, payments of principal and interest on our debt, payments of taxes, contributions to the pension plan, and, if market conditions warrant, occasional investments in, or acquisitions of, business ventures. In addition, we regularly evaluate our ability to pay dividends or repurchase stock, all consistent with the terms of our debt agreements.

Cash requirements for fiscal 2024 are expected to consist primarily of capital expenditures, pension plan contributions, operating leases, and interest on outstanding debt. We also have unconditional purchase commitments that relate to purchase orders for zinc, aluminum, and steel, all of which we plan to use in fiscal 2024. We believe the quantities under contract are reasonable in light of normal fluctuations in business levels and we expect to use the commodities under contract during the contract period. Total capital expenditures for fiscal 2024 are expected to be approximately $125.0 million to $140.0 million.

The following table summarizes current and long-term material cash requirements as of December 30, 2023:

Next 12

Dollars in millions

    

Months

    

Thereafter

    

Total

Long‑term debt

$

0.7

$

1,134.2

$

1,134.9

Interest1

 

57.7

 

901.3

 

959.0

Pension plan contributions

 

16.7

 

200.2

 

216.9

Operating leases

 

27.9

 

222.4

 

250.3

Total contractual cash obligations

$

103.0

$

2,458.1

$

2,561.1

1 Interest expense amount assumes that long-term debt will be held to maturity.

Our businesses are cyclical, but we have diversity in our markets from a product, customer, and a geographical standpoint. We have demonstrated the ability to effectively manage through business cycles and maintain liquidity. We have consistently generated operating cash flows in excess of our capital expenditures. Based on our available credit facilities,

28

access to capital markets, and our history of positive operational cash flows, we believe that we have adequate liquidity to meet our needs for fiscal 2024 and beyond.

We had cash balances of $203.0 million as of December 30, 2023 with approximately $162.0 million held in our non-U.S. subsidiaries. If we distributed our foreign cash balances, certain taxes would be applicable. As of December 30, 2023, we had a liability for foreign withholding taxes and U.S. state income taxes of $1.6 million and $0.8 million, respectively.

Cash Flows

The following table includes a summary of our cash flow information for the fiscal years ended December 30, 2023, December 31, 2022, and December 25, 2021:

Fiscal Year Ended

December 30,

December 31,

December 25,

Dollars in thousands

2023

    

2022

    

2021

Net cash flows provided by operating activities

$

306,775

$

326,265

$

65,938

Net cash flows used in investing activities

 

(115,281)

 

(132,080)

 

(417,308)

Net cash flows provided by (used in) financing activities

 

(176,405)

 

(181,905)

 

133,500

Operating Cash Flows and Working Capital – Cash provided by operating activities totaled $306.8 million in fiscal 2023, as compared with $326.3 million in fiscal 2022. The decrease in operating cash flows reflects cash flows generated from higher gross profits, more than offset by increases in tax and interest payments of $10.6 million and $8.9 million, respectively, and payments of severance and other employee benefit costs related to the Realignment Program totaling $22.7 million in fiscal 2023.

Investing Cash Flows – Cash used in investing activities totaled $115.3 million in fiscal 2023, as compared to $132.1 million in fiscal 2022. Investing activities in fiscal 2023 included capital spending of $96.8 million and the acquisition of HR Products, net of cash acquired, of $32.7 million partially offset by proceeds from the divestiture of Torrent Engineering and Equipment, net of cash divested, of $6.4 million, and proceeds from property damage insurance claims of $7.5 million. Investing activities in fiscal 2022 included capital spending of $93.3 million and the acquisition of a controlling ownership investment in ConcealFab for $39.3 million.

Financing Cash Flows – Cash used in financing activities totaled $176.4 million in fiscal 2023, as compared to $181.9 million in fiscal 2022. Our total interest‑bearing debt increased to $1,138.1 million as of December 30, 2023, from $878.0 million as of December 31, 2022. The financing cash used in fiscal 2023 was primarily the result of borrowings on the revolving credit agreement and short-term notes of $400.8 million, offset by principal payments on our long-term debt and short-term borrowings of $168.8 million, dividends paid of $49.5 million, the purchase of treasury shares of $345.3 million, and $12.9 million of net activity from stock option and incentive plans, including the associated withholding tax payments. The financing cash used in fiscal 2022 primarily consisted of principal payments of long-term borrowings of $336.4, offset by proceeds from long-term debt borrowings of $254.0 million, dividends paid of $45.8 million, net payments on short-term agreements of $7.6 million, the purchase of treasury shares of $40.5 million, and the purchase of redeemable noncontrolling interests of $7.3 million.

Guarantor Summarized Financial Information

We are providing the following information in compliance with Rule 3-10 and Rule 13-01 of Regulation S-X with respect to our two tranches of senior unsecured notes. All of the senior notes are guaranteed, jointly, severally, fully, and unconditionally (subject to certain customary release provisions, including sale of the subsidiary guarantor, or sale of all or substantially all of its assets) by certain of our current and future direct and indirect domestic and foreign subsidiaries (collectively the “Guarantors”). The Parent is the Issuer of the notes and consolidates all Guarantors.

The financial information of the Issuer and Guarantors is presented on a combined basis with intercompany balances and transactions between the Issuer and Guarantors eliminated. The Issuer’s or Guarantors’ amounts due from, amounts due to, and transactions with non-guarantor subsidiaries are separately disclosed.

29

Combined financial information for the fiscal years ended December 30, 2023, December 31, 2022, and December 25, 2021 was as follows:

Fiscal Year Ended

December 30,

December 31,

December 25,

Dollars in thousands

2023

    

2022

    

2021

Net sales

$

2,713,928

$

2,876,425

$

2,139,427

Gross profit

 

756,966

 

695,211

 

574,128

Operating income

 

255,401

 

268,142

 

208,041

Net earnings

 

134,831

 

167,114

 

120,655

Net earnings attributable to Valmont Industries, Inc.

 

133,300

 

167,220

 

120,458

Combined financial information as of December 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022 was as follows:

December 30,

December 31,

Dollars in thousands

2023

    

2022

Current assets

$

777,539

$

769,263

Non-current assets

 

872,016

 

925,088

Current liabilities

 

361,211

 

459,961

Non-current liabilities

 

1,436,131

 

1,189,548

Redeemable noncontrolling interests

 

10,518

 

1,612

Included in non-current assets is a due from non-guarantor subsidiaries receivable of $136,904 and $205,424 as of December 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively. Included in non-current liabilities is a due to non-guarantor subsidiaries payable of $216,633 and $200,522 as of December 30, 2023 and December 31, 2022, respectively.

Selected Financial Measures

We are including the following financial measures for the Company.

Return on Invested Capital – Return on invested capital (“ROIC”) and Adjusted ROIC are some of our key operating ratios, as they allow investors to analyze our operating performance in light of the amount of investment required to generate our operating profit. ROIC and Adjusted ROIC are also measurements used to determine management incentives. The table below shows how invested capital, ROIC, and Adjusted ROIC are calculated from our Consolidated Statements of Earnings and our Consolidated Balance Sheets. ROIC is calculated as after-tax operating income divided by the average of beginning and ending invested capital. Adjusted ROIC is calculated as after-tax operating income adjusted for the impairment of long-lived assets, realignment charges, non-recurring charges associated with the major scope changes for two strategic projects initiated by departed senior leadership, intangible asset amortization and stock-based compensation related to the Prospera subsidiary acquisition, the write-off of a receivable, and acquisition diligence then divided by the average of beginning and ending invested capital. Invested capital represents total assets minus total liabilities (excluding interest-bearing debt and redeemable noncontrolling interests). ROIC and Adjusted ROIC are non-generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) measures. Accordingly, invested capital, ROIC, and Adjusted ROIC should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for net earnings, cash flows from operations, or other income or cash flow data prepared in accordance with GAAP or as a measure of our operating performance or liquidity.

30

The calculation of these ratios for the fiscal years ended December 30, 2023, December 31, 2022, and December 25, 2021 was as follows:

    

Fiscal Year Ended

December 30,

December 31,

December 25,

Dollars in thousands

2023

2022

2021

Operating income

$

291,557

$

433,249

$

286,785

Adjusted effective tax rate1

 

38.1

%  

 

27.7

%  

 

23.6

%

Tax effect on operating income

 

(111,124)

 

(119,872)

 

(67,681)

After-tax operating income

$

180,433

$

313,377

$

219,104

Average invested capital

$

2,504,474

$

2,437,232

$

2,176,577

Return on invested capital

 

7.2

%  

 

12.9

%  

 

10.1

%

Operating income

$

291,557

$

433,249

$

286,785

Impairment of long-lived assets

140,844

27,911

Realignment charges

35,210

4,052

Other non-recurring charges

5,626

Prospera intangible asset amortization3

6,580

3,396

Prospera stock-based compensation3

9,896

5,240

Write-off of a receivable

5,545

Acquisition diligence

1,120

Adjusted operating income

$

473,237

$

449,725

$