10-K 1 wday-20220131.htm 10-K wday-20220131
FALSE2022FY0001327811P2Y00013278112021-02-012022-01-3100013278112021-07-31iso4217:USD0001327811us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2022-02-24xbrli:shares0001327811us-gaap:CommonClassBMember2022-02-2400013278112022-01-3100013278112021-01-31iso4217:USDxbrli:shares0001327811us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:CommonClassBMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:CommonClassBMember2021-01-310001327811wday:SubscriptionServicesMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811wday:SubscriptionServicesMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811wday:SubscriptionServicesMember2019-02-012020-01-310001327811wday:ProfessionalServicesMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811wday:ProfessionalServicesMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811wday:ProfessionalServicesMember2019-02-012020-01-3100013278112020-02-012021-01-3100013278112019-02-012020-01-310001327811wday:SubscriptionServicesMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811wday:SubscriptionServicesMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811wday:SubscriptionServicesMember2019-02-012020-01-310001327811wday:ProfessionalServicesMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811wday:ProfessionalServicesMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811wday:ProfessionalServicesMember2019-02-012020-01-310001327811us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811us-gaap:ResearchAndDevelopmentExpenseMember2019-02-012020-01-310001327811us-gaap:SellingAndMarketingExpenseMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:SellingAndMarketingExpenseMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811us-gaap:SellingAndMarketingExpenseMember2019-02-012020-01-310001327811us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811us-gaap:GeneralAndAdministrativeExpenseMember2019-02-012020-01-310001327811us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-01-310001327811us-gaap:CommonStockMember2019-01-310001327811us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811us-gaap:CommonStockMember2019-02-012020-01-310001327811us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2020-01-310001327811us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2019-01-310001327811us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2019-02-012020-01-310001327811us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2019-01-310001327811us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2020-01-310001327811us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2019-01-310001327811us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811us-gaap:TreasuryStockMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2020-01-310001327811us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2019-01-310001327811us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2019-02-012020-01-310001327811us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-01-310001327811us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2019-01-310001327811us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2019-02-012020-01-310001327811us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2020-01-310001327811us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2019-01-310001327811us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-01-3100013278112020-01-3100013278112019-01-310001327811us-gaap:PrepaidExpensesAndOtherCurrentAssetsMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:PrepaidExpensesAndOtherCurrentAssetsMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:PrepaidExpensesAndOtherCurrentAssetsMember2020-01-310001327811us-gaap:OtherNoncurrentAssetsMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:OtherNoncurrentAssetsMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:OtherNoncurrentAssetsMember2020-01-31wday:segment0001327811srt:MinimumMemberwday:SubscriptionServicesMember2021-02-012022-01-31wday:variableInterestEntity0001327811us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2021-02-012022-01-31xbrli:pure0001327811us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202006Memberus-gaap:RetainedEarningsMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2021-02-010001327811us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202006Memberus-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMembersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2021-02-010001327811us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202006Membersrt:CumulativeEffectPeriodOfAdoptionAdjustmentMember2021-02-010001327811us-gaap:USTreasurySecuritiesMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:CorporateBondSecuritiesMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:CommercialPaperMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMember2022-01-310001327811wday:MarketableSecuritiesMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:USTreasurySecuritiesMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:CorporateBondSecuritiesMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:CommercialPaperMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMember2021-01-310001327811wday:MarketableSecuritiesMember2021-01-31wday:security0001327811us-gaap:OtherAssetsMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:OtherAssetsMember2021-01-3100013278112021-06-012022-01-310001327811wday:MarketableSecuritiesMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811wday:ZimitIncMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811wday:ScoutRFPMember2019-02-012020-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USTreasurySecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USTreasurySecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USTreasurySecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USTreasurySecuritiesMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:CorporateBondSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:CorporateBondSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:CorporateBondSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:CorporateBondSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:CommercialPaperMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:CommercialPaperMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:CommercialPaperMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:CommercialPaperMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USTreasurySecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USTreasurySecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USTreasurySecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:USTreasurySecuritiesMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:USGovernmentAgenciesDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:CorporateBondSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:CorporateBondSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:CorporateBondSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:CorporateBondSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:CommercialPaperMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:CommercialPaperMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:CommercialPaperMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:CommercialPaperMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:MoneyMarketFundsMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberwday:TermLoanMember2020-04-300001327811wday:CreditAgreementMemberus-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMemberus-gaap:LineOfCreditMember2020-04-300001327811us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberwday:TermLoanMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberwday:TermLoanMember2021-01-310001327811wday:CreditAgreementMemberus-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2022-01-310001327811wday:CreditAgreementMemberus-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2021-01-310001327811wday:TwoThousandandTwentyTwoSeniorNotesMemberus-gaap:ConvertibleDebtMember2017-09-300001327811wday:TwoThousandandTwentyTwoSeniorNotesMember2021-01-310001327811wday:TwoThousandandTwentyTwoSeniorNotesMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberwday:TwoThousandandTwentyTwoSeniorNotesMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberwday:TwoThousandandTwentyTwoSeniorNotesMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:TechnologyEquipmentMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:TechnologyEquipmentMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:BuildingMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:BuildingMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:LeaseholdImprovementsMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:LandAndLandImprovementsMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:LandAndLandImprovementsMember2021-01-310001327811wday:FurnitureFixturesAndTransportationEquipmentMember2022-01-310001327811wday:FurnitureFixturesAndTransportationEquipmentMember2021-01-310001327811srt:AffiliatedEntityMemberus-gaap:AirTransportationEquipmentMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811srt:AffiliatedEntityMemberwday:PleasantonCaliforniaMember2021-02-012021-04-300001327811wday:VNDLYMember2021-12-212021-12-210001327811us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberwday:VNDLYMember2021-12-212021-12-210001327811us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberwday:VNDLYMember2021-12-210001327811wday:VNDLYMember2021-12-210001327811us-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMemberwday:VNDLYMember2021-12-212021-12-210001327811us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMemberwday:VNDLYMember2021-12-212021-12-210001327811wday:ZimitIncMember2021-09-282021-09-280001327811wday:ZimitIncMemberus-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2021-09-282021-09-280001327811wday:ZimitIncMemberus-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2021-09-282021-09-280001327811wday:ZimitIncMember2021-09-280001327811wday:ZimitIncMember2021-09-270001327811wday:PeakonApSMember2021-03-092021-03-090001327811wday:PeakonApSMemberus-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2021-03-092021-03-090001327811wday:PeakonApSMember2021-03-090001327811us-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMemberwday:PeakonApSMember2021-03-092021-03-090001327811us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMemberwday:PeakonApSMember2021-03-092021-03-090001327811us-gaap:OrderOrProductionBacklogMemberwday:PeakonApSMember2021-03-092021-03-090001327811us-gaap:TradeNamesMemberwday:PeakonApSMember2021-03-092021-03-090001327811wday:ScoutRFPMember2019-12-092019-12-090001327811wday:ScoutRFPMember2019-12-090001327811us-gaap:TradeNamesMemberwday:ScoutRFPMember2019-12-092019-12-090001327811us-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMemberwday:ScoutRFPMember2019-12-092019-12-090001327811us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMemberwday:ScoutRFPMember2019-12-092019-12-090001327811us-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2019-05-012019-07-3100013278112019-05-012019-07-310001327811us-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:DevelopedTechnologyRightsMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:CustomerRelationshipsMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:TradeNamesMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:TradeNamesMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:OrderOrProductionBacklogMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:OrderOrProductionBacklogMember2021-01-310001327811wday:AcquiredIntangibleAssetsMember2022-01-310001327811wday:AcquiredIntangibleAssetsMember2021-01-310001327811wday:AcquiredIntangibleAssetsMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811wday:AcquiredIntangibleAssetsMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811wday:AcquiredIntangibleAssetsMember2019-02-012020-01-310001327811wday:PatentedTechnologyandOtherIntangibleAssetsNetMember2022-01-310001327811wday:PatentedTechnologyandOtherIntangibleAssetsNetMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:LongMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:LongMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:ShortMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:ShortMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMembersrt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:LongMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:LongMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:ShortMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:ShortMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMemberus-gaap:PrepaidExpensesAndOtherCurrentAssetsMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMemberus-gaap:PrepaidExpensesAndOtherCurrentAssetsMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:OtherNoncurrentAssetsMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:OtherNoncurrentAssetsMemberus-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:NondesignatedMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMemberus-gaap:PrepaidExpensesAndOtherCurrentAssetsMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:NondesignatedMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMemberus-gaap:PrepaidExpensesAndOtherCurrentAssetsMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:OtherNoncurrentAssetsMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:OtherNoncurrentAssetsMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMemberwday:AccruedLiabilitiesCurrentMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMemberwday:AccruedLiabilitiesCurrentMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:OtherNoncurrentLiabilitiesMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:DesignatedAsHedgingInstrumentMemberus-gaap:OtherNoncurrentLiabilitiesMemberus-gaap:CashFlowHedgingMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:NondesignatedMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMemberwday:AccruedLiabilitiesCurrentMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:NondesignatedMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMemberwday:AccruedLiabilitiesCurrentMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:OtherNoncurrentLiabilitiesMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:OtherNoncurrentLiabilitiesMemberus-gaap:NondesignatedMemberus-gaap:ForeignExchangeForwardMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:SalesMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:SalesMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811us-gaap:SalesMember2019-02-012020-01-310001327811us-gaap:NonoperatingIncomeExpenseMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:NonoperatingIncomeExpenseMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811us-gaap:NonoperatingIncomeExpenseMember2019-02-012020-01-310001327811wday:CounterpartyAMember2022-01-310001327811wday:CounterpartyBMember2022-01-310001327811wday:CounterpartyCMember2022-01-310001327811wday:CounterpartyDMember2022-01-310001327811wday:CounterpartyEMember2022-01-310001327811wday:TermLoanMember2022-01-310001327811wday:TermLoanMember2021-01-310001327811wday:CreditAgreementMemberus-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2020-04-300001327811us-gaap:BaseRateMembersrt:MinimumMemberwday:CreditAgreementMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:BaseRateMemberwday:CreditAgreementMembersrt:MaximumMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811srt:MinimumMemberwday:CreditAgreementMemberus-gaap:LondonInterbankOfferedRateLIBORMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811wday:CreditAgreementMemberus-gaap:LondonInterbankOfferedRateLIBORMembersrt:MaximumMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811wday:CreditAgreementMemberus-gaap:FederalFundsEffectiveSwapRateMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811wday:CreditAgreementMemberus-gaap:LondonInterbankOfferedRateLIBORMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811wday:CreditAgreementMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberwday:TermLoanMember2020-04-022020-04-020001327811us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberwday:TermLoanMember2020-07-132020-07-130001327811us-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberwday:TermLoanMember2020-04-022022-01-310001327811srt:ScenarioForecastMemberus-gaap:UnsecuredDebtMemberwday:TermLoanMember2022-02-012025-04-020001327811us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:RevolvingCreditFacilityMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberwday:TwoThousandandTwentyTwoSeniorNotesMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberwday:TwoThousandandTwentyTwoSeniorNotesMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:CommonClassAMemberwday:TwoThousandandTwentyTwoSeniorNotesMemberus-gaap:ConvertibleDebtMember2022-01-310001327811wday:TwoThousandandTwentyTwoSeniorNotesMemberus-gaap:ConvertibleDebtMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811wday:ConvertibleSeniorNotesMemberwday:DebtConversionOptionOneMemberus-gaap:ConvertibleDebtMember2021-02-012022-01-31wday:trading_day0001327811wday:DebtConversionOptionTwoMemberwday:ConvertibleSeniorNotesMemberus-gaap:ConvertibleDebtMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811wday:DebtConversionOptionTwoMemberwday:ConvertibleSeniorNotesMembersrt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:ConvertibleDebtMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811wday:TwoThousandandTwentyTwoSeniorNotesMemberus-gaap:ConvertibleDebtMember2022-01-310001327811wday:TwoThousandAndTwentySeniorNotesMemberus-gaap:ConvertibleDebtMember2013-06-300001327811wday:TwoThousandAndTwentySeniorNotesMember2013-06-300001327811wday:TwoThousandAndTwentySeniorNotesMemberus-gaap:ConvertibleDebtMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811wday:TwoThousandAndTwentySeniorNotesMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:ConvertibleDebtMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811wday:TwoThousandAndTwentySeniorNotesMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:ConvertibleDebtMember2022-01-310001327811wday:TwoThousandAndTwentySeniorNotesMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMemberus-gaap:ConvertibleDebtMember2020-05-012020-07-310001327811wday:WarrantsExpiresIn2023Member2022-01-310001327811wday:WarrantsExpiresIn2023Member2021-02-012022-01-310001327811wday:WarrantsExpiresIn2020Member2022-01-310001327811wday:WarrantsExpiresIn2020Member2021-02-012022-01-310001327811wday:TwoThousandAndTwentySeniorNotesMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMember2020-08-012021-01-310001327811wday:TwoThousandAndTwentySeniorNotesMemberus-gaap:CommonClassAMember2021-01-310001327811srt:MinimumMember2022-01-310001327811srt:MaximumMember2022-01-310001327811srt:AffiliatedEntityMemberwday:PleasantonCaliforniaMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811srt:AffiliatedEntityMemberwday:PleasantonCaliforniaMember2021-01-310001327811srt:AffiliatedEntityMemberwday:PleasantonCaliforniaMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811srt:AffiliatedEntityMemberwday:PleasantonCaliforniaMember2019-02-012020-01-310001327811wday:ThirdPartyHostedInfrastructurePlatformsMember2022-01-310001327811wday:OtherPurchaseObligationsMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2021-02-012022-01-31wday:vote0001327811us-gaap:CommonClassBMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811wday:TwoThousandTwelveEquityIncentivePlanMember2022-01-310001327811wday:EmployeeStockPurchasePlanMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2021-01-310001327811us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811us-gaap:RestrictedStockUnitsRSUMember2019-02-012020-01-310001327811wday:VestingMarch152022Memberus-gaap:PerformanceSharesMemberwday:NonExecutiveEmployeesMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811wday:VestingMarch152022Memberus-gaap:PerformanceSharesMemberwday:NonExecutiveEmployeesMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMemberwday:VestingMarch152021Memberwday:NonExecutiveEmployeesMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811us-gaap:PerformanceSharesMemberwday:VestingMarch152021Memberwday:NonExecutiveEmployeesMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:StockOptionMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811us-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2019-02-012020-01-310001327811srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2022-01-310001327811srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2022-01-310001327811srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2021-01-310001327811srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2021-01-310001327811srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2020-01-310001327811srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:EmployeeStockMember2020-01-310001327811wday:SubscriptionServicesMember2022-01-310001327811wday:SubscriptionServicesMember2022-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:DomesticCountryMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:StateAndLocalJurisdictionMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:ForeignCountryMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:ResearchMemberus-gaap:DomesticCountryMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:ResearchMemberus-gaap:StateAndLocalJurisdictionMember2022-01-310001327811us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811us-gaap:CommonClassBMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811us-gaap:CommonClassAMember2019-02-012020-01-310001327811us-gaap:CommonClassBMember2019-02-012020-01-310001327811us-gaap:StockCompensationPlanMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:StockCompensationPlanMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811us-gaap:StockCompensationPlanMember2019-02-012020-01-310001327811us-gaap:ConvertibleDebtMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:ConvertibleDebtMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811us-gaap:ConvertibleDebtMember2019-02-012020-01-310001327811us-gaap:WarrantMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:WarrantMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811us-gaap:WarrantMember2019-02-012020-01-31wday:market0001327811country:US2021-02-012022-01-310001327811country:US2020-02-012021-01-310001327811country:US2019-02-012020-01-310001327811us-gaap:NonUsMember2021-02-012022-01-310001327811us-gaap:NonUsMember2020-02-012021-01-310001327811us-gaap:NonUsMember2019-02-012020-01-310001327811country:US2022-01-310001327811country:US2021-01-310001327811country:IE2022-01-310001327811country:IE2021-01-310001327811wday:OtherGeographicalAreasMember2022-01-310001327811wday:OtherGeographicalAreasMember2021-01-31
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
 
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended January 31, 2022
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For transition period from                     to                     
Commission File Number 001-35680
 
WORKDAY, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware20-2480422
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
6110 Stoneridge Mall Road
Pleasanton, California 94588
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)

(925) 951-9000
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, par value $0.001
WDAY
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
(Nasdaq Global Select Market)
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act:
None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933 (“Securities Act”).    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (“Exchange Act”).    Yes  ¨    No  ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ý    No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes  ý   No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerýAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  ý
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting stock of the registrant as of July 31, 2021 (based on a closing price of $234.40 per share) held by non-affiliates was approximately $44.7 billion. As of February 24, 2022, there were approximately 196 million shares of the registrant’s Class A common stock, net of treasury stock, and 55 million shares of the registrant’s Class B common stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (“Proxy Statement”), to be filed within 120 days of the registrant’s fiscal year ended January 31, 2022, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K where indicated. Except with respect to information specifically incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K, the Proxy Statement is not deemed to be filed as part of this Form 10-K.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
 PART I 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
PART III
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
PART IV
Item 15.
Item 16.


PART I
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This report contains forward-looking statements, which are subject to safe harbor protection under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements contained in this report other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding our future operating results and financial position, business strategy and plans, and objectives for future operations, are forward-looking statements. The words believe, may, will, estimate, continue, anticipate, intend, expect, seek, plan, and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations, beliefs, and projections about future events, conditions, and trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, operating results, business strategy, short-term and long-term business operations and objectives, and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties, assumptions, and changes in circumstances that are difficult to predict and many of which are outside of our control, including those arising from the impact of the coronavirus pandemic (“COVID-19 pandemic”), as well as those described in the Risk Factors section, which we encourage you to read carefully. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make.
In light of these risks, uncertainties, assumptions, and potential changes in circumstances, the future events, conditions, and trends discussed in this report may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied by the forward-looking statements. Accordingly, you should not rely upon any forward-looking statements. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activities, performance, or achievements. We are under no duty to update any of these forward-looking statements after the date of this report or to conform these statements to actual results or revised expectations, except as required by applicable law. If we do update any forward-looking statements, no inference should be drawn that we will make additional updates with respect to those or other forward-looking statements.
As used in this report, the terms Workday, registrant, we, us, and our mean Workday, Inc. and its subsidiaries unless the context indicates otherwise.
Our fiscal year ends on January 31. References to fiscal 2022, for example, refer to the year ended January 31, 2022.
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Overview
Workday is a leading provider of enterprise cloud applications for finance and human resources, helping customers adapt and thrive in a changing world. Workday provides more than 9,500 organizations with software-as-a-service solutions to help solve some of today’s most complex business challenges, including supporting and empowering their workforce, managing their finances and spend in an ever-changing environment, and planning for the unexpected.
Our purpose is to inspire a brighter work day for all. We strive to make the world of work and business better, and hope to empower customers to do the same through an innovative suite of solutions adopted by thousands of organizations around the world and across industries – from medium-sized businesses to more than 50% of the Fortune 500. Central to our purpose is a set of core values – with our employees as number one – followed by customer service, innovation, integrity, fun, and profitability. We believe that having happy employees leads to happy customers, and we are committed to helping our customers drive their digital transformations in this increasingly dynamic business environment.
As organizations adapt to changing conditions, we believe the need for an intuitive, scalable, and secure platform that ties finance, people, suppliers, and plans together in one version of truth is more important than ever. Workday provides organizations with a unified system that can help them plan, execute, analyze, and extend to other applications and environments, thereby helping them continuously adapt how they manage their business and operations. To support this, Workday delivers weekly product updates in addition to major feature releases twice a year. Through this model, Workday customers are able to stay current as one Workday community all on the same version of software that features a unified data and security model and rich user experience. We sell our solutions worldwide primarily through direct sales. We also offer professional services, both directly and through our Workday Services Partners, to help customers deploy our solutions and continually adopt new capabilities.
1

To grow our unified suite of Workday applications, we primarily invest in research and development, but we also selectively acquire companies that are consistent with our design principles, existing product set, corporate strategy, and company culture. For example, in fiscal 2022, we acquired Peakon ApS (“Peakon”), a continuous listening platform that captures real-time employee sentiment; Zimit, a configure, price, quote (“CPQ”) solution built for services industries; and VNDLY, a cloud-based external workforce and vendor management technology; and in fiscal 2020, we acquired Scout RFP (“Scout”), a strategic sourcing company.
Our Capabilities
Workday’s suite of enterprise cloud applications addresses the evolving needs of the chief financial officer (“CFO”), chief human resources officer (“CHRO”), and chief information officer (“CIO”) across various industries. Workday applications for Financial Management, Spend Management, Human Capital Management (“HCM”), Planning, and Analytics and Benchmarking can also be extended to other applications and environments through the Workday Cloud Platform.
Financial Management: Solutions for the Office of the CFO
In the changing world of finance, Workday helps finance leaders accelerate their journeys towards becoming a truly digital finance operation by giving them the tools they need to manage the strategic direction of their organizations while also supporting growth, profitability, and compliance and regulatory requirements. Workday’s suite of financial management applications helps enable CFOs to maintain accounting information in the general ledger; manage core financial processes such as payables and receivables; identify real-time financial, operational, and management insights; improve financial consolidation; reduce time-to-close; promote internal control and auditability; and achieve consistency across global finance operations.
Spend Management: Solutions for the Office of the CFO
As businesses adapt to changing conditions, Workday provides procurement professionals with tools to support them through the source-to-contract process, such as a user experience designed for ease and collaboration. Workday offers a set of cloud spend management solutions that help organizations streamline supplier selection and contracts, manage indirect spend, and build and execute sourcing events, such as requests for proposals.
Human Capital Management: Solutions for the Office of the CHRO
In the changing world of human resources (“HR”), Workday helps organizations identify and respond to rapidly changing conditions, whether they stem from shifting talent needs or a renewed focus on belonging and diversity. Workday’s suite of HCM applications allows organizations to manage the entire employee lifecycle – from recruitment to retirement – enabling HR teams to hire, onboard, pay, develop and reskill, and provide meaningful employee experiences that are personalized and helpful, based on listening to the diverse needs of today’s workforce.
Planning: Solutions for the Offices of the CFO and CHRO
In today’s dynamic business environment, businesses are continuously planning to model various scenarios and prepare to quickly respond to change. Workday provides an active planning process that can model across finance, workforce, sales, and operational data, helping organizations make more informed decisions and respond quickly to changing situations. When combined with Workday’s financial management and HCM solutions, organizations are able to leverage real-time transactional data to dynamically adjust and recalibrate their plans.
Analytics and Benchmarking and Workday Cloud Platform: Solutions for the Offices of the CIO, CFO, and CHRO
In the changing world of work, Workday helps leaders make sense of the vast amount of data they collect enterprise-wide. For example, information technology (“IT”) leaders are navigating the complexities of supporting employees in new environments, which requires them to deploy an adaptable, secure architecture to help ensure global continuity and productivity while remaining agile. Workday provides applications for analytics and reporting, including augmented analytics to surface insights to the line of business in simple-to-understand stories, machine learning to drive efficiency and automation, and benchmarks to compare performance against other organizations. In addition, Workday enables the development of extension applications and integration tooling that can accommodate our customers’ unique ways of doing business.
2

Industries: Solutions for the Offices of the CIO, CFO, and CHRO
Workday offers businesses flexible solutions to help them adapt to their industry-specific needs and respond to change. Workday’s applications serve industries such as healthcare, higher education, and professional services. For example, Workday provides supply chain and inventory solutions to healthcare organizations, allowing them to purchase, stock, track, and replenish their inventory to help support patient care. In addition, higher education institutions can deploy our solution to manage the end-to-end student and faculty lifecycle. Moreover, with our solution, professional services organizations can optimize and manage their client-facing projects.
Product Development
At Workday, innovation is a core value. Our culture encourages out-of-the-box thinking and creativity, which enables us to create applications designed to change the way people work. We invest a significant percentage of our resources in product development and are committed to rapidly building and/or acquiring new applications and solutions. Our product development organization is responsible for product design, development, testing, and certification. We focus our efforts on developing new applications and core technologies, as well as further enhancing the usability, functionality, reliability, security, performance, and flexibility of existing applications.
Human Capital
Workday was founded with the idea of putting people at the center of enterprise software, which is why employees are our number one core value. Our core values continue to serve as our guide as we navigate recent events, such as the global pandemic and the social justice movement.
As of January 31, 2022, our global workforce consisted of approximately 15,200 employees in 32 countries. We consider our relations with our employees to be very good. Our Chief People Officer, in partnership with our Chief Diversity Officer, is responsible for developing and executing Workday’s human capital strategy, including programs focused on total rewards; belonging and diversity; and employee development, engagement, and wellbeing. Our Chief People Officer and Co-CEOs regularly update our Board of Directors and Compensation Committee on human capital matters and seek their input on subjects such as succession planning, executive compensation, and our company-wide equity programs.
Total Rewards
Our compensation philosophy is designed to establish and maintain a fair and flexible compensation program that attracts and rewards talented individuals who possess the skills necessary to support our near-term objectives, create long-term value for our stockholders, grow our business, and assist in the achievement of our strategic goals. We believe that providing employees with competitive pay, ownership in the company, and a wide range of benefits is fundamental to employees feeling valued, motivated, and recognized for their contributions. Equity ownership is a key element of our compensation program, allowing employees to share in Workday’s successes and aligning the interests of our employees with our stockholders. Starting in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2022, we have extended our key employee cash bonus program to all employees not covered under an existing sales or customer experience incentive plan. Additionally, our total rewards package includes an employee stock purchase plan, healthcare and retirement benefits, paid time off, family leave, and other wellness programs. It also offers specialized benefits such as support for fertility options and new parents, as well as reimbursement of adoption costs. In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, we felt that it was important for employees to have a safe, convenient way to access healthcare and have introduced a global virtual healthcare network and onsite healthcare resources, including COVID-19 vaccine and testing drive-thru clinics and flu shot clinics, in addition to expanded healthcare benefits.
Our Commitment to Pay Parity
We believe that all employees deserve to be paid fairly and equitably and be afforded an equal chance to succeed. We have a market-based pay structure that compares our roles to those of our peers in each region. This process helps ensure we pay according to the market value of the jobs we offer. We also have processes in place to make pay decisions based on internally consistent and fair criteria. Each year, we conduct a company-wide pay equity analysis to help ensure pay equity between men and women as well as a US-based analysis with respect to people of different races. If we identify differences in pay, we research those differences and, if appropriate, take action (including making adjustments to employees’ pay when appropriate).
3

Belonging and Diversity
We strive to be a workplace where all employees are valued for their unique perspectives and where we all collectively contribute to Workday’s success and innovation. Belonging and Diversity (“B&D”) plays an integral part in that as we aim to provide our employees with programs and resources that strengthen our culture and empower our communities. In support of our efforts, we have created our own unique approach to diversity called VIBE, which stands for Value Inclusion, Belonging, and Equity for all.
To further support equity in our workplace and in our communities, we have established four guiding principles: hiring and developing diverse talent; cultivating a culture of belonging; strengthening our communities; and building inclusive products and technology. We have made solid progress towards our ongoing company commitments that map to these global guiding principles. To track progress and plan for the future, we use internally-developed products to bring diversity- and inclusion-related data into one centralized location and set our B&D strategy. Through these products, we can assess, measure, benchmark, and manage diversity and inclusion as well as empower our leaders to create B&D plans and measure performance and outcomes across areas such as hiring, development, and employee experience. Looking at our diversity data, we continue to make strides in our representation. As of January 31, 2022, women represented 41.2% of our global employees, and underrepresented minorities (defined as those who identify as Alaskan native, American Indian, Black, Latinx, Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, and/or two or more races) represent 13.7% of our U.S. employees.
Learning and Development
Our employees tell us they are most engaged when they are continuously being exposed to new things, empowered to build new skills, and able to make an impact. We offer a number of educational resources, development opportunities, and a support community to guide employees throughout their Workday careers, which we refer to as journeys. These begin right from the moment employees start at Workday, with Learning at Workday, journeys designed to help new employees onboard and get acquainted with our culture, business, and technology. These are complimented by Career Building at Workday, journeys designed to deepen expertise, grow capabilities, and make meaningful connections; Leading at Workday, journeys that help employees understand our leadership identity and prepare them to take on increasing leadership responsibilities; and The VIBE Way at Workday, journeys designed to equip and empower all employees with the tools and resources to incorporate VIBE into everything we do - from the language we use every day, to how we approach our work and each other, to the way we recruit and hire diverse talent at Workday.
Communication and Engagement
Our culture and how we treat people are paramount at Workday, and we believe that being transparent and facilitating information sharing are key to our success. Workday leverages multiple communication channels to engage and inform employees, including company meetings, town halls, internal websites, and social collaboration tools. We also use Workday Peakon Employee Voice to collect feedback in real time from our employees and turn that feedback into dialog and action. We receive data points from these surveys that help us identify actions to take to improve our company and our culture.
Buoyed by the opportunities offered by our own technology, our talent strategy philosophy puts employees at the center of their own career and performance journey. A fundamental tenet of this approach is the belief that we should provide employees with the tools and framework to enable their careers, putting them in the driver’s seat. Our talent philosophy is centered on five factors that fuel employee success: enable contribution, grow capabilities, empower career, deepen connections, and align compensation and recognition.
Our talent and performance dashboard includes a summary of an employee’s five factors and provides a snapshot view of performance-related tasks, with a visual summary of goals, feedback, and growth opportunities. Employees can take action to update their contributions, capabilities, career, and connections using the quick links provided in the dashboard.
Health, Safety, and Wellbeing
At Workday, we take a holistic approach to our employees’ wellbeing and have created wellbeing programs that focus on four core pillars: happiness, health, movement, and nutrition. These programs go beyond traditional medical benefits and wellness offerings and allow employees to focus on their chosen wellness goals as well as their mental health.
4

Specific to the COVID-19 pandemic, we continue to take precautions to help support the health and safety of the Workday community, including our employees. As part of our support in fiscal 2022, we announced that the majority of employees will not be required to return to their Workday office before April 2022, introduced flexible work options, enhanced the healthcare resources provided to our employees, and offered new employees a $500 equipment stipend to enable them to have a comfortable work-from-home environment. To help keep health and mental wellness top of mind, we offer a series of programs and communications focused on mental health. These included tools and resources related to sleep, healthy eating, and mindfulness, as well as enhancements to our Employee Assistance Program to, among other things, facilitate access to mental health services.
Our Global Workplace Safety team supports the traditional corporate areas of employee health and safety and physical security for Workday on a global scale. From the workplace to work-related travel, we strive to keep our employees safe with programs including safety awareness training, emergency response protocols, and our ergonomics and life safety team programs.
Giving and Doing
We believe that talent is everywhere, but opportunity is not. In support of our efforts to give back to the communities where we live and work, our employees donate time and expertise as mentors and volunteers to help close the skills gap. We also invest in leading workforce development organizations and provide direct training and employment opportunities for candidates facing barriers to employment through our Opportunity Onramps programs. On top of our strategic, company-led social impact and employee volunteerism efforts, we also believe that giving back is even more rewarding when people get to make an impact through their favorite causes. We encourage and support employee giving and volunteering through programs such as our charitable donation matching gift program, our paid time off benefit for employees to volunteer and give back to their communities, and our team volunteer experience, where employee teams of five or more can volunteer with a charity partner of their choice and receive a $5,000 grant.
Customers
We primarily sell to medium-sized and large, global organizations that span numerous industry categories, including professional and business services, financial services, healthcare, education, government, technology, media, retail, and hospitality.
We have built a company culture centered around customer success and satisfaction. As part of their subscription, customers are provided support services and tools to enhance their experience with Workday applications. This includes 24/7 support; training; a Customer Success Management group to assist customers in production; and Workday Community, an online portal where customers can collaborate and share knowledge and best practices. Additionally, we offer extensive customer training opportunities and a professional services ecosystem of experienced Workday consultants and system integrators to help customers not only achieve a timely adoption of Workday but continue to get value out of our applications over the life of their subscription.
Sales and Marketing
We sell our subscription contracts and related services globally, primarily through our direct sales organization, which consists of field sales and field sales support personnel. The Workday Field Sales team is aligned by geography, industry, and/or prospect size. We generate customer leads, accelerate sales opportunities, and build brand awareness through our marketing programs and strategic relationships. Our marketing programs target senior business leaders, including CFOs, CHROs, and CIOs.
As a core part of our sales and marketing strategy, we have developed a global ecosystem of partners to both broaden and complement our application offerings and to provide services that are outside of our area of focus. These relationships include software and technology partners, consulting and deployment service providers, business process outsourcing partners, and software partners of Workday Ventures, our strategic investment arm, who all help enable Workday to address the challenges our customers face while focusing on executing against our strategy.
Seasonality
We have experienced seasonality in terms of when we enter into customer agreements for our services. Historically, we have signed a significantly higher percentage of agreements with new customers, as well as renewal agreements with existing customers, in the fourth quarter of each fiscal year due to large enterprise account buying patterns. Although these seasonal factors are common in the technology industry, historical patterns should not be considered a reliable indicator of our future sales activity or performance.
5

Competition
The overall market for enterprise application software is rapidly evolving, highly competitive, and subject to changing technology, shifting customer needs, and frequent introductions of new products. We currently compete with large, well-established, enterprise application software vendors, such as Oracle Corporation (“Oracle”) and SAP SE (“SAP”). We also face competition from other enterprise software vendors, from regional competitors that only operate in certain geographic markets, and from vendors of specific applications that address only one or a portion of our applications, some of which offer cloud-based solutions. These vendors include UKG Inc. (formerly The Ultimate Software Group, Inc.); Automatic Data Processing, Inc.; Infor, Inc.; Ceridian HCM Holding Inc.; Microsoft Corporation; Anaplan, Inc.; and Coupa Software Inc.
In addition, other cloud companies that provide services in different markets may develop applications or acquire companies that operate in our target markets, and some potential customers may elect to develop their own internal applications. However, the domain and industry expertise that is required for a successful solution in the areas of financial management, HCM, and analytics may inhibit new entrants that are unable to invest the necessary capital to accurately address global requirements and regulations. We expect continued consolidation in our industry that could lead to significantly increased competition.
We believe the principal competitive factors in our markets include:
level of customer satisfaction and quality of customer references;
speed to deploy and ease of use;
breadth and depth of application functionality;
total cost of ownership;
brand awareness and reputation;
adaptive technology platform;
capability for configuration, integration, security, scalability, and reliability of applications;
operational excellence to ensure system availability, scalability, and performance;
ability to innovate and rapidly respond to customer needs;
domain and industry expertise in applicable laws and regulations;
size of customer base and level of user adoption;
customer confidence in financial stability and future viability; and
ability to integrate with legacy enterprise infrastructure and third-party applications.
We believe that we compete favorably based on these factors. Our ability to remain competitive will largely depend on our ongoing performance in product development and customer support.
For more information regarding the competitive risks we face, see “Risk Factors” included in Part I, Item 1A of this report.
Intellectual Property
We rely on a combination of trade secrets, patents, copyrights, and trademarks, as well as contractual protections, to establish and protect our intellectual property rights. We require our employees, contractors, consultants, suppliers, and other third parties to enter into confidentiality and proprietary rights agreements, and we control access to software, documentation, and other proprietary information. Although we rely on intellectual property rights, including trade secrets, patents, copyrights, and trademarks, as well as contractual protections and controls to establish and protect our proprietary rights, we believe that factors such as the technological and creative skills of our personnel; creation of new products, features and functionality; and frequent enhancements to our applications are more essential to establishing and maintaining our technology leadership position.
Governmental Regulation
As a public company with global operations, we are subject to various federal, state, local, and foreign laws and regulations. These laws and regulations, which may differ among jurisdictions, include, among others, those related to financial and other disclosures, accounting standards, privacy and data protection, intellectual property, corporate governance, tax, government contracting, trade, antitrust, employment, immigration and travel, import/export, and anti-corruption. There is no assurance that existing or future laws and regulations applicable to our operations, products, and services will not have a material adverse effect on our business. Presently, costs and accruals incurred to comply with these governmental regulations are not material to our financial condition or operating results.
6

Privacy and Data Protection Laws
Our customers can use our applications to collect, use, and store personal data regarding a variety of individuals in connection with their operations, including but not limited to their employees, contractors, students, job applicants, customers, and suppliers. National, state, and local governments and agencies in the countries in which we or our customers operate have adopted, are considering adopting, or may adopt laws and regulations regarding the collection, use, storage, transfer, processing, protection, and disclosure of personal data. Additionally, we may need to develop features, enhancements, or modifications to our products to help our customers comply with the privacy and data protection laws in their jurisdictions. The costs of compliance with and other burdens imposed by such laws, regulations, and standards, or any alleged or actual violation, may limit the use and adoption of our services, reduce overall demand for our services, lead to significant fines, penalties, or liabilities for noncompliance, slow the pace at which we close sales transactions, require us to divert development and other resources, or result in reputational harm or other adverse impacts to our business. Moreover, if we or our sub-processors fail to report a data breach or other loss of data within timeframes mandated by law, we may be liable for certain fines, penalties, and other liabilities, and it may damage our reputation and brand.
For a further discussion of the risks associated with government regulations that may materially impact us, see “Risk Factors” included in Part I, Item 1A of this report.
Corporate Information
We were incorporated in March 2005 in Nevada, and in June 2012, we reincorporated in Delaware. Our principal executive offices are located at 6110 Stoneridge Mall Road, Pleasanton, California 94588, and our telephone number is (877) WORKDAY. Our website address is www.workday.com. The information on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not part of this report. Workday, the Workday logo, VIBE, Peakon, Zimit, VNDLY, Scout, and Opportunity Onramps are trademarks of Workday, Inc., which may be registered in the United States and elsewhere. Other trademarks, service marks, or trade names appearing in this report are the property of their respective owners.
Available Information
Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), and all amendments to these filings, can be obtained free of charge from our website at www.workday.com/sec-filings. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov. Workday also uses its blogs.workday.com website as a means of disclosing material non-public information and for complying with its disclosure obligations under Regulation FD. Information contained on or accessible through any website reference herein is not part of, or incorporated by reference in, this Form 10-K, and the inclusion of such website addresses is as inactive textual references only.
7

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information in this report, including the consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, before making an investment decision. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that materially and adversely affect our business. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business operations, financial condition, operating results, and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. The market price of our securities could decline due to the materialization of these or any other risks, and you could lose part or all of your investment.
Summary of Risk Factors
The below summary risks provide an overview of the material risks we are exposed to in the normal course of our business activities. The below summary risks do not contain all of the information that may be important to you, and you should read these together with the more detailed discussion of risks set forth following this section, as well as elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K under the heading “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Additional risks beyond those summarized below, or discussed elsewhere in “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” may apply to our activities or operations as currently conducted or as we may conduct them in the future, or to the markets in which we currently operate or may in the future operate. Consistent with the foregoing, we are exposed to a variety of risks, including those associated with the following:
the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the resulting global economic volatility, and measures taken in response to the pandemic may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results, and earnings guidance that we may issue from time to time;
if our security measures or the security measures of our service partners are breached or unauthorized access to customer or user data is otherwise obtained, our applications may be perceived as not being secure, customers and end users may reduce the use of or stop using our applications, and we may incur significant liabilities;
if we fail to properly manage our technical operations infrastructure, including our data centers and computing infrastructure operated by third parties, experience service outages or delays in the deployment of our applications, or our applications fail to perform properly, we may be subject to liabilities and our reputation and operating results may be adversely affected;
privacy concerns and evolving domestic or foreign laws and regulations may reduce the adoption of our applications, result in significant costs and compliance challenges, and adversely affect our business and operating results;
we may lose key employees or be unable to attract, train, and retain highly skilled employees, which may adversely affect our business and future growth prospects;
the markets in which we participate are intensely competitive, and if we do not compete effectively, our operating results could be adversely affected;
our quarterly results may fluctuate significantly as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, and such fluctuations and related impacts to any earnings guidance we may issue from time to time, or any modification or withdrawal thereof, may negatively impact the value of our securities;
our brand promotion activities may not generate the customer awareness or increased revenues we anticipate, and even if they do, any increase in revenues may not offset the significant expenses we incur in building our brand;
if we are not able to realize a return on our current development efforts or offer new features, enhancements, and modifications to our products and services, our business and operating results could be adversely affected; additionally, if we are not able to realize a return on the investments we have made toward entering new markets and new lines of business, including as a result of unfavorable laws, regulations, interpretive positions, or standards governing new and evolving technologies we incorporate into our products and services, our business and operating results could be adversely affected;
if we are unable to establish or maintain our strategic relationships with third parties, or fail to successfully integrate our applications with a variety of third-party technologies, our ability to compete or grow our revenues may be impaired and our operating results may suffer;
we have acquired, and may in the future acquire, other companies, employee teams, or technologies, which could divert our management’s attention, result in additional dilution to our stockholders, and otherwise disrupt our operations and adversely affect our operating results;
if we fail to manage our growth effectively, we may be unable to execute our business plan, maintain high levels of service and operational controls, or adequately address competitive challenges;
8

if we cannot maintain our corporate culture, we may lose the innovation, teamwork, and passion that we believe contribute to our success, and our business may be harmed;
because we encounter long sales cycles when selling to large customers and we recognize subscription services revenues over the term of the contract, downturns or upturns in new sales will not be immediately reflected in our operating results and it may be difficult to predict a negative impact on our operating and financial results; additionally, our ability to predict the rate of customer subscription renewals or adoptions is limited;
our business could be adversely affected if our users are not satisfied with the deployment, training, and support services provided by us and our partners, and such dissatisfaction could damage our ability to expand the applications subscribed to by our current customers and negatively impact our ability to compete for new business;
sales to customers outside the United States or with international operations expose us to risks inherent in global operations;
we have a history of cumulative losses and we may not achieve or sustain profitability on a basis prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”) in the future;
any failure to protect our intellectual property rights domestically and internationally could impair our ability to protect our proprietary technology and our brand; additionally, we may be sued by third parties for alleged infringement of their proprietary rights or in connection with our use of open source software;
risks related to government contracts and related procurement regulations, including risks of fines and termination of such contracts by the government at any time, may adversely impact our business and operating results;
adverse litigation results could have a material adverse impact on our business;
the dual class structure of our common stock has the effect of concentrating voting control with our Co-Founders, as well as with other executive officers, directors, and affiliates, which gives our Co-Founders and other members of management control over key decisions and limits or precludes the ability of non-affiliates to influence corporate matters;
our substantial indebtedness may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results;
our convertible note hedge and warrant transactions may adversely affect the value of our Class A common stock;
Delaware law and provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws could make a merger, tender offer, or proxy contest sought by third parties difficult, thereby depressing the market price of our Class A common stock; and
the exclusive forum provision in our organizational documents may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or any of our directors, officers, or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits with respect to such claims.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
The extent to which the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the resulting global economic volatility, and measures taken in response to the pandemic will continue to impact our business, financial condition, and operating results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and difficult to predict.
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the U.S. and global economies and put unprecedented strain on governments, healthcare systems, educational institutions, businesses, and individuals around the world, the impact and duration of which is difficult to assess or predict. It is especially difficult to predict the impact on the global economic markets, which have been and will continue to be highly dependent upon the actions of governments, businesses, and other enterprises in response to the pandemic, the effectiveness of those actions, and vaccine availability, distribution, and adoption. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we have experienced volatility in the trading prices for our Class A common stock, and such volatility may continue beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. Any sustained adverse impacts from the continued spread of COVID-19 could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results, and earnings guidance that we may issue from time to time, which could have a material effect on the value of our Class A common stock.
In response to COVID-19, as many other companies have done, we temporarily closed the majority of our global offices; required most of our employees to work remotely; implemented travel restrictions; and postponed or canceled certain of our customer, industry, implementation partner, analyst, investor, and employee events, and converted other events to virtual-only experiences. As the pandemic persists, these measures could have increasingly negative effects on our employee productivity and morale, sales and marketing efforts, customer success efforts, and revenue growth rates or other financial metrics, or create operational or other challenges, any of which could adversely impact our business, financial condition, and operating results in any given period.
9

Starting in the second quarter of fiscal 2022, a limited number of employees returned to our offices in certain locations, taking into consideration government restrictions, employee safety, and health risks. Our approach may vary among geographies depending on appropriate health protocols, and may change at any time. Additionally, our efforts to reopen our offices safely may not be successful, could expose our employees to health risks, and could involve additional costs or liability. While vaccines have become widely available in certain countries, and businesses and economies have reopened, the status of global economic recovery remains uncertain and unpredictable, and will continue to be impacted by developments in the pandemic including any subsequent waves of outbreak or new variant strains of the COVID-19 virus which may require re-closures or other preventative measures. We may also continue to experience impacts to productivity and other operational and business impacts if our employees, executives, or their family members experience health issues, or if there are continued delays in our hiring and onboarding of new employees. The COVID-19 pandemic may also have long-term effects on the nature of the office environment and remote working, which may present risks for our real estate portfolio, as well as strategy, operational, talent recruiting and retention, and workplace culture challenges that may adversely affect our business. The COVID-19 pandemic could also impact our data center and computing infrastructure operations, including potential disruptions to, among other things, the supply chain required to maintain these systems, construction projects designed to expand our data center capacity, and primary vendors who provide critical products and services.
Our future revenues rely on continued demand by existing customers and the acquisition of new customers who may be subject to labor shortages and global supply chain disruptions due to the COVID-19 pandemic. During the COVID-19 pandemic, we experienced delays in purchasing decisions from prospective customers and a reduction in customer demand, particularly in the industries most impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, such as travel and hospitality. Similarly, we experienced a reduction in renewal rates, particularly within our subset of small and medium-sized planning customers, as well as reduced customer spend and delayed payments. If these conditions were to return, whether as a result of a resurgence of COVID-19 or otherwise, our business, financial condition, and operating results could be negatively impacted in future periods. While our subscription services revenues are relatively predictable in the near term as a result of our subscription-based business model, the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic may not be fully reflected in our operating results and overall financial performance until future periods.
As a federal contractor, we are subject to the U.S. Government’s Safer Federal Workforce Task Force’s guidelines on vaccination requirements for our employees (the “Federal Contractor Mandate”), which is currently on a nationwide stay by trial courts. We anticipate that if the Federal Contractor Mandate goes into effect, or if similar regulations are subsequently implemented, we would be required to comply. In addition to any federal vaccine mandates, it is possible that additional, more protective vaccine mandates may be announced by state or local jurisdictions that could impact our workforce and operations. Although we cannot predict with certainty the impact that the Federal Contractor Mandate or any other similar or related measures will have on our workforce and operations, these requirements and any future requirements may result in attrition and impede our ability to recruit and retain our workforce. Additionally, our implementation of these vaccine mandates may impact our ability to maintain satisfactory arrangements with third-party vendors and service providers, to the extent they are subject to the mandates. These measures may also result in increased labor costs and further disrupt the national supply chain, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
It is not possible for us to estimate the duration or magnitude of the adverse results of the COVID-19 pandemic and its effects on our business, financial condition, or operating results at this time, as the impact will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and difficult to predict. To the extent the COVID-19 pandemic adversely affects our business, financial condition, and operating results, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section.
10

If we fail to properly manage our technical operations infrastructure, experience service outages, undergo delays in the deployment of our applications, or our applications fail to perform properly, we may be subject to liabilities and our reputation and operating results may be adversely affected.
We have experienced significant growth in the number of users, transactions, and data that our operations infrastructure supports. We seek to maintain sufficient excess capacity in our operations infrastructure to meet the needs of all of our customers and users, as well as our own needs, and to ensure that our services and solutions are accessible within an acceptable load time. We also seek to maintain excess capacity to facilitate the rapid provision of new customer deployments and the expansion of existing customer deployments. In addition, we need to properly manage our technological operations infrastructure in order to support version control, changes in hardware and software parameters, updates, and the evolution of our applications, and to reduce infrastructure latency associated with dispersed geographic locations. However, the provision of new hosting infrastructure requires significant lead time. If we do not accurately predict our infrastructure requirements, we may experience service outages. Furthermore, if our operations infrastructure fails to scale, we may experience delays in providing service as we seek to obtain additional capacity, and no assurance can be made that we will be able to secure such additional capacity on the same or similar terms as we currently have, which could result in a significant increase in our operating costs. Moreover, any failure to scale and secure additional capacity could result in delays in new feature rollouts, reduce the demand for our applications, result in customer and end user dissatisfaction, and adversely affect our business and operating results.
We have experienced, and may in the future experience, defects, system disruptions, outages, and other performance problems, including the failure of our applications to perform properly. These problems may be caused by a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, vendor issues, software and system defects, human error, viruses, worms, security attacks (internal and external), fraud, spikes in customer usage, and denial of service issues. In some instances, we may not be able to identify the cause or causes of these performance problems within an acceptable period of time. Because of the large amount of data that we collect and process in our systems, even if we do not experience a customer outage as a result of these issues, it is possible that these issues could result in significant disruption, data loss or corruption, or cause the data to be incomplete or contain inaccuracies that our customers and other users regard as significant. Additionally, such issues may also result in vulnerabilities that could inadvertently result in unauthorized access to data. Furthermore, the availability or performance of our applications could also be adversely affected by our customers’ and other users’ inability to access the internet. For example, our customers and other users access our applications through their internet service providers. If a service provider fails to provide sufficient capacity to support our applications or otherwise experiences service outages, such failure could interrupt our customers’ and other users’ access to our applications, which could adversely affect their perception of our applications’ reliability and our revenues. In addition, certain countries have implemented or may implement legislative and technological actions that either do or can effectively regulate access to the internet, including the ability of internet service providers to limit access to specific websites or content. Other countries have attempted or are attempting to change or limit the legal protections available to businesses that depend on the internet for the delivery of their services.
Our customer agreements typically provide for monthly service level commitments. If we are unable to meet the stated service level commitments or suffer extended periods of unavailability for our applications as a result of the foregoing or otherwise, we may be contractually obligated to issue service credits or refunds to customers for prepaid and unused subscription services, our customers may make warranty or other claims against us, or we could face contract terminations, which would adversely affect our attrition rates. Any extended service outages could result in customer losses and adversely affect our reputation, business, and operating results.
Furthermore, our financial management application is essential to our and our customers’ financial planning, reporting, and compliance programs. Any interruption in our service may affect the availability, accuracy, or timeliness of such programs and as a result could damage our reputation, cause our customers to terminate their use of our applications, require us to issue refunds for prepaid and unused subscription services, require us to compensate our customers for certain losses, and prevent us from gaining additional business from current or future customers. In addition, because we use Workday’s financial management application, any problems that we experience with financial reporting and compliance could be negatively perceived by prospective or current customers and negatively impact demand for our applications.
Our errors and omissions insurance may be inadequate or may not be available in the future on acceptable terms, or at all, to protect against claims and other legal actions. In addition, our policy may not cover all claims made against us and defending a suit, regardless of its merit, could be costly and divert management’s attention.
11

We depend on data centers and computing infrastructure operated by third parties, and any disruption in these operations could adversely affect our business and operating results.
We host our applications and serve our customers from data centers located in the United States, Canada, and Europe. While we control and have access to our servers and all of the components of our network that are located in these data centers, we do not control certain aspects of these facilities, including their operation and security. The owners of these data center facilities have limited or no obligation to renew their agreements with us on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. If we are unable to renew these agreements on commercially reasonable terms, or if any of these data center operators are acquired, cease to do business, or stop providing contracted services, we may be required to transfer our servers and other infrastructure to new data center facilities, and we may incur significant costs and experience possible service interruptions in connection with doing so.
In addition, we rely upon third-party hosted infrastructure partners globally, including Amazon Web Services (“AWS”), Google LLC, and Microsoft Corporation, to serve customers and operate certain aspects of our services. Any disruption of or interference at our hosted infrastructure partners would impact our operations and our business could be adversely impacted.
Problems faced by these data center operators or hosted infrastructure partners, with the telecommunications network providers with whom we or they contract, or with the systems by which our telecommunications providers allocate capacity among their customers, including us, could adversely affect the experience of our customers or other users. In addition, any financial difficulties, such as bankruptcy, faced by these data center operators, our hosted infrastructure partners, or any of the other service providers with whom we or they contract may have negative effects on our business, the nature and extent of which are difficult to predict. These facilities may also be subject to break-ins, sabotage, intentional acts of vandalism and similar misconduct, natural catastrophic events, as well as local administrative actions (including shelter-in-place or similar orders), changes to legal or permitting requirements, and litigation to stop, limit or delay operation.
Additionally, if these data center operators or hosted infrastructure partners are unable to keep up with our needs for capacity, this could have an adverse effect on our business. Any changes in third-party service levels at these data centers or at our hosted infrastructure partners, or any errors, defects, disruptions, or other performance problems with our applications or the infrastructure on which they run, including those related to cybersecurity threats or attacks, could adversely affect our reputation and may damage our customers’ or other users’ stored files or result in lengthy interruptions in our services. Interruptions in our services might adversely affect our reputation and operating results, cause us to issue refunds or service credits to customers for prepaid and unused subscription services, subject us to potential liabilities, result in contract terminations, or adversely affect our renewal rates.
We may lose key employees or be unable to attract, train, and retain highly skilled employees.
Our success and future growth depend largely upon the continued services of our executive officers, other members of senior management, and other key employees. We do not have employment agreements with our executive officers or other key personnel that require them to continue to work for us for any specified period, and they could terminate their employment with us at any time. From time to time, there may be changes in our executive management team and to other key employee roles resulting from organizational changes or the hiring or departure of executives or other employees, which could have a serious adverse effect on our business and operating results. Moreover, if key personnel become ill due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, we may not be able to manage our business effectively and, as a result, our business and operating results could be harmed.
To execute our growth plan, we must attract, train, and retain highly qualified personnel. During this period of the “great resignation,” we have faced and may continue to face higher attrition. Our ability to compete and succeed in a highly competitive environment is directly correlated to our ability to recruit highly skilled employees, especially in the areas of product development, engineers with significant experience in designing and developing software and internet-related services, including in the areas of machine learning and artificial intelligence; for cybersecurity professionals; and for senior sales executives. The market for skilled personnel in the software industry is very competitive, and we have seen these pressures increase significantly through the COVID-19 pandemic. As we are headquartered in the San Francisco Bay Area, we face intense competition among large and small firms in the Silicon Valley market. In addition, the expansion of our sales infrastructure, both domestically and internationally, is necessary to grow our customer base and business. Identifying and recruiting qualified personnel and training them in our sales methodology, our sales systems, and the use of our software requires significant time, expense, and attention. Our business may be adversely affected if our efforts to attract and train new members of our direct sales force do not generate a corresponding increase in revenues. We have experienced, and we expect to continue to experience, difficulty in hiring and retaining employees with appropriate qualifications, and we may not be able to fill positions in desired geographic areas or at all and may not be successful in achieving the workforce growth goals on the timeline we have publicly announced or at all.
12

Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have and may offer more lucrative compensation packages than we offer. Our business may be adversely affected if we are unable to retain our highly skilled employees, especially our senior sales executives. Job candidates and existing employees carefully consider the value of the equity awards they receive in connection with their employment. If the perceived or actual value of our equity awards declines, or if the mix of equity and cash compensation that we offer is not sufficiently attractive, it may adversely affect our ability to recruit and retain highly skilled employees. Our recruiting efforts may also be limited by laws and regulations, such as restrictive immigration laws, and restrictions on travel or availability of visas (including during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic). The challenges we face in recruiting and hiring qualified personnel may be compounded by a decreased willingness of candidates to leave their current employment due to various factors including economic uncertainty caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and uncertainty regarding immigration policies. As the economic uncertainty related to the COVID-19 pandemic eases, we may face additional challenges in recruiting and retaining qualified personnel as other companies increase the pace of hiring. Additionally, job candidates may be threatened with legal action under agreements with their existing employers if we attempt to hire them, which could have a chilling effect on hiring and result in a diversion of our time and resources. We must also continue to retain and motivate existing employees through our compensation practices, company culture, and career development opportunities. Further, our current and future office environments or flexible work policies may not meet the expectations of our employees or prospective employees. If we fail to attract new personnel or to retain our current personnel, our business and future growth prospects could be adversely affected.
If we cannot maintain our corporate culture, we could lose the innovation, teamwork, and passion that we believe contribute to our success, and our business may be harmed.
We believe that a critical component of our success has been our corporate culture, as reflected in our core values: employees, customer service, innovation, integrity, fun, and profitability. We also believe that our commitment to our corporate culture, as well as our commitment to building products and services that help provide our customers with information regarding their own workforce and corporate culture, is part of the reason why our customers choose us. As we continue to grow, both organically and through acquisitions of employee teams, and develop the infrastructure associated with being a more mature public company, we will need to maintain our corporate culture among a larger number of employees who are dispersed throughout various geographic regions. Additionally, we and our stakeholders increasingly expect to have a corporate culture that embraces diversity and inclusion, and any inability to attract and retain diverse and qualified personnel may harm our corporate culture and our business. Moreover, our flexible work policies require significant action to preserve culture with some of the employee base working remotely. Furthermore, we substantially grew our employee base in fiscal 2022, and we must be able to effectively integrate, develop, and motivate a large number of new employees, while maintaining the effectiveness of our business execution and the beneficial aspects of our corporate culture. Any failure to maintain or adapt our culture could negatively affect our future success, including our ability to retain and recruit personnel and to achieve our corporate objectives, including our ability to quickly develop and deliver new and innovative products.
Our business could be adversely affected if our users are not satisfied with the deployment, training, and support services provided by us and our partners.
Our business depends on our ability to satisfy our customers and end users, both with respect to our application offerings and the professional services that are performed to help them use features and functions that address their business needs. High customer satisfaction requires that our customers undergo a successful implementation and be properly trained on our applications to effectively implement and increase their level of adoption of such applications. Implementation of our applications may be technically complicated because they are designed to enable complex and varied business processes across large organizations, integrate data from a broad and complex range of workflows and systems, and may involve deployment in a variety of environments. Incorrect or improper implementation or use of our applications could result in customer and user dissatisfaction and harm our business and operating results.
13

In order for our customers to successfully implement our applications, they need access to highly skilled and trained service professionals. Professional services may be performed by our own staff, by a third party, or by a combination of the two. Our strategy is to work with third parties to increase the breadth of capability and depth of capacity for delivery of these services to our customers, and third parties provide a majority of deployment services for our customers. The work performed by us or these third parties that we rely on, including any work related to the on-site components of deployment services requested by a customer, might be adversely impacted directly or indirectly by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, including as a result of restrictions in accessing customer sites, and by increased attrition. Additionally, if our customers’ personnel are unable to participate in deployment activities as a direct or indirect result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, this could result in delays in customer go-live dates for our applications. If customers are not satisfied with the quality and timing of work performed by us or a third party or with the type of professional services or applications delivered, or if we or a third party have not fully delivered on certain commitments made to our customers, then we could incur additional costs to address the situation, the revenue recognition of the contract could be impacted, and the dissatisfaction with our services could damage our ability to expand the applications subscribed to by our customers. We must also align our product development and professional services operations in order to ensure that customers’ evolving needs are met. Negative publicity related to our customer relationships, regardless of its accuracy, may further damage our business by affecting our ability to compete for new business with current and prospective customers both domestic and abroad.
Additionally, in order to maximize the value of our applications, we must continue to educate and train our customers and end users to develop the skills necessary to harness the power of our applications. If we are not able to effectively educate and train our users, they may choose not to renew their subscriptions, market perceptions of our company and our applications may be impaired, and our reputation and brand may suffer. Customers and other users also depend on our support organization to provision the environments used by our customers and to resolve technical issues relating to our applications. We may be unable to respond quickly enough to accommodate short-term increases in demand for support services. We may also be unable to modify the format of our support services to compete with changes in support services provided by our competitors. Increased demand for these services, without corresponding revenues, could increase costs and adversely affect our operating results. Failure to maintain high-quality technical support and training, or a market perception that we do not maintain high-quality support or training, could adversely affect our reputation, our ability to offer and sell our applications, our renewal rates, and our business and operating results.
Our future success depends on the rate of customer subscription renewals or adoptions, and our revenues or operating results could be adversely impacted if we do not achieve renewals and adoptions at expected rates or on anticipated terms.
As the markets for our applications mature, or as new competitors introduce new products or services that compete with ours, we may be unable to attract new customers at the same pace or based on the same pricing model as we have used historically. From time to time, we may also change our pricing structure, which could adversely impact demand for our products. Moreover, large customers, which are a primary focus of our sales efforts, have and may continue to request greater price concessions and delayed payment terms. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, some of our existing and potential customers deferred purchasing decisions, requested price concessions and delayed payment terms, and requested other terms and conditions. If these conditions were to return, whether as a result of a resurgence of COVID-19 or otherwise, we may be required to reduce our prices or accept onerous terms and conditions, including delayed payment terms, which could adversely affect our revenues, profitability, financial position, and cash flows in any given period. Restrictions on travel and in-person meetings have interrupted, and could continue to interrupt, our sales activity, and we cannot predict whether, for how long, or the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic may continue to have an impact. Our sales force has historically met with our customers and potential customers face-to-face when selling our solutions, and while the majority of our deployment activities are completed remotely, many of our customers may prefer to have certain deployment activities such as project initiation and go-live activities completed on-site. Attrition of key personnel at our customers has impacted and may continue to impact our direct sales efforts. Furthermore, because our future revenue growth relies, in large part, on new customer acquisition, any inability of our sales force to establish relationships with potential customers during the current environment or prospects deferring buying decisions due to the economic uncertainty, is likely to have a negative impact on our future revenue growth and other financial measures.
In addition, our customers have no obligation to renew their subscriptions for our applications after the expiration of either the initial or renewed subscription period. If we are unable to successfully educate our customers on the benefits and features of our applications, or if our customers are aware of those benefits and features but do not use them, our customers may renew for fewer elements of our applications or on different pricing terms. Our customers’ renewal rates may also decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of other factors, including their level of satisfaction with our applications and pricing, their ability to continue their operations and spending levels, and the evolution of their business. If our customers do not renew their subscriptions for our applications on similar pricing terms, our revenues may decline, and we may not be able to meet our revenue projections, which could negatively impact our business and the market price of our Class A common stock. In addition, over time the average term of our contracts could change based on renewal rates or for other reasons.
14

Our future success also depends, in part, on our ability to sell additional products to our current customers, and the success rate of such endeavors is difficult to predict, especially with regard to any new lines of business that we may introduce from time to time. This may require increasingly costly marketing and sales efforts that are targeted at senior management, and if these efforts are not successful, our business and operating results may suffer. Additionally, acquisitions of our customers by other companies have led, and could continue to lead, to cancellation of our contracts with those customers, thereby reducing the number of our existing and potential customers.
Our quarterly results may fluctuate significantly and may not fully reflect the underlying performance of our business.
Our quarterly operating results, including our revenues, subscription revenue backlog, operating margin, profitability, and cash flow, may vary significantly in the future and period-to-period comparisons of our operating results may not be meaningful. Accordingly, the results of any one quarter should not be relied upon as an indication of future performance. Our quarterly financial results may fluctuate as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, and as a result, may not fully reflect the underlying performance of our business. As discussed above, the extent to which the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the resulting global economic uncertainty, and measures taken in response to the pandemic could continue to impact our operating results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and difficult to predict. Fluctuations in our quarterly results and related impacts to any earnings guidance we may issue from time to time, including any modification or withdrawal thereof, may negatively impact the value of our securities. Additionally, as we typically sign a significantly higher percentage of agreements with new customers as well as renewal agreements with existing customers in the fourth quarter of each year, we may experience a greater impact on our business and quarterly results due to the prolonged uncertainty.
Additional factors that may cause fluctuations in our quarterly financial results include, without limitation, those listed below:
our ability to attract new customers, customer renewal rates, the financial condition and creditworthiness of our customers, and the timing and rate at which we sign agreements with customers;
the addition or loss of large customers, including through acquisitions or consolidations;
regulatory compliance costs, including research and development costs incurred to add functionality to help our customers comply with evolving privacy and data security laws;
the timing of recognition of revenues and operating expenses, including expenses related to acquisitions and potential future charges for impairment of goodwill;
the amount and timing of operating expenses related to the maintenance and expansion of our business, operations, and infrastructure;
network outages or security breaches;
general economic, market and geopolitical conditions, including the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic;
increases or decreases in the number of elements of our services or pricing changes upon any renewals of customer agreements;
the changes in payment terms and timing of customer payments and payment defaults by customers, including those impacted by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic;
changes in our pricing policies or those of our competitors and the mix of applications sold during a period;
seasonal variations in sales of our applications, which have historically been highest in our fiscal fourth quarter;
the timing and success of new application and service introductions by us or our competitors;
changes in the competitive dynamics of our industry, including consolidation among competitors, customers, or strategic partners, and the impact of strategic partnerships, acquisitions, or equity investments;
expenses related to our real estate portfolio, including our leases and data center expansion; and
changes in laws and regulations that impact our business or reported financial results, including changes in accounting principles generally accepted in the United States.
We have experienced rapid growth, and if we fail to manage our growth effectively, we may be unable to execute our business plan, maintain high levels of service and operational controls, or adequately address competitive challenges.
We have experienced rapid growth in our customers, headcount, and operations and anticipate that we will continue to expand our customer base, headcount, and operations. This growth has placed, and future growth will place, a significant strain on our management, administrative, operational, and financial infrastructure. Our success will depend in part on our ability to manage this growth effectively and to scale our operations appropriately. To manage the expected growth of our operations and personnel, we will need to continue to improve our operational, financial, and management controls as well as our reporting systems and procedures. Failure to effectively manage growth could result in difficulty or delays in deploying products and services to customers, declines in quality or customer satisfaction, increases in costs, difficulties in introducing new features, or other operational difficulties, and any of these difficulties could adversely impact our business performance and operating results.
15

If we fail to develop widespread brand awareness cost-effectively, our business may suffer.
We believe that developing and maintaining widespread positive awareness of our brand is critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our applications, retaining and attracting customers, and hiring and retaining employees. However, brand promotion activities may not generate the customer awareness or increased revenues we anticipate, and even if they do, any increase in revenues may not offset the significant expenses we incur in building our brand. Moreover, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has made it more difficult to develop and maintain positive awareness of our brand. For example, we held a virtual event, Conversations for a Changing World, in both fiscal 2021 and 2022, in place of our two largest annual customer conferences, Workday Rising and Workday Rising Europe. We also transitioned Workday Elevate, our global event series, from an in-person to digital event experience. Our shift to virtual customer, industry, partner, analyst, investor and employee events may not be as successful or showcase our products as well, and ultimately generate lower levels of customer interest, opportunities, and leads. In addition, we have and may continue to delay certain corporate advertising programs. These precautionary measures that have been adopted, particularly if extended for prolonged periods, could have increasingly negative effects on our ability to develop and maintain widespread positive awareness of our brand, which could harm our business, financial condition, and operating results. In addition, positions we take on environmental, social, governance (“ESG”), and ethical issues from time to time may impact our brand, reputation, or ability to attract or retain customers. Statements about our ESG initiatives and goals, and progress against those goals, may be based on standards for measuring progress that are still developing, internal controls and processes that continue to evolve, and assumptions that are subject to change in the future.
If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brand, or we fail to expand awareness of our newer solutions or products, we may fail to attract or retain customers necessary to realize a sufficient return on our brand-building efforts, or to achieve the widespread brand awareness that is critical for broad customer adoption of our applications. Additionally, the loss of one or more of our key customers, or a failure to renew our subscription agreements with one or more of our key customers, could significantly impair our ability to market our applications which, in turn, could have a negative impact on our revenues, reputation, and our ability to obtain new customers. In addition, if our brand is negatively impacted, it may be more difficult to hire and retain employees.
We have acquired, and may in the future acquire, other companies, employee teams, or technologies, which could divert our management’s attention, result in additional dilution to our stockholders, and otherwise disrupt our operations and adversely affect our operating results.
We have acquired, and may in the future acquire, other companies, employee teams, or technologies to complement or expand our applications, enhance our technical capabilities, obtain personnel, or otherwise offer growth opportunities. For example, we acquired Scout in fiscal 2020 and Peakon, Zimit, and VNDLY in fiscal 2022. The pursuit of acquisitions may divert the attention of management, disrupt ongoing business, and cause us to incur various expenses in identifying, investigating, and pursuing suitable acquisitions, whether or not they are consummated.
These impacts may continue through integration activities. Moreover, we may be unable to complete proposed transactions timely or at all due to the failure to obtain regulatory or other approvals, litigation, or other disputes, which may obligate us to pay a termination fee. We also may not achieve the anticipated benefits from an acquisition due to a number of factors, including:
inability to integrate the intellectual property, technology infrastructure, personnel, and operations of the acquired business, including difficulty in addressing security risks of the acquired business, or benefit from an acquisition in a profitable manner;
acquisition-related costs, liabilities, or tax impacts, some of which may be unanticipated;
difficulty in leveraging the data of the acquired business if it includes personal data;
ineffective or inadequate controls, procedures, or policies at the acquired company and increased risk of non-compliance;
multiple product lines or service offerings as a result of our acquisitions that are offered, priced, and supported differently, as well as the potential for such acquired product lines and service offerings to impact the profitability of existing products;
the opportunity cost of diverting management and financial resources away from other products, services, and strategic initiatives;
difficulties and additional expenses associated with synchronizing product offerings, customer relationships, and contract portfolio terms and conditions between Workday and the acquired business;
unknown liabilities or risks associated with the acquired businesses, including those arising from existing contractual obligations or litigation matters;
adverse effects on our brand or existing business relationships with business partners and customers as a result of the acquisition;
potential write-offs of acquired assets and potential financial and credit risks associated with acquired customers;
inability to maintain relationships with key customers, suppliers, and partners of the acquired business;
16

difficulty in predicting and controlling the effect of integrating multiple acquisitions concurrently;
lack of experience in new markets, products, or technologies;
difficulty in integrating operations and assets of an acquired foreign entity with differences in language, culture, or country-specific regulatory risks;
the inability to obtain (or a material delay in obtaining) regulatory approvals necessary to complete transactions or to integrate operations, or potential remedies imposed by regulatory authorities as a condition to or following the completion of a transaction, which may include divestitures, ownership or operational restrictions or other structural or behavioral remedies;
the failure of strategic acquisitions to perform as expected or to meet financial projections; and
use of substantial portions of our available cash to consummate the acquisition.
In addition, a significant portion of the purchase price of companies we acquire may be allocated to acquired goodwill and other intangible assets, which must be assessed for impairment at least annually. In the future, if our acquisitions do not yield expected returns, we may be required to take charges to our operating results based on this impairment assessment process, which could adversely affect our operating results.
Acquisitions could also result in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the issuance of debt, which could adversely affect our operating results. In addition, if an acquired business fails to meet our expectations, our business, operating results, and financial position may suffer.
Sales to customers outside the United States or with international operations expose us to risks inherent in global operations.
A key element of our growth strategy is to further develop our worldwide customer base. Operating globally requires significant resources and management attention and subjects us to regulatory, economic, and political risks that are different from those in the United States. Our efforts to further expand internationally may not be successful in creating additional demand for our applications outside of the United States or in effectively selling subscriptions to our applications in all of the markets we enter. Foreign regulations, including privacy and import/export regulations, are subject to change and uncertainty, including as a result of geopolitical developments, which may be amplified by the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to navigating the challenges related to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in foreign jurisdictions, we face other risks in doing business on a global scale that could adversely affect our business, including:
the need to develop, localize, and adapt our applications and customer support for specific countries, including translation into foreign languages, localization of contracts for different legal jurisdictions, and associated expenses;
the need to successfully develop and execute on a go-to-market strategy that aligns application management efforts and the development of supporting infrastructure;
stricter data privacy laws including requirements that customer data be stored and processed in a designated territory and obligations on us as a data processor;
difficulties in appropriately staffing and managing foreign operations and providing appropriate compensation for local markets;
difficulties in leveraging executive presence and company culture globally;
different pricing environments, longer sales cycles, and longer trade receivables payment cycles, and collections issues;
new and different sources of competition;
potentially weaker protection for intellectual property and other legal rights than in the United States and practical difficulties in enforcing intellectual property and other rights;
laws, customs, and business practices favoring local competitors;
restrictive governmental actions focused on cross-border trade, such as import and export restrictions, duties, quotas, tariffs, trade disputes, and barriers or sanctions that may prevent us from offering certain portions of our products or services to a particular market, may increase our operating costs or may subject us to monetary fines or penalties in case of unintentional noncompliance due to factors beyond our control;
compliance challenges related to the complexity of multiple, conflicting, and changing governmental laws and regulations, including employment, tax, privacy, intellectual property, and data protection laws and regulations;
increased compliance costs related to government regulatory reviews or audits, including those related to international cybersecurity requirements;
increased financial accounting and reporting burdens and complexities;
restrictions on the transfer of funds;
ensuring compliance with anti-corruption laws, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and UK Bribery Act;
the effects of currency fluctuations on our revenues and expenses and customer demand for our services;
the cost and potential outcomes of any international claims or litigation;
17

adverse tax consequences and tax rulings; and
unstable economic and political conditions.
Any of the above factors may negatively impact our ability to sell our applications and offer services globally, reduce our competitive position in foreign markets, increase our costs of global operations, and reduce demand for our applications and services from global customers. Additionally, the majority of our international costs are denominated in local currencies and we anticipate that over time an increasing portion of our sales contracts may be outside the U.S. and will therefore be denominated in local currencies. Additionally, global events as well as geopolitical developments, fluctuating commodity prices, trade tariff developments, and inflation have caused, and may in the future cause, global economic uncertainty, and uncertainty about the interest rate environment, which could amplify the volatility of currency fluctuations. Therefore, fluctuations in the value of foreign currencies may impact our operating results when translated into U.S. dollars. Such fluctuations may also impact our ability to predict our future results accurately. Although we have a hedging program to help mitigate some of this volatility and related risks, there can be no assurance that the hedging program will be effective in offsetting the adverse financial impacts that may result from unfavorable movements in foreign currency exchange rates, including any such movements caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
The markets in which we participate are intensely competitive, and if we do not compete effectively, our operating results could be adversely affected.
The markets for enterprise cloud applications are highly competitive, with relatively low barriers to entry for some applications or services. Some of our competitors are larger and have greater name recognition, significantly longer operating histories, access to larger customer bases, larger marketing budgets, and significantly greater resources to devote to the development, promotion, and sale of their products and services than we do. This may allow our competitors to respond more effectively than us to new or emerging technologies and changes in market conditions.
Our primary competitors are Oracle and SAP, well-established providers of financial management and HCM applications, which have long-standing relationships with many customers. Some customers may be hesitant to switch vendors or to adopt cloud applications such as ours and may prefer to maintain their existing relationships with competitors. We also face competition from other enterprise software vendors, from regional competitors that only operate in certain geographic markets, and from vendors of specific applications that address only one or a portion of our applications, some of which offer cloud-based solutions. These vendors include, without limitation: UKG Inc. (formerly The Ultimate Software Group, Inc.), Automatic Data Processing, Inc., Infor, Inc., Ceridian HCM Holding Inc., Microsoft Corporation, Anaplan, Inc., and Coupa Software Inc. In order to take advantage of customer demand for cloud applications, legacy vendors are expanding their cloud applications through acquisitions, strategic alliances, and organic development. In addition, other cloud companies that provide services in different target markets may develop applications or acquire companies that operate in our target markets, and some potential customers may elect to develop their own internal applications. As the market matures and as existing and new market participants introduce new types of technologies and different approaches that enable organizations to address their HCM and financial needs, we expect this competition to intensify in the future.
Furthermore, our current or potential competitors may be acquired by, or merge with, third parties with greater available resources and the ability to initiate or withstand substantial price competition, such as the merger between Kronos Incorporated and The Ultimate Software Group, Inc. Our competitors may also establish cooperative relationships among themselves or with third parties that may further enhance their offerings or resources. Many of our competitors also have major distribution agreements with consultants, system integrators, and resellers. If our competitors’ products, services, or technologies become more accepted than our products, if they are successful in bringing their products or services to market earlier than ours, or if their products or services are more technologically capable than ours, then our revenues could be adversely affected. In addition, our competitors may offer their products and services at a lower price, or, particularly during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, may offer price concessions, delayed payment terms, financing terms, or other terms and conditions that are more enticing to potential customers. Pricing pressures and increased competition could result in reduced sales, reduced margins, losses, or a failure to maintain or improve our competitive market position, any of which could adversely affect our business and operating results.
18

If we are not able to realize a return on our current development efforts or offer new features, enhancements, and modifications to our services that are desired by current or potential customers, our business and operating results could be adversely affected.
Developing software applications and related enhancements, features, and modifications is expensive, and the investment in product development often involves a long return on investment cycle. Accelerated application introductions and short application life cycles require high levels of expenditures that could adversely affect our operating results if not offset by revenue increases, and we believe that we must continue to dedicate a significant amount of resources to our development efforts to maintain our competitive position. However, we may not receive significant revenues from these investments for several years, if at all. Furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic could have a continuing impact on our plans to offer certain new features, enhancements, and modifications of our applications in a timely manner, particularly if we experience impacts to productivity due to our employees or their family members experiencing health issues, or as our employees continue to work remotely, or if there are continuing delays in our hiring and onboarding of new employees. If we are unable to provide new features, enhancements, and modifications in a timely and cost-effective manner that achieve market acceptance or that keep pace with rapid technological developments and changing regulatory landscapes, our business and operating results could be adversely affected. For example, we are focused on enhancing the features and functionality of our applications to improve their utility to larger customers with complex, dynamic, and global operations, or we may be required to develop new features, enhancements, or modifications to our products to support our customers’ evolving compliance obligations. Some of our larger customers may also require features and functions unique to their business processes that we do not currently offer. In order to help ensure we meet these requirements, we may devote a significant amount of technology support and professional service resources to such customers. The success of enhancements, new features, and applications depends on several factors, including their timely completion, introduction, and market acceptance as well as access to development resources and the technologies required to build and improve our applications, such as the datasets required to train our machine learning models. If we are not successful in developing these new features, enhancements, modifications, and applications, and bringing them to market timely, it may negatively impact our customer renewal rates, limit the market for our solutions, or impair our ability to attract new customers.
Our growth depends on the success of our strategic relationships with third parties as well as our ability to successfully integrate our applications with a variety of third-party technologies.
We depend on relationships with third parties such as deployment partners, technology and content providers, and other key suppliers, and are also dependent on third parties for the license of certain software and development tools that are incorporated into or used with our applications. If the operations of these third parties are disrupted, including as a direct or indirect result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, our own operations may suffer, which could adversely impact our operating results. In addition, we rely upon licensed third-party software to help improve our internal systems, processes, and controls. Identifying partners, and negotiating and documenting relationships with them, requires significant time and resources. We may be at a disadvantage if our competitors are effective in providing incentives to third parties to favor their products or services or to prevent or reduce subscriptions to our services, or in negotiating better rates or terms with such third parties. In addition, acquisitions of our partners by our competitors could end our strategic relationship with the acquired partner and result in a decrease in the number of our current and potential customers, or the support services available for third-party technology may be negatively affected by mergers and consolidation in the software industry. If we are unsuccessful in establishing or maintaining our relationships with these third parties, or in monitoring the quality of their products or performance, our ability to compete in the marketplace or to grow our revenues could be impaired and our operating results may suffer.
To the extent that our applications depend upon the successful integration and operation of third-party software in conjunction with our software, any undetected errors or defects in this third-party software, as well as cybersecurity threats or attacks related to such software, such as the Log4j vulnerability (as defined below), could prevent the deployment or impair the functionality of our applications, delay new application introductions, result in a failure of our applications, result in increased costs, including warranty and other related claims from customers, and injure our reputation. Furthermore, software may not continue to be available to us on commercially reasonable terms. Although we believe that there are commercially reasonable alternatives to the third-party software we currently license, this may not always be the case, or it may be difficult or costly to replace. Integration of new software into our applications may require significant work and require substantial investment of our time and resources.
19

We also need to continuously modify and enhance our applications to keep pace with changes in third-party internet-related hardware, iOS, Android, other mobile-related technologies, and other third-party software, communication, browser, and database technologies. We must also appropriately balance the application capability demands of our current customers with the capabilities required to address the broader market. Furthermore, uncertainties about the timing and nature of new network platforms or technologies, or modifications to existing platforms or technologies, could increase our product development expenses. Any failure of our applications to operate effectively with future network platforms and other third-party technologies could reduce the demand for our applications, result in customer and end user dissatisfaction, and adversely affect our business and operating results. We may experience difficulties in managing improvements to our systems, processes, and controls or in connection with third-party software, which could materially impair our ability to provide solutions or professional services to our customers in a timely manner, cause us to lose customers, limit us to smaller deployments of our solutions, or increase our technical support costs.
If we are not able to realize a return on the investments we have made toward entering new markets and new lines of business, our business and operating results could be adversely affected.
We continue to seek opportunities to enter into new markets and/or new lines of business, some of which we may have very limited or no experience in. As an entrant to new markets and new lines of business, we may not be effective in convincing prospective customers that our solutions will address their needs, and we may not accurately estimate our infrastructure needs, human resource requirements, or operating expenses with regard to these new markets and new lines of business. We may also fail to accurately anticipate adoption rates of these new lines of business or their underlying technology. For example, machine learning and artificial intelligence are propelling advancements in technology, but if they are not widely adopted and accepted or fail to operate as expected, our business and reputation may be harmed. Also, we may not be able to properly price our solutions in these new markets, which could negatively affect our ability to sell to customers. Furthermore, customers in these new markets or of the new lines of business may demand more features and professional services, which may require us to devote even greater research and development, sales, support, and professional services resources to such customers. If we fail to generate adequate revenues from these new markets and lines of business, or if we fail to do so within the envisioned timeframe, it could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and operating results.
Risks Related to Cybersecurity, Data Privacy, and Intellectual Property
If our security measures are breached or unauthorized access to customer or user data is otherwise obtained, our applications may be perceived as not being secure, customers and end users may reduce the use of or stop using our applications, and we may incur significant liabilities.
Our applications involve the storage and transmission of our customers’ sensitive and proprietary information, including personal or identifying information regarding our customers, their employees, customers, and suppliers, as well as financial, accounting, health, and payroll data and other sensitive information. As a result, a compromise of our applications or unauthorized access, acquisition, use, tampering, or destruction of this data, or unavailability of data, could expose us to regulatory actions, litigation, investigations, remediation and indemnity obligations, damage to our reputation and brand, supplemental disclosure obligations, loss of customer, consumer, and partner confidence in the security of our applications, destruction of information, an increase in our insurance premiums, loss of authorization under the Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (“FedRAMP”) or other authorizations, impairment to our business, and related fees, expenses, loss of revenues, and other potential liabilities. We devote significant financial and personnel resources to implement and maintain security measures and we maintain an information security risk insurance policy. While we have security measures in place that are designed to protect against these risks, preserve the integrity of customer and personal information, and prevent data loss, misappropriation, and other security breaches, our security measures may be compromised as a result of intentional misconduct, including by computer hackers, employees, contractors, or vendors, as well as software bugs, human error, technical malfunctions, or other malfeasance.
Cybersecurity threats and attacks are often targeted at companies such as ours and may take a variety of forms ranging from individuals or groups of security researchers and hackers, including those who appear to offer a solution to a vulnerability, to sophisticated organizations, including state-sponsored actors. As our market presence grows, we may face increased risks of cybersecurity attack or other security threats. Key cybersecurity risks range from viruses, worms, and other malicious software programs, phishing attacks or ransomware, to exploitation of software bugs or other defects, to “mega breaches” targeted against cloud services and other hosted software, any of which can result in disclosure of confidential information and intellectual property, defective products, production downtimes, reputational harm, compromised data, and an increase in costs to the business. As the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or sabotage systems change frequently, are becoming increasingly sophisticated and complex, and generally are not identified until they are launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these attacks or to implement adequate preventative measures.
20

There may also be attacks targeting any vulnerabilities in our applications, internally built infrastructure, enhancements, and updates to our existing offerings, or in the many different underlying networks and services that power the internet that our products depend on, most of which are not under our control or the control of our vendors, partners, or customers. Although we have developed systems and processes that are designed to protect our applications, systems, software and data, as well as customer data and other user data, and to prevent data loss and detect security breaches, there can be no assurance that such measures will be effective against all cybersecurity threats or perceived threats. In April 2021, as a result of a security breach at a software provider, a malicious third party accessed the development environment of a company we had recently acquired, Peakon, and took a copy of Peakon’s source code. We took immediate action to secure Peakon’s development environment and prevent any additional unauthorized access, as well as to confirm that no customer data had been accessed and that this incident had not impacted Workday’s production, development, or other environments or applications. Our response included engaging an external cybersecurity firm for forensic investigation and incident response, performing an internal incident investigation and code vulnerability review, alerting law enforcement, and engaging a third party to conduct a code review. These efforts may not be completely effective or eliminate potential risks from such incidents, however, and there can be no assurance that there will be no impact from this or similar incidents in the future.
In December 2021, a critical remote code execution (RCE) vulnerability was identified in the Apache Software Foundation’s Log4j software library (“Log4j”). Log4j is an open source software broadly used in Java-based applications to log security and performance information. According to public information, a bad actor can exploit the Log4j vulnerability to remotely access a vulnerable system, allowing the bad actor to then steal information, launch ransomware or conduct other malicious activity. We use Log4j in a number of our environments although to date we have found no indication that customer data or environments containing customer data have been affected. We have identified, tested, and deployed recommended mitigation techniques and currently available remediation patches against this vulnerability in our environments, and we have upgraded our firewalls and the Log4j library directly used by Workday. Despite these efforts, we expect the risk of additional vulnerabilities and potential attacks to continue for several months given the complexity of the situation and the widespread nature of the Log4j vulnerability.
Additionally, during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, and potentially beyond as remote work and resource access expand, there is an increased risk of cybersecurity-related events such as COVID-19 themed phishing attacks, exploitation of any cybersecurity flaws that may exist, an increase in the number cybersecurity threats or attacks, and other security challenges as a result of most of our employees and our service providers continuing to work remotely from non-corporate managed networks.
Furthermore, we have acquired or partnered with a number of companies, products, services, and technologies over the years, and incorporated third-party products, services and technologies in connection with our products and services. Although we devote significant resources to address any known security issues with respect to such acquisitions, partnerships, incorporated technologies, and our supply chain, we may still inherit additional risks when they are integrated within or used by Workday. In addition, if a high-profile security breach occurs with respect to an industry peer, our customers and potential customers may generally lose trust in the security of financial management, spend management, human capital management, planning, or analytics applications, or in cloud applications for enterprises in general. Any or all of these issues could negatively affect our ability to attract new customers, cause existing customers to elect to terminate or not renew their subscriptions, result in reputational damage, cause us to pay remediation and indemnity costs and/or issue service credits or refunds to customers for prepaid and unused subscription services, or result in lawsuits, regulatory fines, or other action or liabilities, which could adversely affect our business and operating results.
We rely on sophisticated information systems and technology, including those provided by third parties, for the secure collection, processing, transmission, and storage of confidential, proprietary, and personal information to support our business operations. In the past several years, supply chain attacks have increased in frequency and severity. As we are both a provider and consumer of information systems and technology, we are at higher risk of being impacted either directly or indirectly by these attacks. While we have implemented what we believe is an appropriate information security program with cybersecurity procedures, policies, practices, and controls, the control systems, cybersecurity program, infrastructure, physical facilities of, and personnel associated with third parties that we rely on are beyond our control. Although we periodically conduct audits of some of our third parties vendors, we cannot guarantee the security of and may be unable to prevent security events impacting the information technology systems of third parties that are part of our supply chain or that provide valuable services to us, which could result in the unauthorized access to or acquisition, destruction, alteration, release, theft or loss of confidential, proprietary, or personal data of Workday, our employees, our customers, or our third party partners, which could in turn disrupt our operations and ability to conduct business with customers, or otherwise adversely affect our business, operating results, reputation, or financial condition.
In the normal course of business, we are and have been the target of malicious cyber-attack attempts and have experienced other security events. Future cyber-attacks and other security events may have a significant or material impact on our business and operating results.
21

Privacy concerns, evolving regulation of cloud computing, cross-border data transfer, and other domestic or foreign laws and regulations may reduce the adoption of our applications, result in significant costs and compliance challenges, and adversely affect our business and operating results.
Legal requirements related to collecting, storing, handling, and transferring personal data are rapidly evolving at both the national and international level in ways that require our business to adapt to support customer compliance. As the regulatory focus on privacy intensifies worldwide, and jurisdictions increasingly consider and adopt privacy laws, the potential risks related to managing personal data by our business may grow. In addition, possible adverse interpretations of existing privacy-related laws and regulations by governments in countries where our customers operate, as well as the potential implementation of new legislation, could impose significant obligations in areas affecting our business or prevent us from offering certain services in jurisdictions where we operate.
Following the European Union’s (“EU”) passage of the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”), which became effective in May 2018, the global data privacy compliance landscape outside of the EU has grown increasingly complex, fragmented, and financially relevant to business operations. As a result, our business faces current and prospective risks related to increased regulatory compliance costs, government enforcement actions and/or financial penalties for non-compliance, and reputational harm. For example, in July 2020, the Court of Justice of the EU invalidated a framework called Privacy Shield for companies to transfer data from the European Economic Area to the United States. This decision led to uncertainty about the legal requirements for transferring customer personal data to and from Europe, an integral process of our business that remains governed by, and subject to, GDPR requirements. Failure to comply with the GDPR data processing requirements by either ourselves or our subcontractors could lead to regulatory enforcement actions, which can result in monetary penalties of up to 4% of worldwide revenue, private lawsuits, reputational damage, and loss of customers. The UK government is considering amending its data protection legislation. If UK data protection changes significantly from EU norms, new data flow barriers could emerge, creating costs and complexity for companies. Other countries such as Russia, China, and India have also passed or are considering passing laws imposing varying degrees of restrictive data residency requirements. Regulatory developments in the United States present additional risks. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”) took effect on January 1, 2020, and the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”), which expands upon the CCPA, was passed in November 2020 and comes into effect on January 1, 2023, with a “lookback” period to January 1, 2022. The CCPA and CPRA give California consumers certain rights similar to those provided by the GDPR, and also provide for statutory damages or fines on a per violation basis that could be very large depending on the severity of the violation. Other states have enacted, or are considering, privacy laws as well. Furthermore, the U.S. Congress is considering numerous privacy bills, and the U.S. Federal Trade Commission continues to fine companies for unfair or deceptive data protection practices and may undertake its own privacy rulemaking exercise. In addition to government activity, privacy advocacy and other industry groups have established or may establish various new, additional, or different self-regulatory standards that customers may require us to adhere to and which may place additional burdens on us. Increasing sensitivity of individuals to unauthorized processing of personal data, whether real or perceived, and an increasingly uncertain trust climate may create a negative public reaction to technologies, products and services such as ours.
Taken together, the costs of compliance with and other obligations imposed by data protection laws and regulations may require modification of our services, limit use and adoption of our services, reduce overall demand for our services, lead to significant fines, penalties, or liabilities for noncompliance, or slow the pace at which we close sales transactions, any of which could harm our business. The perception of privacy concerns, whether or not valid, may inhibit the adoption, effectiveness, or use of our applications. Compliance with applicable laws and regulations regarding personal data may require changes in services, business practices, or internal systems that result in increased costs, lower revenue, reduced efficiency, or greater difficulty competing with foreign-based firms which could adversely affect our business and operating results.
22

Any failure to protect our intellectual property rights domestically and internationally could impair our ability to protect our proprietary technology and our brand.
Our success and ability to compete depend in part upon our intellectual property. We rely on patent, copyright, trade secret and trademark laws, trade secret protection, and confidentiality or license agreements with our employees, customers, suppliers, partners, and others to protect our intellectual property rights. However, the steps we take to protect our intellectual property rights may be inadequate. While we have patent applications pending in the United States and throughout the world, we may be unable to obtain patent protection for the technology covered in our patent applications. In addition, any patents issued to us in the future may not provide us with competitive advantages or may be successfully challenged by third parties. Furthermore, legal standards relating to the validity, enforceability, and scope of protection of intellectual property rights are uncertain. Despite our precautions, it may be possible for unauthorized third parties, including those affiliated with state-sponsored actors, to copy or reverse engineer our applications, including with the assistance of insiders, and use information that we regard as proprietary to create products and services that compete with ours. Some license provisions protecting against unauthorized use, copying, transfer, and disclosure of our technology may be unenforceable under the laws of jurisdictions outside the United States. In addition, the laws of some countries do not protect proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States.
We enter into confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and consultants and enter into confidentiality agreements with the parties with whom we have strategic relationships and business alliances. No assurance can be given that these agreements will be effective in controlling access to and distribution of our applications and proprietary information. Further, these agreements do not prevent our competitors or partners from independently developing technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to our applications.
We may be required to spend significant resources to monitor and protect our intellectual property rights. Litigation brought to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could be costly, time-consuming, and distracting to management and could result in the impairment or loss of portions of our intellectual property. Furthermore, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims, and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property rights. Our failure to secure, protect, and enforce our intellectual property rights could have a serious adverse effect on our brand and business.
We may be sued by third parties for alleged infringement of their proprietary rights.
There is considerable patent and other intellectual property development activity in our industry. Our competitors, as well as a number of other entities and individuals, may own or claim to own intellectual property relating to our industry. From time to time, third parties may claim that our applications and underlying technology infringe or violate their intellectual property rights, even if we are unaware of the intellectual property rights that others may claim cover some or all of our technology or services, and we may be found to be infringing such rights. Any claims or litigation could cause us to incur significant expenses and, if successfully asserted against us, could require that we pay substantial damages or ongoing royalty payments, prevent us from offering our services, require us to change our products, technology, or business practices, or require that we comply with other unfavorable terms. We may also be obligated to indemnify our customers or business partners or pay substantial settlement costs, including royalty payments, in connection with any such claim or litigation and to obtain licenses, modify applications, or refund fees, which could be costly. In addition, we may be sued by third parties who seek to target us for actions taken by our customers, including through the use or misuse of our products. Even if we were to prevail in an intellectual property dispute, any litigation regarding our intellectual property could be costly and time-consuming and divert the attention of our management and key personnel from our business operations. Furthermore, from time to time we may introduce or acquire new products, including in areas where we historically have not competed, which could increase our exposure to patent and other intellectual property claims.
23

Some of our applications utilize open source software, and any failure to comply with the terms of one or more of these open source licenses could negatively affect our business.
Some of our applications include software covered by open source licenses, which may include, by way of example, GNU General Public License and the Apache License. The terms of various open source licenses have not been interpreted by United States courts, and there is a risk that such licenses could be construed in a manner that imposes unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to market our applications. We attempt to avoid adverse licensing conditions in our use of open source software in our products and services. However, there can be no assurance that our efforts have been or will be successful. By the terms of certain open source licenses, we could be required to release the source code of our proprietary software, and to make our proprietary software available under open source licenses, if we combine our proprietary software with open source software in a certain manner. In the event that portions of our proprietary software are determined to be impacted by an open source license, we could be required to publicly release the affected portions of our source code, re-engineer all or a portion of our technologies, or otherwise be limited in the licensing of our technologies, each of which could reduce or eliminate the value of our technologies and services. In addition to risks related to license requirements, usage of open source software can lead to greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls on the origin of the software. Many of the risks associated with usage of open source software cannot be eliminated and could negatively affect our business.
Risks Related to Legal and Regulatory Matters
Unfavorable laws, regulations, interpretive positions or standards governing new and evolving technologies that we incorporate into our products and services could result in significant cost and compliance challenges and adversely affect our business and operating results.
Some of our products and services, such as Workday’s People Experience and Talent Optimization product suites, currently utilize or will utilize new and evolving technologies such as machine learning, artificial intelligence, and blockchain. While existing laws and regulations may apply to these types of technologies, the overall regulatory environment governing these types of technologies is still currently undeveloped and likely to evolve as government interest in these technologies increases. Regulation of these technologies, as well as other technologies that we utilize in our products and services, also varies greatly among international, federal, state, and local jurisdictions and is subject to significant uncertainty. Governments and agencies domestic and abroad may in the future change or amend existing laws, or adopt new laws, regulations, or guidance, or take other actions which may severely impact the permitted uses of our technologies. Any failure by us to comply with applicable laws, regulations, guidance, or other rules could result in costly litigation, penalties, or fines. In addition, these regulations and any related enforcement actions could establish and further expand our obligations to customers, individuals, and other third parties with respect to our products and services, limit the countries in which such products and services may be used, restrict the way we structure and operate our business, require us to divert development and other resources, and reduce the types of customers and individuals who can use our products and services. Furthermore, our customers may operate in foreign jurisdictions, including countries in which we don't operate, and may be subject to additional laws and regulations outside the scope of our products. Increased regulation and oversight of products or services which utilize or rely on these technologies may result in costly compliance burdens or otherwise increase our operating costs, detrimentally affecting our business. These new technologies could subject us to additional litigation brought by private parties, which could be costly, time-consuming, and distracting to management and could result in substantial expenses and losses.
In addition, as with many innovations, machine learning and artificial intelligence present additional risks and challenges that could affect their adoption and therefore our business. For example, the development of machine learning and artificial intelligence present emerging ethical issues, and if we enable or offer solutions on this front that are controversial, due to their impact, or perceived impact, on human rights, privacy, employment, or in other social contexts, we may experience brand or reputational harm, competitive harm, or legal liability. Also, our positions on social and ethical issues may impact our ability to attract or retain customers and other users. In particular, our brand and reputation are associated with our public commitments to sustainability, equality, inclusivity, accessibility, and ethical use, and any perceived changes in our dedication to these commitments could impact our relationships with potential and current customers and other users.
24

We are subject to risks related to government contracts and related procurement regulations, which may adversely impact our business and operating results.
Our contracts with federal, state, local, and foreign government entities are subject to various procurement regulations and other requirements relating to their formation, administration, performance, and termination, which could adversely impact our business and operating results. Government certification requirements applicable to our platform may change and, in doing so, restrict our ability to sell into the governmental sector until we have attained the full or revised certification. For example, although we have recently achieved Ready status under FedRAMP, we may not achieve full FedRAMP authorization in a timely manner or at all. These laws and regulations provide public sector customers various rights, many of which are not typically found in commercial contracts. For instance, these regulations may require the certification and disclosure of cost and pricing data and other sensitive information in connection with contract negotiations under certain contract types. Any public disclosure of such information may adversely impact our competitive position and our operating results. We may be subject to audits and investigations relating to our government contracts, and any violations could result in various civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including termination of contracts, refunding or suspending of payments, forfeiture of profits, payment of fines, and suspension or debarment from future government business. In addition, such contracts may provide for delays, interruptions, or termination by the government at any time, without cause, which activities may adversely affect our business and operating results and impact other existing or prospective government contracts.
Adverse litigation results could have a material adverse impact on our business.
We are regularly involved with claims, suits, purported class or representative actions, and may be involved in regulatory and government investigations and other proceedings, involving competition, intellectual property, data security and privacy, bankruptcy, tax and related compliance, labor and employment, commercial disputes, and other matters. Such claims, suits, actions, regulatory and government investigations, and other proceedings can impose a significant burden on management and employees, could prevent us from offering one or more of our applications, services, or features to others, could require us to change our technology or business practices, or could result in monetary damages, fines, civil or criminal penalties, reputational harm, or other adverse consequences. Adverse outcomes in some or all of these claims may result in significant monetary damages or injunctive relief that could adversely affect our ability to conduct our business. The litigation and other claims are subject to inherent uncertainties and management’s view of these matters may change in the future. A material adverse impact in our consolidated financial statements could occur for the period in which the effect of an unfavorable outcome becomes probable and reasonably estimable.
We may not be able to utilize a portion of our net operating loss or research tax credit carryforwards, which could adversely affect our profitability.
As of January 31, 2022, we had federal and state net operating loss carryforwards due to prior period losses. If not utilized, the pre-fiscal 2018 federal and the state net operating loss carryforwards expire in varying amounts between fiscal 2023 and 2042. The federal net operating losses generated in and after fiscal 2018 do not expire and may be carried forward indefinitely. We also have federal research tax credit carryforwards, which if not utilized will begin to expire in fiscal 2023. These net operating loss and research tax credit carryforwards could expire unused and be unavailable to reduce future income tax liabilities, which could adversely affect our profitability. In addition, under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, our ability to utilize net operating loss carryforwards or other tax attributes, such as research tax credits, in any taxable year may be limited if we experience an “ownership change.” A Section 382 “ownership change” generally occurs if one or more stockholders or groups of stockholders who own at least 5% of our stock increase their ownership by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within a rolling three-year period. Similar rules may apply under state tax laws. It is possible that an ownership change, or any future ownership change, could have a material effect on the use of our net operating loss carryforwards or other tax attributes, which could adversely affect our profitability.
Unanticipated tax laws or any change in the application of existing tax laws to us or our customers, especially those limiting our ability to utilize our net operating loss and research tax credit carryforwards, may increase the costs of our services and adversely impact our profitability and business.
We operate and are subject to taxes in the United States and numerous other jurisdictions throughout the world. Changes to federal, state, local, or international tax laws on income, sales, use, indirect, or other tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations, or ordinances on multinational corporations are currently being considered by the United States and other countries where we do business. These contemplated legislative initiatives include, but are not limited to, changes to transfer pricing policies and definitional changes to permanent establishment that could be applied solely or disproportionately to services provided over the internet. These contemplated tax initiatives, if finalized and adopted by countries, may ultimately impact our effective tax rate and could adversely affect our sales activity resulting in a negative impact on our operating results and cash flows.
25

In addition, existing tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations, or ordinances could be interpreted, changed, modified, or applied adversely to us (possibly with retroactive effect), which could require us to pay additional tax amounts, fines or penalties, and interest for past amounts. Existing tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations, or ordinances could also be interpreted, changed, modified, or applied adversely to our customers (possibly with retroactive effect), which could require our customers to pay additional tax amounts with respect to services we have provided, fines or penalties, and interest for past amounts. If we are unsuccessful in collecting such taxes from our customers, we could be held liable for such costs, thereby adversely impacting our operating results and cash flows. If our customers must pay additional fines or penalties, it could adversely affect demand for our services.
Risks Related to Financial Matters
Our historic revenue growth rates should not be viewed as indicative of our future performance.
Our revenue growth rates have declined and may decline again in the future as the size of our customer base and market penetration increases. In addition, our future rate of growth is subject to a number of uncertainties, including general economic and market conditions, including those caused by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, as well as risks associated with growing companies in rapidly changing industries. Other factors may also contribute to declines in our growth rates, including slowing demand for our services, increasing competition, a decrease in the growth of our overall market, our failure to continue to capitalize on growth opportunities, and the maturation of our business, some of which may be magnified by the COVID-19 pandemic. As our growth rates decline, investors’ perceptions of our business and the trading price of our securities could be adversely affected.
Additionally, our ability to accurately forecast our future rate of growth is limited. It is difficult to predict customer and other user adoption rates and demand for our applications, the future growth rate and size of the cloud computing market for our services, or the entry of competitive applications. Moreover, it has been and, until the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic are contained, will continue to be, even more difficult for us to forecast our operating results. We plan our expense levels and investments on estimates of future revenues and anticipated rates of growth. If our growth does not meet estimates, we may not be able to adjust our spending quickly enough to avoid an adverse impact on our financial results as a consequence of spending that is not aligned with our actual performance.
Moreover, we have encountered and will encounter risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing industries, including the risks and uncertainties described herein. If our assumptions regarding these risks and uncertainties (which we use to plan our business) are incorrect or change due to changes in our markets, or if we do not address these risks successfully, our operating and financial results could differ materially from our expectations and our business could suffer.
Because we encounter long sales cycles when selling to large customers and we recognize subscription services revenues over the term of the contract, downturns or upturns in new sales will not be immediately reflected in our operating results and may be difficult to discern.
We generally recognize subscription services revenues over time as services are delivered to the customer, which typically occurs over a period of three years or longer. As a result, most of the subscription services revenues we report in each quarter are derived from the recognition of unearned revenue relating to subscriptions entered into during previous quarters. Consequently, a decline in new or renewed subscription contracts in any single quarter will likely have a minor impact on our revenue results for that quarter. However, such a decline will negatively affect our revenues in future quarters. Additionally, because much of our sales efforts are targeted at large enterprise customers, our sales cycles involve greater costs, longer sales cycles, the provision of greater levels of education regarding the use and benefits of our applications, less predictability in completing some of our sales, and varying deployment timeframes based on many factors including the number, type, and configuration of applications being deployed, the complexity, scale, and geographic dispersion of the customers’ business and operations, the number of integrations with other systems, and other factors, many of which are beyond our control.
26

Our typical sales cycles are six to twelve months but can extend for eighteen months or more, including as a result of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, and we expect that this lengthy sales cycle may continue or expand as customers increasingly adopt our applications beyond human capital management. Longer sales cycles could cause our operating and financial results to suffer in a given period. Accordingly, the effect of significant downturns in sales and market acceptance of our applications, as well as potential changes in our pricing policies or rate of renewals, may not be fully reflected in our operating results until future periods. Additionally, we may be unable to adjust our cost structure to reflect any such changes in revenues. In addition, a majority of our costs are expensed as incurred, while revenues are recognized over the life of the customer agreement. As a result, increased growth in the number of our customers could result in our recognition of more costs than revenues in the earlier periods of the terms of our agreements. Our subscription model also makes it difficult for us to rapidly increase our revenues through additional sales in any period, as subscription services revenues from new customers generally are recognized over the applicable subscription term. Furthermore, our subscription-based model is largely based on the size of our customers’ employee headcount. Therefore, the addition or loss of employees by our customers, including any significant reductions in force by our customers during the COVID-19 pandemic, or customer insolvencies resulting from severe economic hardship during the COVID-19 pandemic, could have an impact on our subscription services revenues in any given period. Although we have downside protection in our customer agreements in the form of base minimums, should there be any prolonged decrease in our customers’ headcounts, we could experience reduced subscription services revenues upon renewal or potentially outside of the renewal period, which could materially impact our business and operating results in any given period.
We have a history of cumulative losses, and we may not achieve or sustain profitability on a GAAP basis in the future.
Until recently, we had incurred significant net losses on a GAAP basis in each period since our inception in 2005 and our quarterly operating results may fluctuate in the future. We expect our operating expenses to increase in the future due to substantial investments we make to acquire new customers and develop our applications, anticipated increases in sales and marketing expenses, employee headcount growth expenses, product development expenses, operations costs, and general and administrative costs, and therefore we expect we may incur losses on a GAAP basis in the future. Furthermore, to the extent we are successful in increasing our customer base, we also expect to incur increased net losses in the acquisition period because costs associated with acquiring customers are generally incurred up front, while subscription services revenues are generally recognized ratably over the terms of the agreements, which are typically three years or longer. You should not consider our recent GAAP-profitability and growth in revenues as indicative of our future performance. We cannot ensure that we will continue to achieve GAAP profitability in the future or that, if we continue to be GAAP-profitable, we will sustain such profitability.
We have substantial indebtedness which may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
In September 2017, we completed an offering of $1.15 billion of 0.25% convertible senior notes due October 1, 2022 (“2022 Notes”). As a result of this offering, we incurred $1.15 billion principal amount of indebtedness, which we may be required to pay at maturity in 2022, or upon the occurrence of a fundamental change (as defined in the Indenture by and between us and Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as Trustee (“Indenture”)). In addition, in April 2020, we entered into a credit agreement (“Credit Agreement”) that provided for a term loan in an aggregate original principal amount of $750 million (“Term Loan”) and a revolving credit facility in an aggregate principal amount of $750 million (“Revolving Credit Facility”).
We may incur substantial additional debt in the future, some of which may be secured debt. There can be no assurance that we will be able to repay this indebtedness when due, or that we will be able to refinance this indebtedness on acceptable terms or at all. Our ability to pay cash upon conversion or repurchase of the 2022 Notes may be limited by law, regulatory authority, or agreements governing our future indebtedness and is dependent on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive, and other factors beyond our control. Any future debt may also contain limitations on our ability to pay cash upon a conversion request or repurchase upon a fundamental change.
In addition, our indebtedness could, among other things:
make it difficult for us to pay other obligations;
make it difficult to obtain favorable terms for any necessary future financing for working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements, or other purposes;
adversely affect our liquidity and result in a material adverse effect on our financial position upon repayment of the indebtedness;
require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to service and repay the indebtedness, reducing the amount of cash flow available for other purposes;
limit our flexibility in planning for and reacting to changes in our business; and
negatively impact our credit rating, which could limit our ability to obtain additional financing in the future and adversely affect our business.
27

Our Credit Agreement also imposes restrictions on us and requires us to maintain compliance with specified covenants, including a specific leverage ratio. Our ability to comply with these covenants may be affected by events beyond our control. If we breach any of the covenants and do not obtain a waiver from the lenders, then, subject to applicable cure periods, any outstanding indebtedness may be declared immediately due and payable. Any required repayment of our debt under the Credit Agreement as a result of a fundamental change or other acceleration would lower our current cash on hand such that we would not have those funds available for use in our business.
Our convertible note hedge and warrant transactions may affect the value of our Class A common stock.
In connection with the sale of our convertible notes, we entered into convertible note hedge transactions with institutions that we refer to as the option counterparties. We also entered into warrant transactions with the option counterparties pursuant to which we sold warrants for the purchase of our Class A common stock. The convertible note hedge transactions are expected to offset the potential dilution to our Class A common stock upon any conversion of the convertible notes. The warrant transactions could separately have a dilutive effect to the extent that the market price per share of our Class A common stock exceeds the exercise price of the relevant warrants.
The option counterparties or their respective affiliates may modify their hedge positions by entering into or unwinding various derivatives with respect to our Class A common stock and/or purchasing or selling our Class A common stock or other securities of ours in secondary market transactions prior to the maturity of the convertible notes. This activity could suppress or inflate the market price of our Class A common stock.
We will also be subject to the risk that these option counterparties may default under the convertible note hedge transactions. Our exposure to the credit risk of the option counterparties will not be secured by any collateral. If one or more of the option counterparties to one or more of our convertible note hedge transactions becomes subject to insolvency proceedings, we will become an unsecured creditor in those proceedings with a claim equal to our exposure at the time under those transactions. Our exposure will depend on many factors but, generally, the increase in our exposure will be correlated to the increase in the market price of our Class A common stock during the related settlement period. In addition, upon a default by one of the option counterparties, we may suffer dilution with respect to our Class A common stock as well as adverse financial consequences.
We are subject to risks associated with our equity investments, including partial or complete loss of invested capital, and significant changes in the fair value of this portfolio could adversely impact our financial results.
We invest in early to late stage companies for strategic reasons and to support key business initiatives, and we may not realize a return on our equity investments. Many such companies generate net losses and the market for their products, services, or technologies may be slow to develop or never materialize. These companies are often dependent on the availability of later rounds of financing from banks or investors on favorable terms to continue their operations. The financial success of our investment in any company is typically dependent on a liquidity event, such as a public offering, acquisition, or other favorable market event reflecting appreciation to the cost of our initial investment. The capital markets for public offerings and acquisitions are dynamic and the likelihood of liquidity events for the companies we have invested in could deteriorate, which could result in a loss of all or a substantial part of our investment in these companies.
Further, valuations of non-marketable equity investments are inherently complex due to the lack of readily available market data. In addition, we may experience additional volatility to our results of operations due to changes in market prices of our marketable equity investments and the valuation and timing of observable price changes or impairments of our non-marketable equity investments, including changes in the proportionate share of earnings and losses or impairment of our equity investments accounted for under the equity method. This volatility could be material to our results in any given quarter and may cause our stock price to decline. In addition, our ability to mitigate this volatility and realize gains on investments may be impacted by our contractual obligations to hold securities for a set period of time. For example, to the extent a company we have invested in undergoes an initial public offering (“IPO”), we may be subject to a lock-up agreement that restricts our ability to sell our securities for a period of time after the public offering or otherwise impedes our ability to mitigate market volatility in such securities.
28

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Class A Common Stock
Our Co-Founders have control over key decision making as a result of their control of a majority of our voting stock.
As of January 31, 2022, our Co-Founder and CEO Emeritus David Duffield, together with his affiliates, held voting rights with respect to approximately 46 million shares of Class B common stock and 0.5 million shares of Class A common stock. As of January 31, 2022, our Co-Founder, Co-CEO, and Chairman Aneel Bhusri, together with his affiliates, held voting rights with respect to approximately 8 million shares of Class B common stock and 0.3 million shares of Class A common stock. In addition, Mr. Bhusri holds 0.1 million restricted stock units (“RSUs”), which will be settled in an equivalent number of shares of Class A common stock. Further, Messrs. Duffield and Bhusri have entered into a voting agreement under which each has granted a voting proxy with respect to certain Class B common stock beneficially owned by him effective upon his death or incapacity as described in our registration statement on Form S-1 filed in connection with our IPO. Messrs. Duffield and Bhusri have each initially designated the other as their respective proxies. Accordingly, upon the death or incapacity of either Mr. Duffield or Mr. Bhusri, the other would individually continue to control the voting of shares subject to the voting proxy. Collectively, the shares described above represent a substantial majority of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock. As a result, Messrs. Duffield and Bhusri have the ability to control the outcome of matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, including the election of directors and any merger, consolidation, or sale of all or substantially all of our assets. In addition, they have the ability to control the management and affairs of our company as a result of their positions as members of our board of directors and, in the case of Mr. Bhusri, an officer of Workday. Mr. Duffield, in his capacity as a board member, and Mr. Bhusri, in his capacity as a board member and officer, each owe a fiduciary duty to our stockholders and must act in good faith in a manner they reasonably believe to be in the best interests of our stockholders. As stockholders, even as controlling stockholders, they are entitled to vote their shares in their own interests, which may not always be in the interests of our stockholders generally.
The dual class structure of our common stock has the effect of concentrating voting control with our Co-Founders, as well as with other executive officers, directors, and affiliates, which limits or precludes the ability of non-affiliates to influence corporate matters.
Our Class B common stock has 10 votes per share and our Class A common stock, which is the stock that is publicly traded, has one vote per share. Stockholders who hold shares of Class B common stock, including our executive officers, directors, and other affiliates, together hold a substantial majority of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock as of January 31, 2022. Because of the ten-to-one voting ratio between our Class B and Class A common stock, the holders of our Class B common stock collectively will continue to control a majority of the combined voting power of our common stock and therefore be able to control all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval until the conversion of all shares of all Class A and Class B shares to a single class of common stock on the date that is the first to occur of (i) October 17, 2032, (ii) such time as the shares of Class B common stock represent less than 9% of the outstanding Class A and Class B common stock, (iii) nine months following the death of both Mr. Duffield and Mr. Bhusri, or (iv) the date on which the holders of a majority of the shares of Class B common stock elect to convert all shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock into a single class of common stock. This concentrated control will limit or preclude the ability of non-affiliates to influence corporate matters for the foreseeable future.
Future transfers by holders of Class B common stock will generally result in those shares converting to Class A common stock, subject to limited exceptions, such as certain transfers effected for estate planning purposes. The conversion of Class B common stock to Class A common stock will have the effect, over time, of increasing the relative voting power of those holders of Class B common stock who retain their shares in the long term. If, for example, Mr. Duffield and Mr. Bhusri retain a significant portion of their holdings of Class B common stock for an extended period of time, they could, in the future, continue to control a majority of the combined voting power of our Class A common stock and Class B common stock.
Our stock price has been volatile in the past and may be subject to volatility in the future.
The trading price of our Class A common stock has historically been volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors such as those described below. These factors, as well as the volatility of our Class A common stock, could also impact the price of our convertible senior notes. Further, the trading price of our Class A common stock has fluctuated significantly and may continue to fluctuate as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated economic downturn. Additional risk factors that may affect the trading price of our securities, some of which are beyond our control and further magnified by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, include:
overall performance of the equity markets;
fluctuations in the valuation of companies perceived by investors to be comparable to us, such as high-growth or cloud companies, or in valuation metrics, such as our price to revenues ratio;
guidance, as well as our ability to give guidance, as to our operating results and other financial metrics that we provide to the public, differences between our guidance and market expectations, our failure to meet our guidance, any withdrawal of previous guidance or changes from our historical guidance;
29

the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business, and whether analysts who cover us downgrade our Class A common stock or publish unfavorable or inaccurate research about our business;
variations in, and limitations of, the various financial and other metrics and modeling used by analysts in their research and reports about our business;
announcements of technological innovations, new applications or enhancements to services, acquisitions, strategic alliances, or significant agreements by us or by our competitors;
announcements of negative corporate developments by us or by our competitors and other high-growth or cloud companies including, among other things, any announcements related to security incidents;
disruptions in our services due to computer hardware, software, or network problems;
announcements of customer additions and customer cancellations or delays in customer purchases;
recruitment or departure of key personnel;
the economy as a whole, political and regulatory uncertainty, and market conditions in our industry and the industries of our customers;
trading activity by directors, executive officers, and significant stockholders, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell their shares;
the size of our market float and significant stock option exercises;
any future issuances of our securities;
environmental, social, governance, ethical, and other issues impacting our brand;
sales and purchases of any Class A common stock issued upon conversion of our convertible senior notes or in connection with the convertible note hedge and warrant transactions related to such convertible senior notes;
our operating performance and the performance of other similar companies; and
the sale or availability for sale of a large number of shares of our Class A common stock in the public market.
Additionally, the stock markets have at times experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and may in the future affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies. These fluctuations have, in some cases, been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies. Further, the trading prices of publicly traded shares of companies in our industry have been particularly volatile and may be very volatile in the future.
In the past, some companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, which could harm our business.
Delaware law and provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws could make a merger, tender offer, or proxy contest difficult, thereby depressing the market price of our Class A common stock.
Our status as a Delaware corporation and the anti-takeover provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law (“DGCL”) may discourage, delay, or prevent a change in control by prohibiting us from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder for a period of three years after the person becomes an interested stockholder, even if a change of control would be beneficial to our existing stockholders. In addition, our restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws contain provisions that may make the acquisition of Workday more difficult, including the following:
any transaction that would result in a change in control of our company requires the approval of a majority of our outstanding Class B common stock voting as a separate class;
our dual class common stock structure, which provides our co-founders with the ability to control the outcome of matters requiring stockholder approval, even if they own significantly less than a majority of the shares of our outstanding Class A and Class B common stock;
our Board of Directors is classified into three classes of directors with staggered three-year terms and directors are only able to be removed from office for cause;
when the outstanding shares of our Class B common stock represent less than a majority of the combined voting power of common stock:
certain amendments to our restated certificate of incorporation or amended and restated bylaws will require the approval of two-thirds of the combined vote of our then-outstanding shares of Class A and Class B common stock;
our stockholders will only be able to take action at a meeting of stockholders and not by written consent; and
vacancies on our Board of Directors will be able to be filled only by our Board of Directors and not by stockholders;
only our chairman of the board, co-chief executive officers, co-presidents, or a majority of our Board of Directors are authorized to call a special meeting of stockholders;
30

certain litigation against us can only be brought in Delaware;
we will have two classes of common stock until the date that is the first to occur of (i) October 17, 2032, (ii) such time as the shares of Class B common stock represent less than 9% of the outstanding Class A and Class B common stock, (iii) nine months following the death of both Mr. Duffield and Mr. Bhusri, or (iv) the date on which the holders of a majority of the shares of Class B common stock elect to convert all shares of Class A common stock and Class B common stock into a single class of common stock;
our restated certificate of incorporation authorizes undesignated preferred stock, the terms of which may be established, and shares of which may be issued, without the approval of the holders of Class A common stock; and
advance notice procedures apply for stockholders to nominate candidates for election as directors or to bring matters before an annual meeting of stockholders.
In addition, Section 203 of the DGCL imposes certain restrictions on mergers, business combinations, and other transactions between us and holders of 15% or more of our common stock, which may discourage, delay, or prevent a change in control of our company.
These anti-takeover defenses could discourage, delay, or prevent a transaction involving a change in control of our company. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for stockholders to elect directors of their choosing and to cause us to take other corporate actions they desire, any of which, under certain circumstances, could depress the market price of our securities.
The exclusive forum provision in our organizational documents may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or any of our directors, officers, or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits with respect to such claims.
Our restated certificate of incorporation, to the fullest extent permitted by law, provides that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the exclusive forum for: any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the DGCL, our restated certificate of incorporation, or our amended and restated bylaws; or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. There is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce this exclusive forum provision with respect to claims under the Securities Act. If a court were to find the choice of forum provisions contained in our restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business, financial condition, and operating results.
In April 2020, we amended and restated our bylaws to provide that the federal district courts of the United States of America will, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act (“Federal Forum Provision”). Our decision to adopt a Federal Forum Provision followed a decision by the Supreme Court of the State of Delaware holding that such provisions are facially valid under Delaware law. While there can be no assurance that federal or state courts will follow the holding of the Delaware Supreme Court or determine that the Federal Forum Provision should be enforced in a particular case, application of the Federal Forum Provision means that suits brought by our stockholders to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act must be brought in federal court and cannot be brought in state court.
In addition, neither the exclusive forum provision nor the Federal Forum Provision applies to suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act. Accordingly, actions by our stockholders to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the rules and regulations thereunder must be brought in federal court, and our stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with the federal securities laws and the regulations promulgated thereunder.
Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring or holding any interest in any of our securities shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to our exclusive forum provisions, including the Federal Forum Provision. These provisions may limit a stockholders’ ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum of their choosing for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or other employees, which may discourage lawsuits against us and our directors, officers, and other employees.
We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future.
We have never declared nor paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain any future earnings to finance the operation and expansion of our business, and we do not expect to declare or pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. Consequently, stockholders must rely on sales of their common stock after price appreciation as the only way to realize any future gains on their investment.
31

General Risk Factors
Adverse economic conditions may negatively impact our business.
Our business depends on the overall demand for enterprise software and on the economic health of our current and prospective customers. Any significant weakening of the economy in the United States or abroad, limited availability of credit, reduction in business confidence and activity, decreased government spending, or economic uncertainty, all of which are being impacted by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, and its effects such as unemployment, may continue to affect one or more of the sectors or countries in which we sell our applications. These economic conditions can arise suddenly, as did the conditions associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, and the full impact of such conditions can be difficult to predict. In addition, geopolitical and domestic political developments, such as existing and potential trade wars and other events beyond our control, can increase levels of political and economic unpredictability globally and increase the volatility of global financial markets, as has been the case with the COVID-19 pandemic. Alternatively, a strong dollar could reduce demand for our applications and services in countries with relatively weaker currencies.
The impact of Brexit on EU-UK political, trade, economic and diplomatic relations continues to be uncertain and such impact may not be fully realized for several years or more. Continued uncertainty and friction may result in regulatory, operational, and cost challenges to our UK and global operations.
These adverse conditions could continue to result in reductions in sales of our applications, longer sales cycles, reductions in subscription duration and value, customer bankruptcies, slower adoption of new technologies, and increased price competition. Any of these events would likely have an adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial position.
Catastrophic or climate-related events may disrupt our business.
Our corporate headquarters are located in Pleasanton, California, and we have data centers located in the United States, Canada, and Europe. The west coast of the United States contains active earthquake zones and the southeast is subject to seasonal hurricanes or other extreme weather conditions. Additionally, we rely on internal technology systems, our website, our network, and third-party infrastructure and enterprise applications, which are located in a wide variety of regions, for our development, marketing, operational support, hosted services, and sales activities. In the event of a major earthquake, hurricane, or other natural disaster, or a catastrophic event such as fire, power loss, telecommunications failure, vandalism, civil unrest, cyber-attack, geopolitical instability, war, terrorist attack, insurrection, pandemics or other public health emergencies (including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic), or the effects of climate change (such as drought, flooding, wildfires, increased storm severity, and sea level rise), we may be unable to continue our operations and may endure system interruptions, delays in our product development, lengthy interruptions in our services, breaches of data security, and loss of critical data, all of which could cause reputational harm or otherwise have an adverse effect on our business and operating results. In addition, the impacts of climate change on the global economy and our industry are rapidly evolving. We may be subject to increased regulations, reporting requirements, standards, or expectations regarding the environmental impacts of our business.
We may discover weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting, which may adversely affect investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and consequently the market price of our securities.
As a public company, we are required to design and maintain proper and effective internal controls over financial reporting and to report any material weaknesses in such internal controls. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires that we evaluate and determine the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting and provide a management report on the internal controls over financial reporting, which must be attested to by our independent registered public accounting firm. If we have a material weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting, we may not detect errors on a timely basis and our financial statements may be materially misstated.
The process of compiling the system and processing documentation necessary to perform the evaluation needed to comply with Section 404 is challenging and costly. In the future, we may not be able to complete our evaluation, testing, and any required remediation in a timely fashion. If we identify material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting, if we are unable to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner, if we are unable to assert that our internal controls over financial reporting are effective, or if our independent registered public accounting firm is unable to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our securities could be negatively affected, and we could become subject to investigations by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, the SEC, or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources. In addition, because we use Workday’s financial management application, any problems that we experience with financial reporting and compliance could be negatively perceived by prospective or current customers, and negatively impact demand for our applications.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
32

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Our corporate headquarters, which includes operations and product development facilities, is located in Pleasanton, California. It consists of approximately 1.2 million square feet of owned facilities and a 6.9 acre parcel of leased land. The land lease will expire in 2108. In addition, we lease office space in various locations, including North America, Europe, and Asia Pacific, and data center capacity throughout North America and Europe.
We believe that our facilities are suitable to meet our current needs. In the future, we may expand our facilities or add new facilities as we add employees and enter new geographic markets, and we believe that suitable additional or alternative space will be available on commercially reasonable terms to accommodate any such growth.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
We are regularly involved with claims, suits, purported class or representative actions, and may be involved in regulatory and government investigations and other proceedings, involving competition, intellectual property, data security and privacy, bankruptcy, tax and related compliance, labor and employment, commercial disputes, and other matters. Such claims, suits, actions, regulatory and government investigations, and other proceedings can impose a significant burden on management and employees, could prevent us from offering one or more of our applications, services, or features to others, could require us to change our technology or business practices, or could result in monetary damages, fines, civil or criminal penalties, reputational harm, or other adverse consequences.
These claims, suits, actions, regulatory and government investigations, and other proceedings may include speculative, substantial, or indeterminate monetary amounts. We record a liability when we believe that it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount can be reasonably estimated. Significant judgment is required to determine both the likelihood of there being a liability and the estimated amount of a liability related to such matters. With respect to our outstanding matters, based on our current knowledge, we believe that the amount or range of reasonably possible liability will not, either individually or in aggregate, have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results, or cash flows. However, the outcome of such matters is inherently unpredictable and subject to significant uncertainties.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
33

PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information for Common Stock
Our Class A common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “WDAY”. Our Class B common stock is not listed or traded on any stock exchange.
Dividend Policy
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain any future earnings to finance the operation and expansion of our business and do not expect to declare or pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. Any further determination to pay dividends on our capital stock will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors, subject to applicable laws, and will depend on our financial condition, operating results, capital requirements, general business conditions, and other factors that our Board of Directors considers relevant.
Stockholders
As of February 24, 2022, there were 16 stockholders of record of our Class A common stock, including The Depository Trust Company, which holds shares of our common stock on behalf of an indeterminate number of beneficial owners, as well as 71 stockholders of record of our Class B common stock.
Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans
See Part III, Item 12 “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters” for more information regarding securities authorized for issuance.
Stock Performance Graph
The following shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or subject to Regulation 14A or 14C, other than as provided by this Item 5, or to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or incorporated by reference into any of our other filings under the Exchange Act or the Securities Act, except to the extent we specifically incorporate it by reference into such filing.
This chart compares the cumulative total return on our common stock with that of the S&P 500 Index and the S&P 1500 Application Software Index. The chart assumes $100 was invested at the close of market on January 31, 2017, in our Class A common stock, the S&P 500 Index, and the S&P 1500 Application Software Index, and assumes the reinvestment of any dividends. The stock price performance on the following graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.
34

wday-20220131_g1.jpg
Company/Index1/31/20171/31/20181/31/20191/31/20201/31/20211/31/2022
Workday, Inc.$100.00 $144.29 $218.47 $222.20 $273.84 $304.50 
S&P 500 Index100.00 126.40 123.46 150.22 176.11 217.09 
S&P 1500 Application Software Index100.00 147.68 178.21 238.09 314.13 348.38 
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
During the three months ended January 31, 2022, we issued 109 shares of our unregistered Class A common stock to holders of our 2022 Notes upon settlement of conversion of an immaterial aggregate principal amount of such notes. This share amount represents the conversion value of the 2022 Notes in excess of the principal amount converted. These shares of our Class A common stock were issued in reliance on the exemption from registration provided by Section 3(a)(9) of the Securities Act. For further information, see Note 11, Debt, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this report.
Additionally, in connection with our acquisition of VNDLY during the three months ended January 31, 2022, we agreed to issue 152,384 shares of our Class A common stock to certain key VNDLY employees (“VNDLY reserved shares”), with 50% of such shares to be issued following the first anniversary of the closing date of the acquisition and the remaining 50% to be issued following the second anniversary of the closing date, subject to service conditions. These shares of our Class A common stock will be issued in reliance on one or more of the following exemptions or exclusions from the registration requirements of the Securities Act: Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act, Regulation D promulgated under the Securities Act, and Regulation S promulgated under the Securities Act. For further information, see Note 7, Business Combinations, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this report.
35

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchases
The table below sets forth information regarding our purchases of our Class A common stock during the three months ended January 31, 2022. The shares purchased represent the exercise of the convertible note hedges relating to the partial early conversion of the 2022 Notes. For further information, see Note 11, Debt, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this report.
PeriodTotal Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or ProgramsMaximum Number (or Approximate Dollar Value) of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
November 1, 2021 - November 30, 2021— $— — — 
December 1, 2021 - December 31, 2021108 272.49 — — 
January 1, 2022 - January 31, 2022— — — — 
Total108 — 
ITEM 6. Reserved
36

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this report. The following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates, and beliefs. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those discussed below and elsewhere in this report, particularly in “Risk Factors” included in Part I, Item 1A of this report.
The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations covers fiscal 2022 and 2021 items and year-over-year comparisons between fiscal 2022 and 2021. Discussions of fiscal 2020 items and year-over-year comparisons between fiscal 2021 and 2020 that are not included in this Form 10-K can be found in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended January 31, 2021, that was filed with the SEC on March 2, 2021.
Overview
Workday delivers applications for financial management, spend management, human capital management, planning, and analytics. With Workday, our customers have a unified system that can help them plan, execute, analyze, and extend to other applications and environments, thereby helping them continuously adapt how they manage their business and operations. Our diverse customer base includes medium-sized and large, global organizations within numerous industry categories, including professional and business services, financial services, healthcare, education, government, technology, media, retail, and hospitality.
We have achieved significant growth since our inception in 2005, with a substantial amount of our growth coming from new customers. Our current financial focus is on growing our revenues and expanding both our customer base and our footprint within our existing customers. While we have a history of GAAP operating losses, we strive to invest in a disciplined manner across all of our functional areas to sustain continued near-term revenue growth and support our long-term initiatives. We expect our product development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative expenses as a percentage of total revenues will decrease over the longer term as we grow our revenues, and we anticipate that we will gain economies of scale by increasing our customer base without direct incremental development costs.
We plan to reinvest a significant portion of our incremental revenues in future periods to grow our business. We have invested and expect to continue to invest heavily in our product development efforts to deliver additional compelling applications, enhance existing applications, and to address customers’ evolving needs. In addition, we plan to continue to expand our ability to sell our applications globally, particularly in Europe and Asia-Pacific, by investing in product development and customer support to address the business needs of local markets, increasing our sales and marketing organizations, acquiring and leasing additional office space, and expanding our ecosystem of service partners to support local deployments. We expect to make further significant investments in our data center capacity and equipment and third-party hosted infrastructure platforms as we plan for future growth. We are also investing in personnel to support our growing customer base.
We regularly evaluate acquisition and investment opportunities in complementary businesses, employee teams, services, technologies, and intellectual property rights in an effort to expand our product and service offerings. For example, we acquired Peakon, Zimit, and VNDLY in fiscal 2022, and Scout in fiscal 2020. We expect to continue making such acquisitions and investments in the future. While we remain focused on improving operating margin, these acquisitions and investments will increase our costs on an absolute basis in the near term. Many of these investments will occur in advance of experiencing any direct benefit from them and could make it difficult to determine if we are allocating our resources efficiently.
Since inception, we have also invested heavily in our professional services organization to help ensure that customers successfully deploy and adopt our applications. Additionally, we continue to expand our professional services partner ecosystem to further support our customers. We believe our investment in professional services, as well as partners building consulting practices around Workday, will drive additional customer subscriptions and continued growth in revenues. Due to our ability to leverage the expanding partner ecosystem, we expect the rate of professional services revenue growth to decline over time and continue to be lower than subscription revenue growth.
37

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic
The COVID-19 pandemic is having unpredictable impacts on global societies, economies, financial markets, and business practices. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we temporarily closed the majority of our offices; required most of our employees to work remotely; implemented travel restrictions; and postponed certain of our customer, industry, implementation partner, analyst, investor, and employee events and converted others to virtual-only experiences. Most of these operational changes remain in effect and we continue to prioritize the health and safety of our employees, customers, and partners. While the majority of our employees continue to work remotely, we began to reopen our offices in fiscal 2022 and are allowing employees to return to the office on a voluntary basis with enhanced safety protocols in place.
Despite the continuing uncertainty associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, we continue to achieve solid new subscription bookings as demand for our products remains strong, and we are confident in the long-term overall health of our business, the strength of our product offerings, and our ability to continue to execute on our strategy. Our operating margin in fiscal 2022 and 2021 was favorably impacted by the moderation of operating expenses in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We do not anticipate the extent of the favorable margin impact to continue long-term as we remain committed to investing in our business to drive top line growth and to support our customer base.
Our near-term revenues are relatively predictable as a result of our subscription-based business model. However, if the economic uncertainty increases, we may experience a negative impact on new business, customer renewals, sales and marketing efforts, revenue growth rates, customer deployments, customer solvency, product development, or other financial metrics, similar to what we experienced at the onset of the pandemic. Any of these factors could harm our business, financial condition, and operating results.
For further discussion of the potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, financial condition, and operating results, see “Risk Factors” included in Part I, Item 1A of this report.
Financial Results Overview
The following table provides an overview of our key metrics (in thousands, except percentages and headcount data):
 As of and for the Years Ended January 31,
 20222021$ Change% Change
Total revenues$5,138,798 $4,317,996 $820,802 19 %
Subscription services revenues$4,546,313 $3,788,452 $757,861 20 %
Total subscription revenue backlog$12,806,855 $10,088,634 $2,718,221 27 %
24-month subscription revenue backlog$7,975,554 $6,526,074 $1,449,480 22 %
GAAP operating income (loss)$(116,450)$(248,599)$132,149 (53)%
Non-GAAP operating income (1)
$1,149,704 $867,241 $282,463 33 %
GAAP operating margin(2.3)%(5.8)%%
Non-GAAP operating margin (1)
22.4 %20.1 %%
Operating cash flows$1,650,704 $1,268,441 $382,263 30 %
Cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities$3,644,161 $3,535,653 $108,508 %
Headcount15,204 12,524 2,680 21 %
(1) See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” below for further information.
38

Components of Results of Operations
Revenues
We derive our revenues from subscription services and professional services. Subscription services revenues primarily consist of fees that give our customers access to our cloud applications, which include related customer support. Professional services revenues include fees for deployment services, optimization services, and training.
Subscription services revenues accounted for 88% of our total revenues during fiscal 2022, and represented 96% of our total unearned revenue as of January 31, 2022. Subscription services revenues are driven primarily by the number of customers, the number of workers at each customer, the specific applications subscribed to by each customer, and the price of our applications.
The mix of applications to which a customer subscribes can affect our financial performance due to price differentials in our applications. Pricing for our applications varies based on many factors, including the complexity and maturity of the application and its acceptance in the marketplace. New products or services offerings by competitors in the future could also impact the mix and pricing of our offerings.
Subscription services revenues are recognized over time as services are delivered and consumed concurrently over the contractual term, beginning on the date our service is made available to the customer. Our subscription contracts typically have a term of three years or longer and are generally noncancelable. We generally invoice our customers annually in advance. Amounts that have been invoiced are initially recorded as unearned revenue.
Our consulting engagements are billed on a time and materials basis or a fixed price basis. For contracts billed on a time and materials basis, revenues are recognized over time as the professional services are performed. For contracts billed on a fixed price basis, revenues are recognized over time based on the proportion of the professional services performed. In some cases, we supplement our consulting teams by subcontracting resources from our service partners and deploying them on customer engagements. As the Workday-related consulting practices of our partner firms continues to develop, we expect these partners to increasingly contract directly with our subscription customers. As a result of this trend, and the increase of our subscription services revenues, we expect our professional services revenues as a percentage of total revenues to continue to decline over time.
Subscription Revenue Backlog
Our subscription revenue backlog, which is also referred to as remaining performance obligations for subscription contracts, represents contracted subscription services revenues that have not yet been recognized and includes billed and unbilled amounts. Subscription revenue backlog may fluctuate from period to period due to a number of factors, including the timing of renewals and overall renewal rates, new business growth, average contract duration, and seasonality.
Costs and Expenses
Costs of subscription services revenues. Costs of subscription services revenues consist primarily of employee-related expenses associated with hosting our applications and providing customer support, expenses related to data centers and computing infrastructure operated by third parties, and depreciation of computer equipment and software.
Costs of professional services revenues. Costs of professional services revenues consist primarily of employee-related expenses associated with these services, subcontractor expenses, and travel expenses.
Product development. Product development expenses consist primarily of employee-related expenses. We continue to focus our product development efforts on adding new features and applications, increasing functionality, and enhancing the ease of use of our cloud applications.
Sales and marketing. Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of employee-related expenses, sales commissions, marketing programs, and travel expenses. Marketing programs consist of advertising, events, corporate communications, brand awareness, brand ambassador campaigns, and product marketing activities. Sales commissions are considered incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer. Sales commissions for new revenue contracts are capitalized and amortized on a straight-line basis over a period of benefit that we have determined to be five years.
General and administrative. General and administrative expenses consist of employee-related expenses for finance and accounting, legal, human resources, information systems personnel, professional fees, and other corporate expenses.

39

Results of Operations
Revenues
Our total revenues were as follows (in thousands):
 Year Ended January 31,
 202220212020
Subscription services$4,546,313 $3,788,452 $3,096,389 
Professional services592,485 529,544 530,817 
Total revenues$5,138,798 $4,317,996 $3,627,206 
Total revenues were $5.1 billion for fiscal 2022, compared to $4.3 billion for fiscal 2021, an increase of $821 million, or 19%. Subscription services revenues were $4.5 billion for fiscal 2022, compared to $3.8 billion for fiscal 2021, an increase of $758 million, or 20%. The increase in subscription services revenues was primarily due to an increased number of customer contracts and strong customer renewals, with gross retention over 95%. Professional services revenues were $592 million for fiscal 2022, compared to $530 million for fiscal 2021, an increase of $63 million, or 12%. The increase in professional services revenues was primarily due to Workday performing deployment and integration services for a greater number of customers.
Subscription Revenue Backlog
As of January 31, 2022, our total subscription revenue backlog was $12.8 billion, with $8.0 billion expected to be recognized in revenues over the next 24 months. As of January 31, 2021, our total subscription revenue backlog was $10.1 billion, with $6.5 billion expected to be recognized in revenues over the next 24 months. The increase in subscription revenue backlog during fiscal 2022 was primarily driven by the addition of new customers, expansion of our product offerings with existing customers, and the timing of renewals.
Operating Expenses
GAAP operating expenses were $5.3 billion for fiscal 2022, compared to $4.6 billion for fiscal 2021, an increase of $689 million, or 15%, which was primarily related to an increase of $517 million in employee-related expenses, including share-based compensation, due to higher average headcount. The increase in employee-related expenses also included $32 million for a performance-based cash bonus program that was expanded to all employees in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2022. Additionally, there were increases of $59 million related to marketing programs, $51 million in professional services and subcontractor expenses, $44 million in third-party expenses for hardware maintenance and data center capacity, and $37 million in depreciation expense related to equipment in our data centers, offset by a decrease of $79 million related to a one-time cash bonus that had been paid in fiscal 2021 to non-executive employees to help accommodate unforeseen costs brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic (“COVID-19 one-time employee bonus”).
We use the non-GAAP financial measure of non-GAAP operating expenses to understand and compare operating results across accounting periods, for internal budgeting and forecasting purposes, for short- and long-term operating plans, and to evaluate our financial performance. We believe that non-GAAP operating expenses reflect our ongoing business in a manner that allows for meaningful period-to-period comparisons and analysis of trends in our business. We also believe that non-GAAP operating expenses provide useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our operating results and prospects in the same manner as management and in comparing financial results across accounting periods and to those of peer companies.
Non-GAAP operating expenses were calculated by excluding share-based compensation expenses and certain other expenses, which consist of employer payroll tax-related items on employee stock transactions and amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets. See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” below for further information.
Non-GAAP operating expenses were $4.0 billion for fiscal 2022, compared to $3.5 billion for fiscal 2021, an increase of $538 million, or 16%, which was primarily related to an increase of $385 million in employee-related expenses due to higher average headcount. The increase in employee-related expenses also included $32 million for a performance-based cash bonus program that was expanded to all employees in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2022. Additionally, there were increases of $59 million related to marketing programs, $51 million in professional services and subcontractor expenses, $44 million in third-party expenses for hardware maintenance and data center capacity, and $37 million in depreciation expense related to equipment in our data centers, offset by a decrease of $79 million related to the COVID-19 one-time employee bonus.
40

Reconciliations of our GAAP to non-GAAP operating expenses were as follows (in thousands):
 Year Ended January 31, 2022
 GAAP Operating Expenses
Share-Based
Compensation
Expenses
Other
Operating
Expenses (1)
Non-GAAP Operating Expenses (2)
Costs of subscription services$795,854 $(85,713)$(54,551)$655,590 
Costs of professional services632,241 (113,443)(11,181)507,617 
Product development1,879,220 (543,135)(32,935)1,303,150 
Sales and marketing1,461,921 (215,692)(47,457)1,198,772 
General and administrative486,012 (154,422)(7,625)323,965 
Total costs and expenses$5,255,248 $(1,112,405)$(153,749)$3,989,094 
 Year Ended January 31, 2021
 GAAP Operating Expenses
Share-Based
Compensation
Expenses
Other
Operating
Expenses (1)
Non-GAAP Operating Expenses (2)
Costs of subscription services$611,912 $(63,253)$(34,799)$513,860 
Costs of professional services586,220 (101,869)(6,486)477,865 
Product development1,721,222 (505,376)(27,567)1,188,279 
Sales and marketing1,233,173 (202,819)(35,797)994,557 
General and administrative414,068 (131,537)(6,337)276,194 
Total costs and expenses$4,566,595 $(1,004,854)$(110,986)$3,450,755 
 Year Ended January 31, 2020
 GAAP Operating Expenses
Share-Based
Compensation
Expenses
Other
Operating
Expenses (1)
Non-GAAP Operating Expenses (2)
Costs of subscription services$488,513 $(49,919)$(40,326)$398,268 
Costs of professional services576,745 (80,401)(6,440)489,904 
Product development1,549,906 (434,188)(30,684)1,085,034 
Sales and marketing1,146,548 (176,758)(40,774)929,016 
General and administrative367,724 (118,614)(8,592)240,518 
Total costs and expenses$4,129,436 $(859,880)$(126,816)$3,142,740 
(1)Other operating expenses include amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets of $78 million, $60 million, and $72 million for fiscal 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively. In addition, other operating expenses include employer payroll tax-related items on employee stock transactions of $76 million, $51 million, and $55 million for fiscal 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively.
(2)See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” below for further information.
Costs of Subscription Services
GAAP operating expenses in costs of subscription services were $796 million for fiscal 2022, compared to $612 million for fiscal 2021, an increase of $184 million, or 30%. The increase in costs of subscription services included increases of $91 million in employee-related expenses, including share-based compensation, due to higher average headcount, $37 million in depreciation expense related to equipment in our data centers, and $28 million in third-party expenses for hardware maintenance and data center capacity, offset by a decrease of $5 million related to the COVID-19 one-time employee bonus.
Non-GAAP operating expenses in costs of subscription services were $656 million for fiscal 2022, compared to $514 million for fiscal 2021, an increase of $142 million, or 28%. The increase in costs of subscription services included increases of $66 million in employee-related expenses due to higher average headcount, $37 million in depreciation expense related to equipment in our data centers, and $28 million in third-party expenses for hardware maintenance and data center capacity, offset by a decrease of $5 million related to the COVID-19 one-time employee bonus.
We expect GAAP and non-GAAP operating expenses in costs of subscription services will continue to increase in absolute dollars as we improve and expand our technical operations infrastructure, including our data centers and computing infrastructure operated by third parties.
41

Costs of Professional Services
GAAP operating expenses in costs of professional services were $632 million for fiscal 2022, compared to $586 million for fiscal 2021, an increase of $46 million, or 8%. The increase in costs of professional services was primarily due to an increase of $54 million in employee-related expenses, including share-based compensation, due to higher average headcount, offset by a decrease of $12 million related to the COVID-19 one-time employee bonus.
Non-GAAP operating expenses in costs of professional services were $508 million for fiscal 2022, compared to $478 million for fiscal 2021, an increase of $30 million, or 6%. The increase in costs of professional services was primarily due to an increase of $38 million in employee-related expenses due to higher average headcount, offset by a decrease of $12 million related to the COVID-19 one-time employee bonus.
We expect GAAP and non-GAAP costs of professional services as a percentage of total revenues to continue to decline as we continue to rely on our service partners to deploy our applications and as the number of our customers continues to grow.
Product Development
GAAP operating expenses in product development were $1.9 billion for fiscal 2022, compared to $1.7 billion for fiscal 2021, an increase of $158 million, or 9%. The increase in product development expenses was primarily due to an increase of $169 million in employee-related expenses, including share-based compensation, due to higher average headcount, offset by a decrease of $31 million related to the COVID-19 one-time employee bonus.
Non-GAAP operating expenses in product development were $1.3 billion for fiscal 2022, compared to $1.2 billion for fiscal 2021, an increase of $115 million, or 10%. The increase in product development expenses was primarily due to an increase of $122 million in employee-related expenses due to higher average headcount, offset by a decrease of $31 million related to the COVID-19 one-time employee bonus.
We expect GAAP and non-GAAP product development expenses will continue to increase in absolute dollars as we improve and extend our applications and develop new technologies.
Sales and Marketing
GAAP operating expenses in sales and marketing were $1.5 billion for fiscal 2022, compared to $1.2 billion for fiscal 2021, an increase of $229 million, or 19%. The increase in sales and marketing expenses included increases of $149 million in employee-related expenses, including share-based compensation, due to higher average headcount, and $59 million related to marketing programs, offset by decrease of $25 million related to the COVID-19 one-time employee bonus.
Non-GAAP operating expenses in sales and marketing were $1.2 billion for fiscal 2022, compared to $995 million for fiscal 2021, an increase of $204 million, or 21%. The increase in sales and marketing expenses included increases of $130 million in employee-related expenses due to higher average headcount and $59 million related to marketing programs, offset by decrease of $25 million related to the COVID-19 one-time employee bonus.
We expect GAAP and non-GAAP sales and marketing expenses to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to invest in our domestic and international selling and marketing activities to expand brand awareness and attract new customers.
General and Administrative
GAAP operating expenses in general and administrative were $486 million for fiscal 2022, compared to $414 million for fiscal 2021, an increase of $72 million, or 17%. The increase in general and administrative expenses included increases of $54 million in employee-related expenses, including share-based compensation, due to higher average headcount, and $22 million in professional services expenses, offset by a decrease of $6 million related to the COVID-19 one-time employee bonus.
Non-GAAP operating expenses in general and administrative were $324 million for fiscal 2022, compared to $276 million for fiscal 2021, an increase of $48 million, or 17%. The increase in general and administrative expenses included increases of $30 million in employee-related expenses due to higher average headcount and $22 million in professional services expenses, offset by a decrease of $6 million related to the COVID-19 one-time employee bonus.
We expect GAAP and non-GAAP general and administrative expenses will continue to increase in absolute dollars as we further invest in our infrastructure and support our global expansion.
42

Operating Margin
GAAP operating margin improved from (5.8)% for fiscal 2021 to (2.3)% for fiscal 2022. Our GAAP operating margin for fiscal 2022 was favorably impacted by our revenue growth outpacing average headcount growth, moderation of operating expenses in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and the absence of the COVID-19 one-time employee bonus paid in the prior fiscal year.
We use the non-GAAP financial measure of non-GAAP operating margin to understand and compare operating results across accounting periods, for internal budgeting and forecasting purposes, for short- and long-term operating plans, and to evaluate our financial performance. We believe that non-GAAP operating margin reflects our ongoing business in a manner that allows for meaningful period-to-period comparisons and analysis of trends in our business. We also believe that non-GAAP operating margin provides useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our operating results and prospects in the same manner as management and in comparing financial results across accounting periods and to those of peer companies.
Non-GAAP operating margin was calculated using GAAP revenues and non-GAAP operating expenses. See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” below for further information.
Non-GAAP operating margin improved from 20.1% for fiscal 2021 to 22.4% for fiscal 2022. Our non-GAAP operating margin for fiscal 2022 was favorably impacted by our revenue growth outpacing average headcount growth, moderation of operating expenses in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and the absence of the COVID-19 one-time employee bonus paid in the prior fiscal year.
Reconciliations of our GAAP to non-GAAP operating income (loss) and operating margin were as follows (in thousands, except percentages):
 Year Ended January 31, 2022
 GAAPShare-Based
Compensation
Expenses
Other
Operating
Expenses
Non-GAAP (1)
Operating income (loss)$(116,450)$1,112,405 $153,749 $1,149,704 
Operating margin(2.3)%21.6 %3.1 %22.4 %
 Year Ended January 31, 2021
 GAAPShare-Based
Compensation
Expenses
Other
Operating
Expenses
Non-GAAP (1)
Operating income (loss)$(248,599)$1,004,854 $110,986 $867,241 
Operating margin(5.8)%23.3 %2.6 %20.1 %
 Year Ended January 31, 2020
 GAAPShare-Based
Compensation
Expenses
Other
Operating
Expenses
Non-GAAP (1)
Operating income (loss)$(502,230)$859,880 $126,816 $484,466 
Operating margin(13.8)%23.7 %3.5 %13.4 %
(1)See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” below for further information.
Other Income (Expense), Net
We had other income (expense), net of $133 million, $(27) million, and $20 million during fiscal 2022, 2021, and 2020, respectively.
The increase in other income, net for fiscal 2022 compared to fiscal 2021 was primarily related to net gains of $124 million recognized on our equity investments, of which $83 million was due to an equity investment that completed its IPO during fiscal 2022. Additionally, there was a decrease in interest expense for our convertible senior notes of $52 million from the adoption of Accounting Standard Update (“ASU”) No. 2020-06 and the conversion of our 1.50% convertible senior notes (“2020 Notes”) in fiscal 2021, offset by a decrease of $13 million in interest income on marketable securities resulting from lower prevailing interest rates.
43

Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Regulation S-K Item 10(e), “Use of non-GAAP financial measures in Commission filings,” defines and prescribes the conditions for use of non-GAAP financial information. Our measures of non-GAAP operating expenses, non-GAAP operating income (loss), and non-GAAP operating margin meet the definition of a non-GAAP financial measure.
Non-GAAP Operating Expenses, Non-GAAP Operating Income (Loss), and Non-GAAP Operating Margin
Our non-GAAP operating expenses, non-GAAP operating income (loss), and non-GAAP operating margin exclude the components listed below. For the reasons set forth below, management believes that excluding the components provides useful information to investors and others in understanding and evaluating our operating results and prospects in the same manner as management, in comparing financial results across accounting periods and to those of peer companies, and to better understand the long-term performance of our core business.
Share-Based Compensation Expenses. Although share-based compensation is an important aspect of the compensation of our employees and executives, management believes it is useful to exclude share-based compensation expenses to better understand the long-term performance of our core business and to facilitate comparison of our results to those of peer companies. Share-based compensation expenses are determined using a number of factors, including our stock price, volatility, and forfeiture rates that are beyond our control and generally unrelated to operational decisions and performance in any particular period. Further, share-based compensation expenses are not reflective of the value ultimately received by the grant recipients.
Other Operating Expenses. Other operating expenses includes employer payroll tax-related items on employee stock transactions and amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets. The amount of employer payroll tax-related items on employee stock transactions is dependent on our stock price and other factors that are beyond our control and do not correlate to the operation of the business. For business combinations, we generally allocate a portion of the purchase price to intangible assets. The amount of the allocation is based on estimates and assumptions made by management and is subject to amortization. The amount of purchase price allocated to intangible assets and the term of its related amortization can vary significantly and are unique to each acquisition and thus we do not believe it is reflective of ongoing operations. Although we exclude the amortization of acquisition-related intangible assets from these non-GAAP measures, management believes that it is important for investors to understand that such intangible assets were recorded as part of purchase accounting and contribute to revenue generation.
Limitations on the Use of Non-GAAP Financial Measures
A limitation of our non-GAAP financial measures of non-GAAP operating expenses, non-GAAP operating income (loss), and non-GAAP operating margin is that they do not have uniform definitions. Our definitions will likely differ from the definitions used by other companies, including peer companies, and therefore comparability may be limited. Further, the non-GAAP financial measure of non-GAAP operating expenses has certain limitations because it does not reflect all items of expense that affect our operations and are reflected in the GAAP financial measure of total operating expenses. In the case of share-based compensation, if we did not pay out a portion of compensation in the form of share-based compensation and related employer payroll tax-related items, the cash salary expense included in operating expenses would be higher, which would affect our cash position.
We compensate for these limitations by reconciling the non-GAAP financial measures to the most comparable GAAP financial measures. These non-GAAP financial measures should be considered in addition to, not as a substitute for or in isolation from, measures prepared in accordance with GAAP. We encourage investors and others to review our financial information in its entirety, not to rely on any single financial measure, and to view our non-GAAP financial measures in conjunction with the most comparable GAAP financial measures.
See “Results of Operations—Operating Expenses” and “Results of Operations—Operating Margin” for reconciliations from the most directly comparable GAAP financial measures, GAAP operating expenses, GAAP operating income (loss), and GAAP operating margin, to the non-GAAP financial measures, non-GAAP operating expenses, non-GAAP operating income (loss), and non-GAAP operating margin, for fiscal 2022, 2021, and 2020.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
As of January 31, 2022, our principal sources of liquidity were cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities totaling $3.6 billion, which were primarily held for working capital purposes. Our cash equivalents and marketable securities are composed primarily of, in order from largest to smallest, commercial paper, U.S. treasury securities, money market funds, corporate bonds, U.S. agency obligations, and marketable equity investments. We have financed our operations primarily through customer payments, issuance of debt, and sales of our common stock.
44

We believe our existing cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities, cash provided by operating activities, unbilled amounts related to the remaining term of contracted noncancelable subscription agreements, which are not reflected on the Consolidated Balance Sheets, and, if necessary, our borrowing capacity under our Revolving Credit Facility that provides for $750 million of unsecured financing, are sufficient to meet our working capital, capital expenditure, and debt repayment needs over the next 12 months. As part of our strategy, we may enter into arrangements to acquire or invest in complementary businesses, services, technologies, or intellectual property rights in the future. We may also choose to seek additional debt or equity financing.
Our long-term future capital requirements depend on many factors, including the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, customer growth rates, subscription renewal activity, headcount growth, timing and extent of development efforts, expansion of sales and marketing activities, introduction of new and enhanced services offerings, timing of construction or acquisition of additional facilities, investments, and acquisition activities.
Our cash flows were as follows (in thousands):
 Year Ended January 31,
 202220212020
Net cash provided by (used in):
Operating activities$1,650,704 $1,268,441 $864,598 
Investing activities(1,607,426)(1,241,624)(896,922)
Financing activities110,251 625,049 125,124 
Effect of exchange rate changes(705)1,334 (282)
Net increase (decrease) in cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash$152,824 $653,200 $92,518 
Operating Activities
Cash provided by operating activities was $1.7 billion and $1.3 billion for fiscal 2022 and 2021, respectively. The improvement in cash flows provided by operating activities during fiscal 2022, compared to the prior fiscal year, was primarily due to increases in sales and related cash collections and moderation of operating expenses in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
We expect our business to continue to generate sufficient operating cash flows; however, if the COVID-19 pandemic worsens or is prolonged, our customers may request payment timing concessions, which could materially impact the timing and predictability of our operating cash flows in any given period.
Investing Activities
Cash used in investing activities for fiscal 2022 was $1.6 billion, which was primarily related to cash consideration for the acquisitions of VNDLY, Zimit, and Peakon, net of cash acquired, of $1.2 billion. Cash used in investing activities also included capital expenditures of $264 million mainly for data center projects, the purchase of office space within our corporate headquarters of $171 million, purchases of non-marketable equity and other investments of $123 million, and the timing of purchases and maturities of marketable securities. These payments were partially offset by proceeds of $199 million from sales of marketable securities.
Cash used in investing activities for fiscal 2021 was $1.2 billion, which was primarily comprised of a net cash outflow related to purchases and maturities of marketable securities of $930 million, capital expenditures for data center and office space projects of $253 million, and purchases of non-marketable investments of $67 million.
We expect capital expenditures will be approximately $475 million in fiscal 2023. This includes investments in our office facilities, corporate IT infrastructure, and customer data centers to support our continued growth.
Financing Activities
For fiscal 2022, cash provided by financing activities was $110 million, which was primarily due to proceeds of $148 million from the issuance of common stock from employee equity plans, offset by payments of $38 million on the Term Loan.
For fiscal 2021, cash provided by financing activities was $625 million, which was primarily due to net proceeds of $748 million from borrowing on the Term Loan and $149 million from the issuance of common stock from employee equity plans, partially offset by the principal payment of $250 million in connection with the conversion of the 2020 Notes.
45

Our 2022 Notes are convertible at the option of the holders during the first quarter of fiscal 2023 since the trigger for early conversion was met. Through the date of this filing, the amount of the principal balance of the 2022 Notes that has been converted or for which conversion has been requested was not material. We may receive additional conversion requests that require settlement in the first quarter of fiscal 2023. For further information, see Note 11, Debt, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this report.
Contractual Obligations
Our contractual obligations primarily consist of borrowings under our Credit Agreement, our convertible senior notes, leases for office space and co-location facilities for data center capacity, agreements for third-party hosted infrastructure platforms for business operations, and other purchase obligations entered into in the ordinary course of business. The table below includes our material contractual obligations, excluding imputed interest, as of January 31, 2022 (in thousands). For further information, see the associated Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this report referenced in the table below.
Payments Due by Period
TotalShort-termLong-termReference
Term Loan (1)
$716,489 $83,589 $632,900 
2022 Notes (1)
1,152,700 1,152,700 — 
Operating leases288,598 85,578 203,020 
Third-party hosted infrastructure platform obligations728,083 42,985 685,098 
Other purchase obligations457,338 127,216 330,122 
$3,343,208 $1,492,068 $1,851,140 
(1)Consists of principal and interest payments on the Term Loan and 2022 Notes. The interest obligation on the Term Loan included in the table above assumes interest rates consistent with those in effect for our Term Loan as of January 31, 2022.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates, judgements, and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, costs and expenses, and related disclosures. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates, judgements, and assumptions. Our actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.
We believe that of our significant accounting policies, which are described in Note 2, Accounting Standards and Significant Accounting Policies, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this report, the following accounting policies and specific estimates involve a greater degree of judgment and complexity. Accordingly, these are the policies we believe are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our consolidated financial condition and operating results.
Revenue Recognition
We derive our revenues from subscription services and professional services. Revenues are recognized when control of these services is transferred to our customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to receive in exchange for services rendered.
We determine revenue recognition through the following steps:
Identification of the contract, or contracts, with a customer;
Identification of the performance obligations in the contract;
Determination of the transaction price;
Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and
Recognition of revenues when, or as, we satisfy a performance obligation.
46

We believe the areas we apply the most critical judgements when determining revenue recognition relate to the identification of distinct performance obligations and the assessment of the standalone selling price (“SSP”) for each performance obligation identified.
Determination of Performance Obligations
A performance obligation is a promise in a contract with a customer to transfer products or services that are distinct. Our contracts with customers may include multiple promises to transfer services to a customer. Determining whether products and services are distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately or combined as a single performance obligation may require significant judgment that requires us to assess the nature of the promise and the value delivered to the customer.
Our primary performance obligations consist of subscription services and professional services. We satisfy these performance obligations over time as we transfer the promised services to our customers. Subscription services are made up of a daily requirement to deliver the service to the customer. Each day the delivery of the service provides value to the customer and each day represents a measure toward completion of the service. As such, subscription services meet the criteria to be a series of distinct services. In determining whether professional services are distinct, we consider the following factors for each professional services agreement: availability of the services from other vendors, the nature of the professional services, the timing of when the professional services contract was signed in comparison to the subscription start date and the contractual dependence of the service on the customer’s satisfaction with the professional services work. To date, we have concluded that professional services included in contracts with multiple performance obligations are generally distinct as the professional services are not interrelated with subscription services nor do they result in significant customization of the subscription service. As such, we view professional services as a performance obligation to the customer.
At contract inception, we evaluate whether two or more contracts should be combined and accounted for as a single contract and whether the combined or single contract includes more than one performance obligation. We combine contracts entered into at or near the same time with the same customer if we determine that the contracts are negotiated as a package with a single commercial objective; the amount of consideration to be paid in one contract depends on the price or performance of the other contract; or the services promised in the contracts are a single performance obligation. For contracts that contain multiple performance obligations, we assess each promise separately and allocate the transaction price on a relative standalone selling price basis. We apply significant judgment in identifying and evaluating any terms and conditions in contracts which may impact revenue recognition.
Standalone Selling Price Assessment
We determine the SSP based on our overall pricing objectives, taking into consideration market conditions and other factors, including the value of our contracts, the cloud applications sold, customer demographics, geographic locations, and the number and types of users within our contracts.
We use a range of amounts to estimate SSP for both subscription and professional services sold together in a contract to determine whether there is a discount to be allocated based on the relative SSP of the performance obligations. Judgement is required to determine the SSP for each distinct performance obligation. Our SSP ranges are reassessed on a periodic basis or when facts and circumstances change. Changes in SSP for our services can evolve over time due to changes in our pricing practices that are influenced by market competition, changes in demand for our services, and other economic factors. As our go-to-market strategies evolve, we may modify our pricing practices in the future, which could result in changes to SSP and may therefore impact revenue recognized in our consolidated financial statements.
Deferred Commissions
Sales commissions earned by our sales force are considered incremental and recoverable costs of obtaining a contract with a customer. Sales commissions for new revenue contracts are capitalized and then amortized on a straight-line basis over a period of benefit that we have determined to be five years. We determined the period of benefit by taking into consideration our customer contracts, our technology, and other factors.
Periodically, we review whether events or changes in circumstances have occurred that could impact the period of benefit. Any future changes in circumstances around the terms of our initial and renewal contracts, customer attrition, underlying technology life, and certain other factors may materially change the period of benefit and therefore the amortization amounts recognized on the Consolidated Statements of Operations. There was no change to the period of benefit during the periods presented.
47

Business Combinations, Goodwill, and Acquisition-Related Intangible Assets
We allocate the purchase consideration of acquired companies to tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values at the acquisition date, with the excess recorded to goodwill. The purchase price allocation process requires us to make significant estimates and assumptions related to the fair value of identifiable intangible assets, deferred tax asset valuation allowances, liabilities related to uncertain tax positions, and contingencies. Critical estimates used in valuing certain intangible assets include, but are not limited to, future expected cash flows from acquired customer contracts, expected life cycle and innovation timelines for acquired technologies, forecasted customer attrition rates and revenue growth, the fair value of pre-existing relationships, royalty rates for comparable market technologies, and discount rates. The amounts and estimated useful lives assigned to acquisition-related intangible assets impact the amount and timing of future amortization expense.
We test goodwill and acquisition-related intangible assets for impairment on an annual basis, or more frequently if a significant event or circumstance indicates impairment, by considering qualitative and quantitative factors. Significant qualitative inputs used in our impairment tests include, but are not limited to, consideration of general macroeconomic conditions, industry market conditions, overall Workday financial performance, and growth or declines in Workday’s share price. The primary quantitative input for our impairment test is Workday’s market capitalization as of the date of the analysis. We also evaluate the estimated remaining useful lives of acquisition-related intangible assets for changes in circumstances that warrant a revision to the remaining periods of amortization at least annually, or more frequently if significant events or circumstances indicate a change in expected use.
Non-Marketable Equity Investments
Non-marketable equity investments include investments in privately held companies without readily determinable fair values in which we do not own a controlling interest or exercise significant influence. We adjust the carrying values of non-marketable equity investments based on observable price changes from orderly transactions for identical or similar investments of the same issuer. Non-marketable equity investments are valued using significant unobservable inputs or data in an inactive market. Valuations of non-marketable equity investments are inherently complex due to the lack of readily available market data, and require our judgment due to the absence of market prices and an inherent lack of liquidity. In addition, the rights and preferences related to the particular non-marketable equity investments, as compared to the rights and preferences of other securities within the company’s capital structure, may impact the magnitude of change in the fair value of our investment as compared to the change in total enterprise value of the company.
We assess our non-marketable equity investments quarterly for impairment. Our impairment analysis encompasses a qualitative and quantitative analysis of key factors including the investee’s financial metrics, such as growth or decline in revenues and operating expenses, market acceptance of the investee’s product or technology, other competitive products or technology in the market, general market conditions, and the rate at which the investee is using its cash. These factors require significant judgment. If impairment indicators are identified, we will assess the severity and duration of the impairment.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 2, Accounting Standards and Significant Accounting Policies, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this report for a full description of recent accounting pronouncements.
48

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in negative impacts on global economies and financial markets, which may increase our foreign currency exchange risk and interest rate risk. For further discussion of the potential impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, financial condition, and operating results, see “Risk Factors” included in Part I, Item 1A of this report.
Foreign Currency Exchange Risk
We transact business globally in multiple currencies. As a result, our operating results and cash flows are subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. As of January 31, 2022, our most significant currency exposures were the euro, British pound, Canadian dollar, and Australian dollar.
Due to our exposure to market risks that may result from changes in foreign currency exchange rates, we enter into foreign currency derivative hedging transactions to mitigate these risks. For further information, see Note 10, Derivative Instruments, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this report.
Interest Rate Risk on our Investments
We had cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities totaling $3.6 billion and $3.5 billion as of January 31, 2022, and 2021, respectively. Cash equivalents and marketable securities were invested primarily in U.S. treasury securities, U.S. agency obligations, corporate bonds, commercial paper, money market funds, and marketable equity investments. The cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities are held primarily for working capital purposes. Our investment portfolios are managed to preserve capital and meet liquidity needs. We do not enter into investments for trading or speculative purposes.
Our cash equivalents and our portfolio of debt securities are subject to market risk due to changes in interest rates. Fixed rate securities may have their market value adversely affected due to a rise in interest rates, while floating rate securities may produce less income than expected if interest rates fall. Due in part to these factors, our future investment income may fluctuate due to changes in interest rates or we may suffer losses in principal if we are forced to sell securities that decline in market value due to changes in interest rates. Our debt securities are classified as “available-for-sale.” When the fair value of the security declines below its amortized cost basis, any portion of that decline attributable to credit losses, to the extent expected to be nonrecoverable before the sale of the impaired security, is recognized on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
An immediate increase of 100 basis points in interest rates would have resulted in an $11 million and $10 million market value reduction in our investment portfolio as of January 31, 2022, and 2021, respectively. This estimate is based on a sensitivity model that measures market value changes when changes in interest rates occur.
Interest Rate Risk on our Debt
In April 2020, we entered into a Credit Agreement pursuant to which the lenders extended to Workday a senior unsecured Term Loan in an aggregate principal amount of $750 million and an unsecured Revolving Credit Facility in an aggregate principal amount of $750 million. The Term Loan and Revolving Credit Facility bear interest, at our option, at either (i) a floating rate per annum equal to the base rate plus a margin that ranges from 0.000% to 0.625%, or (ii) a per annum rate equal to the rate at which dollar deposits are offered in the London interbank market plus a margin that ranges from 1.000% to 1.625%. The base rate is defined as the greatest of (i) Bank of America’s prime rate, (ii) the federal funds rate plus 0.50%, or (iii) a per annum rate equal to the rate at which dollar deposits are offered in the London interbank market for a period of one month (but not less than zero) plus 1.00%. Actual margins under either election will be based on our consolidated leverage ratio.
As of January 31, 2022, and 2021, the Term Loan had a carrying value of $692 million and $729 million, respectively, and there were no outstanding borrowings under the Revolving Credit Facility. The interest rate on the Term Loan was 1.30% and 1.38% as of January 31, 2022, and 2021, respectively.
Because the interest rates applicable to borrowings under the Credit Agreement are variable, we are exposed to market risk from changes in the underlying index rates, which affect our cost of borrowing. A hypothetical immediate increase of 100 basis points in interest rates would not have had a significant impact on our results of operations.
49

In September 2017, we completed an offering of $1.15 billion of 0.25% convertible senior notes due October 1, 2022. The 2022 Notes have a fixed annual interest rate of 0.25%, and therefore we do not have economic interest rate exposure on the 2022 Notes. However, the value of the 2022 Notes is exposed to interest rate risk. Generally, the fair value of the 2022 Notes will increase as interest rates fall and decrease as interest rates rise. In addition, the fair value of the 2022 Notes is affected by our stock price. The carrying value of the 2022 Notes was $1.1 billion as of January 31, 2022, and 2021, and the estimated fair value of the 2022 Notes was $1.9 billion and $1.8 billion as of January 31, 2022, and 2021, respectively. The estimated fair value was determined based on the quoted bid price of the 2022 Notes in an over-the-counter market as of the last trading day of each reporting period, which was $167.00 and $159.87, respectively.
For further information, see Note 11, Debt, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this report.
50

ITEM 8. CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
WORKDAY, INC.
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
51

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Workday, Inc.
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Workday, Inc. (the Company) as of January 31, 2022 and 2021, the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended January 31, 2022, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at January 31, 2022 and 2021, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended January 31, 2022, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.
We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of January 31, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) and our report dated February 28, 2022 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective or complex judgments. The communication of the critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the account or disclosure to which it relates.
52

Revenue Recognition
Description of the Matter
As described in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company recognizes revenue primarily from subscription services and professional services contracts. Some of the Company’s contracts contain multiple performance obligations. For these contracts, the Company assesses the performance obligations and accounts for those obligations separately if they are distinct. In such cases, the transaction price is allocated to the distinct performance obligations on a relative standalone selling price basis.

Auditing the Company’s determination of distinct performance obligations and the allocation of the transaction price to these performance obligations was challenging. For example, there were nonstandard terms and conditions that required judgment to determine the distinct performance obligations and relative standalone selling prices were accounted for appropriately.
How We Addressed the Matter in Our Audit
We obtained an understanding, evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of controls over the Company’s process to identify distinct performance obligations and allocate the transaction price to those performance obligations, including the underlying assumptions related to the relative standalone selling price.

Among other audit procedures, we selected a sample of contracts and evaluated whether management appropriately identified and considered the terms and conditions and the appropriate revenue recognition. As part of our procedures, we evaluated the assessment of distinct performance obligations and the accuracy and completeness of the underlying data used in management's determination of the relative standalone selling prices.


/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2008.

San Francisco, California
February 28, 2022
53

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and the Board of Directors of Workday, Inc.

Opinion on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

We have audited Workday, Inc.’s internal control over financial reporting as of January 31, 2022, based on criteria established in Internal Control-Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (2013 framework) (the COSO criteria). In our opinion, Workday, Inc. (the Company) maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of January 31, 2022, based on the COSO criteria.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated balance sheets of the Company as of January 31, 2022 and 2021, and the related consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive income (loss), stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended January 31, 2022, and the related notes and our report dated February 28, 2022 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

Basis for Opinion

The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting included in the accompanying Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.

Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.


/s/ Ernst & Young LLP

San Francisco, California
February 28, 2022

54

WORKDAY, INC.
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except share and par value data) 
 As of January 31,
 20222021
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$1,534,273 $1,384,181 
Marketable securities2,109,888 2,151,472 
Trade and other receivables, net of allowance for credit losses of $10,790 and $14,267, respectively
1,242,545 1,032,484 
Deferred costs152,957 122,764 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets174,402 111,160 
Total current assets5,214,065 4,802,061 
Property and equipment, net1,123,075 972,403 
Operating lease right-of-use assets247,808 414,143 
Deferred costs, noncurrent341,259 271,796 
Acquisition-related intangible assets, net391,002 248,626 
Goodwill2,840,044 1,819,625 
Other assets341,252 189,757 
Total assets$10,498,505 $8,718,411 
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$55,487 $75,596 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities195,590 169,266 
Accrued compensation402,885 285,061 
Unearned revenue3,110,947 2,556,624 
Operating lease liabilities80,503 93,000 
Debt, current1,222,443 1,103,101 
Total current liabilities5,067,855 4,282,648 
Debt, noncurrent617,354 691,913 
Unearned revenue, noncurrent71,533 80,111 
Operating lease liabilities, noncurrent182,456 350,051 
Other liabilities24,225 35,854 
Total liabilities5,963,423 5,440,577 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 13)
Stockholders’ equity:
Preferred stock, $0.001 par value; 10 million shares authorized; no shares issued or outstanding as of January 31, 2022, and 2021
  
Class A common stock, $0.001 par value; 750 million shares authorized; 196 million and 184 million shares issued and outstanding as of January 31, 2022, and 2021, respectively
196 184 
Class B common stock, $0.001 par value; 240 million shares authorized; 55 million and 59 million shares issued and outstanding as of January 31, 2022, and 2021, respectively
55 58 
Additional paid-in capital7,284,174 6,254,936 
Treasury stock, at cost; 0.1 million shares as of January 31, 2022, and 2021
(12,467)(12,384)
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)7,709 (54,970)
Accumulated deficit(2,744,585)(2,909,990)
Total stockholders’ equity4,535,082 3,277,834 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity$10,498,505 $8,718,411 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
55

WORKDAY, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(in thousands, except per share data)
 Year Ended January 31,
202220212020
Revenues:
Subscription services$4,546,313 $3,788,452 $3,096,389 
Professional services592,485 529,544 530,817 
Total revenues5,138,798 4,317,996 3,627,206 
Costs and expenses (1):
Costs of subscription services795,854 611,912