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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
 
[Markone]
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2024
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number: 0-14690
WERNER ENTERPRISES, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Nebraska 47-0648386
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
14507 Frontier Road 
Post Office Box 45308
Omaha,Nebraska68145-0308
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
(402) 895-6640
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 Title of each classTrading Symbol(s) Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.01 Par ValueWERN The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. 
Large Accelerated Filer   Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filer 
  Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.     
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  
As of May 2, 2024, 63,412,833 shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share, were outstanding.


WERNER ENTERPRISES, INC.
INDEX
 
  PAGE
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 5.
Item 6.
2

PART I
FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements:
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains historical information and forward-looking statements based on information currently available to our management. The forward-looking statements in this report, including those made in Item 2 (Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations) of Part I, are made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, as amended. These safe harbor provisions encourage reporting companies to provide prospective information to investors. Forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of certain words, such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “project” and other similar terms and language. We believe the forward-looking statements are reasonable based on currently available information. However, forward-looking statements involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions, whether known or unknown, that could cause our actual results, business, financial condition and cash flows to differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements. A discussion of important factors relating to forward-looking statements is included in Part I, Item 1A (Risk Factors) of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023 (“2023 Form 10-K”). Readers should not unduly rely on the forward-looking statements included in this Form 10-Q because such statements speak only to the date they were made. Unless otherwise required by applicable securities laws, we undertake no obligation or duty to update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein to reflect subsequent events or circumstances or the occurrence of unanticipated events.
3

Item 1. Financial Statements.
WERNER ENTERPRISES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
(Unaudited)
 
  
Three Months Ended
March 31,
(In thousands, except per share amounts)20242023
Operating revenues$769,080 $832,714 
Operating expenses:
Salaries, wages and benefits265,403 268,315 
Fuel77,622 91,414 
Supplies and maintenance61,775 68,225 
Taxes and licenses25,164 25,425 
Insurance and claims36,362 36,485 
Depreciation and amortization74,270 74,313 
Rent and purchased transportation203,925 220,224 
Communications and utilities4,706 4,733 
Other4,265 (9,806)
Total operating expenses753,492 779,328 
Operating income15,588 53,386 
Other expense (income):
Interest expense7,948 7,916 
Interest income(1,685)(1,552)
Loss on investments in equity securities138 81 
Loss from equity method investment133  
Other(261)7 
Total other expense, net6,273 6,452 
Income before income taxes9,315 46,934 
Income tax expense3,067 11,400 
Net income6,248 35,534 
Net loss (income) attributable to noncontrolling interest64 (310)
Net income attributable to Werner$6,312 $35,224 
Earnings per share:
Basic$0.10 $0.56 
Diluted$0.10 $0.55 
Weighted-average common shares outstanding:
Basic63,472 63,306 
Diluted63,727 63,695 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited).
4

WERNER ENTERPRISES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(Unaudited)
 
  
Three Months Ended
March 31,
(In thousands)20242023
Net income$6,248 $35,534 
Other comprehensive income (loss):
Foreign currency translation adjustments502 3,001 
Change in fair value of interest rate swaps, net of tax116 (973)
Other comprehensive income, net618 2,028 
Comprehensive income6,866 37,562 
Comprehensive loss (income) attributable to noncontrolling interest64 (310)
Comprehensive income attributable to Werner$6,930 $37,252 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited).
5

WERNER ENTERPRISES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED CONDENSED BALANCE SHEETS
 
(In thousands, except share amounts)March 31,
2024
December 31,
2023
 (Unaudited) 
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$60,337 $61,723 
Accounts receivable, trade, less allowance of $9,101 and $9,337, respectively
417,463 444,944 
Other receivables25,031 25,479 
Inventories and supplies17,173 18,077 
Prepaid taxes, licenses and permits12,803 16,505 
Other current assets64,509 67,900 
Total current assets597,316 634,628 
Property and equipment, at cost2,914,041 2,951,654 
Less – accumulated depreciation982,759 978,698 
Property and equipment, net1,931,282 1,972,956 
Goodwill129,104 129,104 
Intangible assets, net83,959 86,477 
Other non-current assets337,169 334,771 
Total assets$3,078,830 $3,157,936 
LIABILITIES, TEMPORARY EQUITY AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$136,242 $135,990 
Current portion of long-term debt1,250 2,500 
Insurance and claims accruals81,537 81,794 
Accrued payroll48,318 50,549 
Accrued expenses22,202 30,282 
Other current liabilities24,503 29,470 
Total current liabilities314,052 330,585 
Long-term debt, net of current portion596,250 646,250 
Other long-term liabilities53,371 54,275 
Insurance and claims accruals, net of current portion235,685 239,700 
Deferred income taxes322,925 320,180 
Total liabilities1,522,283 1,590,990 
Commitments and contingencies
Temporary equity - redeemable noncontrolling interest38,543 38,607 
Stockholders’ equity:
Common stock, $0.01 par value, 200,000,000 shares authorized; 80,533,536 shares issued; 63,412,833 and 63,444,681 shares outstanding, respectively
805 805 
Paid-in capital132,722 134,894 
Retained earnings1,950,819 1,953,385 
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(9,066)(9,684)
Treasury stock, at cost; 17,120,703 and 17,088,855 shares, respectively
(557,276)(551,061)
Total stockholders’ equity1,518,004 1,528,339 
Total liabilities, temporary equity and stockholders’ equity$3,078,830 $3,157,936 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited).
6

WERNER ENTERPRISES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited)
  Three Months Ended
March 31,
(In thousands)20242023
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net income$6,248 $35,534 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization74,270 74,313 
Deferred income taxes2,828 (111)
Gain on disposal of property and equipment(3,568)(18,339)
Non-cash equity compensation2,250 3,403 
Insurance and claims accruals, net of current portion(4,015)954 
Loss on investments in equity securities138 81 
Loss from equity method investment133  
Other(3,141)(417)
Changes in certain working capital items:
Accounts receivable, net27,481 57,866 
Other current assets7,139 17,336 
Accounts payable(5,274)6,484 
Other current liabilities(15,904)(10,257)
Net cash provided by operating activities88,585 166,847 
Cash flows from investing activities:
Additions to property and equipment(58,235)(161,764)
Proceeds from sales of property and equipment39,200 59,021 
Net cash invested in acquisition (188)
Investment in equity securities(11) 
Payment to acquire equity method investment(1,060)(2,125)
Purchase of promissory note (25,000)
Decrease in notes receivable696 826 
Net cash used in investing activities(19,410)(129,230)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Repayments of short-term debt(21,250)(2,500)
Proceeds from issuance of short-term debt20,000  
Repayments of long-term debt(50,000) 
Dividends on common stock(8,882)(8,220)
Repurchases of common stock(6,550) 
Tax withholding related to net share settlements of restricted stock awards(4,087)(5,514)
Net cash used in financing activities(70,769)(16,234)
Effect of exchange rate fluctuations on cash208 968 
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents(1,386)22,351 
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period61,723 107,240 
Cash and cash equivalents, end of period$60,337 $129,591 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information:
Interest paid$9,328 $8,244 
Income taxes paid1,165 219 
Supplemental schedule of non-cash investing and financing activities:
Notes receivable issued upon sale of property and equipment$402 $756 
Change in fair value of interest rate swaps116 (973)
Property and equipment acquired included in accounts payable19,765 4,008 
Property and equipment disposed included in other receivables 110 
        Dividends accrued but not yet paid at end of period8,878 8,239 
Contingent consideration associated with acquisitions (800)
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited).
7

WERNER ENTERPRISES, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY AND
TEMPORARY EQUITY - REDEEMABLE NONCONTROLLING INTEREST
(Unaudited)
Three Months Ended March 31, 2024
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)Common
Stock
Paid-In
Capital
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Treasury
Stock
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
Temporary Equity - Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest
BALANCE, December 31, 2023$805 $134,894 $1,953,385 $(9,684)$(551,061)$1,528,339 $38,607 
Net income attributable to Werner— — 6,312 — — 6,312 — 
Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest— — — — —  (64)
Other comprehensive income— — — 618 — 618 — 
Purchases of 167,818 shares of common stock
— — — — (6,550)(6,550)— 
Dividends on common stock ($0.14 per share)
— — (8,878)— — (8,878)— 
Equity compensation activity, 135,970 shares
— (4,422)— — 335 (4,087)— 
Non-cash equity compensation expense— 2,250 — — — 2,250 — 
BALANCE, March 31, 2024$805 $132,722 $1,950,819 $(9,066)$(557,276)$1,518,004 $38,543 
Three Months Ended March 31, 2023
(In thousands, except share and per share amounts)Common
Stock
Paid-In
Capital
Retained
Earnings
Accumulated
Other
Comprehensive
Loss
Treasury
Stock
Total
Stockholders’
Equity
Temporary Equity - Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest
BALANCE, December 31, 2022$805 $129,837 $1,875,873 $(11,292)$(551,588)$1,443,635 $38,699 
Net income attributable to Werner— — 35,224 — — 35,224 — 
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest— — — — —  310 
Other comprehensive income— — — 2,028 — 2,028 — 
Dividends on common stock ($0.13 per share)
— — (8,239)— — (8,239)— 
Equity compensation activity, 153,931 shares
— (5,190)  (324)(5,514)— 
Non-cash equity compensation expense— 3,403 — — — 3,403 — 
BALANCE, March 31, 2023$805 $128,050 $1,902,858 $(9,264)$(551,912)$1,470,537 $39,009 
See Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited).


8

WERNER ENTERPRISES, INC.
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (UNAUDITED)
 
(1) Basis of Presentation and Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited interim consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Werner Enterprises, Inc. and its subsidiaries (collectively, the “Company” or “Werner”). Redeemable noncontrolling interest on the consolidated condensed balance sheets represents the portion of a consolidated entity in which we do not have a direct equity ownership. In these notes, the terms “we,” “us,” or “our” refer to Werner Enterprises, Inc. and its subsidiaries. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions relating to these entities have been eliminated.
These consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) instructions to Form 10-Q and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments, which are all of normal recurring nature, necessary to present fairly the financial condition, results of operations and cash flows for the periods presented in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). These consolidated financial statements do not include all information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements; although in management’s opinion, the disclosures are adequate so that the information presented is not misleading.
Operating results for the three months ended March 31, 2024 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2024. In the opinion of management, the information set forth in the accompanying consolidated condensed balance sheets is fairly stated in all material respects in relation to the consolidated balance sheets from which it has been derived.
These consolidated financial statements and notes thereto should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes contained in our 2023 Form 10-K.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements, Not Yet Effective: In November 2023, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2023-07 Segment Reporting (Topic 280): Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures, with the objective of improving financial reporting, primarily through enhanced disclosures about significant segment expenses. The provisions of this update are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024, using a retrospective approach. We are evaluating the impact of adopting ASU 2023-07, and we expect this ASU to only impact our disclosures with no impacts to our results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.
In December 2023, FASB issued ASU 2023-09 Income Taxes (Topic 740): Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures, with the objective of enhancing the transparency and decision usefulness of income tax information through income tax disclosure improvements, primarily related to the rate reconciliation and income taxes paid information. The provisions of this update are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2024, using a prospective approach. Retrospective application is permitted. We are evaluating the impact of adopting ASU 2023-09, and we expect this ASU to only impact our disclosures with no impacts to our results of operations, cash flows, and financial condition.
(2) Revenue
Revenue Recognition
Revenues are recognized over time as control of the promised services is transferred to our customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those services.
The following table presents our revenues disaggregated by revenue source (in thousands):
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20242023
Truckload Transportation Services$551,126 $588,330 
Werner Logistics202,482 228,669 
Inter-segment eliminations(4,071)(5,261)
   Transportation services749,537 811,738 
Other revenues19,543 20,976 
Total revenues$769,080 $832,714 
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The following table presents our revenues disaggregated by geographic areas in which we conduct business (in thousands). Operating revenues for foreign countries include revenues for (i) shipments with an origin or destination in that country and (ii) other services provided in that country. If both the origin and destination are in a foreign country, the revenues are attributed to the country of origin.
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20242023
United States$721,861 $782,293 
Mexico39,119 41,813 
Other8,100 8,608 
Total revenues$769,080 $832,714 
Contract Balances and Accounts Receivable
A receivable is an unconditional right to consideration and is recognized when shipments have been completed and the related performance obligation has been fully satisfied. At March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the accounts receivable, trade, net, balance was $417.5 million and $444.9 million, respectively. Contract assets represent a conditional right to consideration in exchange for goods or services and are transferred to receivables when the rights become unconditional. At March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the balance of contract assets was $8.6 million and $7.4 million, respectively. We have recognized contract assets within the other current assets financial statement caption on the consolidated condensed balance sheets. These contract assets are considered current assets as they will be settled in less than 12 months.
Contract liabilities represent advance consideration received from customers and are recognized as revenues over time as the related performance obligation is satisfied. At March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the balance of contract liabilities was $1.1 million and $0.9 million, respectively. The amount of revenues recognized in the three months ended March 31, 2024 that was included in the December 31, 2023 contract liability balance was $0.9 million. We have recognized contract liabilities within the accounts payable and other current liabilities financial statement captions on the consolidated condensed balance sheets. These contract liabilities are considered current liabilities as they will be settled in less than 12 months.
Performance Obligations
We have elected to apply the practical expedient in Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606, Revenue From Contracts With Customers, to not disclose the value of remaining performance obligations for contracts with an original expected length of one year or less. Remaining performance obligations represent the transaction price allocated to future reporting periods for freight shipments started but not completed at the reporting date that we expect to recognize as revenue in the period subsequent to the reporting date; transit times generally average approximately 3 days.
During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, revenues recognized from performance obligations related to prior periods (for example, due to changes in transaction price) were not material.
(3) Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill represents the excess of cost over the fair value of net identifiable tangible and intangible assets acquired in business combinations. There were no changes in the carrying amount of goodwill by segment for the three months ended March 31, 2024.
The following table presents acquired intangible assets (in thousands):
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Gross
Carrying
Amount
Accumulated
Amortization
Net
Carrying
Amount
Gross
Carrying
Amount
Accumulated
Amortization
Net
Carrying
Amount
Customer relationships
$80,200 $(15,994)$64,206 $80,200 $(13,989)$66,211 
Trade names
24,600 (4,847)19,753 24,600 (4,334)20,266 
Total intangible assets
$104,800 $(20,841)$83,959 $104,800 $(18,323)$86,477 
Amortization expense on intangible assets was $2.5 million and $2.8 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively, and is reported in depreciation and amortization on the consolidated statements of income. As of March 31, 2024, we estimate future amortization expense for intangible assets will be $7.6 million for the remainder of 2024, and $10.1 million for each of the five succeeding fiscal years.
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(4) Leases
We have entered into operating leases primarily for real estate. The leases have terms which range from 1 year to 18 years, and some include options to renew. Renewal terms are included in the lease term when it is reasonably certain that we will exercise the option to renew.
Operating leases are included in other non-current assets, other current liabilities and other long-term liabilities on the consolidated condensed balance sheets. These assets and liabilities are recognized based on the present value of future minimum lease payments over the lease term at commencement date, using our incremental borrowing rate because the rate implicit in each lease is not readily determinable. We have certain contracts for real estate that may contain lease and non-lease components which we have elected to treat as a single lease component. Lease expense for operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Variable lease expense is recognized in the period in which the obligation for those payments is incurred. Lease expense is reported in rent and purchased transportation on the consolidated statements of income.
The following table presents balance sheet and other operating lease information (dollars in thousands):
 March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Right-of-use assets (recorded in other non-current assets)$34,339 $34,814 
Current lease liabilities (recorded in other current liabilities)$8,937 $9,017 
Long-term lease liabilities (recorded in other long-term liabilities)27,112 27,495 
Total operating lease liabilities$36,049 $36,512 
Weighted-average remaining lease term for operating leases6.06 years6.15 years
Weighted-average discount rate for operating leases3.8 %3.6 %
The following table presents the maturities of operating lease liabilities as of March 31, 2024 (in thousands):
2024 (remaining)$7,766 
20258,768 
20266,955 
20274,852 
20283,591 
Thereafter7,982 
Total undiscounted operating lease payments$39,914 
Less: Imputed interest(3,865)
Present value of operating lease liabilities$36,049 
Cash Flows
During the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, right-of-use assets of $1.9 million and $1.5 million, respectively, were recognized as non-cash asset additions that resulted from new operating lease liabilities. Cash paid for amounts included in the present value of operating lease liabilities was $2.7 million and $2.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively, and are included in operating cash flows.
Operating Lease Expense
Operating lease expense was $4.4 million and $6.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. This expense included $2.7 million and $3.0 million for long-term operating leases for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, with the remainder for variable and short-term lease expense.
Lessor Operating Leases
We are the lessor of tractors and trailers under operating leases with initial terms of 3 to 8 years. We recognize revenue for such leases on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Revenues were $2.4 million and $2.7 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.
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The following table presents information about the maturities of these operating leases as of March 31, 2024 (in thousands):
2024 (remaining)$5,362 
20251,664 
2026342 
202786 
2028 
Thereafter 
Total$7,454 
(5) Fair Value
Fair Value Measurement — Definition and Hierarchy
ASC 820-10, Fair Value Measurement, defines fair value as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
ASC 820-10 establishes a hierarchy for inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the most observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs reflect the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, developed based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs reflect our own assumptions about the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, developed based on the best information available in the circumstances.
The fair value hierarchy prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value into three broad levels, as follows:
Level 1 — Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that we have the ability to access.
Level 2 — Inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. Such inputs include quoted prices in markets that are not active, quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active and inactive markets, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability and inputs that are derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data by correlation or other means.
Level 3 — Unobservable inputs for the asset or liability, where there is little, if any, observable market activity or data for the asset or liability.
In general, and where applicable, we use quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities to determine fair value. This pricing methodology applies to our Level 1 assets and liabilities. If quoted prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilities are not available to determine fair value, then we use quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities or inputs other than the quoted prices that are observable, either directly or indirectly. This pricing methodology would apply to Level 2 assets and liabilities.
The following table presents the fair value hierarchy for our assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis (in thousands):
Level in
Fair Value
Hierarchy
Fair Value
March 31, 2024December 31, 2023
Assets:
Other non-current assets:
Equity securities (1)
1$172 $310 
Liabilities:
Other long-term liabilities:
Contingent consideration associated with acquisition3$8,998 $8,896 
(1) Represents our investment in an autonomous technology company. For additional information regarding the valuation of this equity security, see Note 6 – Investments.
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The following table presents changes in the fair value of our contingent earnout liabilities (in thousands):
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Balance at beginning of period
$8,896 $13,400 
Measurement period adjustment associated with the acquisition of ReedTMS Logistics (1)
 (800)
Change in fair value102 277 
Balance at end of period
$8,998 $12,877 
(1) The measurement period adjustment was recorded in goodwill on the consolidated condensed balance sheet.
The estimated fair values of our contingent consideration arrangements are based upon probability-adjusted inputs for each acquired entity. Additionally, as the liability is stated at present value, the passage of time alone will increase the estimated fair value of the liability each reporting period. Change in fair value is recorded in other operating expenses on the consolidated statements of income.
We have ownership interests in investments, primarily Mastery Logistics Systems, Inc. (“MLSI”), which do not have readily determinable fair values and are accounted for using the measurement alternative in ASC 321, Investments - Equity Securities. Our ownership interest in Autotech Fund III, L.P. (“Autotech Fund III”) is accounted for under ASC 323, “Investments - Equity Method and Joint Ventures.” For additional information regarding the valuation of these investments, see Note 6 – Investments.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments Not Recorded at Fair Value
Cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable trade, and accounts payable are short-term in nature and accordingly are carried at amounts that approximate fair value.
The carrying amount of our fixed-rate debt not measured at fair value on a recurring basis was $87.5 million and $88.8 million as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively. The estimated fair value of our fixed-rate debt using the income approach, based on its net present value, discounted at our current borrowing rate, was $86.8 million and $86.7 million as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, respectively (categorized as Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy). The carrying amount of our variable-rate long-term debt approximates fair value due to the duration of our credit arrangement and the variable interest rate (categorized as Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy).
(6) Investments
Equity Investments without Readily Determinable Fair Values
Our strategic equity investments without readily determinable fair values primarily consist of our investment in MLSI, a transportation management systems company. MLSI is developing a cloud-based transportation management system using MLSI's SaaS technology which we have agreed to license. Our investments are being accounted for under ASC 321 using the measurement alternative and are recorded in other noncurrent assets on the consolidated condensed balance sheets. We record changes in the values of our investments based on events that occur that would indicate the values have changed, in loss (gain) on investments in equity securities on the consolidated statements of income. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the value of our investment in MLSI was $89.8 million, and the value of our other equity investments without readily determinable fair values was $327 thousand and $316 thousand, respectively. No gains or losses were recorded for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023. As of March 31, 2024, cumulative upward adjustments on our equity securities without readily determinable fair values totaled $56.8 million.
Equity Investments with Readily Determinable Fair Values
We own a strategic minority equity investment in an autonomous technology company, which is being accounted for under ASC 321 and is recorded in other noncurrent assets on the consolidated condensed balance sheets. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the value of this investment was $0.2 million and $0.3 million, respectively. For additional information regarding the fair value of this equity investment, see Note 5 – Fair Value.
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The following table summarizes the activity related to our equity investments with readily determinable fair values during the periods presented (in thousands):
Three Months Ended March 31,
20242023
Loss on investments in equity securities$138 $81 
Portion of unrealized loss for the period related to equity securities still held at the reporting date 138 81 
Equity Method Investment
In January 2023, we committed to make a $20.0 million investment in Autotech Fund III (the “Fund”) pursuant to a limited partnership agreement. The Fund is managed by Autotech Ventures, a venture capital firm focused on ground transportation technology. Our interest, which represents an ownership percentage of less than 20%, is being accounted for under ASC 323, “Investments - Equity Method and Joint Ventures.” As a limited partner, we will make periodic capital contributions toward this total commitment amount. As of March 31, 2024, our cumulative contributions in the Fund were $4.4 million. We contributed $1.1 million and $2.1 million to the Fund during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, the value of our investment in the Fund was $3.3 million and $2.3 million, respectively, and is recorded in other noncurrent assets on the consolidated condensed balance sheets. The carrying amount of the Fund as of March 31, 2024 approximates its fair value as of December 31, 2023, as this is the most recent information available to us at this time. We recognized a loss of $0.1 million from the Fund for the three months ended March 31, 2024, which is reported in loss from equity method investment on the consolidated statements of income. No earnings or losses were recognized for the three months ended March 31, 2023.
(7) Debt and Credit Facilities
On December 20, 2022, we entered into a $1.075 billion unsecured credit facility with a group of lenders (the “2022 Credit Agreement”), replacing our previous credit facilities. The 2022 Credit Agreement is scheduled to mature on December 20, 2027 and has a $100.0 million maximum limit for the aggregate amount of letters of credit issued.
Revolving credit loans drawn under the 2022 Credit Agreement bear interest, at our option, at (i) the Base Rate (the highest of (a) the Prime Rate, (b) the Federal Funds Rate plus 0.50%, or (c) the one-month Term SOFR plus 1.10%), plus a margin ranging between 0.125% and 0.750%, or (ii) Term SOFR plus 0.10% and a margin ranging between 1.125% and 1.750%. Swingline loans drawn under the 2022 Credit Agreement bear interest at the Base Rate, as defined above, plus a margin ranging between 0.125% and 0.750%. The 2022 Credit Agreement also requires us to pay quarterly (i) a letter of credit commission on the daily amount available to be drawn under such standby letters of credit at rates ranging between 1.125% and 1.750% per annum and (ii) a nonrefundable commitment fee on the average daily unused amount of the commitment at rates ranging between 0.125% and 0.250% per annum. The margin, letter of credit commission, and commitment fee rates are based on our ratio of net funded debt to earnings before interest, income taxes, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”). There are no scheduled principal payments due on the 2022 Credit Agreement until the maturity date, and interest is payable in arrears at periodic intervals not to exceed three months. In July 2023 and April 2024, we entered into additional variable-for-fixed interest rate swap agreements for notional amounts of $130.0 million and $75.0 million, respectively, to further limit our exposure to increases in interest rates on a portion of our variable-rate indebtedness (see Note 11, Subsequent Event, for additional information regarding the April 2024 swap agreement).
On June 30, 2021, we entered into a $100.0 million unsecured fixed-rate term loan commitment with BMO Harris, with quarterly principal payments of $1.25 million and a final payment of principal and interest due and payable on May 14, 2024 ("BMO Term Loan"). We are currently planning to repay the remaining outstanding principal balance under the BMO Term Loan in May 2024 using proceeds from the 2022 Credit Agreement. The outstanding principal balance of the BMO Term Loan bears interest at a fixed rate of 1.28%, payable quarterly in arrears.
As of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, our outstanding debt totaled $597.5 million and $648.8 million, respectively. As of March 31, 2024, we had an outstanding revolving credit loan balance of $510.0 million under the 2022 Credit Agreement, including (i) $230.0 million at a variable interest rate of 6.67%, (ii) $150.0 million which is effectively fixed at 2.88% with interest rate swap agreements through May 2024, (iii) $40.0 million which is effectively fixed at 6.20% with interest rate swap agreements through July 2025, and (iv) $90.0 million which is effectively fixed at 5.87% with interest rate swap agreements through July 2026. Subsequent to the end of the quarter, in April 2024, we borrowed an additional $30.0 million under our revolving line of credit. Our total available borrowing capacity under the 2022 Credit Agreement was $559.1 million as of March 31, 2024, after considering $5.9 million in stand-by letters of credit under which we are obligated. In addition, as of March 31, 2024, we had $87.5 million outstanding under the BMO Term Loan at a fixed interest rate of 1.28%.
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Availability of such funds under the current debt agreements is conditional upon various customary terms and covenants. Such covenants include, among other things, two financial covenants requiring us (i) not to exceed a maximum ratio of net funded debt to EBITDA and (ii) to exceed a minimum ratio of EBITDA to interest expense. As of March 31, 2024, we were in compliance with these covenants.
At March 31, 2024, the aggregate future maturities of long-term debt by year are as follows (in thousands):
2024 (remaining)$87,500 
2025 
2026 
2027510,000 
2028 
Total$597,500 
(8) Commitments and Contingencies
We have committed to property and equipment purchases of approximately $188.3 million at March 31, 2024.
We are involved in certain claims and pending litigation, including those described herein, arising in the ordinary course of business. The majority of these claims relate to bodily injury, property damage, cargo and workers’ compensation incurred in the transportation of freight, as well as certain class action litigation related to personnel and employment matters. We accrue for the uninsured portion of contingent losses from these and other pending claims when it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. Based on the knowledge of the facts, management believes the resolution of claims and pending litigation, taking into account existing reserves, will not have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial statements. Moreover, the results of complex legal proceedings are difficult to predict, and our view of these matters may change in the future as the litigation and related events unfold.
On May 17, 2018, in Harris County District Court in Houston, Texas, a jury rendered an adverse verdict against the Company in a lawsuit arising from a December 30, 2014 accident between a Werner tractor-trailer and a passenger vehicle. On July 30, 2018, the court entered a final judgment against Werner for $92.0 million, including pre-judgment interest.
The Company has premium-based liability insurance to cover the potential outcome from this jury verdict. Under the Company’s insurance policies in effect on the date of this accident, the Company’s maximum liability for this accident is $10.0 million (plus pre-judgment and post-judgment interest) with premium-based coverage that exceeds the jury verdict amount. As a result of this jury verdict, the Company had recorded a liability of $40.4 million as of March 31, 2024, and $39.8 million as of December 31, 2023. Under the terms of the Company’s insurance policies, the Company is the primary obligor of the verdict, and as such, the Company has also recorded a $79.2 million receivable from its third-party insurance providers in other non-current assets and a corresponding liability of the same amount in the long-term portion of insurance and claims accruals in the consolidated condensed balance sheets as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023.
The Company pursued an appeal of this verdict, and on May 18, 2023, the Texas Court of Appeals overruled Werner’s appeal and affirmed the trial court’s judgment. The Company has since filed a Petition for Review with the Texas Supreme Court, seeking further review of the Texas Court of Appeals decision. No assurances can be given regarding whether the Texas Supreme Court will accept the Company’s petition to review or the outcome of any such review.
We have been involved in class action litigation in the U.S. District Court for the District of Nebraska, in which the plaintiffs allege that we owe drivers for unpaid wages under the Fair Labor Standards Act (“FLSA”) and the Nebraska Wage Payment and Collection Act and that we failed to pay minimum wage per hour for drivers in our Career Track Program, related to short break time and sleeper berth time. The period covered by this class action suit is August 2008 through March 2014. The case was tried to a jury in May 2017, resulting in a verdict of $0.8 million in plaintiffs’ favor on the short break matter and a verdict in our favor on the sleeper berth matter. As a result of various post-trial motions, the court awarded $0.5 million to the plaintiffs for attorney fees and costs. Plaintiffs appealed the post-verdict amounts awarded by the trial court for fees, costs and liquidated damages, and the Company filed a cross appeal on the verdict that was in plaintiffs’ favor. The United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit denied Plaintiffs’ appeal and granted Werner’s appeal, vacating the judgment in favor of the plaintiffs. The appellate court sent the case back to the trial court for proceedings consistent with the appellate court’s opinion. On June 22, 2020, the trial court denied Plaintiffs’ request for a new trial and entered judgment in favor of the Company, dismissing the case with prejudice. On July 21, 2020, Plaintiffs’ counsel filed a notice of appeal of that dismissal. On August 3, 2022, the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals vacated the district court’s judgment and remanded the case, for the trial court to determine whether the plaintiffs should be granted a new trial on the short break claim. On January 10, 2023, the trial court denied Plaintiff’s motion for a new trial and entered judgment in Werner’s favor on all claims. Plaintiffs again have appealed the case
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to the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals. As of March 31, 2024, we have an accrual for the jury’s award, attorney fees and costs in the short break matter and had not accrued for the sleeper berth matter.
We are also involved in certain class action litigation in which the plaintiffs allege claims for failure to provide meal and rest breaks, unpaid wages, unauthorized deductions and other items. Based on the knowledge of the facts, management does not currently believe the outcome of these class actions is likely to have a material adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations. However, the final disposition of these matters and the impact of such final dispositions cannot be determined at this time.
(9) Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing net income attributable to Werner by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing net income attributable to Werner by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding plus the effect of dilutive potential common shares outstanding during the period using the treasury stock method. Dilutive potential common shares include outstanding restricted stock awards. Performance awards are excluded from the calculation of dilutive potential common shares until the threshold performance conditions have been satisfied. There are no differences in the numerators of our computations of basic and diluted earnings per share for any periods presented.
The computation of basic and diluted earnings per share is shown below (in thousands, except per share amounts).
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20242023
Net income attributable to Werner$6,312 $35,224 
Weighted average common shares outstanding63,472 63,306 
Dilutive effect of stock-based awards255 389 
Shares used in computing diluted earnings per share63,727 63,695 
Basic earnings per share$0.10 $0.56 
Diluted earnings per share$0.10 $0.55 
(10) Segment Information
We have two reportable segments – Truckload Transportation Services (“TTS”) and Werner Logistics.
The TTS segment consists of two operating units, Dedicated and One-Way Truckload. These units are aggregated because they have similar economic characteristics and meet the other aggregation criteria described in the accounting guidance for segment reporting. Dedicated provides truckload services dedicated to a specific customer, generally for a retail distribution center or manufacturing facility, utilizing either dry van or specialized trailers. One-Way Truckload is comprised of the following operating fleets: (i) the medium-to-long-haul van (“Van”) fleet transports a variety of consumer nondurable products and other commodities in truckload quantities over irregular routes using dry van trailers, including Mexico cross-border routes; (ii) the expedited (“Expedited”) fleet provides time-sensitive truckload services utilizing driver teams; (iii) the regional short-haul (“Regional”) fleet provides comparable truckload van service within geographic regions across the United States; and (iv) the Temperature Controlled fleet provides truckload services for temperature sensitive products over irregular routes utilizing temperature-controlled trailers. Revenues for the TTS segment include a small amount of non-trucking revenues which consist primarily of the intra-Mexico portion of cross-border shipments delivered to or from Mexico where we utilize a third-party capacity provider.
The Werner Logistics segment is a non-asset based transportation and logistics provider. Werner Logistics provides services throughout North America and generates the majority of our non-trucking revenues through three operating units. These three Werner Logistics operating units are as follows: (i) Truckload Logistics, which uses contracted carriers to complete shipments for brokerage customers and freight management customers for which we offer a full range of single-source logistics management services and solutions; (ii) the Intermodal (“Intermodal”) unit offers rail transportation through alliances with rail and drayage providers as an alternative to truck transportation; and (iii) Werner Final Mile (“Final Mile”) offers residential and commercial deliveries of large or heavy items using third-party agents, independent contractors, and Company employees with two-person delivery teams operating a liftgate straight truck.
We generate other revenues from our driver training schools, transportation-related activities such as third-party equipment maintenance and equipment leasing, and other business activities. None of these operations meets the quantitative reporting thresholds. As a result, these operations are grouped in “Other” in the tables below. “Corporate” includes revenues and
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expenses that are incidental to our activities and are not attributable to any of our operating segments, including gains and losses on sales of property and equipment not attributable to our operating segments.
We do not prepare separate balance sheets by segment and, as a result, assets are not separately identifiable by segment. Based on our operations, certain revenue-generating assets (primarily tractors and trailers) are interchangeable between segments. Depreciation for these interchangeable assets is allocated to segments based on the actual number of units utilized by the segment during the period. Other depreciation and amortization is allocated to segments based on specific identification or as a percentage of a metric such as average number of tractors. Inter-segment eliminations represent transactions between reporting segments that are eliminated in consolidation.
The following tables summarize our segment information (in thousands):
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20242023
Revenues by Segment
Truckload Transportation Services$551,126 $588,330 
Werner Logistics202,482 228,669 
Other18,953 20,501 
Corporate590 475 
  Subtotal773,151 837,975 
Inter-segment eliminations(4,071)(5,261)
Total$769,080 $832,714 
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Operating Income (Loss) by Segment
Truckload Transportation Services$20,840 $50,986 
Werner Logistics(2,329)4,937 
Other(209)549 
Corporate(2,714)(3,086)
Total$15,588 $53,386 
Three Months Ended
March 31,
20242023
Depreciation and Amortization by Segment
Truckload Transportation Services$66,933 $66,843 
Werner Logistics3,667 4,059 
Other2,734 2,873 
Corporate936 538 
Total$74,270 $74,313 
(11) Subsequent Event
In April 2024, we entered into an additional variable-for-fixed interest rate swap agreement for a notional amount of $75.0 million, maturing in April 2027. Under the terms of the interest rate swap agreement, we will receive monthly variable-rate interest payments based on one-month Term SOFR, and make monthly fixed-rate interest payments as specified in the interest rate swap agreement.
We have designated this interest rate swap agreement as a cash flow hedge. Changes in fair value of an outstanding derivative in a cash flow hedge will be recorded in other comprehensive income (loss) in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income until earnings are impacted by the hedged transaction.
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Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (the “MD&A”) summarizes the financial statements from management’s perspective with respect to our financial condition, results of operations, liquidity and other factors that may affect actual results. The MD&A is organized in the following sections:
Overview
Results of Operations
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Regulations
Critical Accounting Estimates
The MD&A should be read in conjunction with our 2023 Form 10-K.
Overview:
We have two reportable segments, TTS and Werner Logistics, and we operate in the truckload and logistics sectors of the transportation industry. In the truckload sector, we focus on transporting consumer nondurable products that generally ship more consistently throughout the year. In the logistics sector, besides managing transportation requirements for individual customers, we provide additional sources of truck capacity, alternative modes of transportation, a North American delivery network and systems analysis to optimize transportation needs. Our success depends on our ability to efficiently and effectively manage our resources in the delivery of truckload transportation and logistics services to our customers. Resource requirements vary with customer demand, which may be subject to seasonal or general economic conditions. Our ability to adapt to changes in customer transportation requirements is essential to efficiently deploy resources and make capital investments in tractors and trailers (with respect to our TTS segment) or obtain qualified third-party capacity at a reasonable price (with respect to our Werner Logistics segment). We may also be affected by our customers’ financial failures or loss of customer business.
Revenues for our TTS segment operating units (Dedicated and One-Way Truckload) are typically generated on a per-mile basis and also include revenues such as stop charges, loading and unloading charges, equipment detention charges and equipment repositioning charges. To mitigate our risk to fuel price increases, we recover additional fuel surcharge revenues from our customers that generally recoup a majority of the increased fuel costs; however, we cannot assure that current recovery levels will continue in future periods. Because fuel surcharge revenues fluctuate in response to changes in fuel costs, we identify them separately and exclude them from the statistical calculations to provide a more meaningful comparison between periods. The key statistics used to evaluate trucking revenues, net of fuel surcharge, are (i) average revenues per tractor per week, (ii) average percentage of empty miles (miles without trailer cargo), (iii) average trip length (in loaded miles) and (iv) average number of tractors in service. General economic conditions, seasonal trucking industry freight patterns and industry capacity are important factors that impact these statistics. Our TTS segment also generates a small amount of revenues categorized as non-trucking revenues, which consist primarily of the intra-Mexico portion of cross-border shipments delivered to or from Mexico where the TTS segment utilizes a third-party capacity provider. We exclude such revenues from the statistical calculations.
Our most significant resource requirements are company drivers, independent contractors, tractors, and trailers with respect to our TTS segment and qualified third-party capacity providers with respect to our Werner Logistics segment. Independent contractors supply their own tractors and drivers and are responsible for their operating expenses. Our financial results are affected by company driver and independent contractor availability and the markets for new and used revenue equipment. We are self-insured for a significant portion of bodily injury, property damage and cargo claims; workers’ compensation claims; and associate health claims (supplemented by premium-based insurance coverage above certain dollar levels). For that reason, our financial results may also be affected by driver safety, medical costs, weather, legal and regulatory environments and insurance coverage costs to protect against catastrophic losses.
The operating ratio is a common industry measure used to evaluate our profitability and that of our TTS segment operating fleets. The operating ratio consists of operating expenses expressed as a percentage of operating revenues. The most significant variable expenses that impact the TTS segment are driver salaries and benefits, fuel, fuel taxes (included in taxes and licenses expense), payments to independent contractors (included in rent and purchased transportation expense), supplies and maintenance and insurance and claims. As discussed further in the comparison of operating results for first quarter 2024 to first quarter 2023, several industry-wide issues have caused, and could continue to cause, costs to increase in future periods. These issues include shortages of drivers or independent contractors, changing fuel prices, changing used truck and trailer pricing, compliance with new or proposed regulations and tightening of the commercial truck liability insurance market. Our main fixed costs include depreciation expense for tractors and trailers and equipment licensing fees (included in taxes and licenses expense). The TTS segment requires substantial cash expenditures for tractor and trailer purchases. We fund these purchases with net cash from operations and financing available under our existing credit facility, as management deems necessary.
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We provide non-trucking services primarily through the three operating units within our Werner Logistics segment (Truckload Logistics, Intermodal, and Final Mile). Unlike our TTS segment, the Werner Logistics segment is less asset-intensive and is instead dependent upon qualified associates, information systems and qualified third-party capacity providers. The largest expense item related to the Werner Logistics segment is the cost of purchased transportation we pay to third-party capacity providers. This expense item is recorded as rent and purchased transportation expense. Other operating expenses consist primarily of salaries, wages and benefits, as well as depreciation and amortization, supplies and maintenance, and other general expenses. We evaluate the Werner Logistics segment’s financial performance by reviewing operating expenses and operating income expressed as a percentage of revenues. Purchased transportation expenses as a percentage of revenues can be impacted by the rates charged to customers and the costs of securing third-party capacity. We have a mix of contracted long-term rates and variable rates for the cost of third-party capacity, and we cannot assure that our operating results will not be adversely impacted in the future if our ability to obtain qualified third-party capacity providers changes or the rates of such providers increase.
Results of Operations:
The following table sets forth the consolidated statements of income in dollars and as a percentage of total operating revenues and the percentage increase or decrease in the dollar amounts of those items compared to the prior year. 
Three Months Ended (3ME)
 March 31,
Percentage Change in Dollar Amounts
202420233ME
(in thousands)$%$%%
Operating revenues$769,080 100.0 $832,714 100.0 (7.6)
Operating expenses:
Salaries, wages and benefits265,403 34.5 268,315 32.2 (1.1)
Fuel77,622 10.1 91,414 11.0 (15.1)
Supplies and maintenance61,775 8.0 68,225 8.2 (9.5)
Taxes and licenses25,164 3.3 25,425 3.1 (1.0)
Insurance and claims36,362 4.7 36,485 4.4 (0.3)
Depreciation and amortization74,270 9.7 74,313 8.9 (0.1)
Rent and purchased transportation203,925 26.5 220,224 26.4 (7.4)
Communications and utilities4,706 0.6 4,733 0.6 (0.6)
Other4,265 0.6 (9,806)(1.2)(143.5)
Total operating expenses753,492 98.0 779,328 93.6 (3.3)
Operating income15,588 2.0 53,386 6.4 (70.8)
Total other expense, net6,273 0.8 6,452 0.8 (2.8)
Income before income taxes9,315 1.2 46,934 5.6 (80.2)
Income tax expense3,067 0.4 11,400 1.3 (73.1)
Net income6,248 0.8 35,534 4.3 (82.4)
Net loss (income) attributable to noncontrolling interest64 — (310)(0.1)(120.6)
Net income attributable to Werner$6,312 0.8 $35,224 4.2 (82.1)


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The following tables set forth the operating revenues, operating expenses and operating income for the TTS segment and certain statistical data regarding our TTS segment operations, as well as statistical data for the One-Way Truckload and Dedicated operating units within TTS.
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
 20242023
TTS segment (in thousands)$%$%
Trucking revenues, net of fuel surcharge$469,879 $493,242 
Trucking fuel surcharge revenues72,983 88,301 
Non-trucking and other operating revenues8,264 6,787 
Operating revenues551,126 100.0 588,330 100.0 
Operating expenses530,286 96.2 537,344 91.3 
Operating income$20,840 3.8 $50,986 8.7 

Three Months Ended
March 31,
TTS segment20242023% Change
Average tractors in service7,935 8,561 (7.3)%
Average revenues per tractor per week (1)
$4,555 $4,432 2.8 %
Total tractors (at quarter end)
  Company7,535 8,170 (7.8)%
  Independent contractor275 305 (9.8)%
  Total tractors7,810 8,475 (7.8)%
Total trailers (at quarter end)27,650 27,440 0.8 %

One-Way Truckload
Trucking revenues, net of fuel surcharge (in 000’s)$168,837 $183,130 (7.8)%
Average tractors in service2,786 3,191 (12.7)%
Total tractors (at quarter end)2,730 3,130 (12.8)%
Average percentage of empty miles14.90 %14.09 %5.7 %
Average revenues per tractor per week (1)
$4,661 $4,414 5.6 %
Average % change in revenues per total mile (1)
(5.1)%(3.2)%
Average % change in total miles per tractor per week11.3 %(2.8)%
Average completed trip length in miles (loaded)591 620 (4.7)%

Dedicated
Trucking revenues, net of fuel surcharge (in 000’s)$301,042 $310,112 (2.9)%
Average tractors in service5,149 5,370 (4.1)%
Total tractors (at quarter end)5,080 5,345 (5.0)%
Average revenues per tractor per week (1)
$4,497 $4,441 1.3 %
(1)Net of fuel surcharge revenues.
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The following tables set forth the Werner Logistics segment’s revenues, purchased transportation expense, other operating expenses (primarily salaries, wages and benefits expense), total operating expenses, and operating income, as well as certain statistical data regarding the Werner Logistics segment.
 Three Months Ended
March 31,
  20242023
Werner Logistics segment (in thousands)$%$%
Operating revenues$202,482 100.0 $228,669 100.0 
Operating expenses:
Purchased transportation expense172,487 85.2 188,498 82.4 
Other operating expenses32,324 16.0 35,234 15.4 
Total operating expenses204,811 101.2 223,732 97.8 
Operating income (loss)$(2,329)(1.2)$4,937 2.2 

 Three Months Ended
March 31,
Werner Logistics segment20242023% Change
Average tractors in service26 39 (33.3)%
Total tractors (at quarter end)21 32 (34.4)%
Total trailers (at quarter end)3,115 2,580 20.7 %
Three Months Ended March 31, 2024 Compared to Three Months Ended March 31, 2023
Operating Revenues
Operating revenues decreased 7.6% for the three months ended March 31, 2024, compared to the same period of the prior year. When comparing first quarter 2024 to first quarter 2023, TTS segment revenues decreased $37.2 million, or 6.3%, and Werner Logistics revenues decreased $26.2 million, or 11.5%.
Dedicated freight demand in first quarter 2024 was steady, absent isolated fleet losses, and the Dedicated pipeline of opportunities remains strong, but competitive. One-Way Truckload and Werner Logistics volumes reflected normal seasonality while revenues and profitability were impacted by ongoing pricing pressure. Inclement weather further negatively impacted One-Way and Werner Logistics in first quarter 2024. We expect the challenging freight market to continue through second quarter and into the second half of 2024.
Trucking revenues, net of fuel surcharge, decreased 4.7% in first quarter 2024 compared to first quarter 2023 due to a 7.3% decrease in the average number of tractors in service, partially offset by a 2.8% increase in average revenues per tractor per week, net of fuel surcharge. During first quarter 2024, One-Way Truckload average revenues per total mile, net of fuel surcharge, decreased 5.1%, as One-Way Truckload remained challenged by ongoing pricing pressure. Dedicated average revenues per tractor per week, net of fuel surcharge, increased 1.3%, despite losing a few fleets to changes in the supply chain approach for select customers and isolated competitive pricing. We continue to expect average revenues per total mile, net of fuel surcharge, for the One-Way Truckload fleet to decrease in a range of 6% to 3% in the first half of 2024 compared to first half of 2023. We continue to expect Dedicated average revenues per tractor per week, net of fuel surcharge, to remain flat or increase up to 3% in 2024 compared to 2023, as Dedicated demand remains steady, and we anticipate the pipeline of opportunities in Dedicated to continue to be strong, but competitive.
The average number of tractors in service in the TTS segment decreased 7.3% to 7,935 in first quarter 2024 from 8,561 in first quarter 2023, as we decreased our fleet size to adjust to the challenging freight market conditions. We ended first quarter 2024 with 7,810 tractors in the TTS segment, a year-over-year decrease of 665 tractors compared to the end of first quarter 2023, and a sequential decrease of 190 tractors compared to the end of fourth quarter 2023. Within TTS, our Dedicated unit ended first quarter 2024 with 5,080 tractors (or 65% of our total TTS segment fleet) compared to 5,345 tractors (or 63%) a year ago. The Dedicated environment has become more competitive through this prolonged weak freight market. We are receiving new business awards in our Dedicated unit to assist with backfilling lost business, and we foresee potential for growth in our Dedicated unit in the second half of the year; although, we recognize the challenge and believe it is reasonable to lower our fleet size expectations at this time while we focus on maintaining price and margin discipline across our portfolio. We currently expect our fleet size at the end of 2024 to decrease in a range of 6% to 3% when compared to the fleet size at the end of 2023. We cannot predict whether future driver shortages, if any, would have a further adverse effect on our fleet size. If such a driver market shortage were to occur, it could result in further fleet size reductions, and our results of operations could be adversely affected.
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Trucking fuel surcharge revenues decreased 17.3% to $73.0 million in first quarter 2024 from $88.3 million in first quarter 2023. These revenues represent collections from customers for the increase in fuel and fuel-related expenses, including the fuel component of our independent contractor cost (recorded as rent and purchased transportation expense) and fuel taxes (recorded in taxes and licenses expense), when diesel fuel prices rise. Conversely, when fuel prices decrease, fuel surcharge revenues decrease. To lessen the effect of fluctuating fuel prices on our margins, we collect fuel surcharge revenues from our customers for the cost of diesel fuel and taxes in excess of specified base fuel price levels according to terms in our customer contracts. Fuel surcharge rates generally adjust weekly based on an independent U.S. Department of Energy fuel price survey which is released every Monday. Our fuel surcharge programs are designed to (i) recoup higher fuel costs from customers when fuel prices rise and (ii) provide customers with the benefit of lower fuel costs when fuel prices decline. These programs generally enable us to recover a majority, but not all, of the fuel price increases. The remaining portion is generally not recoverable because it results from empty and out-of-route miles (which are not billable to customers) and tractor idle time. Fuel prices that change rapidly in short time periods also impact our recovery because the surcharge rate in most programs only changes once per week.
Werner Logistics revenues are generated by its three operating units. Werner Logistics recorded revenue and brokered freight expense of $4.1 million in first quarter 2024 and $5.3 million in first quarter 2023 for certain shipments performed by the TTS segment (also recorded as trucking revenue by the TTS segment), and these transactions between reporting segments are eliminated in consolidation. In first quarter 2024, Werner Logistics revenues decreased $26.2 million, or 11.5%. Truckload Logistics revenues (76% of total Werner Logistics segment revenues) decreased 13% in first quarter 2024, driven by a decrease in shipments and a decline in revenue per shipment. Final Mile revenues (12% of total Werner Logistics segment revenues) increased $1.1 million or 5% in first quarter 2024, despite a softer market for discretionary spending on big and bulky products. Intermodal revenues (12% of total Werner Logistics segment revenues) decreased 15% in first quarter 2024, due to lower revenue per shipment, partially offset by an increase in shipments. Werner Logistics had an operating loss of $2.3 million in first quarter 2024 compared to operating income of $4.9 million in first quarter 2023, and its operating margin percentage decreased to (1.2)% in first quarter 2024 from 2.2% in first quarter 2023. Adverse weather combined with a competitive freight and rate market in first quarter 2024 impacted Werner Logistics revenue and profitability despite normal seasonality in volume and maintaining high client retention. We expect Truckload Logistics margins will remain challenged in the near-term, but may improve later in the year through cost saving initiatives and further synergies realized from the integration of our acquired companies.
Operating Expenses
Our operating ratio (operating expenses expressed as a percentage of operating revenues) was 98.0% for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 93.6% for the three months ended March 31, 2023. Expense items that impacted the overall operating ratio are described on the following pages. The tables on pages 19 through 21 show the consolidated statements of income in dollars and as a percentage of total operating revenues and the percentage increase or decrease in the dollar amounts of those items compared to the same period of the prior year, as well as the operating ratios, operating margins, and certain statistical information for our two reportable segments, TTS and Werner Logistics.
Salaries, wages and benefits decreased $2.9 million or 1.1% in first quarter 2024 compared to first quarter 2023 and increased 2.3% as a percentage of operating revenues to 34.5%. The lower dollar amount of salaries, wages and benefits expense in the first quarter of 2024 was due primarily to decreased non-driver pay and the impact of 3.4 million fewer company tractor miles in the first quarter 2024, partially offset by higher benefit costs. The decrease in non-driver pay was primarily due to a smaller average number of non-driver employees. Non-driver salaries, wages and benefits in our non-trucking Werner Logistics segment decreased 7% in first quarter 2024 compared to first quarter 2023.
We renewed our workers’ compensation insurance coverage on April 1, 2024. Our coverage levels are the same as the prior policy year. We continue to maintain a self-insurance retention of $2.0 million per claim. Our workers’ compensation insurance premiums for the policy year beginning April 2024 are $0.3 million higher than the previous policy year.
While we currently believe the driver recruiting and retention market may be less difficult in the near term, a competitive driver market presents labor challenges for customers and carriers alike. Several factors impacting the driver market include a declining number of, and increased competition for, driver training school graduates, aging truck driver demographics and increased truck safety regulations. We continue to take significant actions to strengthen our driver recruiting and retention as we strive to be the truckload employer of choice, including competitive driver pay, providing a modern tractor and trailer fleet with the latest safety equipment and technology, investing in our driver training school network and offering a wide variety of driving positions including daily and weekly home time opportunities. We are unable to predict whether we will experience future driver shortages or maintain our current driver retention rates. If such a driver shortage were to occur and driver pay rate increases became necessary to attract and retain drivers, our results of operations would be negatively impacted to the extent that we could not obtain corresponding freight rate increases.
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Fuel decreased $13.8 million or 15.1% in first quarter 2024 compared to first quarter 2023 and decreased 0.9% as a percentage of operating revenues to 10.1%, primarily due to lower average diesel fuel prices, and 3.4 million fewer company tractor miles in first quarter 2024. Average diesel fuel prices were 31 cents per gallon lower in first quarter 2024 than in first quarter 2023 and were 20 cents per gallon lower than in fourth quarter 2023.
We continue to employ measures to improve our fuel mpg such as (i) limiting tractor engine idle time by installing auxiliary power units, (ii) optimizing the speed, weight and specifications of our equipment and (iii) implementing mpg-enhancing equipment changes to our fleet including new tractors, more aerodynamic tractor features, idle reduction systems, trailer tire inflation systems, trailer skirts and automated manual transmissions to reduce our fuel gallons purchased. However, fuel savings from mpg improvement is partially offset by higher depreciation expense and the additional cost of diesel exhaust fluid. Although our fuel management programs require significant capital investment and research and development, we intend to continue these and other environmentally conscious initiatives, including our active participation as a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) SmartWay Transport Partner. The SmartWay Transport Partnership is a national voluntary program developed by the EPA and freight industry representatives to reduce greenhouse gases and air pollution and promote cleaner, more efficient ground freight transportation.
For April 2024, the average diesel fuel price per gallon was approximately 5 cents lower than the average diesel fuel price per gallon in April 2023 and approximately 10 cents higher than in second quarter 2023.
Shortages of fuel, increases in fuel prices and petroleum product rationing can have a material adverse effect on our operations and profitability. We are unable to predict whether fuel price levels will increase or decrease in the future or the extent to which fuel surcharges will be collected from customers. As of March 31, 2024, we had no derivative financial instruments to reduce our exposure to fuel price fluctuations.
Supplies and maintenance decreased $6.5 million or 9.5% in first quarter 2024 compared to first quarter 2023 and decreased 0.2% as a percentage of operating revenues. Supplies and maintenance expense decreased due to the lower costs for over-the-road tractor and trailer maintenance and tires, and the impact of 3.4 million fewer company tractor miles. We have taken steps to reduce repair and maintenance expense by growing our in-house maintenance capabilities throughout our terminal network.
Insurance and claims decreased $0.1 million or 0.3% in first quarter 2024 compared to first quarter 2023 and increased 0.3% as a percentage of operating revenues. We had lower expense for small dollar liability claims, resulting from a lower amount of unfavorable reserve development, partially offset by higher expense for new claims due to an increasing cost per claim. Our expense for large dollar liability claims was higher due primarily to unfavorable reserve development. We also incurred insurance and claims expense of $0.5 million in first quarter 2024 and $1.5 million for first quarter 2023, for accrued interest related to a previously-disclosed adverse jury verdict rendered on May 17, 2018, which we are continuing to defend. Interest is accrued at $0.5 million per month until such time as the outcome of the litigation is finalized, excluding months where the plaintiffs requested an extension of time to respond to our petition for review. For additional information related to this lawsuit, see Note 8 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) set forth in Part I of this report. The majority of our insurance and claims expense results from our claim experience and claim development under our self-insurance program; the remainder results from insurance premiums for claims in excess of our self-insured limits.
We renewed our liability insurance policies on August 1, 2023 and are responsible for the first $10.0 million per claim on all claims with an annual $12.5 million aggregate for claims between $10.0 million and $20.0 million. For the policy year that began August 1, 2022, we were responsible for the first $10.0 million per claim on all claims with an annual $10.0 million aggregate for claims between $10.0 million and $20.0 million. We maintain liability insurance coverage with insurance carriers in excess of the $10.0 million per claim. Our liability insurance premiums for the policy year that began August 1, 2023 are $1.0 million higher than premiums for the previous policy year.
Depreciation and amortization expense decreased $43 thousand or 0.1% in first quarter 2024 compared to first quarter 2023 and increased 0.8% as a percentage of operating revenues due primarily to a decrease in depreciation of furniture, office, and technology equipment as we continue to transition to more cloud-based technology solutions. These decreases were mostly offset by more trailers in service, the higher cost of new tractors and trailers, and the addition of auxiliary power units.
The average age of our tractor fleet remains low by industry standards and was 2.1 years as of March 31, 2024, and the average age of our trailers was 5.0 years. We are continuing to invest in new tractors and trailers and our terminals in 2024 to improve our driver experience, increase operational efficiency and more effectively manage our maintenance, safety and fuel costs. During the remainder of 2024, we expect the average age of our tractor and trailer fleets to remain at or near current levels.
Rent and purchased transportation expense decreased $16.3 million or 7.4% in first quarter 2024 compared to first quarter 2023, and increased 0.1% as a percentage of operating revenues. Rent and purchased transportation expense consists mostly of payments to third-party capacity providers in the Werner Logistics segment and other non-trucking operations, payments to
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independent contractors in the TTS segment, and cloud-based technology fees. The payments to third-party capacity providers generally vary depending on changes in the volume of services generated by the Werner Logistics segment. Werner Logistics recorded revenue and brokered freight expense of $4.1 million in first quarter 2024 and $5.3 million in first quarter 2023 for certain shipments performed by the TTS segment (also recorded as trucking revenue by the TTS segment), and these transactions between reporting segments are eliminated in consolidation. Werner Logistics purchased transportation expense decreased $16.0 million in first quarter 2024 as a result of lower logistics revenues, but increased to 85.2% as a percentage of Werner Logistics revenues in first quarter 2024 from 82.4% in first quarter 2023.
Rent and purchased transportation expense for the TTS segment decreased $1.4 million in first quarter 2024 compared to first quarter 2023 due primarily to fewer independent contractor miles and lower reimbursements to independent contractors because of lower average diesel fuel prices, partially offset by higher cloud-based technology fees. Independent contractor miles decreased approximately 1.4 million miles in first quarter 2024 and as a percentage of total miles were 4.3% in first quarter 2024 compared to 4.9% in first quarter 2023. Because independent contractors supply their own tractors and drivers and are responsible for their operating expenses, the decrease in independent contractor miles as a percentage of total miles shifted costs from the rent and purchased transportation category to other expense categories, including (i) salaries, wages and benefits, (ii) fuel, (iii) depreciation, (iv) supplies and maintenance and (v) taxes and licenses.
Challenging operating conditions continue to make independent contractor recruitment and retention difficult. Such conditions include inflationary cost increases that are the responsibility of independent contractors and a shortage of financing available to independent contractors for equipment purchases. Historically, we have been able to add company tractors and recruit additional company drivers to offset any decrease in the number of independent contractors. If a shortage of independent contractors and company drivers were to occur, increases in per-mile settlement rates (for independent contractors) and driver pay rates (for company drivers) may become necessary to attract and retain these drivers. These increased expenses could negatively affect our results of operations to the extent that we would not be able to obtain corresponding freight rate increases.
Other operating expenses increased $14.1 million in first quarter 2024 compared to first quarter 2023 and increased 1.8% as a percentage of operating revenues due to lower gains on sales of property and equipment (primarily used tractors and trailers). Gains on sales of property and equipment are reflected as a reduction of other operating expenses and are reported net of sales-related expenses (which include costs to prepare the equipment for sale). Gains on sales of property and equipment were $3.6 million in first quarter 2024, compared to $18.3 million in first quarter 2023. We sold fewer tractors and substantially more trailers in first quarter 2024 compared to first quarter 2023 and realized lower average gains per tractor and trailer due to lower pricing in the market for our used equipment. Compared to 2023, we expect our gains on sales of property and equipment to be considerably lower in 2024, in a range between $10 million and $20 million for the year.
Other Expense (Income)
Other expense, net of other income, decreased $0.2 million in first quarter 2024 compared to first quarter 2023. Net interest expense decreased $0.1 million due to a decrease in average debt outstanding, mostly offset by higher interest rates for variable rate debt. In July 2023 and April 2024, we entered into additional variable-for-fixed interest rate swap agreements for notional amounts of $130.0 million and $75.0 million, respectively, to further limit our exposure to increases in interest rates on a portion of our variable-rate indebtedness (see Note 7 and Note 11 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) set forth in Part I of this report for information regarding these interest rate swaps). We continue to expect net interest expense for full-year 2024 to be an increase compared to 2023, primarily due to repricing of the BMO Term Loan that is maturing in May 2024 and the impact of two lower-priced interest rate swaps that are also expiring in May 2024. Year-over-year variability in debt can also be a factor, which has been a favorable offset through the first quarter of 2024.
Income Tax Expense
Income tax expense decreased $8.3 million in first quarter 2024 compared to first quarter 2023, due primarily to lower pre-tax income, partially offset by an increase in the effective income tax rate. Our effective income tax rate (income taxes expressed as a percentage of income before income taxes) was 32.9% in first quarter 2024 compared to 24.3% in first quarter 2023. The higher income tax rate was attributed primarily to a higher amount of unfavorable discrete income tax items in first quarter 2024 related to prior year state income tax audits and the tax impact of equity compensation.
Liquidity and Capital Resources:
We closely manage our liquidity and capital resources. Our liquidity requirements depend on key variables, including the level of investment needed to support business strategies, the performance of the business, capital expenditures, borrowing arrangements, and working capital management. Capital expenditures, business acquisitions, stock repurchases, and dividend payments are components of our cash flow and capital management strategy, which to a large extent, can be adjusted in response to economic and other changes in the business environment. Management’s approach to capital allocation focuses on
24

investing in key priorities that support our business and growth strategies and providing shareholder returns, while funding ongoing operations.
Management believes our financial position at March 31, 2024 is strong. As of March 31, 2024, we had $60.3 million of cash and cash equivalents and over $1.5 billion of stockholders’ equity. Cash is invested primarily in short-term money market funds. In addition, we have a $1.075 billion credit facility, for which our total available borrowing capacity was $559.1 million as of March 31, 2024 (see Note 7 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) set forth in Part I of this report for information regarding our credit agreements). After considering developments in the banking sector, we believe the six commercial banks in our $1.075 billion syndicated credit facility all have strong tier-one capital ratios and good loan-to-deposit ratios. We believe our liquid assets, cash generated from operating activities, and borrowing capacity under our existing credit facility will provide sufficient funds to meet our cash requirements and our planned shareholder returns for the foreseeable future.
Item 7 of Part II of our 2023 Form 10-K includes our disclosure of material cash requirements as of December 31, 2023. There were no material changes in the nature of these items during the three months ended March 31, 2024.
Cash Flows
During the three months ended March 31, 2024, we generated cash flow from operations of $88.6 million, a 46.9% or $78.3 million decrease in cash flows compared to the same three-month period a year ago. The decrease in net cash provided by operating activities was due primarily to working capital changes and a decrease in net income for the three-month period ended March 31, 2024. We were able to make net capital expenditures, repay debt, make strategic investments, pay dividends, and repurchase company stock with the net cash provided by operating activities and existing cash balances.
Net cash used in investing activities was $19.4 million for the three-month period ended March 31, 2024 compared to $129.2 million during the same period in 2023. Net property and equipment additions (primarily revenue equipment) were $19.0 million for the three-month period ended March 31, 2024, compared to $102.7 million during the same period of 2023. We currently estimate net capital expenditures (primarily revenue equipment) in 2024 to be in the range of $250 million to $300 million, compared to net capital expenditures in 2023 of $408.7 million. We intend to fund these net capital expenditures through cash flows from operations and financing available under our existing credit facility, if necessary. As of March 31, 2024, we were committed to property and equipment purchases of approximately $188.3 million. During the three-month period ended March 31, 2023, we purchased a $25.0 million subordinated promissory note from Mastery Logistics Systems, Inc. with a maturity date of January 24, 2030.
Net financing activities used $70.8 million during the three months ended March 31, 2024, and used $16.2 million during the same period in 2023. We had net repayments on our debt of $51.3 million during the three months ended March 31, 2024, decreasing our outstanding debt to $597.5 million at March 31, 2024. We repaid $2.5 million on our debt during the three-month period ended March 31, 2023. We paid dividends of $8.9 million during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and $8.2 million during the same period in 2023. We currently plan to continue paying a quarterly dividend.
Financing activities for the three months ended March 31, 2024, also included common stock repurchases of 167,818 shares at a cost of $6.5 million. We did not repurchase any shares of common stock during the same period in 2023. The Company has repurchased, and may continue to repurchase, shares of the Company’s common stock. The timing and amount of such purchases depend upon economic and stock market conditions and other factors. As of March 31, 2024, the Company had purchased 3,856,008 shares pursuant to our current Board of Directors repurchase authorization and had 2,143,992 shares remaining available for repurchase.
Regulations:
Item 1 of Part I of our 2023 Form 10-K includes a discussion of pending proposed regulations that may have an effect on our operations if they become adopted and effective as proposed. The following is an update to the regulations set forth in our 2023 Form 10-K.
In March 2024, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) released a Final Rule governing Greenhouse Gas (“GHG”) Emissions Standards for Heavy-Duty Vehicles - Phase 3, which requires more stringent greenhouse gas standards for heavy-duty vehicles and revises the “Phase 2” greenhouse gas standards established in 2016. Short haul (day cab) and long haul (sleeper cab) tractor GHG standards under the Final Rule phase in starting with model years 2028 through 2032. Werner continues to evaluate the Final Rule and any EPA-related developments impacting its fleet.
There have been no other material changes in the status of the proposed regulations previously disclosed in the 2023 Form 10-K.
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Critical Accounting Estimates:
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the (i) reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and (ii) reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. We evaluate these estimates on an ongoing basis as events and circumstances change, utilizing historical experience, consultation with experts and other methods considered reasonable in the particular circumstances. Actual results could differ from those estimates and may significantly impact our results of operations from period to period. It is also possible that materially different amounts would be reported if we used different estimates or assumptions.
Information regarding our Critical Accounting Estimates can be found in our 2023 Form 10-K. Estimates of accrued liabilities for insurance and claims for bodily injury and property damage is a critical accounting estimate that requires us to make significant judgments and estimates and affects our financial statements.
There have been no material changes to this critical accounting estimate from that discussed in our 2023 Form 10-K.
Item 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.
We are exposed to market risk from changes in commodity prices, foreign currency exchange rates, and interest rates.
Commodity Price Risk
The price and availability of diesel fuel are subject to fluctuations attributed to changes in the level of global oil production, refining capacity, regulatory changes, seasonality, weather and other market factors. Historically, we have recovered a majority, but not all, of fuel price increases from customers in the form of fuel surcharges. We implemented customer fuel surcharge programs with most of our customers to offset much of the higher fuel cost per gallon. However, we do not recover all of the fuel cost increase through these surcharge programs. As of March 31, 2024, we had no derivative financial instruments to reduce our exposure to fuel price fluctuations.
Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Risk
We conduct business in foreign countries, primarily in Mexico. To date, most foreign revenues are denominated in U.S. Dollars, and we receive payment for foreign freight services primarily in U.S. Dollars to reduce direct foreign currency risk. Assets and liabilities maintained by a foreign subsidiary company in the local currency are subject to foreign exchange gains or losses. Foreign currency translation gains and losses primarily relate to changes in the value of revenue equipment owned by a subsidiary in Mexico, whose functional currency is the Peso. Foreign currency translation gains were $0.5 million and $3.0 million for first quarter 2024 and 2023, respectively. These gains were recorded in accumulated other comprehensive loss within stockholders’ equity in the consolidated condensed balance sheets.
Interest Rate Risk
We manage interest rate exposure through a mix of variable interest rate debt and interest rate swap agreements. We had $280.0 million of variable interest rate debt outstanding at March 31, 2024, for which the interest rate is effectively fixed at 4.31% with interest rate swap agreements to reduce our exposure to interest rate increases. In addition, we had $230.0 million of variable interest rate debt outstanding at March 31, 2024. The interest rates on our credit facility are based on Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”). See Note 7 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) set forth in Part I of this report for further detail of our debt. Assuming this level of borrowing, a hypothetical one-percentage point increase in the SOFR interest rate would increase our interest expense by approximately $4.4 million for the next 12-month period.
Item 4. Controls and Procedures.
As of the end of the period covered by this report, we carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in Rule 15d-15(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”). Our disclosure controls and procedures are designed to provide reasonable assurance of achieving the desired control objectives. Based upon that evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures are effective at a reasonable assurance level in enabling us to record, process, summarize and report information required to be included in our periodic filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) within the required time period and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.
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Management, under the supervision of and with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, concluded that no changes in our internal control over financial reporting occurred during our most recent fiscal quarter that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
We have confidence in our internal controls and procedures. Nevertheless, our management, including the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer, does not expect that the internal controls or disclosure procedures and controls will prevent all errors or intentional fraud. An internal control system, no matter how well conceived and operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of such internal controls are met. Further, the design of an internal control system must reflect that resource constraints exist, and the benefits of controls must be evaluated relative to their costs. Because of the inherent limitations in all internal control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that all control issues, misstatements and instances of fraud, if any, have been prevented or detected.
PART II
OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1. Legal Proceedings.
For information regarding legal proceedings, see Note 8 in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) set forth in Part I of this report.
Item 1A. Risk Factors.
In addition to the other information set forth in this report, you should carefully consider the factors discussed under Item 1A (Risk Factors) in our 2023 Form 10-K, which could materially affect our business, financial condition, and future results of operations. The risks described in our 2023 Form 10‑K are not the only risks facing us. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial also may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
There have been no material changes from the risk factors disclosed in our 2023 Form 10-K.
Item 2. Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities, Use of Proceeds, and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
On November 9, 2021, our Board of Directors approved and announced a new stock repurchase program under which the Company is authorized to repurchase up to 6,000,000 shares of its common stock. As of March 31, 2024, the Company had purchased 3,856,008 shares pursuant to this authorization and had 2,143,992 shares remaining available for repurchase. The Company may purchase shares from time to time depending on market, economic, and other factors. The authorization will continue unless withdrawn by the Board of Directors.
The following table summarizes our stock repurchases during first quarter 2024 made pursuant to this authorization. The Company did not purchase any shares during first quarter 2024 other than pursuant to this authorization. All stock repurchases were made by the Company or on its behalf and not by any “affiliated purchaser,” as defined by Rule 10b-18 of the Exchange Act.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
PeriodTotal Number of
Shares Purchased
Average Price
Paid per Share (1)
Total Number of Shares
Purchased as
Part of Publicly
Announced Plans or
Programs
Maximum Number (or
Approximate Dollar
Value) of Shares that May Yet Be
Purchased Under the
Plans or Programs
January 1-31, 2024— $— — 2,311,810 
February 1-29, 2024— $— — 2,311,810 
March 1-31, 2024167,818 $38.64 167,818 2,143,992 
Total167,818 $38.64 167,818  
(1)Average price paid per share for open market purchases include broker commissions, but exclude excise tax.
Item 5. Other Information
Director and Officer Trading Arrangements
During first quarter 2024, no Company director or officer adopted or terminated a “Rule 10b5-1 trading arrangement” or “non-Rule 10b5-1 trading arrangement,” as such terms are defined in Item 408(a) of Regulation S-K.
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Item 6. Exhibits.
Exhibit No.  Exhibit  Incorporated by Reference to:
    
    
    
    
    
    
101  The following unaudited financial information from Werner Enterprises’ Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2024, formatted in iXBRL (Inline Extensible Business Reporting Language) includes: (i) Consolidated Statements of Income for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, (ii) Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, (iii) Consolidated Condensed Balance Sheets as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023, (iv) Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, (v) Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity and Temporary Equity - Redeemable Noncontrolling Interest for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, and (vi) the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) as of March 31, 2024.  
104The cover page from this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2024, formatted in Inline XBRL (included as Exhibit 101).
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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized.
 
WERNER ENTERPRISES, INC.
Date: May 9, 2024
By: /s/ Christopher D. Wikoff
 Christopher D. Wikoff
 Executive Vice President, Treasurer and
Chief Financial Officer
Date: May 9, 2024
By: /s/ James L. Johnson
 James L. Johnson
 Executive Vice President and
Chief Accounting Officer
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