20-F 1 f20f2023_wimiholo.htm ANNUAL REPORT

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

________________________________________

FORM 20-F

________________________________________

REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of event requiring this shell company report ______________

For the transition period from ________ to ________

Commission file number 001-39257

________________________________________

WiMi Hologram Cloud Inc.
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

________________________________________

Not Applicable
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

Cayman Islands
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

Room#2002, Building A, Wentley Center, 1st West Dawang Road,
Chaoyang District, Beijing
The People’s Republic of China, 100020
(Address of principal executive offices)

________________________________________

Shuo Shi, Chief Executive and Operations Officer
sean@wimiar.com
Room#2002, Building A, Wentley Center, 1
st West Dawang Road,
Chaoyang District, Beijing
The People’s Republic of China, 100020
Tel: +86
-10-5338-4913
(Name, Telephone, E-mail and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

________________________________________

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

 

Trading symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

American depositary shares, each ADS 
represents two Class B ordinary shares, par 
value US$0.0001 per share

 

WIMI

 

NASDAQ Global Market

Class B ordinary shares, par value
US$0.0001 per share*

       

____________

*        Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing on the Nasdaq Global Market of American depositary shares.

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.

None

________________________________________

      

     

 

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Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report: As of December 31, 2022, there were (i) 20,115,570 Class A ordinary shares issued and outstanding, par value US$0.0001 per share, and (ii) 153,300,513 Class B ordinary shares issued and outstanding, par value US$0.0001 per share.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of “accelerated filer and large accelerated filer” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer

 

 

Accelerated filer

 

   

Non-accelerated filer

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

____________

        The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes No

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 

U.S. GAAP

 

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board

 

Other

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement Item the registrant has elected to follow. Item 17 Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court. Yes No

 

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Page

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

iii

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

 

iv

PART I

 

1

ITEM 1. IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

 

1

ITEM 2. OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

 

1

ITEM 3. KEY INFORMATION

 

1

A. Reserved

 

4

B. Capitalization and Indebtedness

 

4

C. Reasons for the Offer and Use of Proceeds

 

4

D. Risk Factors

 

5

ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

 

47

A. History and Development of our Company

 

47

B. Business Overview

 

49

C. Organizational Structure

 

70

D. Property, Plant and equipment

 

73

ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

 

73

ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

 

74

A. Operating Results

 

74

B. Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

85

C. Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, etc.

 

89

D. Trend information

 

89

E. Critical Accounting Estimates

 

89

ITEM 6. DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

 

91

A. Directors, Senior Management and Employees

 

91

B. Compensation

 

92

C. Board Practices

 

93

D. Employees

 

98

E. Share Ownership

 

98

ITEM 7. MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

 

100

A. Major Shareholders

 

100

B. Related Party Transactions

 

100

C. Interests of Experts and Counsel

 

101

ITEM 8. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

101

A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information

 

101

B. Significant Changes

 

102

ITEM 9. THE OFFER AND LISTING

 

102

A. Offer and listing details

 

102

B. Plan of Distribution

 

102

C. Markets

 

102

D. Selling Shareholders

 

102

E. Dilution

 

102

F. Expenses of the Issue

 

102

ITEM 10. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

 

102

A. Share Capital

 

102

B. Memorandum and Articles of Association

 

102

C. Material Contracts

 

103

D. Exchange Controls

 

103

E. Taxation

 

103

F. Dividends and Paying Agents

 

108

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ii

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This annual report on Form 20-F contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical facts are forward-looking statements. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

You can identify these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “likely to” or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategies and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

        our growth strategies;

        our future business development, financial condition and results of operations;

        our ability to retain, grow and engage our user base and expand our product offering;

        expected changes in our revenues, content-related costs and operating margins;

        our ability to retain key personnel and attract new talent;

        competition landscape in China’s holographic AR industry;

        general economic, political, demographic and business conditions in China and globally; and

        the regulatory environment in which we operate.

We would like to caution you not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements and you should read these statements in conjunction with the risk factors disclosed in “Item 3. Key Information — 3.D. Risk Factors.” Other sections of this annual report include additional factors which could adversely impact our business and financial performance. Moreover, we operate in an evolving environment. New risk factors and uncertainties emerge from time to time and it is not possible for our management to predict all risk factors and uncertainties, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements. We do not undertake any obligation to update or revise the forward-looking statements except as required under applicable law. You should read this annual report and the documents that we reference in this annual report completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

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INTRODUCTORY NOTE

Except where the context otherwise indicates and for the purpose of this annual report only:

        “ADSs” refer to the American depositary shares, each representing two Class B ordinary shares;

        “AR” refers to augmented reality, a technology that enhances the real world through the use of sensory information (visual, audio, or otherwise), which is added to the actual view of the real world;

        “China” or “PRC” refers to the People’s Republic of China, excluding, for the purpose of this annual report only, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau;

        “CPM” refers to cost per thousand impressions, a term used in traditional online advertising and marketing related to web traffic that measures the cost or expense incurred for every thousand potential customers who view the advertisement;

        “GAAP” refers to the generally accepted accounting principles in the United States;

        “HK$”, “HKD” or “Hong Kong dollars” refer to the legal currency of the Hong Kong SAR;

        “ordinary shares” refer to ordinary shares consisted of our Class A ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share, and Class B ordinary shares, par value US$0.0001 per share;

        “RMB” or “Renminbi” refers to the legal currency of the People’s Republic of China;

        “US$”, “dollars”, “USD” or “U.S. dollars” refer to the legal currency of the United States;

        “View” refers to the number of times an advertisement is fetched (each time an advertisement is fetched, it is counted as one impression or one view or one impression); and

        “WIMI”, “WiMi Cayman”, “we”, “us”, “our company”, “the company”, “our”, or similar terms used in this annual report refer to WiMi Hologram Cloud Inc., a Cayman Islands exempted company, including its wholly-owned and majority-owned subsidiaries and, in the context of describing our operations and consolidated financial information, its VIEs and their subsidiaries.

Our reporting currency is the Renminbi. This annual report on Form 20-F also contains translations of certain foreign currency amounts into U.S. dollars for the convenience of the reader. Unless otherwise stated, all translations from Renminbi to U.S. dollars were made at the rate of RMB 1.00 to USD 0.1436, representing the mid-point reference rate set by People’s Bank of China on December 30, 2022, the last business day for the year ended December 31, 2022. We make no representation that the Renminbi or U.S. dollar amounts referred to in this annual report could have been or could be converted into U.S. dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate or at all. The PRC government imposes control over its foreign currency reserves in part through direct regulation of the conversion of Renminbi into foreign exchange and through restrictions on foreign trade.

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PART I

ITEM 1.    IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS

Not applicable.

ITEM 2.    OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE

Not applicable.

ITEM 3.    KEY INFORMATION

Our Holding Company Structure and Contractual Arrangements with Our Consolidated VIEs and Their Respective Shareholders

We are not an operating company in China, but a Cayman Islands holding company with no equity ownership in the VIEs. We conduct our operations in China through our PRC subsidiaries and our VIEs with which we have maintained contractual arrangements and their subsidiaries in China. PRC laws and regulations impose certain restrictions or prohibitions on foreign ownership of companies that engage in internet and other related businesses. Accordingly, we operate these businesses in China through our VIEs, and rely on contractual arrangements among our PRC subsidiaries, our VIEs and their shareholders to control the business operations of our VIEs. Revenues contributed by our VIEs and their subsidiaries accounted for 44.0%, 21.7% and 4.7% of our total revenues for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2021 and 2022, respectively. As used in this annual report, “we,” “us,” “our company,” “the Company” or “our” refers to WiMi Hologram Cloud Inc., a Cayman Islands company, its subsidiaries, and, in the context of describing its operations and consolidated financial information, its consolidated affiliated entities in China. Investors of our ADSs are not purchasing equity interest in our operating entities in China but instead are purchasing equity interest in a Cayman Islands holding company.

A series of contractual agreements, including power of attorney, equity interest pledge agreement, exclusive business cooperation agreement, exclusive share purchase option agreement, exclusive asset purchase agreement and spousal consent letters, have been entered into by and among our PRC subsidiaries, our VIEs and their respective shareholders. Terms contained in each set of contractual arrangements with our PRC subsidiaries, our VIEs and their respective shareholders are substantially similar. For more details of these contractual arrangements, see “Item 4. Information on the Company — C. Organizational Structure — Contractual Arrangements with Our VIEs and Their Respective Shareholders.”

The contractual arrangements may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing us with control over our consolidated VIEs and we may incur substantial costs to enforce the terms of the arrangements. See “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure — We rely on contractual arrangements with our VIEs and their respective shareholders for our operations in China, which may not be as effective in providing operational control as direct ownership” and “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure — Our shareholders or the shareholders of our VIEs may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business.”

Our corporate structure is subject to risks associated with our contractual arrangements with our VIEs. Investors may never directly hold equity interests in our VIEs. If the PRC government finds that the agreements that establish the structure for operating our business do not comply with PRC laws and regulations, or if these regulations or their interpretations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations. Our holding company, our PRC subsidiaries, our VIEs, and investors of our company face uncertainty about potential future actions by the PRC government that could affect the enforceability of the contractual arrangements with our VIEs and, consequently, significantly affect the financial performance of our VIEs and our Company as a whole.

There are also substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations and rules regarding the status of the rights of our Cayman Islands holding company with respect to its contractual arrangements with our VIEs and their respective shareholders. It is uncertain whether any new PRC laws or regulations relating to variable interest entity structures will be adopted or if adopted,

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what they would provide. If we or any of our VIEs is found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or fail to obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion to take action in dealing with such violations or failures. See “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure — If the PRC government finds that the agreements establishing the structure for operating our businesses in China do not comply with PRC regulations on foreign investment in internet and other related businesses, or if these regulations or their interpretation change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations,” and “— Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to the enactment timetable, interpretation and implementation of PRC Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.”

We face various legal and operational risks and uncertainties associated with being based in or having our operations primarily in China and the complex and evolving PRC laws and regulations. For example, we face risks associated with regulatory approvals on offerings conducted overseas by and foreign investment in China-based issuers, the use of our VIEs, anti-monopoly regulatory actions, and oversight on cybersecurity and data privacy. Our auditor is not subject to the determinations announced by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”) on December 16, 2021. However, in the event the PRC authorities would further strengthen regulations over auditing work of Chinese companies listed on the U.S. stock exchanges, which would prohibit our current auditor to perform work in China, then we would need to change our auditor and the audit workpapers prepared by our new auditor may not be inspected by the PCAOB without the approval of the PRC authorities, in which case the PCAOB may not be able to fully evaluate the audit or the auditors’ quality control procedures. These risks could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs, significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors, or cause the value of such securities to significantly decline. For a detailed description of risks related to doing business in China, “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Doing Business in China.”

PRC government’s significant authority in regulating our operations and its oversight and control over offerings conducted overseas by, and foreign investment in, China-based issuers could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors. Implementation of industry-wide regulations in this nature may cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or be of little or no value. For more details, see “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Doing Business in China — Because substantially all of our operations are in China, our business is subject to the complex and rapidly evolving laws and regulations there. The Chinese government may exercise significant oversight and discretion over the conduct of our business and may intervene in or influence our operations at any time, which could result in a material change in our operations and/or the value of our ADSs.”

Risks and uncertainties arising from the legal system in China, including risks and uncertainties regarding the enforcement of laws and quickly evolving rules and regulations in China, could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs. For more details, see “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Doing Business in China — Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.”

Permission Required from the PRC Authorities for Our Operations

We conduct our business primarily through our subsidiaries, our VIEs and their subsidiaries in China. Our operations in China are governed by PRC laws and regulations. As of the date of this annual report, our consolidated affiliated Chinese entities have obtained the requisite licenses and permits from the PRC government authorities that are material for the business operations of our holding company, our subsidiaries and our VIEs in China. However, given the uncertainties of interpretation and implementation of relevant laws and regulations and the enforcement practice by government authorities, we cannot assure you that we have obtained all the permits or licenses required for conducting our business in China. We may be required to obtain additional licenses, permits, filings or approvals for our functions and services in the future. For more detailed information, see “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry — We may be adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC licensing and regulation of internet businesses.”

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In connection with our previous issuance of securities to foreign investors, under current PRC laws, regulations and regulatory rules, as of the date of this annual report, we, our PRC subsidiaries and our VIEs, (i) are not required to obtain permissions from the CSRC, (ii) are not required to go through cybersecurity review by the Cyberspace Administration of China, or the CAC, and (iii) have not received or were denied such requisite permissions by any PRC authority.

However, the PRC government has recently indicated an intent to exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers. For more detailed information, see “Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Doing Business in China — We are subject to extensive and evolving legal system in the PRC, non-compliance with which, or changes in which, may materially and adversely affect our business and prospects, and may result in a material change in our operations and/or the value of our ADSs or could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of our ADSs to significantly decline or be worthless.”

Non-GAAP Financial Measures

In evaluating our business, we consider and use the following non-GAAP financial measures as supplemental measures to review and assess our operating performance of non-GAAP net income (loss). The presentation of these non-GAAP financial measures is not intended to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for the financial information prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

We define non-GAAP net income (loss) attributable to us as net income (loss) before stock compensation expenses, goodwill impairment loss, impairment loss from long-lived assets, impairment loss from other assets.

Although stock compensation is an important aspect of the compensation of our employees and goodwill impairment loss, impairment loss from long-lived assets and impairment loss from other assets are important aspects of our operating results, we exclude them from non-GAAP net income (loss) attributable to us primarily because they are non-cash expenses and are partially discretionary in nature, which is not necessarily indicative of our ongoing business performance. We believe that it is useful to exclude stock compensation expenses for investors to better understand the long-term underlying performance of our core operations and to facilitate comparison of our results to our prior periods and to our peer companies.

We present these non-GAAP financial measures because they are used by our management to evaluate our operating performance and formulate our business plans. These non-GAAP financial measures enable our management to assess our operating results without considering the impact of non-cash charges of stock compensation expenses.

These non-GAAP financial measures are not defined under U.S. GAAP and are not presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. These non-GAAP financial measures have limitations as analytical tools. One of the key limitations of using these non-GAAP financial measures is that they do not reflect all items of income and expense that affect our operations. Stock compensation expenses have been and may continue to be incurred in our business and are not reflected in the presentation of non-GAAP net income (loss). Further, these non-GAAP financial measures may differ from the non-GAAP financial measures used by other companies, including our peer companies, so their utility for comparison purposes may be limited.

We compensate for these limitations by reconciling our non-GAAP financial measures to the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP financial measures, which should be considered when evaluating our performance. We encourage you to review our financial information in its entirety and not rely on a single financial measure.

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The following tables reconcile our non-GAAP net income attributable to us to the most directly comparable financial measures calculated in accordance with U.S. GAAP, which are net loss (income) attributable to our ordinary shareholders.

Reconciliation of Net Loss Attributable to WiMi
Hologram Cloud, Inc. to Non-GAAP Net
Income Attributable to WiMi Hologram Cloud,
Inc.:

 



For the Years Ended December 31,

2020

 

2021

 

2022

 

2022

   

RMB

 

RMB

 

RMB

 

USD

Net loss attributable to WiMi Hologram Cloud, Inc.

 

(151,167,868

)

 

(235,973,179

)

 

(357,731,093

)

 

(51,364,198

)

Stock compensation expenses

 

191,418,458

 

 

10,582,557

 

 

6,447,471

 

 

925,749

 

Goodwill impairment loss

 

7,276,957

 

 

131,194,659

 

 

35,493,300

 

 

5,096,244

 

Impairment loss from long-lived assets

 

 

 

4,308,822

 

 

13,713,235

 

 

1,968,991

 

Non-GAAP net income (loss) attributable to WiMi Hologram Cloud, Inc.

 

47,527,547

 

 

(89,887,141

)

 

(302,077,087

)

 

(43,373,214

)

WEIGHTED AVERAGE NUMBER OF ORDINARY SHARES

   

 

   

 

   

 

   

 

Basic

 

129,439,604

 

 

167,057,820

 

 

172,273,032

 

 

172,273,032

 

Diluted

 

129,439,604

 

 

167,057,820

 

 

172,273,032

 

 

172,273,032

 

EARNINGS (LOSS) PER SHARE

   

 

   

 

   

 

   

 

Basic

 

(1.17

)

 

(1.41

)

 

(2.08

)

 

(0.30

)

Diluted

 

(1.17

)

 

(1.41

)

 

(2.08

)

 

(0.30

)

NON-GAAP WEIGHTED AVERAGE NUMBER OF ORDINARY SHARES

   

 

   

 

   

 

   

 

Basic

 

129,439,604

 

 

167,057,820

 

 

172,273,032

 

 

172,273,032

 

Diluted(1)

 

129,453,166

 

 

167,057,820

 

 

172,273,032

 

 

172,273,032

 

NON-GAAP EARNINGS (LOSS) PER
SHARE

   

 

   

 

   

 

   

 

Basic

 

0.37

 

 

(0.54

)

 

(1.75

)

 

(0.25

)

Diluted

 

0.37

 

 

(0.54

)

 

(1.75

)

 

(0.25

)

____________

(1)      The dilutive effect was due to 45,000 shares of unvested stock based compensation for the year ended December 31, 2020, there were no dilutive shares for the years for the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2022.

A.     RESERVED

B.     CAPITALIZATION AND INDEBTEDNESS

Not applicable.

C.     REASONS FOR THE OFFER AND USE OF PROCEEDS

Not applicable.

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D.     RISK FACTORS

Summary of Risk Factors

Investment in our ADSs involves significant risks. Below is a summary of material risks we face, organized under relevant headings.

Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry

        We operate in a relatively new and rapidly evolving market and our competitive position and results of operations could be harmed if we do not compete effectively.

        We are a relatively young company, and we may not be able to sustain our rapid growth, effectively manage our growth or implement our business strategies.

        If we fail to keep up with industry trends or technological developments, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

        We require a significant amount of capital to fund our research and development investments. If we cannot obtain sufficient capital on favorable terms or at all, our business, financial condition and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

        If existing or new customers are less willing to cooperate with us, our revenues and profits may be adversely affected.

        If we fail to successfully compete with other advertising platforms, media companies, AR or traditional advertisement producers, our revenues and profits may be adversely affected.

Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure

        We are a Cayman Islands holding company with no equity ownership in our VIEs. We conduct our operations in China through our PRC subsidiaries and our VIEs with which we have maintained contractual arrangements and their subsidiaries in China. Investors thus are not purchasing the right to convert shares into direct equity interest in our operating entities in China but instead are purchasing the right to convert shares into equity interest in a Cayman Islands holding company. If the PRC government finds that the agreements that establish the structure for operating our business do not comply with PRC laws and regulations, or if these regulations or their interpretations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations. Our holding company, our PRC subsidiaries, our VIEs, and investors of our Company face uncertainty about potential future actions by the PRC government that could affect the enforceability of the contractual arrangements with our VIEs and, consequently, significantly affect the financial performance of our VIEs and our Company as a whole. For a detailed description of the risks associated with our corporate structure, please refer to risks disclosed under “Item D. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Corporate Structure.”

Risks Relating to Doing Business in China

        The PRC government’s significant authority in regulating our operations and its oversight and control over offerings conducted overseas by, and foreign investment in, China-based issuers could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors. Implementation of industry-wide regulations in this nature may cause the value of such securities to significantly decline.

For more details, see “Item D. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Doing Business in China — Because substantially all of our operations are in China, our business is subject to the complex and rapidly evolving laws and regulations there. The Chinese government may exercise significant oversight and discretion over the conduct of our business and may intervene in or influence our operations at any time, which could result in a material change in our operations and/or the value of our ADSs.”

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        Risks and uncertainties arising from the legal system in China, including risks and uncertainties regarding the enforcement of laws and quickly evolving rules and regulations in China, could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs. For more details, see “Item D. Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Doing Business in China — Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.”

        Our ADSs may be delisted and our ADSs and shares prohibited from trading under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCAA, if the PCAOB is unable to inspect or fully investigate certain auditors.

        We are subject to extensive and evolving legal system in the PRC, non-compliance with which, or changes in which, may materially and adversely affect our business and prospects, and may result in a material change in our operations and/or the value of our ADSs or could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of our ADSs to significantly decline or be worthless.

Risks Relating to the ADSs

        The market price for our ADSs have fluctuated and may be volatile.

        The sale or availability for sale of substantial amounts of our ADSs could adversely affect their market price.

        You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.

        You may not receive dividends or other distributions on our ordinary shares and you may not receive any value for them, if it is illegal or impractical to make them available to you.

Risks Relating to Our Business and Industry

We operate in a relatively new and rapidly evolving market.

We offer AR-based holographic services and products to cater to our customers’ needs, focusing on providing an innovative, immersive and interactive holographic AR experience for our customers and end users. We also engage in the provision of central processing algorithm services and computer chip products to enterprise customers and the sales of comprehensive solutions for central processing algorithms and related services with software and hardware integration. Our holographic AR business primarily depends on the continuing development and growth of the holographic AR industry in China. Growth of the holographic AR industry in China is affected by numerous factors, including but not limited to, technological innovations, user experience, development of internet and internet-based services, regulatory environment, and macroeconomic environment. The markets for our products and services are relatively new and rapidly developing and are subject to significant challenges. In addition, our continued growth depends, in part, on our ability to respond to changes in the holographic AR industry, including rapid technological evolution, continued shifts in customer demands, introductions of new products and services and emergence of new industry standards and practices. Developing and integrating new content, products, services or infrastructure could be expensive and time-consuming, and these efforts may not yield the benefits we expect to achieve.

In addition, as the holographic AR industry in China is relatively young, there are few proven methods of projecting customer demand or available industry standards on which we can rely. Some of our current monetization methods are also in a relatively preliminary stage. We cannot assure you that our attempts to monetize our current offerings will continue to be successful, profitable or accepted, and therefore the profit potential of our business is difficult to gauge. Our growth prospects should be considered in light of the risks and uncertainties that fast-growing early-stage companies with limited operating history in an evolving industry may encounter, including, among others, risks and uncertainties regarding our ability to:

        continue to develop new software and related solutions that are appealing to end users;

        enrich our holographic AR content portfolio;

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        maintain stable relationships with other key participants in the holographic AR value chain;

        expand our products and services into more use cases; and

        expand into new geographic markets with high growth potential.

We believe that the application demand for holographic 3D vision in the semiconductor industry is growing rapidly and represents promising market potentials. We began to develop our semiconductor business and explore the relevant applications of holographic 3D vision in the semiconductor industry and the provision of computer chip products and the sales of comprehensive solutions for central processing algorithms to enterprise customers in July 2020. If the demand for our services and products is not sustained, does not increase, if companies in the semiconductor industry expand too aggressively in light of the increase in demand, or if we cannot take appropriate or effective actions in a timely manner during any industry-wide downturns, such as reducing our costs to sufficiently offset declines in demand for our services, our results of operations for our semiconductor business may be adversely affected.

Addressing these risks and uncertainties will require significant capital expenditures and allocation of valuable management and employee resources. We cannot assure you that we will succeed in any of these aspects or that the holographic AR industry in China will continue to grow at a rapid pace. If we fail to successfully address any of the above risks and uncertainties, the size of our user base, our revenue and profits may decline.

Our competitive position and results of operations could be harmed if we do not compete effectively.

The markets for our products and services are characterized by intense competition, new industry standards, limited barriers to entry, disruptive technology developments, short product life cycles, customer price sensitivity and frequent product introductions (including alternatives with limited functionality available at lower costs or free of charge). Any of these factors could create downward pressure on pricing and profitability and could adversely affect our ability to attract new customers. Our future success will depend on our continued ability to enhance our existing products and services, introduce new products and services in a timely and cost-effective manner, meet changing customer expectations and needs, extend our core technology into new applications, and anticipate emerging standards, business models, software delivery methods and other technological developments. Furthermore, we are a small-size company as compared to some of the well-established enterprises that could potentially enter the holographic AR market and semiconductor industry. Some of our current and potential competitors enjoy competitive advantages such as greater financial, technical, sales, marketing and other resources, broader brand awareness, and access to larger customer bases. As a result of these advantages, potential and current customers might select the products and services of our competitors, causing a loss of our market share.

We are a relatively young company, and we may not be able to sustain our rapid growth, effectively manage our growth or implement our business strategies.

We have a limited operating history. Our holographic AR business was launched in 2015 and our semiconductor business was launched in July 2020. Although we have experienced significant growth since our business was launched, our historical growth rate may not be indicative of our future performance. We may not be able to achieve similar results or grow at the same rate as we had in the past. As our business and the holographic AR market and the semiconductor industry in China continue to develop, we may need to adjust our product and service offerings or modify our business model. These adjustments may not achieve expected results and may have a material and adverse impact on our financial conditions and results of operations.

In addition, our rapid growth and expansion have placed, and continue to place, a significant strain on our management and resources. This level of significant growth may not be sustainable or achievable at all in the future. We believe that our continued growth will depend on many factors, including our ability to develop new sources of revenues, diversify monetization methods, attract and retain customers, continue developing innovative hologram-related technologies, increase brand awareness, expand into new market segments, and adjust to the rapidly changing regulatory environment in China. We cannot assure you that we will achieve any of the above, and our failure to do so may materially and adversely affect our business and results of operations.

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If we fail to keep up with industry trends or technological developments, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially and adversely affected.

The holographic AR industry and semiconductor industry are rapidly evolving and subject to continuous technological changes. Our success depends on our ability to continue to develop and implement services and solutions that anticipate and respond to rapid and continuing changes in technology and industry developments and offerings to serve the evolving needs of our customers. Our growth strategy is focused on responding to these types of developments by driving innovation that will enable us to expand our business into new growth areas. If we do not sufficiently invest in new technology and industry developments, or evolve and expand our business at sufficient speed and scale, or if we do not make the right strategic investments to respond to these developments and successfully drive innovation, our services and solutions, our results of operations, and our ability to develop and maintain a competitive advantage and continue to grow could be negatively affected. In addition, we operate in a quickly evolving environment, in which there currently are, and we expect will continue to be, new technology entrants. New services or technologies offered by competitors or new entrants may make our offerings less differentiated or less competitive, when compared to other alternatives, which may adversely affect our results of operations. Technological innovations may also require substantial capital expenditures in product development as well as in modification of products, services or infrastructure. We cannot assure you that we can obtain financing to cover such expenditure. Failure to adapt our products and services to such changes in an effective and timely manner could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We incurred net loss in 2021 and 2022, and we may not be able to maintain profitability in the future.

We incurred net loss in 2021 and 2022. We had net income from continuing operations of RMB 89.2 million and RMB 102.2 million in 2018 and 2019, respectively, and had net loss from continuing operations of RMB 145.0 million in 2020 , RMB 254.4 million in 2021 and RMB 376.8 million (USD 54.1 million) in 2022 . We have made significant investments in research and development expenses to develop and expand our business. We expect to continue to invest significantly in research and development to further develop and expand our business, and these investments may not result in an increase in revenue or positive cash flow from operating activities on a timely basis, or at all.

We may not maintain profitability, or we may incur substantial losses for a number of reasons, including the lack of demand for our products and services, increasing competition, challenging macro-economic environment due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and we may incur unforeseen expenses, or encounter difficulties, complications and delays in generating revenue or achieving profitability. If we are unable to achieve profitability, we may have to reduce the scale of our operations, which may impact our business growth and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. In addition, our continuous operation depends on our capability to improve operating cash flows as well as our capacity to obtain sufficient external equity or debt financing. If we do not succeed in doing so, we may have to limit the scale of our operations, which may limit our business growth and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

If we cannot continue to develop, acquire, market and offer new products and services or enhancements to existing products and services that meet customer requirements, our operating results could suffer.

The process of developing and acquiring new technology products and services and enhancing existing offerings is complex, costly and uncertain. If we fail to anticipate customers’ rapidly changing needs and expectations, our market share and results of operations could suffer. We must make long-term investments, develop, acquire or obtain appropriate intellectual property and commit significant resources before knowing whether our predictions will accurately reflect customer demand for our products and services. If we misjudge customer needs in the future, our new products and services may not succeed and our revenues and earnings may be harmed. Additionally, any delay in the development, acquisition, marketing or launch of a new offering or enhancement to an existing offering could result in customer attrition or impede our ability to attract new customers, causing a decline in our revenue or earnings.

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We make significant investments in new products and services that may not achieve expected returns.

We have made and will continue to make significant investments in research, development, and marketing for existing products, services, and technologies, including holographic AR advertising solutions, mobile payment middleware, integrated holographic AR software, other AR-based holographic offerings, holographic 3D vision-related semiconductor application solutions, and central processing algorithms and related services, as well as new technology or new applications of existing technology. Investments in new technology are speculative. Commercial success depends on many factors, including but not limited to, innovativeness, developer support, and effective distribution and marketing. If customers do not perceive our latest offerings as providing significant new functionality or other value, they may reduce their purchases of our services or products, unfavorably affecting our revenue and profits. We may not achieve significant revenue from new product, service or distribution channel investments, or new applications of existing new product, service or distribution channel investments, for several years, if at all. New products and services may not be profitable, and even if they are profitable, operating margins for some new products and businesses may not be as high as the margins we have experienced historically. Furthermore, developing new technologies is complex and can require long development and testing periods. Significant delays in new releases or significant problems in creating new products or offering new services could adversely affect our revenue and profits.

We cannot guarantee our monetization strategies will be successfully implemented or generate sustainable revenues and profit.

Our monetization model is evolving. We generate our revenues from holographic AR advertising services, payment middleware licensing, semiconductor products and related accessories, and central processing algorithms and related services with software and hardware integration, including customized central processing units, or CPUs, based on customers’ specific demands. We plan to further increase revenue contribution from our other hologram-related monetization methods and semiconductor product offerings. If our strategic initiatives do not enhance our monetization ability or enable us to develop new approaches to monetization, we may not be able to maintain or increase our revenues or profits or recover any associated costs. In addition, we may in the future introduce new services to further diversify our revenue streams, including services with which we have little or no prior development or operating experience. If these new or enhanced services fail to engage customers, we may fail to attract or retain users or to generate sufficient revenues or profits to justify our investments, and our business and operating results may suffer as a result.

Our results of operations could materially suffer if we are not able to obtain sufficient pricing to enable us to meet our profitability expectations.

If we are not able to obtain sufficient pricing for our services and solutions, our revenues and profitability could materially suffer. The rates we are able to charge for our services and solutions are affected by a number of factors, including:

        general economic and political conditions;

        the competitive environment in our industry;

        our customers’ desire to reduce their costs; and

        our ability to accurately estimate, attain and sustain contract revenues, margins and cash flows over the full contract period.

In addition, our profitability with respect to our services and solutions for new technologies may be different when compared to the profitability of our current business, due to factors such as the use of alternative pricing, the mix of work and the number of service providers, among others.

The competitive environment in our industry affects our ability to obtain favorable pricing in a number of ways, any of which could have a material negative impact on our results of operations. The less we are able to differentiate our services and solutions and/or clearly convey the value of our services and solutions, the more risk we have that they will be seen as commodities, with price being the driving factor in selecting a service provider. In addition, the introduction of new services or products by competitors could reduce our ability to obtain favorable pricing for the services or products we offer. Competitors may be willing, at times, to price contracts lower than

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us in an effort to enter new markets or increase market share. Further, if competitors develop and implement methodologies that yield greater efficiency and productivity, they may be better positioned to offer services similar to ours at lower prices.

We require a significant amount of capital to fund our research and development investments. If we cannot obtain sufficient capital on favorable terms or at all, our business, financial condition and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

Operating our holographic AR business and semiconductor business requires significant, continuous investment in acquiring, maintaining and upgrading contents and technologies. Historically, we have financed our operations primarily with net cash generated from operating activities, financial support from our shareholders and equity financings and loans from third parties. As part of our growth strategy, we plan to continue to invest substantial capital in our research and development activities in the future, which may require us to obtain additional equity or debt financing. Our ability to obtain additional financing in the future is subject to a number of uncertainties, including but not limited to those relating to:

        our future business development, financial condition and results of operations;

        general market conditions for financing activities; and

        macro-economic and other conditions in China and elsewhere.

Although we expect to rely increasingly on net cash provided by operating activities and financing through capital markets for our liquidity needs as our business continues to grow and after we become a public company, we cannot assure you that we will be successful in our efforts to diversify our sources of liquidity. If we raise additional funds through future issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our existing shareholders could suffer significant dilution, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges superior to those of holders of our ordinary shares. Any debt financing that we secure in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, including the ability to pay dividends. This may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital to fund our research and pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. If we cannot obtain sufficient capital to meet our capital needs, we may not be able to implement our growth strategies, and our business, financial condition and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.

If we fail to attract, retain and engage appropriately skilled personnel, including senior management and technology professionals, our business may be harmed.

Our future success depends on our retention of highly skilled executives and employees. Competition for well-qualified and skilled employees is intense, and our future success also depends on our continuing ability to attract, develop, motivate and retain highly qualified and skilled employees, including, in particular, software engineers, artificial intelligence scientists and AR technology professionals. Our continued ability to compete effectively depends on our ability to attract new employees and to retain and motivate existing employees. All of our senior management and key personnel are employees at will and, as a result, any of these employees could leave with little or no prior notice. If any member of our senior management team or other key employees leave our company, our ability to successfully operate our business and execute our business strategy could be adversely affected. In particular, such individuals are free to compete with us in the event that they leave. Furthermore, under PRC law, certain of our employees may have ownership rights to our intellectual property, which rights would continue in the event they left our company. We may also have to incur significant costs in identifying, hiring, training and retaining replacements of departing employees.

If existing or new customers are less willing to cooperate with us, our revenues and profits may be adversely affected.

We offer holographic AR advertising solutions primarily through contracts entered into with advertisers or third-party advertising agencies and middleware services primarily through contracts entered into with app developers and content providers. We offer semiconductor products and accessories, and design software for central processing units, and offer comprehensive solutions for central processing algorithms and related services with software and hardware integration to manufacturers of electronic products and internet information infrastructure service providers.

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We promote our products and services directly through our experienced and creative sales and marketing team by making direct office visits, attending conferences and industry exhibitions, and through word-of-mouth referral. Our ability to retain existing customers or attract new customers depends on many factors, some of which are out of our control, including:

        Our ability to innovate and rapidly respond to customer needs;

        The competitiveness of our pricing and payment terms for our customers, which may, in turn, be constrained by our capital and financial resources;

        Sufficient capital support;

        Our ability to acquire complementary technologies, products and businesses to enhance the features and functionality of our applications; and

        Brand awareness and reputation.

We cannot assure you that we will be able to continue retain these customers or attract new customers. If we fail to retain and enhance our business relationships with new and existing customers, our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

If we fail to successfully compete with other advertising platforms, media companies, AR or traditional advertisement producers, our revenues and profits may be adversely affected.

Revenue generated from our advertising business is affected by the online advertising industry in China and advertisers’ allocation of budgets to Internet advertising and promotion in general, and specifically with respect to online holographic AR advertising. Companies that decide to advertise or promote online may utilize more established methods or channels for online advertising and promotion, such as key words advertising on established Chinese search engines, over in-video holographic AR advertising. In addition, we compete with media companies, AR or traditional advertisement producers. If the holographic AR advertising market size does not increase from current levels, if we are unable to capture and retain a sufficient share of that market, or if we are unable to compete effectively with our competitors, our ability to maintain or increase our current level of advertisement revenue and our profitability and prospects could be adversely affected.

Our products and software are highly technical and may contain undetected software bugs or vulnerabilities, which could manifest in ways that could seriously harm our reputation and our business.

Our products and software are highly technical and complex. Our software or any of our products may contain undetected software bugs, hardware errors, and other vulnerabilities. These bugs and errors can manifest in any number of ways in our products, including through diminished performance, security vulnerabilities, malfunctions, or even permanently disabled products. We have a practice of regularly updating our products and some errors in our products may be discovered only after a product has been used by users, and may in some cases be detected only under certain circumstances or after extended use. Any errors, bugs or other vulnerabilities discovered in our code or backend after release could damage our reputation, drive away users, allow third parties to manipulate or exploit our software, lower revenue and expose us to claims for damages, any of which could seriously harm our business.

Our business could be materially harmed by the ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.

The ongoing spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has developed rapidly in many parts of the world. In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 as a pandemic. The pandemic has resulted in quarantines, travel restrictions, and the temporary closure of stores and business facilities in China for the first few months in 2020. In addition, the Omicron variant and the Delta variant of COVID-19 began to spread rapidly over the world in 2021 and 20222 and affected our business, as well as our customers and suppliers and because substantially all of our business operations and our workforce are concentrated in China, our business, results of operations, and financial condition have been adversely affected.

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The impacts of COVID-19 on our business, financial condition, and results of operations include, but are not limited to, the following:

        We temporally closed our offices and implemented work from home policy in February 2020, as required by relevant PRC regulatory authorities. Since March 16, 2020, our offices have reopened and have been fully operational. We did not experience any closure required by PRC regulatory authorities due to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021. Our office in the PRC was again closed for one week in first quarter of 2022.

        Due to the nature of our business, the impact of the aforementioned closures on our operational capabilities was not significant, as most of our work force continued working offsite during the closures in February 2020 and first quarter of 2022.

        For the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2022, our customers were negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and reduced their budgets for online advertising and marketing and COVID-19 has also caused supply chain shortage. As a result, our operating units Kuxuanyou, Skystar and Fe-da Electronics recorded goodwill impairment charges of approximately RMB 131.2 million, impairment of long-lived assets of approximately RMB 4.3 million and other assets of approximately RMB 11.1 million which are mainly impairment of inventory and contract costs due to lower profit projections for the year ended December 31, 2021. For the year ended December 31, 2022, our operating unit Fe-da Electronics recorded goodwill impairment charges of approximately RMB 35.5 million (USD 5.1 million), impairment of long-lived assets of approximately RMB 13.7 million (USD 2.0 million).

        Our customers requested additional time to pay us or failed to pay us on time which required us to record additional allowances. We made additional RMB 128.4 million reserve for allowance for the year ended December 31, 2021 and RMB 8.5 million (USD 1.2 million) allowance for our operating unit Fe-da Electronics for the year ended December 31, 2022. We have closely monitored our collections throughout 2022 and will continue to monitor collections from 2023 and beyond.

In early December 2022, Chinese government eased the strict control measure for COVID-19, which has led to surge in increased infections and disruption in our business operations. Any future impact of COVID-19 on the Company’s China operation results will depend on, to a large extent, future developments and new information that may emerge regarding the duration and resurgence of COVID-19 variants and the actions taken by government authorities to contain COVID-19 or treat its impact, almost all of which are beyond our control.

While many of the restrictions on movement within China have been relaxed as of the date of this annual report, there is great uncertainty as to the future progress of the pandemic. Relaxation of restrictions on economic and social life may lead to new cases, which may lead to re-imposition of restrictions. Consequently, the continuance of COVID-19 pandemic may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations in the future. The extent to which this pandemic impacts our results of operations will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and unpredictable, including new outbreaks of COVID-19, the severity of the virus infection, the success or failure of efforts to contain or treat the cases, such as the availability of effective vaccines or cure, among others, and future actions we or the authorities may take in response to these developments.

Our failure to protect our intellectual property rights may undermine our competitive position.

We believe that our patents, copyrights, trademarks and other intellectual property are essential to our success. Please see Item 4.B. “Business Overview — Intellectual Property” for more details. We depend to a large extent on our ability to develop and maintain the intellectual property rights relating to AR technology, our hologram contents, and semiconductor products and software designs. We have devoted considerable time and energy to the development and improvement of our software, middleware, websites, and our IPs.

We rely primarily on a combination of patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets laws, and contractual restrictions for the protection of the intellectual property used in our business. Nevertheless, these provide only limited protection and the actions we take to protect our intellectual property rights may not be adequate. Our trade secrets may become known or be independently discovered by our competitors. We may have no or limited rights to stop others’ use of our information. Moreover, to the extent that our employees or third parties with whom we

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do business use intellectual property owned by others in their work for us, disputes may arise as to the rights to such intellectual property. Furthermore, it is often difficult to maintain and enforce intellectual property rights in China. Statutory laws and regulations are subject to judicial interpretation and enforcement, and may not be applied consistently due to the lack of clear guidance on statutory interpretation. Contractual restrictions may be breached by counterparties, and there may not be adequate remedies available to us for any such breach. Accordingly, we may not be able to effectively protect our intellectual property rights or to enforce our contractual rights in China. Preventing any unauthorized use of our intellectual property is difficult and costly and the steps we take may be inadequate to prevent the misappropriation of our intellectual property. In the event that we resort to litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, such litigation could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our managerial and financial resources. We can provide no assurance that we will prevail in such litigation. Any failure in protecting or enforcing our intellectual property rights could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may not be able to protect our source code from copying if there is an unauthorized disclosure.

Source code, the detailed program commands for our middleware and software programs, is critical to our business. Although we license portions of our application and operating system source code to several licensees, we take significant measures to protect the secrecy of large portions of our source code. If our source code leaks, we might lose future trade secret protection for that code. It may then become easier for third parties to compete with our products by copying functionality, which could adversely affect our revenue and operating margins.

As our patents may expire and may not be extended, our patent rights may be contested, circumvented, invalidated or limited in scope, our patent rights may not protect us effectively. In particular, we may not be able to prevent others from developing or exploiting competing technologies, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business operations, financial condition and results of operations.

In China, the validity period of utility model patent rights or design patent rights is ten years and not extendable. As of December 31, 2022, we had 237 registered patents, 20 patents applications pending in China and no additional patent applications under the patent cooperation treaty. For our pending application, we cannot assure you that we will be granted patents pursuant to our pending applications. Even if our patent applications succeed, it is still uncertain whether these patents will be contested, circumvented or invalidated in the future. In addition, the rights granted under any issued patents may not provide us with sufficient protection or competitive advantages. The claims under any pending patents that issue from our patent applications may not be broad enough to prevent others from developing technologies that are similar to or that achieve results similar to ours. It is also possible that the intellectual property rights of others will bar us from licensing and from exploiting any patents that issue from our pending applications. Numerous U.S. and foreign issued patents and pending patent applications owned by others exist in the fields in which we have developed and are developing our technology. These patents and patent applications might have priority over our patent applications and could subject our patent applications to invalidation. Finally, in addition to those who may claim priority, any of our existing or pending patents may also be challenged by others on the basis that they are otherwise invalid or unenforceable.

Our services or solutions could infringe upon the intellectual property rights of others or we might lose our ability to utilize the intellectual property of others.

We cannot be sure that our services and solutions do not infringe on the intellectual property rights of third parties, and these third parties could claim that we or our customers are infringing upon their intellectual property rights. These claims could harm our reputation, cause us to incur substantial costs or prevent us from offering some services or solutions in the future. Any related proceedings could require us to expend significant resources over an extended period of time. Any claims or litigation in this area could be time-consuming and costly, damage our reputation and/or require us to incur additional costs to obtain the right to continue to offer a service or solution to our customers. If we cannot secure this right at all or on reasonable terms, or we cannot substitute alternative technology, our results of operations could be materially adversely affected. The risk of infringement claims against us may increase as we expand our industry software solutions.

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In the operation of our AR holographic ads business, we do not enter into any agreements directly with the copyright owners of the videos in which ads are placed using our software. Consequently, there is no assurance that we will not be affected by disputes between platform operators, on the one hand, and copyright owners of such videos, on the other hand.

Additionally, in recent years, individuals and firms have purchased intellectual property assets in order to assert claims of infringement against technology providers and customers that use such technology. Any such action naming us or our customers could be costly to defend or lead to an expensive settlement or judgment against us. Moreover, such an action could result in an injunction being ordered against our customers or our own services or operations, causing further damages.

In addition, we rely on third-party software in providing some of our services and solutions. If we lose our ability to continue using such software for any reason, including in the event that the software is found to infringe the rights of others, we will need to obtain substitute software or seek alternative means of obtaining the technology necessary to continue to provide such services and solutions. Our inability to replace such software, or to replace such software in a timely or cost-effective manner, could materially adversely affect our results of operations.

Third parties may register trademarks or domain names or purchase internet search engine keywords that are similar to our trademarks, brands or websites, or misappropriate our data and copy our platform, all of which could cause confusion to our users, divert online customers away from our products and services or harm our reputation.

Competitors and other third parties may purchase (i) trademarks that are similar to our trademarks and (ii) keywords that are confusingly similar to our brands or websites in internet search engine advertising programs and in the header and text of the resulting sponsored links or advertisements in order to divert potential customers from us to their websites. Preventing such unauthorized use is inherently difficult. If we are unable to prevent such unauthorized use, competitors and other third parties may continue to drive potential online customers away from our platform to competing, irrelevant or potentially offensive platform, which could harm our reputation and cause us to lose revenue.

Our business is highly dependent on the proper functioning and improvement of our information technology systems and infrastructure. Our business and operating results may be harmed by service disruptions, or by our failure to timely and effectively scale up and adjust our existing technology and infrastructure.

Our business depends on the continuous and reliable operation of our information technology (“IT”) systems. Our IT systems are vulnerable to damage or interruption as a result of fires, floods, earthquakes, power losses, telecommunications failures, undetected errors in software, computer viruses, hacking and other attempts to harm our IT systems. Disruptions, failures, unscheduled service interruptions or a decrease in connection speeds could damage our reputation and cause our customers and end-users to migrate to our competitors’ platforms. If we experience frequent or constant service disruptions, whether caused by failures of our own IT systems or those of third-party service providers, our user experience may be negatively affected, which in turn may have a material and adverse effect on our reputation and business. We may not be successful in minimizing the frequency or duration of service interruptions. As the number of our end-users increases and more user data are generated on our platform, we may be required to expand and adjust our technology and infrastructure to continue to reliably store and process content.

Our operations depend on the performance of the Internet infrastructure and fixed telecommunications networks in China, which may experience unexpected system failure, interruption, inadequacy or security breaches.

Almost all access to the Internet in China is maintained through state-owned telecommunication operators under the administrative control and regulatory supervision of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or the MIIT. Moreover, we primarily rely on a limited number of telecommunication service providers to provide us with data communications capacity through local telecommunications lines and Internet data centers to host our servers. We have limited access to alternative networks or services in the event of disruptions, failures or other problems with China’s Internet infrastructure or the fixed telecommunications networks provided by telecommunication service providers. Web traffic in China has experienced significant growth during the past few years. Effective bandwidth and server storage at Internet data centers in large cities such as Beijing are scarce.

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With the expansion of our business, we may be required to upgrade our technology and infrastructure to keep up with the increasing traffic on our platform. We cannot assure you that the Internet infrastructure and the fixed telecommunications networks in China will be able to support the demands associated with the continued growth in Internet usage. If we cannot increase our capacity to deliver our online services, we may not be able to expand customer base, and the adoption of our services may be hindered, which could adversely impact our business and profitability.

In addition, we have no control over the costs of the services provided by telecommunication service providers. If the prices we pay for telecommunications and Internet services rise significantly, our results of operations may be materially and adversely affected. Furthermore, if Internet access fees or other charges to Internet users increase, some users may be prevented from accessing the mobile Internet and thus cause the growth of mobile Internet users to decelerate. Such deceleration may adversely affect our ability to continue to expand our user base.

We use third-party services and technologies in connection with our business, and any disruption to the provision of these services and technologies to us could result in adverse publicity and a slowdown in the growth of our users, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business partially depends on services provided by, and relationships with, various third parties. Some third-party software we use in our operations is currently publicly available and free of charge. If the owner of any such software decides to charge users or no longer makes the software publicly available, we may need to incur significant costs to obtain licensing, find replacement software or develop it on our own. If we are unable to obtain licensing, find or develop replacement software at a reasonable cost, or at all, our business and operations may be adversely affected.

We exercise no control over the third parties with whom we have business arrangements. If such third parties increase their prices, fail to provide their services effectively, terminate their service or agreements or discontinue their relationships with us, we could suffer service interruptions, reduced revenues or increased costs, any of which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we are unable to collect our receivables or unbilled services, our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows could be adversely affected.

Our business depends on our ability to successfully and timely obtain payment from our customers of the amounts they owe us for work performed. We evaluate the financial condition of our customers and usually bill and collect on 30 to 60 day cycles. We have established allowances for losses of receivables and unbilled services. Actual losses on balances could differ from those that we currently anticipate, and, as a result, we might need to adjust our allowances. We might not accurately assess the creditworthiness of our customers. Macroeconomic conditions could also result in financial difficulties for our customers, including bankruptcy and insolvency. This could cause customers to delay payments to us, request modifications to their payment arrangements that could increase our receivables balance, or default on their payment obligations to us. Recovery of customer financing and timely collection of balances also depend on our ability to complete our contractual commitments and bill and collect our contracted revenues. If we are unable to meet our contractual requirements, we might experience delays in collection of and/or be unable to collect our customer balances, and if this occurs, our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected. In addition, if we experience an increase in the time to bill and collect for our services, our cash flows could be adversely affected.

Our business depends on the market recognition of our brand, and if we are unable to maintain and enhance brand recognition, or promote or maintain our brand in a cost-effective manner, our business, financial conditions and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

We believe that maintaining and enhancing our brand is of significant importance to the success of our business. A well-recognized brand is important to attract customers, especially in this novel and evolving market. We promote our brand though marketing team and word-of-mouth referrals. Successful promotion of our brand will depend on the effectiveness of our marketing efforts and amount of word-of-mouth referrals we received from satisfied customers. We may incur extra expenses in promoting our brand. However, our brand promotion activities and marketing efforts may not yield increased revenues, and even if they do, any increased revenues may not offset the expenses we incurred in promoting our brand. Since we operate in a highly competitive industry, our

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brand recognition directly affects our ability to maintain our market position. If we fail to successfully promote and maintain our brand, or if we incur extra expenses in an unsuccessful attempt to promote and maintain our brand, we may fail to attract enough new customers or retain our existing customers, and our business and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

Our AR holographic business’s success depends on the interoperability of our products and services with next-generation AR hardware.

The success of our AR holographic business and our AR products depends upon the cooperation of AR hardware manufactures to ensure interoperability with our products and offer compatible products and services to end users. To the extent that hardware manufactures perceive that their products and services compete with ours, they may have an incentive to withhold their cooperation, decline to share access or sell to us their proprietary application programming interfaces (“APIs”), protocols or formats, or engage in practices to actively limit the functionality, compatibility and certification of our products. If any of the foregoing occurs, our product development efforts may be delayed or foreclosed and it may be difficult and more costly for us to achieve functionality and service levels that would make our services attractive to end users, any of which could negatively impact our business and operating results.

Future litigation could have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

From time to time, we have been, and may in the future be, subject to lawsuits brought by our competitors, individuals, or other entities against us, in matters relating to intellectual property rights, contractual disputes and competition claims. The outcomes of actions we institute may not be successful or favorable to us. Lawsuits against us may also generate negative publicity that significantly harms our reputation, which may adversely affect our user base. In addition to the related costs, managing and defending litigation and related indemnity obligations can significantly divert our management’s attention from operating our business. We may also need to pay damages or settle lawsuits with a substantial amount of cash. While we do not believe that any currently pending proceedings are likely to have a material adverse effect on us, if there were adverse determinations in legal proceedings against us, we could be required to pay substantial monetary damages or adjust our business practices, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Negative media coverage could adversely affect our business.

Negative publicity about us and our business, shareholders, affiliates, directors, officers, and other employees, as well as the industry in which we operate, can harm our operations. Negative publicity concerning these parties could be related to a wide variety of matters, including:

        alleged misconduct or other improper activities committed by our shareholders, affiliates, directors, officers and other employees;

        false or malicious allegations or rumors about us or our shareholders, affiliates, directors, officers, and other employees;

        user complaints about the quality of our products and services;

        copyright or patent infringements involving us and contents offered on our platforms; and

        governmental and regulatory investigations or penalties resulting from our failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations.

In addition to traditional media, there has been an increasing use of social media platforms and similar devices in China, including instant messaging applications, social media websites and other forms of internet-based communications that provide individuals with access to a broad audience of users and other interested persons. The availability of information on instant messaging applications and social media platforms is virtually immediate as is its impact without affording us an opportunity for redress or correction. The opportunity for dissemination of information, including inaccurate information, is seemingly limitless and readily available. Information concerning

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our company, shareholders, directors, officers and employees may be posted on such platforms at any time. The risks associated with any such negative publicity or incorrect information cannot be completely eliminated or mitigated and may materially harm our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we fail to implement and maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may be unable to accurately report our results of operations, meet our reporting obligations or prevent fraud, and investor confidence and the market price of our ADSs may be materially and adversely affected.

We are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act of 1934, or Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of and the rules and regulations of the Nasdaq Stock Market. We are not required to include an attestation report on internal control over financial reporting issued by our independent registered public accounting firm in this annual report, since we are an emerging growth company as defined under the JOBS Act. However, in the course of auditing our consolidated financial statements included in this annual report, we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified the following material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. As defined in standards established by the PCAOB, a “material weakness” is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. The first material weakness is that we did not maintain an effective control environment. Specifically, we lacked sufficient resources regarding financial reporting and accounting personnel with understanding of U.S. GAAP, in particular, to address complex U.S. GAAP technical accounting issues, related disclosures in accordance with U.S. GAAP and financial reporting requirements set forth by the SEC. In addition, we have identified three material weaknesses in information technology general control (“ITGC”) in the areas of: (1) data backup and disaster recovery, (2) user account management, and segregation of duties (3) risk assessment and mitigation strategy. We have already taken some steps and have continued to implement measures to remediate the material weaknesses identified, including but not limited to, requiring our staff to participate in trainings and seminars provided by professional service firms on a regular basis to gain knowledge on regular accounting and SEC reporting updates, and) providing internal training to our accounting staff on U.S. GAAP. For IT related weakness, we will (1) enhance our data backup procedures and computer operations monitoring; (2) enhance user account management and enhance segregation of duties (3) enhance risk assessment procedures and controls. However, we cannot assure you that we will not identify additional material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in the future. In addition, if we are unable to meet the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, our ADSs may not be able to remain listed on the NASDAQ Global Market.

Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires that we include a report of management on our internal control over financial reporting in our annual report on Form 20-F. Our management concluded that as of December 31, 2022, our internal control over financial reporting was not effective due to material weaknesses identified above. Once we cease to be an “emerging growth company” as such term is defined under the JOBS Act, our independent registered public accounting firm must attest to and report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Even if our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm, after conducting its own independent testing, may issue a report that is qualified if it is not satisfied with our internal controls or the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed, or if it interprets the relevant requirements differently from us. In addition, as we are a public company, our reporting obligations may place a significant strain on our management, operational and financial resources and systems for the foreseeable future. We may be unable to timely complete our evaluation testing and any required remediation.

During the course of documenting and testing our internal control procedures, in order to satisfy the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes- Oxley Act of 2002, we may identify other weaknesses and deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, if we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, as these standards are modified, supplemented or amended from time to time, we may not be able to conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal control over financial reporting. If we fail to achieve and maintain an effective internal control environment, we could suffer material misstatements in our financial statements and fail to meet our reporting obligations, which would likely cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information. This could in turn limit our access to capital markets, harm our results of operations and lead to a decline in the trading price of our shares. Additionally, ineffective internal

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control over financial reporting could expose us to increased risk of fraud or misuse of corporate assets and subject us to potential delisting from the stock exchange on which we list, regulatory investigations and civil or criminal sanctions. We may also be required to restate our financial statements from prior periods.

Future strategic alliances or acquisitions may have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may enter into strategic alliances, including joint ventures or minority equity investments, with various third parties to further our business purpose from time to time. These alliances could subject us to a number of risks, including risks associated with sharing proprietary information, non-performance by the third party and increased expenses in establishing new strategic alliances, any of which may materially and adversely affect our business. We may have limited ability to monitor or control the actions of these third parties and, to the extent any of these strategic third parties suffer negative publicity or harm to their reputation from events relating to their business, we may also suffer negative publicity or harm to our reputation by virtue of our association with any such third party.

On September 27, 2020, our then wholly-owned subsidiary, VIYI Technology Inc., which was later renamed as VIYI Algorithm Inc., or VIYI, entered into an acquisition framework agreement with FE-DA Electronics Company Private Limited, or FE-DA, and its original shareholder, to acquire the entire equity interests of FE-DA. FE-DA is a provider of Internet of Things solutions based in Singapore, and primarily engages in the central processing algorithm integrated circuit (“CPA-IC”) solution business in Southeast Asia. On June 10, 2021, our wholly-owned subsidiary, VIYI Algorithm Inc., or VIYI, entered into a definitive merger agreement with Venus Acquisition Corporation, a Cayman Islands exempted company and a publicly traded special purpose acquisition corporation (“Venus”) (the “Merger Agreement”). Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, a newly created merger subsidiary of Venus will be merged with and into VIYI with VIYI being the surviving entity and becoming Venus’ wholly owned subsidiary (“Merger”). The proposed merger had been completed on December 9, 2022 , Venus had changed its name to MicroAlgo Inc. and continue as a Cayman Islands exempted company.

As a result of the Merger, the ordinary shares of MicroAlgo Inc. became listed on NASDAQ under the symbol MLGO. The Company received 28,910,892 shares of MLGO as consideration for the Merger. The MLGO shares which the Company received as consideration are not currently freely tradable without a valid exemption or exception from the registration requirements pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933. However, MLGO and the Company (and other investors) have entered into a Registration Rights Agreement which gives the Company the right to demand the registration of MLGO shares owned by the Company. After an effective registration of MLGO shares owned by the Company, the Company will be able to sell the MLGO shares it owns publicly. The Company has not exercised such right as of the date of this report. In the event the Company exercises its registration rights or disposes of some or all of the MLGO shares that it owns, then the value of our shares after such disposition may not equal or exceed the value of shares prior to such disposition or to the closing of the Merger.

We may continue to seek acquisition opportunities, as appropriate, to extend our holographic content production and software development capabilities, and evaluate potential target companies with strong software engineering and middleware development capabilities and leading patent-protected hologram technologies. Acquisitions or expansions may not be successfully completed and we may not be able to find or consummate suitable acquisition or expansion alternatives. If we successfully complete any acquisition or expansion, we may raise financing, either in the capital markets or in the form of bank financing, to cover all or part of the purchase price, which will lead to changes to our capital structure and may restrict us in other ways. In addition, to the extent we fund these business initiatives through the issuance of equity or convertible debt securities, the ownership interest of our shareholders could be diluted.

Acquisitions and expansions involve numerous risks, including potential difficulties in retaining and assimilating personnel, risks and difficulties associated with integrating the operations and culture of acquired businesses, diversions of management attention and other resources, lack of experience and industry and market knowledge of the new businesses, risks and difficulties associated with complying with laws and regulations related to the acquisitions and acquired businesses, and failure to properly identify problems with acquisition targets through the due diligence process. In addition, acquisitions and expansions may significantly stretch our

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capital, personnel and management resources and, as a result, we may fail to manage our growth effectively. Any new acquisition or expansion plans may also result in our assumption of debts and other liabilities, assumption of potential legal liabilities in respect of the new businesses, and incurrence of impairment charges related to goodwill and other intangible assets, any of which could harm our businesses, financial condition and results of operations. In particular, if any new businesses we acquire fail to perform as we expected, we may be required to recognize a significant impairment charge, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. There may also be established players in these sectors and markets that enjoy significant market share, and it may be difficult for us to win market share from them. Furthermore, some of the overseas markets that we target may have high barriers of entry for foreign players. There can be no assurance that our acquisition or expansion plans will be successful.

In addition, when appropriate opportunities arise, we may acquire additional assets, products, technologies or businesses that are complementary to our existing business. In addition to possible shareholders’ approval, we may also have to obtain approvals and licenses from relevant government authorities for the acquisitions and to comply with any applicable PRC laws and regulations, which could result in increased delay and costs, and may derail our business strategy if we fail to do so. Furthermore, past and future acquisitions and the subsequent integration of new assets and businesses require significant attention from our management and could result in a diversion of resources from our existing business, which in turn could have an adverse effect on our business operations. Acquired assets or businesses may not generate the financial results we expect. Acquisitions could result in the use of substantial amounts of cash, potentially dilutive issuances of equity securities, the occurrence of significant goodwill impairment charges, amortization expenses for other intangible assets and exposure to potential unknown liabilities of the acquired business. Moreover, the costs of identifying and consummating acquisitions may be significant. Furthermore, our equity investees may generate significant losses, a portion of which will be shared by us in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Any such negative developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition.

We have limited business insurance coverage.

Insurance companies in China offer limited business insurance products. We do not have any business liability or disruption insurance coverage for our operations in China. Any business disruption may result in our incurring substantial costs and the diversion of our resources, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

We have adopted an equity incentive plan and have granted share-based awards under our equity incentive plan, which will result in increased stock compensation expenses.

We adopted our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2020 Plan, in July 2020 for purposes of granting stock-based compensation awards to employees, directors, officers, and consultants to incentivize their performance and align their interests with ours. Under our 2020 Plan, we are authorized to grant restricted Class B ordinary shares, options to purchase Class B ordinary shares of our company and restricted share units to receive Class B ordinary shares. The maximum number of Class B ordinary shares which may be issued pursuant to all awards under the 2020 Plan is 17,500,000. As of the date of this annual report, we have issued 17,500,000 Class B ordinary shares, of which we granted an aggregate of 16,758,240 restricted Class B ordinary shares to our directors, officers, key employees and advisors, among which 15,993,240 Class B ordinary shares were fully vested in October and December 2020, and 765,000 restricted Class B ordinary shares are to be vested over a three-year period. The remaining 741,760 Class B ordinary shares are held in trust designated by the administrator of the 2020 Plan.

We believe the grant of share incentive awards is of significant importance to our ability to attract and retain employees, and we may continue to grant share incentive awards to employees in the future. As a result, we will incur expenses associated with stock-based compensation, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

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Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure

We are subject to changing law and regulations regarding regulatory matters, corporate governance and public disclosure that have increased both our costs and the risk of non-compliance.

We are subject to rules and regulations by various governing bodies, including, for example, the SEC, which are charged with the protection of investors and the oversight of companies whose securities are publicly traded, and to new and evolving regulatory measures under applicable law. Our efforts to comply with new and changing laws and regulations have resulted in, and are likely to continue to result in, increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities.

Moreover, because these laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance becomes available. This evolution may result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and additional costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to our disclosure and governance practices. If we fail to address and comply with these regulations and any subsequent changes, we may be subject to penalty and our business may be harmed.

If the PRC government finds that the agreements that establish the structure for operating our businesses in China do not comply with PRC regulations relating to the relevant industries, or if these regulations or their interpretation change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.

Foreign ownership of the telecommunication business and certain other businesses in China is extensively regulated and subject to numerous restrictions. Pursuant to the Special Administrative Measures for Access of Foreign Investment (Negative List) (2021 Edition), or the Negative List, and Administrative Provisions on Foreign-Invested Telecommunications Enterprises (Revised in 2016), foreign investors are generally not allowed to own more than 50% of the equity interests in a commercial internet content provider or other value-added telecommunication service provider other than operating e-commerce, and the major foreign investor in a value-added telecommunication service provider in China must have experience in providing value-added telecommunications services overseas and maintain a good track record in accordance with the Negative List, Administrative Provisions on Foreign-Invested Telecommunications Enterprises (Revised in 2016) and other applicable laws and regulations. In addition, foreign investors are prohibited from investing in companies engaged in online operating business, internet audio-visual programs business, internet culture business and radio and television program production business.

We are a Cayman Islands company and our PRC subsidiaries are currently considered foreign-invested enterprises. Accordingly, none of our PRC subsidiaries are eligible to operate internet content services, online culture activities or other businesses which foreign-owned companies are prohibited or restricted from conducting in the PRC. To ensure strict compliance with the PRC laws and regulations, we conduct such business activities through our VIEs and their subsidiaries. Our subsidiaries in the PRC have entered into a series of contractual arrangements with our VIEs and their respective shareholders, in order for us to (i) exercise effective control over our VIEs, (ii) receive substantially all of the economic benefits of our VIEs, and (iii) have an exclusive option to purchase the equity interests in our VIEs. As a result of these contractual arrangements, we have control over and are the primary beneficiary of our VIEs and hence consolidate their financial results as our VIEs under U.S. GAAP. See “Item 4. Information on the Company- 4.C. Organization Structure” for details.

If the PRC government finds that our contractual arrangements do not comply with its restrictions on foreign investment in the telecommunication business and certain other businesses, or if the PRC government otherwise finds that we, our VIE, or any of its subsidiaries is in violation of PRC laws or regulations or lacks the necessary permits or licenses to operate our business, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities, including the MIIT and the Ministry of Commerce of the People’s Republic of China (“MOFCOM”), would have broad discretion in dealing with such violations or failures, including:

        revoking the business licenses and/or operating licenses of such entities;

        discontinuing or placing restrictions or onerous conditions on our operation through any transactions between our PRC subsidiaries and our VIEs;

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        imposing fines, confiscating the income from our PRC subsidiaries or our VIEs, or imposing other requirements with which we or our VIEs may not be able to comply;

        requiring us to restructure our ownership structure or operations, including terminating the contractual arrangements with our VIEs and deregistering the equity pledges of our VIEs, which in turn would affect our ability to consolidate, derive economic interests from, or exert effective control over our VIEs; or

        restricting or prohibiting our use of the proceeds we receive from our offshore financing activities to finance our business and operations in China.

Any of these events could cause significant disruption to our business operations and severely damage our reputation, which would in turn materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If occurrence of any of these events results in our inability to direct the activities of our VIEs that most significantly impacts their economic performance and/or our failure to receive the economic benefits from our VIEs, we may not be able to consolidate the entities in our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP and our ADSs may decline in value or become worthless.

Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to the enactment timetable, interpretation and implementation of PRC Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.

In March 2019, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of the PRC passed the Foreign Investment Law of the People’s Republic of China (“Foreign Investment Law”). Among other things, the Foreign Investment Law defines the “foreign investment” as the investment activities in China conducted by foreign individuals, enterprises and other organizations (collectively, the “Foreign Investors”) in a direct or indirectly manner, including any of the following circumstances: (1) the foreign investor establishes a foreign-invested enterprise within the territory of China, independently or jointly with any other investor; (2) the foreign investor acquires shares, equities, property shares or any other similar rights and interests of an enterprise within the territory of China; (3) the foreign investor makes investment to initiate a new project within the territory of China, independently or jointly with any other investor; and (4) the foreign investor makes investment in any other way stipulated by laws, administrative regulations or provisions of the State Council. The Foreign Investment Law leaves uncertainty with respect to whether Foreign Investors control PRC onshore variable interest entities via contractual arrangements will be recognized as “foreign investment”. PRC governmental authorities will administrate foreign investment by applying the principal of pre-entry national treatment together with a “negative list” (the “Negative List”, which shall be promulgated by or promulgated with approval by the State Counsel), to be specific, Foreign Investors are prohibited from making any investments in the fields which are catalogued into prohibited industries for foreign investment based on the Negative List, while Foreign Investors are allowed to make investments in the restricted industries provided that all the requirements and conditions as set forth in the Negative List have been satisfied; when Foreign Investors make investments in the fields other than those included in the Negative List, the national treatment principle shall apply. Besides, certain approval and/or filing requirements shall be fulfilled in accordance with applicable foreign investment laws and regulations.

The internet content service and online culture activities that we conduct through our VIEs are subject to Special Management Measures for the Market Entry of Foreign Investment (Negative List) (2021 Version) (the “2021 Negative List”) issued by MOFCOM and the National Development and Reform Commission. It is unclear whether any new “negative list” to be issued under the Foreign Investment Law will be different from the 2021 Negative List. If our control over our VIEs through contractual arrangements are deemed as foreign investment in the future, and any business of our VIEs is restricted or prohibited from foreign investment under the “negative list” effective at the time, we may be deemed to be in violation of the Foreign Investment Law, the contractual arrangements that allow us to have control over our VIEs may be deemed as invalid and illegal, and we may be required to unwind such contractual arrangements and/or restructure our business operations, any of which may have a material adverse effect on our business operation.

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We rely on contractual arrangements with our VIEs and their respective shareholders for our operations in China, which may not be as effective in providing operational control as direct ownership.

We have relied and expect to continue to rely on contractual arrangements with our VIEs, and their respective shareholders, and certain of their subsidiaries to operate our business in China. These contractual arrangements may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing us with control over our VIEs. For example, our VIEs and their respective shareholders could breach their contractual arrangements with us by, among other things, failing to conduct their operations in an acceptable manner or taking other actions that are detrimental to our interests. The revenues contributed by our VIEs and their subsidiaries constituted a significant part of our revenues in 2019, 2020 and 2021.

If we had direct ownership of our VIEs, we would be able to exercise our rights as a shareholder to effect changes in the board of directors of our VIEs, which in turn could implement changes, subject to any applicable fiduciary obligations, at the management and operational level. However, under the current contractual arrangements, we rely on the performance by our VIEs and their respective shareholders of their respective obligations under the contracts to exercise control over our VIEs. The shareholders of our VIEs may not act in the best interests of our company or may not perform their obligations under these contracts. Such risks exist throughout the period in which we intend to operate certain portion of our business through the contractual arrangements with our VIEs. If any dispute relating to these contracts remains unresolved, we will have to enforce our rights under these contracts through arbitration, litigation or other legal proceedings and therefore will be subject to uncertainties in the PRC legal system. Therefore, our contractual arrangements with our VIEs may not be as effective in controlling our business operations as direct ownership.

Any failure by our VIEs or their respective shareholders to perform their obligations under our contractual arrangements with them would have a material and adverse effect on our business.

If our VIEs or their shareholders fail to perform their respective obligations under the contractual arrangements, we may have to incur substantial costs and expend additional resources to enforce such arrangements. We may also have to rely on legal remedies under PRC law, including seeking specific performance or injunctive relief, and claiming damages, which we cannot assure will be effective under PRC law. For example, if the shareholders of our VIEs refuse to transfer its equity interest in our VIEs to our PRC subsidiaries or their designees after we exercise the purchase option pursuant to these contractual arrangements, or if they otherwise act in bad faith or otherwise fail to fulfill their contractual obligations, we may have to take legal actions to compel them to perform their contractual obligations. In addition, if any third parties claim any interest in such shareholders’ equity interests in our VIEs, our ability to exercise shareholders’ rights or foreclose the share pledge according to the contractual arrangements may be impaired. If these or other disputes between the shareholders of our VIEs and third parties were to impair our control over our VIEs, our ability to consolidate the financial results of our VIEs would be affected, which would in turn result in a material adverse effect on our business, operations and financial condition.

Our shareholders or the shareholders of our VIEs may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business.

The shareholders of our VIEs may have actual or potential conflicts of interest with us. These shareholders may breach, or cause our VIEs to breach, or refuse to renew, the existing contractual arrangements we have with them and our VIEs, which would have a material and adverse effect on our ability to effectively control our VIEs and receive economic benefits from them. For example, the shareholders may be able to cause our agreements with our VIEs to be performed in a manner adverse to us by, among other things, failing to remit payments due under the contractual arrangements to us on a timely basis. We cannot assure you that when conflicts of interest arise any or all of these shareholders will act in the best interests of our company or such conflicts will be resolved in our favor. Currently, we do not have any arrangements to address potential conflicts of interest between these shareholders and our company. If we cannot resolve any conflict of interest or dispute between us and these shareholders, we would have to rely on legal proceedings, which could result in disruption of our business and subject us to substantial uncertainty as to the outcome of any such legal proceedings.

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All the agreements under our contractual arrangements with our VIEs and their equity owners are governed by PRC law and provide for the resolution of disputes through arbitration in China. Accordingly, these contracts would be interpreted in accordance with PRC law, and any disputes would be resolved in accordance with PRC legal procedures.

All the agreements under our contractual arrangements with our VIEs and their equity owners are governed by PRC law and provide for the resolution of disputes through arbitration in China. Accordingly, these contracts would be interpreted in accordance with PRC law and any disputes would be resolved in accordance with PRC legal procedures. The legal system in the PRC is not as developed as in some other jurisdictions, such as the United States. As a result, uncertainties in the PRC legal system could limit our ability to enforce these contractual arrangements. Meanwhile, there are very few precedents and little formal guidance as to how contractual arrangements in the context of a VIE should be interpreted or enforced under PRC law. There remain significant uncertainties regarding the ultimate outcome of such arbitration should legal action become necessary. In addition, under PRC law, rulings by arbitrators are final, parties cannot appeal the arbitration results in courts, and if the losing parties fail to carry out the arbitration awards within a prescribed time limit, the prevailing parties may only enforce the arbitration awards in PRC courts through arbitration award recognition proceedings, which would require additional expenses and delay. In the event we are unable to enforce these contractual arrangements, or if we suffer significant delay or other obstacles in the process of enforcing these contractual arrangements, we may not be able to exert effective control over our VIEs, and our ability to conduct our business may be negatively affected.

We may lose the ability to use and enjoy assets held by our VIEs and their subsidiaries that are important to our business if our VIEs and their subsidiaries declare bankruptcy or become subject to a dissolution or liquidation proceeding.

As part of our contractual arrangements with our VIEs, they hold certain assets that are material to the operations of certain portion of our business. If our any of our VIE goes bankrupt and all or part of its assets become subject to liens or rights of third-party creditors, we may be unable to continue some or all of our business activities, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Under the contractual arrangements, our VIEs may not, in any manner, sell, transfer, mortgage or dispose of their assets or legal or beneficial interests in the business without our prior consent. If any of our VIEs undergoes a voluntary or involuntary liquidation proceeding, the independent third-party creditors may claim rights to some or all of these assets, thereby hindering our ability to operate our business, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations

Contractual arrangements we have entered into with our VIEs may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities. A finding that we owe additional taxes could negatively affect our financial condition and the value of your investment.

Under applicable PRC laws and regulations, arrangements and transactions among related parties may be subject to audit or challenge by the PRC tax authorities within ten years after the taxable year when the transactions are conducted. We could face material and adverse tax consequences if the PRC tax authorities determine that the contractual arrangements between us and our VIEs were not entered into on an arm’s-length basis in such a way as to result in an impermissible reduction in taxes under applicable PRC laws, rules and regulations, and adjust the income of our VIEs in the form of a transfer pricing adjustment. A transfer pricing adjustment could, among other things, result in a reduction of expense deductions recorded by our VIEs for PRC tax purposes, which could in turn increase its tax liabilities without reducing our PRC subsidiaries tax expenses. In addition, the PRC tax authorities may impose late payment fees and other penalties on our VIEs for the adjusted but unpaid taxes according to the applicable regulations. Our financial position could be materially and adversely affected if our VIEs’ tax liabilities increase or if it is required to pay late payment fees and other penalties.

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If the chops of our PRC subsidiaries, our VIEs and their respective subsidiaries, are not kept safely, are stolen or are used by unauthorized persons or for unauthorized purposes, the corporate governance of these entities could be severely and adversely compromised.

In China, a company chop or seal serves as the legal representation of the company towards third parties even when unaccompanied by a signature. Each legally registered company in China is required to maintain a company chop, which must be registered with the local Public Security Bureau. In addition to this mandatory company chop, companies may have several other chops which can be used for specific purposes. The chops of our PRC subsidiaries and VIEs are generally held securely by personnel designated or approved by us in accordance with our internal control procedures. To the extent those chops are not kept safely, are stolen or are used by unauthorized persons or for unauthorized purposes, the corporate governance of these entities could be severely and adversely compromised and those corporate entities may be bound to abide by the terms of any documents so chopped, even if they were chopped by an individual who lacked the requisite power and authority to do so. In addition, if the chops are misused by unauthorized persons, we could experience disruption to our normal business operations. We may have to take corporate or legal action, which could involve significant time and resources to resolve while distracting management from our operations.

Risks Related to Doing Business in China

Adverse changes in China’s economic, political or social conditions or government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The majority of our revenues are sourced from China. Accordingly, our results of operations, financial condition and prospects are influenced by economic, political and legal developments in China. Economic reforms begun in the late 1970s have resulted in significant economic growth. However, any economic reform policies or measures in China may from time to time be modified or revised. China’s economy differs from the economies of most developed countries in many respects, including with respect to the amount of government involvement, level of development, growth rate, control of foreign exchange and allocation of resources. Although the Chinese government has implemented measures emphasizing the utilization of market forces for economic reform, the reduction of state ownership of productive assets and the establishment of improved corporate governance in business enterprises, a substantial portion of productive assets in China is still owned by the government. In addition, the Chinese government continues to play a significant role in regulating industry development by imposing industrial policies. The Chinese government also exercises significant control over China’s economic growth through allocating resources, controlling payment of foreign currency-denominated obligations, setting monetary policy, and providing preferential treatment to particular industries or companies.

While the PRC economy has experienced significant growth in the past 30 years, growth has been uneven across different regions and among different economic sectors. The Chinese government has implemented measures to encourage economic growth and guide the allocation of the resources. Some of these measures may benefit the overall Chinese economy, but may have a negative effect on us. For example, our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by government control over capital investments or changes in tax regulations.

Although the PRC economy has grown significantly in the past decade, that growth may not continue, as evidenced by the slowing of the growth of the PRC economy since 2012. Any adverse changes in economic conditions in China, in the policies of the PRC government or in the laws and regulations in China could have a material adverse effect on the overall economic growth of China. Such developments could adversely affect our business and operating results, lead to reduction in demand for our services and adversely affect our competitive position.

A severe or prolonged downturn in the PRC or global economy and political tensions between the United States and China could materially and adversely affect our business and our financial condition.

The global macroeconomic environment is facing challenges, including the end of quantitative easing by the U.S. Federal Reserve, the economic slowdown in the Eurozone since 2014 and uncertainties over the impact of Brexit. The Chinese economy has shown slower growth compared to the previous decade since 2012 and the trend may continue. There is considerable uncertainty over the long-term effects of the expansionary monetary and fiscal

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policies adopted by the central banks and financial authorities of some of the world’s leading economies, including the United States and China. There have been concerns over unrest and terrorist threats in the Middle East, Europe and Africa, which have resulted in market volatility.

If we plan to expand our business internationally and do business cross-border in the future, any unfavorable government policies on international trade, such as capital controls or tariffs, may affect the demand for our products and services, impact our competitive position, or prevent us from being able to conduct business in certain countries. If any new tariffs, legislation, or regulations are implemented, or if existing trade agreements are renegotiated, such changes could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In particular, there have been heightened tensions in international economic relations between the United States and China. The U.S. government has recently imposed, and has recently proposed to impose additional, new, or higher tariffs on certain products imported from China to penalize China for what the U.S. government characterizes as unfair trade practices. China has responded by imposing, and proposing to impose additional, new, or higher tariffs on certain products imported from the United States. Following mutual retaliatory actions for months, on January 15, 2020, the United States and China entered into the Economic and Trade Agreement Between the United States of America and the People’s Republic of China as a phase one trade deal, effective on February 14, 2020. Although the direct impact of the current international trade tension, and any escalation of such tension, on the AR industry in China is uncertain, the negative impact on general, economic, political and social conditions may adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Furthermore, as part of a continued regulatory focus in the United States on access to audit and other information currently protected by national law, in particular China’s, on December 18, 2020, U.S. President Donald J. Trump signed the HFCAA into law, which requires the SEC to propose rules within 90 days after its enactment to prohibit securities of any registrant from being listed on any of the U.S. securities exchanges or traded “over the counter” if the auditor of the registrant’s financial statements is not subject to PCAOB inspection for three consecutive years after the law becomes effective. The HFCAA and any proposed SEC rules may have a material and adverse impact on the stock performance of China-based companies listed in the United States. In addition, the recent market panics over the global outbreak of COVID-19 materially and negatively affected the global financial markets in March 2020, which may cause potential slowdown of the global economy. Economic conditions in China are sensitive to global economic conditions, as well as changes in domestic economic and political policies and the expected or perceived overall economic growth rate in China. Any severe or prolonged slowdown in the global or Chinese economy and the political tensions between the United States and China may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

The recent joint statement by the SEC and PCAOB, proposed rule changes submitted by Nasdaq, and the HFCAA all call for additional and more stringent criteria to be applied to emerging market companies, including companies based in China, upon assessing the qualification of their auditors, especially the non-U.S. auditors who are not inspected by the PCAOB.

On April 21, 2020, SEC Chairman Jay Clayton and PCAOB Chairman William D. Duhnke III, along with other senior SEC staff, released a joint statement highlighting the risks associated with investing in companies based in or have substantial operations in emerging markets including China. The joint statement emphasized the risks associated with lack of access for the PCAOB to inspect auditors and audit work papers in China and higher risks of fraud in emerging markets.

On May 18, 2020, Nasdaq filed three proposals with the SEC to (i) apply minimum offering size requirement for companies primarily operating in “Restrictive Market”, (ii) adopt a new requirement relating to the qualification of management or board of director for Restrictive Market companies, and (iii) apply additional and more stringent criteria to an applicant or listed company based on the qualifications of the company’s auditors.

On May 20, 2020, the U.S. Senate passed the HFCAA requiring a foreign company to certify it is not owned or controlled by a foreign government if the PCAOB is unable to audit specified reports because the company uses a foreign auditor not subject to PCAOB inspection. If the PCAOB is unable to inspect the company’s auditors for three consecutive years, the issuer’s securities are prohibited to trade on a national exchange. On December 2, 2020, the U.S. House of Representatives approved the HFCAA. On December 18, 2020, the HFCAA was signed into law. On December 2, 2021, the SEC adopted final amendments implementing congressionally mandated submission and disclosure requirements of the HFCAA. On June 22, 2021, the U.S. Senate passed the Accelerating Holding Foreign

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Companies Accountable Act. The bill, if enacted, would shorten the three-consecutive-year compliance period under the HFCAA to two consecutive years. As a result, the time period before our ADSs may be prohibited from trading or delisted will be reduced.

The lack of access to the PCAOB inspection in China prevents the PCAOB from fully evaluating audits and quality control procedures of the auditors based in China. As a result, the investors may be deprived of the benefits of such PCAOB inspections. The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of these accounting firms’ audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to auditors outside of China that are subject to the PCAOB inspections.

Our predecessor auditor, the independent registered public accounting firm that issued the audit report for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2021 included elsewhere in this report, as an auditor of companies that are traded publicly in the United States and a firm registered with the PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess our auditor’s compliance with the applicable professional standards. Our auditor is headquartered in Manhattan, New York, and has been inspected by the PCAOB on a regular basis with the last inspection in June 2018. Therefore, it is not subject to the determinations announced by the PCAOB on December 16, 2021. However, in the event the PRC authorities would further strengthen regulations over auditing work of Chinese companies listed on the U.S. stock exchanges, which would prohibit our current auditor to perform work in China, then we would need to change our auditor and the audit workpapers prepared by our new auditor may not be inspected by the PCAOB without the approval of the PRC authorities, in which case the PCAOB may not be able to fully evaluate the audit or the auditors’ quality control procedures. Furthermore, due to the recent developments in connection with the implementation of the HFCAA, we cannot assure you whether the SEC, Nasdaq or other regulatory authorities would apply additional and more stringent criteria to us after considering the effectiveness of our auditor’s audit procedures and quality control procedures, adequacy of personnel and training, or sufficiency of resources, geographic reach or experience as it relates to the audit of our financial statements. The requirement in the HFCAA that the PCAOB be permitted to inspect the issuer’s public accounting firm within three years, may result in our delisting in the future if the PCAOB is unable to inspect our accounting firm at such future time.

Our current auditor, the independent registered public accounting firm that issues the audit report included elsewhere in this report, as an auditor of companies that is a firm registered with the PCAOB, is subject to laws in the United States pursuant to which the PCAOB conducts regular inspections to assess our auditor’s compliance with the applicable professional standards. Our auditor is headquartered in Singapore, and has been inspected by the PCAOB on a regular basis with the last inspection in March 2022. Therefore, it is not subject to the determinations announced by the PCAOB on December 16, 2021. However, in the event the PRC authorities would further strengthen regulations over auditing work of Chinese companies listed on the U.S. stock exchanges, which would prohibit our current auditor to perform work in China, then we would need to change our auditor and the audit workpapers prepared by our new auditor may not be inspected by the PCAOB without the approval of the PRC authorities, in which case the PCAOB may not be able to fully evaluate the audit or the auditors’ quality control procedures. Furthermore, due to the recent developments in connection with the implementation of the HFCAA, we cannot assure you whether the SEC, Nasdaq or other regulatory authorities would apply additional and more stringent criteria to us after considering the effectiveness of our auditor’s audit procedures and quality control procedures, adequacy of personnel and training, or sufficiency of resources, geographic reach or experience as it relates to the audit of our financial statements. The requirement in the HFCAA that the PCAOB be permitted to inspect the issuer’s public accounting firm within three years, may result in our delisting in the future if the PCAOB is unable to inspect our accounting firm at such future time.

Uncertainties in the interpretation and enforcement of PRC laws and regulations could limit the legal protections available to you and us.

The PRC legal system is a civil law system based on written statutes. Unlike the common law system, prior court decisions under the civil law system may be cited for reference but have limited precedential value. Since these laws and regulations are relatively new and the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involves uncertainties. For example, the enforcement of laws and rules and regulations in China can change quickly

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with little advance notice and there are risks that the Chinese government may intervene or influence our operations at any time, or may exert more control over offerings conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers, which could result in a material change in our operations and/or the value of our ADSs.

In 1979, the PRC government began to promulgate a comprehensive system of laws and regulations governing economic matters in general. The overall effect of legislation over the past three decades has significantly enhanced the protections afforded to various forms of foreign investments in China. However, China has not developed a fully integrated legal system, and recently enacted laws and regulations may not sufficiently cover all aspects of economic activities in China. In particular, the interpretation and enforcement of these laws and regulations involve uncertainties. Specifically, rules and regulations in China can change quickly with little advance notice.

From time to time, we may have to resort to administrative and court proceedings to enforce our legal rights. However, since PRC administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contractual terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we enjoy than in more developed legal systems. Furthermore, the PRC legal system is based in part on government policies and internal rules (some of which are not published in a timely manner or at all) that may have retroactive effect. As a result, we may not be aware of our violation of these policies and rules until sometime after the violation. Such uncertainties, including uncertainty over the scope and effect of our contractual, property (including intellectual property) and procedural rights, could materially and adversely affect our business and impede our ability to continue our operations.

We are subject to extensive and evolving legal system in the PRC, non-compliance with which, or changes in which, may materially and adversely affect our business and prospects, and may result in a material change in our operations and/or the value of our ADSs or could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors and cause the value of our ADSs to significantly decline or be worthless.

PRC companies are subject to various PRC laws, regulations and government policies and the relevant laws, regulations and policies continue to evolve. Recently, the PRC government is enhancing supervision over companies seeking listings overseas and some specific business or activities such as the use of variable interest entities and data security or anti-monopoly. The PRC government may adopt new measures that may affect our and the VIEs’ operations or may exert more oversight and control over offerings conducted outside of China and foreign investment in China-based companies, and we may be subject to challenges brought by these new laws, regulations and policies. However, since these laws, regulations and policies are relatively new and the PRC legal system continues to rapidly evolve, the interpretations of many laws, regulations and rules are not always uniform and enforcement of these laws, regulations and rules involve uncertainties. Furthermore, as we may be subject to additional, yet undetermined, laws and regulations, compliance may require us to obtain additional permits and licenses, complete or update registrations with relevant regulatory authorities, adjust our business operations, as well as allocate additional resources to monitor developments in the relevant regulatory environment. However, under the stringent regulatory environment, it may take much more time for the relevant regulatory authorities to approve new applications for permits and licenses, and complete or update registrations and we cannot assure you that we will be able to comply with these laws and regulations in a timely manner or at all. The failure to comply with these laws and regulations may delay, or possibly prevent, us to conduct business, accept foreign investments, or be listed overseas.

Recently, the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council jointly issued the Opinions on Severe and Lawful Crackdown on Illegal Securities Activities, which was available to the public on July 6, 2021. These opinions emphasized the need to strengthen the administration over illegal securities activities and the supervision on overseas listings by China-based companies. These opinions proposed to take effective measures, such as promoting the construction of relevant regulatory systems, to deal with the risks and incidents facing China-based overseas-listed companies and the demand for cybersecurity and data privacy protection. On December 24, 2021, CSRC published both the Provisions of the State Council on the Administration of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Enterprises (Draft for Comments) and the Administrative Measures for the Filing of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Enterprises (Draft for Comments), requiring that for any “indirect offering and listing” of Chinese operating enterprises, the issuer shall designate a Chinese operating entity to complete the filing with and report relevant information to CSRC. On February 17, 2023, the CSRC promulgated a new set of regulations that consists of the Trial Administrative Measures for Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (the

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“Trial Measures”) and five supporting guidelines, which will become effective on March 31, 2023. Pursuant to the Trial Measures, have come we may be required to submit filings to the CSRC following the submission of future overseas listings and the completion of future offerings of our equity securities to foreign investors. We thus cannot assure you that we will remain fully compliant with all new regulatory requirements of these opinions or any future implementation rules on a timely basis, or at all.

The occurrence of any of these events may materially and adversely affect our business and prospects and may result in a material change in our operations and/or the value of our ADSs or could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to continue to offer securities to investors. In addition, if any of changes causes us unable to direct the activities of the VIEs or lose the right to receive its economic benefits, we may not be able to consolidate the VIEs into our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, which could cause the value of our ADSs to significantly decline or become worthless.

Because substantially all of our operations are in China, our business is subject to the complex and rapidly evolving laws and regulations there. The Chinese government may exercise significant oversight and discretion over the conduct of our business and may intervene in or influence our operations at any time, which could result in a material change in our operations and/or the value of our ADSs.

As a business operating in China, we are subject to the laws and regulations of the PRC, which can be complex and evolve rapidly. The PRC government has the power to exercise significant oversight and discretion over the conduct of our business, and the regulations to which we are subject may change rapidly and with little notice to us or our shareholders. As a result, the application, interpretation, and enforcement of new and existing laws and regulations in the PRC are often uncertain. In addition, these laws and regulations may be interpreted and applied inconsistently by different agencies or authorities, and inconsistently with our current policies and practices. New laws, regulations, and other government directives in the PRC may also be costly to comply with, and such compliance or any associated inquiries or investigations or any other government actions may:

        Delay or impede our development,

        Result in negative publicity or increase our operating costs,

        Require significant management time and attention, and

        Subject us to remedies, administrative penalties and even criminal liabilities that may harm our business, including fines assessed for our current or historical operations, or demands or orders that we modify or even cease our business practices.

The promulgation of new laws or regulations, or the new interpretation of existing laws and regulations, in each case that restrict or otherwise unfavorably impact the ability or manner in which we conduct our business and could require us to change certain aspects of our business to ensure compliance, which could decrease demand for our products or services, reduce revenues, increase costs, require us to obtain more licenses, permits, approvals or certificates, or subject us to additional liabilities. To the extent any new or more stringent measures are required to be implemented, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected as well as materially decrease the value of our ADSs.

If we fail to obtain or maintain the required licenses and approvals or if we fail to comply with laws and regulations applicable to our industry, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected.

The Internet industry in China is highly regulated, which requires certain licenses, permits, filings and approvals to conduct and develop business. Currently, we have obtained business performance permit, telecom value-added service license and network culture operation license business performance permit.

Due to the uncertainties of interpretation and implementation of existing and future laws and regulations, the licenses we held may not be sufficient to meet regulatory requirements, which may restrain our ability to expand our business scope and may subject us to fines or other regulatory actions by relevant regulators if our practice is deemed as violating relevant laws and regulations. As we further develop and expand our business scope, we may need to obtain additional qualifications, permits, approvals or licenses. Moreover, we may be required to obtain additional licenses or approvals if the PRC government adopts more stringent policies or regulations for our industry.

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As the Internet industry in China is still at a relatively early stage of development, new laws and regulations may be adopted from time to time to address new issues that come to the authorities’ attention. Considerable uncertainties still exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of existing and future laws and regulations governing our business activities. We cannot assure you that we will not be found in violation of any future laws and regulations or any of the laws or regulations currently in effect due to changes in the relevant authorities’ interpretation of these laws and regulations.

In accordance with the Notice on Adjusting the Scope and Standardizing the Examination and Approval Process of Network Culture Operation License (“Notice”) of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, dated May 14, 2019, any network culture operation licenses whose business scope contains online-games related activities remains valid, although such licenses may not be renewed by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism upon expiration thereof. It is not clear yet whether new licenses could be issued by an alternative governmental authority. As a result, there is risk that we may not have a valid license to conduct online-gaming activities after the expiration of such license.

As of the date of this annual report, we have not received any material penalties from the relevant government authorities for our past business operations. We cannot assure you, however, that the government authorities will not do so in the future. In addition, we may be required to obtain additional license or permits, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to timely obtain or maintain all the required licenses or permits or make all the necessary filings in the future. If we fail to obtain, hold or maintain any of the required licenses or permits or make the necessary filings on time or at all, we may be subject to various penalties, such as confiscation of the net revenues that were generated through the unlicensed activities, the imposition of fines and the discontinuation or restriction of our operations. Any such penalties may disrupt our business operations and materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may be materially and adversely affected by the complexity, uncertainties and changes in PRC regulation of the Internet industry and companies.

The PRC government extensively regulates the Internet industry, including foreign ownership of, and the licensing and permit requirements pertaining to, companies in the Internet industry. These Internet-related laws and regulations are relatively new and evolving, and their interpretation and enforcement involve significant uncertainty. As a result, in certain circumstances it may be difficult to determine what actions or omissions may be deemed to be in violations of applicable laws and regulations. Issues, risks and uncertainties relating to PRC regulations of the Internet business include, but are not limited to, the following:

        There are uncertainties relating to the regulation of the Internet business in China, including evolving licensing practices and the requirement for real-name registrations. Permits, licenses or operations at some of our subsidiaries and PRC variable interest entity levels may be subject to challenge, we may not be able to timely obtain or maintain all the required licenses or approvals, permits, or to complete filing, registration or other formalities necessary for our present or future operations, and we may not be able to renew certain permits or licenses or renew certain filing or registration or other formalities. See “Item 3.D. Risk Factors — If we fail to obtain or maintain the required licenses and approvals or if we fail to comply with laws and regulations applicable to our industry, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be materially and adversely affected” and “Item 4.B. Business Overview-Regulation.”

        The evolving PRC regulatory system for the Internet industry may lead to the establishment of new regulatory agencies. For example, in May 2011, the State Council announced the establishment of a new department, the State Internet Information Office. The primary role of this new agency is to facilitate the policy-making and legislative development in this field to direct and coordinate with the relevant departments in connection with online content administration and to deal with cross-ministry regulatory matters in relation to the Internet industry. We are unable to determine what policies this new agency or any new agencies to be established in the future may have or how they may interpret existing laws, regulations and policies and how they may affect us. Further, new laws, regulations or policies may be promulgated or announced that will regulate Internet activities, including online video and online advertising businesses. If these new laws, regulations or policies are promulgated, additional licenses may be required for our operations. If our operations do not comply with these new regulations after they become effective, or if we fail to obtain any licenses required under these new laws and regulations, we could be subject to penalties.

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The interpretation and application of existing PRC laws, regulations and policies and possible new laws, regulations or policies relating to the Internet industry have created substantial uncertainties regarding the legality of existing and future foreign investments in, and the businesses and activities of, Internet businesses in China, including our business. There are also risks that we may be found to violate the existing or future laws and regulations given the uncertainty and complexity of China’s regulation of Internet business.

Our business generates and processes a large amount of data, and we are required to comply with PRC laws and regulations relating to cyber security. These laws and regulations could create unexpected costs, subject us to enforcement actions for compliance failures, or restrict portions of our business or cause us to change our data practices or business model.

Our business generates and processes a large quantity of data. We face risks inherent in handling and protecting large volume of data. In particular, we face a number of challenges relating to data we collect through our game distribution platform and integrated holographic AR software offering, including:

        protecting the data in and hosted on our system, including against attacks on our system by outside parties or fraudulent behavior or improper use by our employees;

        addressing concerns related to privacy and sharing, safety, security and other factors; and

        complying with applicable laws, rules and regulations relating to the collection, use, storage, transfer, disclosure and security of personal information, including any requests from regulatory and government authorities relating to this data.

Governments around the world, including the PRC government, have enacted or are considering legislation related to online businesses. There may be an increase in legislation and regulation related to the collection and use of anonymous internet user data and unique device identifiers, such as IP address or mobile unique device identifiers, and other data protection and privacy regulation. The PRC regulatory and enforcement regime with regard to data security and data protection is evolving. We may be required by Chinese governmental authorities to share personal information and data that we collect to comply with PRC laws relating to cybersecurity. All these laws and regulations may result in additional expenses to us and any non-compliance may subject us to negative publicity which could harm our reputation and negatively affect the trading price of our ADSs. There are also uncertainties with respect to how these laws will be implemented in practice. PRC regulators have been increasingly focused on regulation in the areas of data security and data protection. We expect that these areas will receive greater attention and focus from regulators, as well as attract continued or greater public scrutiny and attention going forward, which could increase our compliance costs and subject us to heightened risks and challenges associated with data security and protection. If we are unable to manage these risks, we could become subject to penalties, fines, suspension of business and revocation of required licenses, and our reputation and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, regulatory authorities around the world have recently adopted or are considering a number of legislative and regulatory proposals concerning data protection. These legislative and regulatory proposals, if adopted, and the uncertain interpretations and application thereof could, in addition to the possibility of fines, result in an order requiring that we change our data practices, which could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

We may be liable for improper use or appropriation of personal information provided directly or indirectly by our customers or end users.

We may become subject to a variety of laws and regulations in the PRC regarding privacy, data security, cybersecurity, and data protection. These laws and regulations are continuously evolving and developing. The scope and interpretation of the laws that are or may be applicable to us are often uncertain and may be conflicting, particularly with respect to foreign laws. In particular, there are numerous laws and regulations regarding privacy and the collection, sharing, use, processing, disclosure, and protection of personal information and other user data. Such laws and regulations often vary in scope, may be subject to differing interpretations, and may be inconsistent among different jurisdictions.

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We expect to obtain information about various aspects of our operations as well as regarding our employees and third parties. The integrity and protection of our customers, employees and company data is critical to our business. Our customers, end users and employees expect that we will adequately protect their personal information. We are required by applicable laws to keep strictly confidential the personal information that we collect, and to take adequate security measures to safeguard such information.

The PRC Criminal Law, as amended by its Amendment 7 (effective on February 28, 2009) and Amendment 9 (effective on November 1, 2015), prohibits institutions, companies and their employees from selling or otherwise illegally disclosing a citizen’s personal information obtained during the course of performing duties or providing services or obtaining such information through theft or other illegal ways. On November 7, 2016, the Standing Committee of the PRC National People’s Congress issued the Cyber Security Law of the PRC, or Cyber Security Law, which became effective on June 1, 2017. Pursuant to the Cyber Security Law, network operators must not, without users’ consent, collect their personal information, and may only collect users’ personal information necessary to provide their services. Providers are also obliged to provide security maintenance for their products and services and shall comply with provisions regarding the protection of personal information as stipulated under the relevant laws and regulations.

The Civil Code of the PRC (issued by the PRC National People’s Congress on May 28, 2020 and effective from January 1, 2021) provides main legal basis for privacy and personal information infringement claims under the Chinese civil laws. PRC regulators, including the Cyberspace Administration of China (“CAC”), MIIT, and the Ministry of Public Security have been increasingly focused on regulation in the areas of data security and data protection.

The PRC regulatory requirements regarding cybersecurity are constantly evolving. For instance, various regulatory bodies in China, including the CAC, the Ministry of Public Security and the SAMR, have enforced data privacy and protection laws and regulations with varying and evolving standards and interpretations. In April 2020, the Chinese government promulgated Cybersecurity Review Measures, which came into effect on June 1, 2020. According to the Cybersecurity Review Measures, operators of critical information infrastructure must pass a cybersecurity review when purchasing network products and services which do or may affect national security.

In November 2016, the Standing Committee of China’s National People’s Congress passed China’s first Cybersecurity Law (“CSL”), which became effective in June 2017. The CSL is the first PRC law that systematically lays out the regulatory requirements on cybersecurity and data protection, subjecting many previously under-regulated or unregulated activities in cyberspace to government scrutiny. The legal consequences of violation of the CSL include penalties of warning, confiscation of illegal income, suspension of related business, winding up for rectification, shutting down the websites, and revocation of business license or relevant permits. In April 2020, the CAC and certain other PRC regulatory authorities promulgated the Cybersecurity Review Measures, which became effective in June 2020. Pursuant to the Cybersecurity Review Measures, operators of critical information infrastructure must pass a cybersecurity review when purchasing network products and services which do or may affect national security. On July 10, 2021, the CAC issued a revised draft of the Measures for Cybersecurity Review for public comments (“Draft Measures”), which required that, in addition to “operator of critical information infrastructure,” any “data processor” carrying out data processing activities that affect or may affect national security should also be subject to cybersecurity review, and further elaborated the factors to be considered when assessing the national security risks of the relevant activities, including, among others, (i) the risk of core data, important data or a large amount of personal information being stolen, leaked, destroyed, and illegally used or exited the country; and (ii) the risk of critical information infrastructure, core data, important data or a large amount of personal information being affected, controlled, or maliciously used by foreign governments after listing abroad. The CAC has said that under the proposed rules companies holding data on more than 1,000,000 users must now apply for cybersecurity approval when seeking listings in other nations because of the risk that such data and personal information could be “affected, controlled, and maliciously exploited by foreign governments.” The cybersecurity review will also investigate the potential national security risks from overseas IPOs. We do not know what regulations will be adopted or how such regulations will affect we and our listing on Nasdaq. In the event that the Cyberspace Administration of China determines that we are subject to these regulations, we may be required to delist from Nasdaq and we may be subject to fines and penalties.

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On June 10, 2021, the Standing Committee of the NPC promulgated the PRC Data Security Law, which took effect on September 1, 2021. The Data Security Law also sets forth the data security protection obligations for entities and individuals handling personal data, including that no entity or individual may acquire such data by stealing or other illegal means, and the collection and use of such data should not exceed the necessary limits. The costs of compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, CSL and any other cybersecurity and related laws may limit the use and adoption of our products and services and could have an adverse impact on our business.

Further, if the enacted version of the Measures for Cybersecurity Review mandates clearance of cybersecurity review and other specific actions to be completed by companies like us, we face uncertainties as to whether such clearance can be timely obtained, or at all.

After the new PRC Data Security Law was enacted in September, we are not subject to the cybersecurity review by the CAC, given that: (i) our products and services are offered not directly to individual users but through our business customers; (ii) we do not possess a large amount of personal information in our business operations; and (iii) data processed in our business does not have a bearing on national security and thus may not be classified as core or important data by the authorities. However, there remains uncertainty as to how the Draft Measures will be interpreted or implemented and whether the PRC regulatory agencies, including the CAC, may adopt new laws, regulations, rules, or detailed implementation and interpretation related to the Draft Measures. If any such new laws, regulations, rules, or implementation and interpretation comes into effect, we will take all reasonable measures and actions to comply and to minimize the adverse effect of such laws on us.

On August 20, 2021, the Standing Committee of the NPC approved the Personal Information Protection Law (“PIPL”), which became effective on November 1, 2021. The PIPL regulates collection of personal identifiable information and seeks to address the issue of algorithmic discrimination. Companies in violation of the PIPL may be subject to warnings and admonishments, forced corrections, confiscation of corresponding income, suspension of related services, and fines. We mainly interact with corporate clients and has limited interactions with individual end-users, which means our potential access or exposure to end-users’ personal identifiable information is limited. However, in the event we inadvertently access or become exposed to end-users’ personal identifiable information, through our corporate clients’ end-user-facing applications which access or store end users’ personal identifiable information, then we may face heightened exposure to the PIPL.

We cannot assure you that PRC regulatory agencies, including the CAC, would take the same view as we do, and there is no assurance that we can fully or timely comply with such laws. In the event that we are subject to any mandatory cybersecurity review and other specific actions required by the CAC, we face uncertainty as to whether any clearance or other required actions can be timely completed, or at all. Given such uncertainty, we may be further required to suspend our relevant business, shut down our website, or face other penalties, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Under the PRC enterprise income tax law, we may be classified as a “PRC resident enterprise”, which could result in unfavorable tax consequences to us and our shareholders and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

Under the PRC enterprise income tax law that became effective on January 1, 2008, an enterprise established outside the PRC with “de facto management bodies” within the PRC is considered a “resident enterprise” for PRC enterprise income tax purposes and is generally subject to a uniform 25% enterprise income tax rate on its worldwide income. On April 22, 2009, the State Administration of Taxation, or the SAT, issued the Notice Regarding the Determination of Chinese-Controlled Overseas Incorporated Enterprises as PRC Tax Resident Enterprise on the Basis of De Facto Management Bodies, or SAT Circular 82, which provides certain specific criteria for determining whether the “de facto management body” of a PRC-controlled enterprise that is incorporated offshore is located in China. Further to SAT Circular 82, on August 3, 2011, the SAT issued the Administrative Measures of Enterprise Income Tax of Chinese-Controlled Offshore Incorporated Resident Enterprises (Trial), or SAT Bulletin 45, which became effective on September 1, 2011, to provide more guidance on the implementation of SAT Circular 82.

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According to SAT Circular 82, an offshore incorporated enterprise controlled by a PRC enterprise or a PRC enterprise group will be considered a PRC tax resident enterprise by virtue of having its “de facto management body” in China and will be subject to PRC enterprise income tax on its worldwide income only if all of the following conditions are met: (a) the senior management and core management departments in charge of its daily operations function have their presence mainly in the PRC; (b) its financial and human resources decisions are subject to determination or approval by persons or bodies in the PRC; (c) its major assets, accounting books, company seals, and minutes and files of its board and shareholders’ meetings are located or kept in the PRC; and (d) not less than half of the enterprise’s directors or senior management with voting rights habitually reside in the PRC. SAT Bulletin 45 further clarifies the resident status determination, post-determination administration as well as competent tax authorities.

Although SAT Circular 82 and SAT Bulletin 45 only apply to offshore incorporated enterprises controlled by PRC enterprises or PRC enterprise group instead of those controlled by PRC individuals or foreigners, the determination criteria set forth therein may reflect SAT’s general position on how the term “de facto management body” could be applied in determining the tax resident status of offshore enterprises, regardless of whether they are controlled by PRC enterprises, individuals or foreigners.

We believe none of our entities outside of China is a PRC resident enterprise for PRC tax purposes even if the standards for “de facto management body” prescribed in the SAT Circular 82 are applicable to us. However, the tax resident status of an enterprise is subject to determination by the PRC tax authorities and uncertainties remain with respect to the interpretation of the term “de facto management body.” If the PRC tax authorities determine that our company or any of our subsidiaries outside of China is a PRC resident enterprise for enterprise income tax purposes, we may be subject to PRC enterprise income on our worldwide income at the rate of 25%, which could materially reduce our net income. In addition, we will also be subject to PRC enterprise income tax reporting obligations.

Although dividends paid by one PRC tax resident to another PRC tax resident should qualify as “tax-exempt income” under the enterprise income tax law, we cannot assure you that dividends by our PRC subsidiaries to our Cayman Islands holding company will not be subject to a 10% withholding tax, as the PRC foreign exchange control authorities, which enforce the withholding tax on dividends, and the PRC tax authorities have not yet issued guidance with respect to the processing of outbound remittances to entities that are treated as resident enterprises for PRC enterprise income tax purposes.

Non-PRC resident ADS holders may also be subject to PRC withholding tax on dividends paid by us and PRC tax on gains realized on the sale or other disposition of ADSs or Class B ordinary shares, if such income is sourced from within the PRC. The tax would be imposed at the rate of 10% in the case of non-PRC resident enterprise holders and 20% in the case of non-PRC resident individual holders. In the case of dividends, we would be required to withhold the tax at source. Any PRC tax liability may be reduced under applicable tax treaties or similar arrangements. Although our holding company is incorporated in the Cayman Islands, it remains unclear whether dividends received and gains realized by our non-PRC resident ADS holders will be regarded as income from sources within the PRC if we are classified as a PRC resident enterprise. Any such tax will reduce the returns on your investment in our ADSs.

We cannot assure you that the PRC tax authorities will not, at their discretion, adjust any capital gains and impose tax return filing and withholding or tax payment obligations with respect to any internal restructuring, and our PRC subsidiaries may be requested to assist in the filing. Any PRC tax imposed on a transfer of our shares not through a public stock exchange, or any adjustment of such gains would cause us to incur additional costs and may have a negative impact on the value of your investment in our company.

We may not be able to obtain certain benefits under relevant tax treaty on dividends paid by our PRC subsidiaries to us through our Hong Kong subsidiaries.

We are an exempted limited liability company, used as holding company, incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands and as such rely on dividends and other distributions on equity from our PRC subsidiaries, as paid to us through our Hong Kong subsidiaries, to satisfy part of our liquidity requirements. Pursuant to the PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law, a withholding tax rate of 10% currently applies to dividends paid by a PRC “resident enterprise” to a foreign enterprise investor, unless any such foreign investor’s jurisdiction of incorporation has a tax treaty with China that provides for preferential tax treatment. Pursuant to the Arrangement between the Mainland China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and Tax Evasion

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on Income, or the Double Tax Avoidance Arrangement, and Circular 81 issued by the State Administration of Taxation, such withholding tax rate may be lowered to 5% if the PRC enterprise is at least 25% held by a Hong Kong enterprise throughout the 12 months prior to distribution of the dividends and is determined by the relevant PRC tax authority to have satisfied other requirements. Furthermore, under the Administrative Measures for Non-Resident Enterprises to Enjoy Treatments under Tax Treaties, which became effective in August 2015, the non-resident enterprises shall determine whether they are qualified for preferential tax treatment under the tax treaties and file relevant reports and materials with the tax authorities. There are also other conditions for benefiting from the reduced withholding tax rate according to other relevant tax rules and regulations. We cannot assure you that our determination regarding our Hong Kong subsidiaries’ qualification to benefit from the preferential tax treatment will not be challenged by the relevant PRC tax authority or that we will be able to complete the necessary filings with the relevant PRC tax authority and benefit from the preferential withholding tax rate of 5% under the Double Taxation Avoidance Arrangement with respect to dividends to be paid by our PRC subsidiaries to our Hong Kong subsidiaries.

We face uncertainty with respect to indirect transfers of equity interests in PRC resident enterprises by their non-PRC holding companies.

We face uncertainties regarding the reporting on and consequences of previous private equity financing transactions involving the transfer and exchange of shares in our company by non-resident investors.

In February 2015, the SAT issued the Bulletin on Issues of Enterprise Income Tax on Indirect Transfers of Assets by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises, or SAT Bulletin 7, as amended in 2017. Pursuant to this bulletin, an “indirect transfer” of assets, including equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise, by non-PRC resident enterprises may be re-characterized and treated as a direct transfer of PRC taxable assets, if such arrangement does not have a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of avoiding payment of PRC enterprise income tax. As a result, gains derived from such indirect transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax. According to SAT Bulletin 7, “PRC taxable assets” include assets attributed to an establishment in China, immovable properties located in China, and equity investments in PRC resident enterprises, in respect of which gains from their transfer by a direct holder, being a non-PRC resident enterprise, would be subject to PRC enterprise income taxes. When determining whether there is a “reasonable commercial purpose” of the transaction arrangement, features to be taken into consideration include: whether the main value of the equity interest of the relevant offshore enterprise derives from PRC taxable assets; whether the assets of the relevant offshore enterprise mainly consist of direct or indirect investment in China or if its income mainly derives from China; whether the offshore enterprise and its subsidiaries directly or indirectly holding PRC taxable assets have real commercial nature which is evidenced by their actual function and risk exposure; the duration of existence of the business model and organizational structure; the replicability of the transaction by direct transfer of PRC taxable assets; and the tax situation of such indirect transfer and applicable tax treaties or similar arrangements. In respect of an indirect offshore transfer of assets of a PRC establishment, the resulting gain is to be included with the enterprise income tax filing of the PRC establishment or place of business being transferred, and would consequently be subject to PRC enterprise income tax at a rate of 25%. Where the underlying transfer relates to the immovable properties located in China or to equity investments in a PRC resident enterprise, which is not related to a PRC establishment or place of business of a non-resident enterprise, a PRC enterprise income tax of 10% would apply, subject to available preferential tax treatment under applicable tax treaties or similar arrangements, and the party who is obligated to make the transfer payments has the withholding obligation. SAT Bulletin 7 does not apply to transactions of sale of shares by investors through a public stock exchange where such shares were acquired from a transaction through a public stock exchange.

There is uncertainty as to the application of SAT Bulletin 7. We face uncertainties as to the reporting and other implications of certain past and future transactions where PRC taxable assets are involved, such as offshore restructuring, sale of the shares in our offshore subsidiaries or investments. Our company may be subject to filing obligations or taxed if our company is transferor in such transactions, and may be subject to withholding obligations if our company is transferee in such transactions under SAT Bulletin 7. For transfer of shares in our company by investors that are non-PRC resident enterprises, our PRC subsidiaries may be requested to assist in the filing under SAT Bulletin 7. As a result, we may be required to expend valuable resources to comply with SAT Bulletin 7 or to request the relevant transferors from whom we purchase taxable assets to comply with these circulars, or to establish that our company should not be taxed under these circulars, which may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

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Certain judgments obtained against us by our shareholders may not be enforceable.

We are a Cayman Islands exempted company and substantially all of our current operations are conducted in China. In addition, most of our current directors and officers are nationals and residents of countries other than the United States. As a result, it may be difficult or impossible for you to bring an action against us or against these individuals in the United States in the event that you believe that your rights have been infringed under the U.S. federal securities laws or otherwise. Even if you are successful in bringing an action of this kind, the laws of the Cayman Islands and of China may render you unable to enforce a judgment against our assets or the assets of our directors and officers.

Implementation of labor laws and regulations in China may adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Pursuant to the labor contract law that took effect in January 2008, its implementation rules that took effect in September 2008 and its amendment that took effect in July 2013, employers are subject to stricter requirements in terms of signing labor contracts, minimum wages, paying remuneration, determining the term of employees’ probation and unilaterally terminating labor contracts. Due to lack of detailed interpretative rules and uniform implementation practices and broad discretion of the local competent authorities, it is uncertain as to how the labor contract law and its implementation rules will affect our current employment policies and practices. Our employment policies and practices may violate the labor contract law or its implementation rules, and we may thus be subject to related penalties, fines or legal fees. Compliance with the labor contract law and its implementation rules may increase our operating expenses, in particular our personnel expenses. In the event that we decide to terminate some of our employees or otherwise change our employment or labor practices, the labor contract law and its implementation rules may also limit our ability to effect those changes in a desirable or cost-effective manner, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. According to the Social Insurance Law and the Regulations on the Management of Housing Fund, employees must participate in pension insurance, work-related injury insurance, medical insurance, unemployment insurance and maternity insurance and housing funds, and the employers must, together with their employees or separately, pay the social insurance premiums and housing funds for such employees.

As the interpretation and implementation of these laws and regulations are still evolving, we cannot assure you that our employment practice will at all times be deemed in full compliance with labor-related laws and regulations in China, which may subject us to labor disputes or government investigations. If we are deemed to have violated relevant labor laws and regulations, we could be required to provide additional compensation to our employees and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Further, labor disputes, work stoppages or slowdowns at our company or any of our third-party service providers could significantly disrupt our daily operation or our expansion plans and have a material adverse effect on our business.

China’s M&A Rules and certain other PRC regulations establish complex procedures for certain acquisitions of Chinese companies by foreign investors, which could make it more difficult for us to pursue growth through acquisitions in China.

The Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Companies by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, adopted by six PRC regulatory agencies in 2006 and amended in 2009, and some other regulations and rules concerning mergers and acquisitions established additional procedures and requirements that could make merger and acquisition activities by foreign investors more time consuming and complex, including requirements in some instances that the anti-monopoly law enforcement agency be notified in advance of any change-of-control transaction in which a foreign investor takes control of a PRC domestic enterprise. Moreover, the Anti-Monopoly Law requires that the anti-monopoly law enforcement agency shall be notified in advance of any concentration of undertaking if certain thresholds are triggered. In addition, the security review rules issued by the MOFCOM, that became effective in September 2011 specify that mergers and acquisitions by foreign investors that raise “national defense and security” concerns and mergers and acquisitions through which foreign investors may acquire de facto control over domestic enterprises that raise “national security” concerns are subject to strict review by the MOFCOM, and the rules prohibit any activities attempting to bypass a security review, including by structuring the transaction through a proxy or contractual control arrangement. In the future, we may grow our business by

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acquiring complementary businesses. Complying with the requirements of the above-mentioned regulations and other relevant rules to complete such transactions could be time consuming, and any required approval processes, including obtaining approval from the MOFCOM or its local counterpart or anti-monopoly law enforcement agency may delay or inhibit our ability to complete such transactions, which could affect our ability to expand our business or maintain our market share.

PRC regulations relating to offshore investment activities by PRC residents may limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to increase their registered capital or distribute profits to us or otherwise expose us to liability and penalties under PRC law.

The State Administration of Foreign Exchange (“SAFE”) promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues Relating to PRC Resident’s Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 37, in July 2014 that requires PRC residents or entities to register with SAFE or its local branch in connection with their establishment or control of an offshore entity established for the purpose of overseas investment or financing. In addition, such PRC residents or entities must update their SAFE registrations when the offshore special purpose vehicle undergoes material events relating to any change of basic information (including change of such PRC residents or entities, name and operation term), increases or decreases in investment amount, transfers or exchanges of shares, or mergers or divisions.

SAFE Circular 37 is issued to replace the Circular on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Administration for PRC Residents Engaging in Financing and Roundtrip Investments through Overseas Special Purpose Vehicles.

If our shareholders who are PRC residents or entities do not complete their registration with the local SAFE branches, our PRC subsidiaries may be prohibited from distributing their profits and proceeds from any reduction in capital, share transfer or liquidation to us, and we may be restricted in our ability to contribute additional capital to our PRC subsidiaries. Moreover, failure to comply with SAFE registration described above could result in liability under PRC laws for evasion of applicable foreign exchange restrictions.

However, we may not be informed of the identities of all the PRC residents or entities holding direct or indirect interest in our company, nor can we compel our shareholders to comply with the requirements of SAFE Circular 37. As a result, we cannot assure you that all of our shareholders who are PRC residents or entities have complied with, and will in the future make or obtain any applicable registrations or approvals required by, SAFE Circular 37. Failure by such shareholders to comply with SAFE Circular 37, or failure by us to amend the foreign exchange registrations of our PRC subsidiaries, could subject us to fines or legal sanctions, restrict our overseas or cross-border investment activities, limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to make distributions or pay dividends to us or affect our ownership structure, which could adversely affect our business and prospects.

PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from using the proceeds we receive from out offshore financing activities to make loans to or make additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.

Any transfer of funds by us to our PRC subsidiaries, either as a shareholder loan or as an increase in registered capital, are subject to approval by or registration or filing with relevant governmental authorities in China. According to the relevant PRC regulations on foreign-invested enterprises in China, capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries are subject to the approval of or filing with the Ministry of Commerce in its local branches and registration with a local bank authorized by SAFE. In addition, (i) any foreign loan procured by our PRC subsidiaries is required to be registered with SAFE or its local branches or filed with SAFE in its information system; and (ii) our PRC subsidiaries may not procure loans which exceed the difference between their total investment amount and registered capital or, as an alternative, only procure loans subject to the calculation approach and limitation as provided in the People’s Bank of China Notice No. 9 (“PBOC Notice No. 9”). Any medium- or long-term loan to be provided by us to our VIEs must be registered with the National Development and Reform Commission and SAFE or its local branches. We may not be able to obtain these government approvals or complete such registrations on a timely basis, if at all, with respect to future capital contributions or foreign loans by us to our PRC subsidiaries. If we fail to receive such approvals or complete such registration or filing, our ability to use the

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proceeds we receive from our offshore financing activities and to capitalize our PRC operations may be negatively affected, which could adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business. There is, in effect, no statutory limit on the amount of capital contribution that we can make to our PRC subsidiaries. This is because there is no statutory limit on the amount of registered capital for our PRC subsidiaries, and we are allowed to make capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries by subscribing for their initial registered capital and increased registered capital, provided that the PRC subsidiaries complete the relevant filing and registration procedures. With respect to loans to the PRC subsidiaries by us, (i) if the PRC subsidiaries adopt the traditional foreign exchange administration mechanism, or the Current Foreign Debt Mechanism, the outstanding amount of the loans shall not exceed the difference between the total investment and the registered capital of the PRC subsidiaries; and (ii) if the PRC subsidiaries adopt the foreign exchange administration mechanism as provided in Notice of the People’s Bank of China on Matters concerning the Macro-Prudential Management of Full-Covered Cross-Border Financing, or the PBOC Notice No. 9, the risk-weighted outstanding amount of the loans, which shall be calculated based on the formula provided in PBOC Notice No. 9, shall not exceed 200% of the net asset of the PRC subsidiaries. According to the PBOC Notice No. 9, after a transition period of one year since the promulgation of PBOC Notice No. 9, the PBOC and SAFE will determine the cross-border financing administration mechanism for the foreign-invested enterprises after evaluating the overall implementation of PBOC Notice No. 9. As of the date hereof, neither the PBOC nor SAFE has promulgated and made public any further rules, regulations, notices or circulars in this regard. It is uncertain which mechanism will be adopted by the PBOC and SAFE in the future and what statutory limits will be imposed on us when providing loans to our PRC subsidiaries. Currently, our PRC subsidiaries have the flexibility to choose between the Current Foreign Debt Mechanism and the Notice No. 9 Foreign Debt Mechanism. However, if a more stringent foreign debt mechanism becomes mandatory, our ability to provide loans to our PRC subsidiaries or our consolidated affiliated entities may be significantly limited, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The Circular on Reforming the Administration of Foreign Exchange Settlement of Capital of Foreign-Invested Enterprises, or SAFE Circular 19, effective as of June 1, 2015, as amended by Circular of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming and Regulating Policies on the Control over Foreign Exchange Settlement under the Capital Account, or SAFE Circular 16, effective on June 9, 2016, allows FIEs to settle their foreign exchange capital at their discretion, but continues to prohibit FIEs from using the Renminbi fund converted from their foreign exchange capitals for expenditure beyond their business scopes, and also prohibit FIEs from using such Renminbi fund to provide loans to persons other than affiliates unless otherwise permitted under its business scope. As a result, we are required to apply Renminbi funds converted from the net proceeds we received from our offshore financing activities within the business scopes of our PRC subsidiaries. SAFE Circular 19 and SAFE Circular 16 may significantly limit our ability to use Renminbi converted from the net proceeds from our offshore financing activities to fund the establishment of new entities in China by our VIEs or their subsidiaries, to invest in or acquire any other PRC companies through our PRC subsidiaries, or to establish new consolidated VIEs in China, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our PRC subsidiaries and VIEs are subject to restrictions on paying dividends or making other payments to us, which may restrict our ability to satisfy our liquidity requirements, conduct our business and to pay dividends to holders of the ADSs and our ordinary shares.

We are a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands. We rely on dividends from our PRC subsidiaries which in turn relies on consulting and other fees paid by our VIEs for our cash and financing requirements, such as the funds necessary to pay dividends and other cash distributions to our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs, and service any debt we may incur. Current PRC regulations permit our PRC subsidiaries to pay dividends to us only out of their accumulated after-tax profits upon satisfaction of relevant statutory condition and procedures, if any, determined in accordance with Chinese accounting standards and regulations. In addition, our PRC subsidiaries are required to set aside at least 10% of their accumulated profits each year, if any, to fund certain reserve funds until the total amount set aside reaches 50% of its registered capital. Furthermore, if our PRC subsidiaries, our VIEs and their subsidiaries incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing the debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends or make other payments to us, which may restrict our ability to satisfy our liquidity requirements.

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In addition, the Enterprise Income Tax Law of the PRC, or the PRC EIT Law, and its implementation rules provide that withholding tax rate of 10% will be applicable to dividends payable by Chinese companies to non-PRC-resident enterprises unless otherwise exempted or reduced according to treaties or arrangements between the PRC central government and governments of other countries or regions where the non-PRC-resident enterprises are incorporated.

Fluctuations in exchange rates could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and the value of your investment.

The value of the Renminbi against the U.S. dollar and other currencies is affected by changes in China’s political and economic conditions and China’s foreign exchange policies, among other things. In 2005, the PRC government changed its decades-old policy of pegging the value of the Renminbi to the U.S. dollar, and the Renminbi appreciated more than 20% against the U.S. dollar over the following three years. Between July 2008 and June 2010, this appreciation halted and the exchange rate between Renminbi and the U.S. dollar remained within a narrow band. Since June 2010, Renminbi has fluctuated against the U.S. dollar, at times significantly and unpredictably. With the development of the foreign exchange market and progress towards interest rate liberalization and Renminbi internationalization, the PRC government may in the future announce further changes to the exchange rate system and we cannot assure you that Renminbi will not appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against the U.S. dollar in the future. It is difficult to predict how market forces or PRC or U.S. government policy may impact the exchange rate between Renminbi and the U.S. dollar in the future.

Governmental control of currency conversion may limit our ability to utilize our revenues effectively and affect the value of your investment.

The PRC government imposes controls on the convertibility of the Renminbi into foreign currencies and, in certain cases, the remittance of currency out of China. We receive substantially all of our revenues in Renminbi. Under our current corporate structure, our Cayman Islands holding company may rely on dividend payments from our PRC subsidiaries to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have. Under existing PRC foreign exchange regulations, payments of current account items, including profit distributions, interest payments and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions, can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval of SAFE by complying with certain procedural requirements. Specifically, under the existing exchange restrictions, without prior approval of SAFE, cash generated from the operations of our PRC subsidiaries in China may be used to pay dividends to our company. However, approval from or registration with appropriate government authorities is required where Renminbi is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of loans denominated in foreign currencies. As a result, we need to obtain SAFE approval to use cash generated from the operations of our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated affiliated entities to pay off their respective debt in a currency other than Renminbi owed to entities outside China, or to make other capital expenditure payments outside China in a currency other than Renminbi.

In light of the flood of capital outflows of China in 2016 due to the weakening Renminbi, the PRC government has imposed more restrictive foreign exchange policies and stepped up scrutiny of major outbound capital movement including overseas direct investment. More restrictions and substantial vetting process are put in place by SAFE to regulate cross-border transactions falling under the capital account. If any of our shareholders regulated by such policies fails to satisfy the applicable overseas direct investment filing or approval requirement timely or at all, it may be subject to penalties from the relevant PRC authorities. The PRC government may at its discretion further restrict access in the future to foreign currencies for current account transactions. If the foreign exchange control system prevents us from obtaining sufficient foreign currencies to satisfy our foreign currency demands, we may not be able to pay dividends in foreign currencies to our shareholders, including holders of our ADSs.

Failure to comply with PRC regulations regarding the registration requirements for employee stock ownership plans or share option plans may subject the PRC plan participants or us to fines and other legal or administrative sanctions.

Pursuant to SAFE Circular 37, PRC residents who participate in share incentive plans in overseas non-publicly-listed companies may submit applications to SAFE or its local branches for the foreign exchange registration with respect to offshore special purpose companies. In the meantime, our directors, executive officers and other employees who are PRC citizens or who are non-PRC residents residing in the PRC for a continuous

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period of not less than one year, subject to limited exceptions, and who have been granted incentive share awards by us, may follow the Notices on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas Publicly-Listed Company, or 2012 SAFE notices, promulgated by the SAFE in 2012. Pursuant to the 2012 SAFE notices, PRC citizens and non-PRC citizens who reside in China for a continuous period of not less than one year who participate in any stock incentive plan of an overseas publicly listed company, subject to a few exceptions, are required to register with SAFE through a domestic qualified agent, which could be the PRC subsidiaries of such overseas listed company, and complete certain other procedures. In addition, an overseas entrusted institution must be retained to handle matters in connection with the exercise or sale of stock options and the purchase or sale of shares and interests. Our executive officers and other employees who are PRC citizens or who reside in the PRC for a continuous period of not less than one year and who have been granted options are subject to these regulations. Failure to complete the SAFE registrations may subject them to fines, and legal sanctions and may also limit our ability to contribute additional capital into our PRC subsidiaries and limit our PRC subsidiaries’ ability to distribute dividends to us. We also face regulatory uncertainties that could restrict our ability to adopt additional incentive plans for our directors, executive officers and employees under PRC law.

The SAT has issued certain circulars concerning employee share options and restricted shares. Under these circulars, our employees working in China who exercise share options or are granted restricted shares will be subject to PRC individual income tax. Our PRC subsidiaries have obligations to file documents related to employee share options or restricted shares with relevant tax authorities and to withhold individual income taxes of those employees who exercise their share options. If our employees fail to pay or we fail to withhold their income taxes according to relevant laws and regulations, we may face sanctions imposed by the tax authorities or other PRC governmental authorities.

Our leased property interests may be defective and our right to lease the properties affected by such defects may be challenged, which could adversely affect our business.

According to the PRC Land Administration Law, land in urban districts is owned by the state. The owner of a property built on state-owned land must possess the proper land and property title certificate to demonstrate that it is the owner of the premises and that it has the right to enter into lease contracts with the tenants or to authorize a third party to sublease the premises. Some of the landlords of our learning center locations have failed to provide the title certificates to us. Our right to lease the premises may be interrupted or adversely affected if our landlords are not the property owners and the actual property owners should appear.

In addition, the title certificate usually records the approved use of the state-owned land by the government and the property owner is obligated to follow the approved use requirement when making use of the property. In the case of failure to utilize the property in accordance with the approved use, the land administration authorities may order the tenant to cease utilizing the premises or even invalidate the contract between the landlord and the tenant. If our use of the leased premises is not in full compliance with the approved use of the land, we may be unable to continue to use the property, which may cause disruption to our business.

Risks Related to the ADSs

The market price for our ADSs have fluctuated and may be volatile.

The trading price of our ADSs have fluctuated since we first listed our ADSs on NASDAQ. The trading price of our ADSs has been volatile and has ranged from US$0.56 to US$29.50 since our ADSs started to trade on NASDAQ on April 1, 2020. The trading price of our ADSs could fluctuate widely due to factors beyond our control. This may happen because of broad market and industry factors, including the performance and fluctuation of the market prices of other companies with business operations located mainly in China that have listed their securities in the United States. In addition to market and industry factors, the price and trading volume for our ADSs may be highly volatile for factors specific to our own operations, including the following:

        variations in our revenues, earnings, cash flow and data related to our user base or user engagement;

        announcements of new investments, acquisitions, strategic partnerships or joint ventures by us or our competitors;

        announcements of new product and service offerings, solutions and expansions by us or our competitors;

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        changes in financial estimates by securities analysts;

        detrimental adverse publicity about us, our products and services or our industry;

        additions or departures of key personnel;

        release of lock-up or other transfer restrictions on our outstanding equity securities or sales of additional equity securities; and

        potential litigation or regulatory investigations.

Any of these factors may result in large and sudden changes in the volume and price at which our ADSs will trade.

In the past, shareholders of public companies have often brought securities class action suits against those companies following periods of instability in the market price of their securities. If we were involved in a class action suit, it could divert a significant amount of our management’s attention and other resources from our business and operations and require us to incur significant expenses to defend the suit, which could harm our results of operations. Any such class action suit, whether or not successful, could harm our reputation and restrict our ability to raise capital in the future. In addition, if a claim is successfully made against us, we may be required to pay significant damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our ADSs, the market price for our ADSs and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our ADSs will be influenced by research or reports that industry or securities analysts publish about our business. If one or more analysts who cover us downgrade our ADSs, the market price for our ADSs would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause the market price or trading volume for our ADSs to decline.

The sale or availability for sale of substantial amounts of our ADSs could adversely affect their market price.

Sales of substantial amounts of our ADSs in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could adversely affect the market price of our ADSs and could materially impair our ability to raise capital through equity offerings in the future. As of December 31, 2022, we have 20,115,570 Class A ordinary shares and 153,300,513 Class B ordinary shares outstanding. The ADSs representing our Class B ordinary shares sold in our public offerings are freely tradable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act. The remaining ordinary shares are available for sale, subject to the restrictions in Rule 144 and Rule 701 under the Securities Act. To the extent that these ordinary shares are sold into the market, the market price of our ADSs could decline.

Certain holders of our ordinary shares have the right to cause us to register under the Securities Act the sale of their shares. Registration of these shares under the Securities Act would result in ADSs representing these shares becoming freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act immediately upon the effectiveness of the registration. Sales of these registered shares in the form of ADSs in the public market could cause the price of our ADSs to decline.

You may face difficulties in protecting your interests, and your ability to protect your rights through U.S. courts may be limited, because we are incorporated under Cayman Islands law.

We are an exempted company limited by shares incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands. Our corporate affairs are governed by our memorandum and articles of association, the Companies Law of the Cayman Islands, as amended from time to time, and the common law of the Cayman Islands. The rights of shareholders to take action against the directors, actions by minority shareholders and the fiduciary duties of our directors to us under Cayman Islands law are to a large extent governed by the common law of the Cayman Islands. The common law of the Cayman Islands is derived in part from comparatively limited judicial precedent in the Cayman Islands as well as from the common law of England and Wales, the decisions of whose courts are of persuasive authority, but are not binding, on a court in the Cayman Islands. The rights of our shareholders and the fiduciary duties of

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our directors under Cayman Islands law are not as clearly established as they would be under statutes or judicial precedent in some jurisdictions in the United States. In particular, the Cayman Islands has a less developed body of securities laws than the United States. Some U.S. states, such as Delaware, have more fully developed and judicially interpreted bodies of corporate law than the Cayman Islands. In addition, Cayman Islands companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholder derivative action in a federal court of the United States.

Shareholders of Cayman Islands exempted companies like us have no general rights under Cayman Islands law to inspect corporate records (other than the memorandum and articles of association) or to obtain copies of lists of shareholders of these companies. Our directors have discretion under our memorandum and articles of association to determine whether or not, and under what conditions, our corporate records may be inspected by our shareholders, but are not obliged to make them available to our shareholders. This may make it more difficult for you to obtain the information needed to establish any facts necessary for a shareholder resolution or to solicit proxies from other shareholders in connection with a proxy contest.

As a result of all of the above, our public shareholders may have more difficulty in protecting their interests in the face of actions taken by management, members of the board of directors or controlling shareholders than they would as public shareholders of a company incorporated in the United States.

Techniques employed by short sellers may drive down the market price of our ADSs.

Short selling is the practice of selling securities that the seller does not own but rather has borrowed from a third party with the intention of buying identical securities back at a later date to return to the lender. The short seller hopes to profit from a decline in the value of the securities between the sale of the borrowed securities and the purchase of the replacement shares, as the short seller expects to pay less in that purchase than it received in the sale. As it is in the short seller’s interest for the price of the security to decline, many short sellers publish, or arrange for the publication of, negative opinions and allegations regarding the relevant issuer and its business prospects in order to create negative market momentum and generate profits for themselves after selling a security short. These short attacks have, in the past, led to selling of shares in the market. If we were to become the subject of any unfavorable allegations, whether such allegations are proven to be true or untrue, we could have to expend a significant amount of resources to investigate such allegations and/or defend ourselves. While we would strongly defend against any such short seller attacks, we may be constrained in the manner in which we can proceed against the relevant short seller by principles of freedom of speech, applicable state law or issues of commercial confidentiality.

Because we do not expect to pay dividends in the foreseeable future, you must rely on a price appreciation of our ADSs for a return on your investment.

We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. As a result, we do not expect to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Therefore, you should not rely on an investment in our ADSs as a source for any future dividend income.

Our board of directors has complete discretion as to whether to distribute dividends, subject to certain requirements of Cayman Islands law. In addition, our shareholders may by ordinary resolution declare a dividend, but no dividend may exceed the amount recommended by our board of directors. Under Cayman Islands law, a Cayman Islands company may pay a dividend out of either profit or share premium account, provided that in no circumstances may a dividend be paid if this would result in the company being unable to pay its debts as they fall due in the ordinary course of business. Even if our board of directors decides to declare and pay dividends, the timing, amount and form of future dividends, if any, will depend on, among other things, our future results of operations and cash flow, our capital requirements and surplus, the amount of distributions, if any, received by us from our subsidiaries, our financial condition, contractual restrictions and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. Accordingly, the return on your investment in our ADSs will likely depend entirely upon any future price appreciation of our ADSs. There is no guarantee that our ADSs will appreciate in value or even maintain the price at which you purchased our ADSs. You may not realize a return on your investment in our ADSs and you may even lose your entire investment in our ADSs.

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You may not receive dividends or other distributions on our ordinary shares and you may not receive any value for them, if it is illegal or impractical to make them available to you.

The depositary of our ADSs has agreed to pay to you the cash dividends or other distributions it or the custodian receives on ordinary shares or other deposited securities underlying our ADSs, after deducting its fees and expenses. You will receive these distributions in proportion to the number of ordinary shares your ADSs represent. However, the depositary is not responsible if it decides that it is unlawful or impractical to make a distribution available to any holders of ADSs. For example, it would be unlawful to make a distribution to a holder of ADSs if it consists of securities that require registration under the Securities Act but that are not properly registered or distributed under an applicable exemption from registration. The depositary may also determine that it is not feasible to distribute certain property through the mail. Additionally, the value of certain distributions may be less than the cost of mailing them. In these cases, the depositary may determine not to distribute such property. We have no obligation to register under U.S. securities laws any ADSs, ordinary shares, rights or other securities received through such distributions. We also have no obligation to take any other action to permit the distribution of ADSs, ordinary shares, rights or anything else to holders of ADSs. This means that you may not receive distributions we make on our ordinary shares or any value for them if it is illegal or impractical for us to make them available to you. These restrictions may cause a material decline in the value of our ADSs.

ADSs holders may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to claims arising under the deposit agreement, which could result in less favorable outcomes to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

The deposit agreement governing the ADSs representing our Class B ordinary shares provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, ADS holders waive the right to a jury trial for any claim they may have against us or the depositary arising out of or relating to our shares, our ADSs or the deposit agreement, including any claim under the U.S. federal securities laws.

If we or the depositary were to oppose a jury trial based on this waiver, the court would have to determine whether the waiver was enforceable based on the facts and circumstances of the case in accordance with applicable state and federal law. To our knowledge, the enforceability of a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver in connection with claims arising under the federal securities laws has not been finally adjudicated by the United States Supreme Court. However, we believe that a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver provision is generally enforceable, including under the laws of the State of New York, which govern the deposit agreement, or by a federal or state court in the City of New York, which has non-exclusive jurisdiction over matters arising under the deposit agreement. In determining whether to enforce a contractual pre-dispute jury trial waiver, courts will generally consider whether a party knowingly, intelligently and voluntarily waived the right to a jury trial. We believe that this would be the case with respect to the deposit agreement and our ADSs. It is advisable that you consult legal counsel regarding the jury waiver provision before investing in our ADSs.

If you or any other holders or beneficial owners of ADSs bring a claim against us or the depositary in connection with matters arising under the deposit agreement or our ADSs, including claims under federal securities laws, you or such other holder or beneficial owner may not be entitled to a jury trial with respect to such claims, which may have the effect of limiting and discouraging lawsuits against us or the depositary. If a lawsuit is brought against us or the depositary under the deposit agreement, it may be heard only by a judge or justice of the applicable trial court, which would be conducted according to different civil procedures and may result in different outcomes than a trial by jury would have, including outcomes that could be less favorable to the plaintiff(s) in any such action.

Nevertheless, if this jury trial waiver is not permitted by applicable law, an action could proceed under the terms of the deposit agreement with a jury trial. No condition, stipulation or provision of the deposit agreement or the ADSs serves as a waiver by any holder or beneficial owner of ADSs or by us or the depositary of compliance with any substantive provision of the U.S. federal securities laws and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

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The voting rights of holders of ADSs are limited by the terms of the deposit agreement, and you may not be able to exercise your right to direct the voting of your ordinary shares underlying our ADSs.

Holders of ADSs do not have the same rights as our registered shareholders. As a holder of our ADSs, you will not have any direct right to attend general meetings of our shareholders or to cast any votes at such meetings. You will only be able to exercise the voting rights which attach to the underlying Class B ordinary shares represented by your ADSs indirectly by giving voting instructions to the depositary in accordance with the provisions of the deposit agreement. Under the deposit agreement, you may vote only by giving voting instructions to the depositary, as holder of the underlying Class B ordinary shares represented by your ADSs. Upon receipt of your voting instructions, the depositary will try, as far as is practicable, to vote the ordinary shares represented by your ADSs in accordance with your instructions. If we ask for your instructions, then upon receipt of your voting instructions, the depositary will try to vote the underlying Class B ordinary shares represented by your ADSs in accordance with these instructions. If we do not instruct the depositary to ask for your instructions, the depositary may still vote in accordance with instructions you give, but it is not required to do so. You will not be able to directly exercise any right to vote with respect to the underlying Class B ordinary shares unless you withdraw such shares and become the registered holder of such shares prior to the record date for the general meeting. When a general meeting is convened, you may not receive sufficient advance notice of the meeting to enable you to withdraw the underlying Class B ordinary shares represented by your ADSs and become the registered holder of such shares prior to the record date for the general meeting to allow you to attend the general meeting and to vote directly with respect to any specific matter or resolution to be considered and voted upon at the general meeting. In addition, under our articles of association, for the purposes of determining those shareholders who are entitled receive notice of, to attend or vote at any general meeting, our directors may close our register of members for a stated period not exceeding thirty calendar days and/or fix in advance a record date for determining those shareholder that are entitled to receive notice of, attend or vote at such meeting, and such closure of our register of members or the setting of such a record date may prevent you from withdrawing the underlying Class B ordinary shares represented by your ADSs and becoming the registered holder of such shares prior to the record date, so that you would not be able to attend the general meeting or to vote directly. Where any matter is to be put to a vote at a general meeting, the depositary will use its best endeavors to notify you of the upcoming vote and to deliver our voting materials to you. We cannot assure you that you will receive the voting material in time to ensure you can direct the depositary to vote your shares. In addition, the depositary and its agents are not responsible for failing to carry out voting instructions or for their manner of carrying out your voting instructions. This means that you may not be able to exercise your right to direct how the underlying Class B ordinary shares represented by your ADSs are voted and you may have no legal remedy if the underlying Class B ordinary shares represented by your ADSs are not voted as you requested.

You may experience dilution of your holdings due to the inability to participate in rights offerings.

We may, from time to time, distribute rights to our shareholders, including rights to acquire securities. Under the deposit agreement, the depositary will not distribute rights to holders of ADSs unless the distribution and sale of rights and the securities to which these rights relate are either exempt from registration under the Securities Act with respect to all holders of ADSs, or are registered under the provisions of the Securities Act. The depositary may, but is not required to, attempt to sell these undistributed rights to third parties, and may allow the rights to lapse. We may be unable to establish an exemption from registration under the Securities Act, and we are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to these rights or underlying securities or to endeavor to have a registration statement declared effective. Accordingly, holders of ADSs may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution of their holdings as a result.

You may be subject to limitations on the transfer of our ADSs.

Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. The depositary may close its books from time to time for a number of reasons, including in connection with corporate events such as rights offering, during which time the depositary needs to maintain an exact number of ADS holders on its books for

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a specified period. The depositary may also close its books in emergencies, and on weekends and public holidays. The depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of our ADSs generally when our share register or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary thinks that it is advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason in accordance with the terms of the deposit agreement. As a result, you may be unable to transfer your ADSs when you wish to.

Our memorandum and articles of association contain anti-takeover provisions that could have a material adverse effect on the rights of holders of our ordinary shares and ADSs.

Our memorandum and articles of association contains certain provisions to limit the ability of others to acquire control of our company or cause us to engage in change-of-control transactions, including a provision that grants authority to our board of directors to establish and issue from time to time one or more series of preferred shares without action by our shareholders and to determine, with respect to any series of preferred shares without action by our shareholders and to determine, with respect to any series of preferred shares, the terms and rights of that series. These provisions could have the effect of depriving our shareholders and ADSs holders of the opportunity to sell their shares or ADSs at a premium over the prevailing market price by discouraging third parties from seeking to obtain control of our company in a tender offer or similar transactions.

We are an emerging growth company and may take advantage of certain reduced reporting requirements.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act, and we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various requirements applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies including, most significantly, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 for so long as we are an emerging growth company. As a result, if we elect not to comply with such auditor attestation requirements, our investors may not have access to certain information they may deem important.

The JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company does not need to comply with any new or revised financial accounting standards until such date that a private company is otherwise required to comply with such new or revised accounting standards. We plan to take advantage of such exemptions afforded to an emerging growth company. As a result, our operating results and financial statements may not be comparable to the operating results and financial statements of other companies who have adopted the new or revised accounting standards.

As a company incorporated in the Cayman Islands, we are permitted to adopt certain home country practices in relation to corporate governance matters that differ significantly from Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards. These practices may afford less protection to shareholders than they would enjoy if we complied fully with Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards.

As an exempted company incorporated in the Cayman Islands that is listed on Nasdaq, we are subject to Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards. However, Nasdaq rules permit a foreign private issuer like us to follow the corporate governance practices of its home country. Certain corporate governance practices in the Cayman Islands, which is our home country, may differ significantly from Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards. Pursuant to Nasdaq Listing Rule 5615, we have elected to be exempt from the requirement under Nasdaq Listing Rule 5635 to obtain shareholder approval for the issuance of 20% or more of our outstanding ordinary shares. We may also choose to follow other home country practices in the future. As a result, our shareholders may be afforded less protection than they otherwise would enjoy under Nasdaq corporate governance listing standards applicable to U.S. domestic issuers.

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We are a foreign private issuer within the meaning of the rules under the Exchange Act, and as such we are exempt from certain provisions applicable to U.S. domestic public companies.

Because we qualify as a foreign private issuer under the Exchange Act, we are exempt from certain provisions of the securities rules and regulations in the United States that are applicable to U.S. domestic issuers, including:

        the rules under the Exchange Act requiring the filing with the SEC of quarterly reports on Form 10-Q or current reports on Form 8-K;

        the sections of the Exchange Act regulating the solicitation of proxies, consents, or authorizations in respect of a security registered under the Exchange Act;

        the sections of the Exchange Act requiring insiders to file public reports of their stock ownership and trading activities and liability for insiders who profit from trades made in a short period of time; and

        the selective disclosure rules by issuers of material nonpublic information under Regulation FD.

We are required to file an annual report on Form 20-F within four months of the end of each fiscal year. In addition, we intend to publish our results of operations through press releases, distributed pursuant to the rules and regulations of Nasdaq. Press releases relating to financial results and material events will also be furnished to the SEC on Form 6-K. However, the information we are required to file with or furnish to the SEC will be less extensive and less timely compared to that required to be filed with the SEC by U.S. domestic issuers. As a result, you may not be afforded the same protections or information that would be made available to you were you investing in a U.S. domestic issuer.

We are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market and, as a result, can rely on exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements that provide protection to shareholders of other companies.

We are a “controlled company” as defined under the Nasdaq Stock Market corporate governance rules because Jie Zhao, our Chairman, beneficially owns more than 50% of the total voting power. For so long as we remain a controlled company under that definition, we are permitted to rely on certain exemptions from corporate governance rules, including an exemption from the rule that a majority of our board of directors must be independent directors or that we have to establish a nominating committee and a compensation committee composed entirely of independent directors. As a result, you will not have the same protection afforded to shareholders of companies that are subject to these corporate governance requirements.

Our Chairman controls more than 50% of the total voting power of our outstanding ordinary shares and thus his interest may differ from other shareholders and holders of our ADSs, as he is able to exert significant control over certain actions requiring a shareholder vote.

Jie Zhao, our Chairman, controls more than 50% of the total voting power of our outstanding ordinary shares. Consequently, he is able to exert significant control over certain actions requiring a shareholder vote. As our majority shareholder, Mr. Zhao is able to elect our board of directors, and determine the outcome of all matters requiring the approval of the holders of a majority of our outstanding shares, including the sale of our assets or an acquisition of assets. This concentration of ownership in our shares by Mr. Zhao limits your ability to influence corporate matters and may have the effect of delaying or preventing a third party from acquiring control over us. Consequently, his interest in such matters may differ from the interest of other shareholders and holders of our ADSs.

We will incur increased costs as a result of being a public company, particularly after we cease to qualify as an emerging growth company.

As a public company, we expect to incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and Nasdaq, impose various requirements on the corporate governance practices of public companies. We expect these

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rules and regulations to increase our legal and financial compliance costs and to make some corporate activities more time-consuming and costly. We expect to incur significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the other rules and regulations of the SEC. For example, as a result of becoming a public company, we will need to increase the number of independent directors and adopt policies regarding internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures. We also expect that operating as a public company will make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. In addition, we will incur additional costs associated with our public company reporting requirements. It may also be more difficult for us to find qualified persons to serve on our board of directors or as executive officers. We are currently evaluating and monitoring developments with respect to these rules and regulations, and we cannot predict or estimate with any degree of certainty the amount of additional costs we may incur or the timing of such costs.

In the past, shareholders of a public company often brought securities class action suits against the company following periods of instability in the market price of that company’s securities. If we were involved in a class action suit, it could divert a significant amount of our management’s attention and other resources from our business and operations, which could harm our results of operations and require us to incur significant expenses to defend the suit. Any such class action suit, whether or not successful, could harm our reputation and restrict our ability to raise capital in the future. In addition, if a claim is successfully made against us, we may be required to pay significant damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

There can be no assurance that we will not be a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for any taxable year, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. investors in our ADSs or ordinary shares.

In general, a non-U.S. corporation is a PFIC for any taxable year in which (i) 75% or more of its gross income consists of passive income; or (ii) 50% or more of the average quarterly value of its assets consists of assets that produce, or are held for the production of, passive income. For purposes of the above calculations, a non-U.S. corporation that owns, directly or indirectly, at least 25% by value of the shares of another corporation is treated as if it held its proportionate share of the assets of the other corporation and received directly its proportionate share of the income of the other corporation. Passive income generally includes dividends, interest, rents, royalties and certain gains. Cash is a passive asset for these purposes. Goodwill is generally characterized as active or passive asset based on the nature of the income produced in the activity to which the goodwill is attributable. Based on the expected composition of our income and assets and the value of our assets, including goodwill, which is based on the price of our ADSs, we do not believe we were a PFIC for the taxable year ended December 31, 2020. However, it is not entirely clear how the contractual arrangements between our subsidiaries, our VIEs and the shareholders of our VIEs will be treated for purposes of the PFIC rules. In addition, the extent to which our goodwill should be characterized as an active asset is not entirely clear. Furthermore, our PFIC status for any taxable year will depend on the composition of our income and assets and the value of our assets from time to time (which may be determined, in part, by reference to the market price of our ADSs, which could be volatile). Accordingly, there can be no assurance that we will not be a PFIC for any taxable year. If we were a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. taxpayer holds ADSs or ordinary shares, the U.S. taxpayer generally will be subject to adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences, including increased tax liability on disposition gains and “excess distributions” and additional reporting requirements. See “Item 10.E. Taxation — U.S. Federal Income Taxation — Passive Foreign Investment Company Rules.”

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ITEM 4.    INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

A.     HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF OUR COMPANY

We commenced our commercial operations in May 2015 through Beijing WiMi Hologram Cloud Software Co., Ltd., or Beijing WiMi (previously under the name “WiMi Lightspeed Capital Investment Management (Beijing) Co., Ltd.”). In February 2016, Beijing WiMi formed a wholly-owned subsidiary, Micro Beauty Lightspeed Investment Management HK Limited in Hong Kong. In addition, Beijing WiMi acquired 100% equity interest in Shenzhen Yidian Internet Technology Co., Ltd, or Shenzhen Yidian on October 21, 2015, Shenzhen Yitian Hulian Internet Technology Co., Ltd., or Shenzhen Yitian on August 20, 2015 and Shenzhen Kuxuanyou Technology Co., Ltd., or Shenzhen Kuxuanyou on August 26, 2015.

We incorporated WiMi Cayman under the laws of the Cayman Islands as our offshore holding company in August 2018 to facilitate offshore financing. In September 2018, we established WiMi Hologram Cloud Limited, or WiMi HK, our wholly-owned Hong Kong subsidiary, and WiMi HK established a wholly-owned PRC subsidiary, Beijing Hologram WiMi Cloud Internet Technology Co., Ltd., or Hologram WiMi, which we also referred in this annual report as WiMi WFOE.

In April 2020, we completed our initial public offering in which we offered and sold an aggregate of 9,500,000 Class B ordinary shares in the form of 4,750,000 ADSs. The ADSs were sold at an offering price of US$5.50 per ADS generating gross proceeds of approximately US$26.125 million, and net proceeds of approximately US$24.2 million after deducting underwriting commission and other expenses. On April 1, 2020, our ADSs began trading on the Nasdaq under the symbol “WIMI”. On July 27, 2020, we completed our follow-on public offering of 7,560,000 ADSs at the price of US$8.18 per ADS, resulting in net proceeds to us of approximately US$57.3 million, after deducting placement agent fees and other expenses.

WiMi HK set up joint venture companies, ICinit Limited and VIDA Semicon Co., Limited in June and August 2020, respectively. In August 2020, we established a wholly-owned subsidiary, Lixin Technology, in Hainan Province, China. In September 2020, we established our then wholly-owned subsidiary, VIYI, in Cayman Islands. As of September 27, 2020, VIYI entered into an acquisition framework agreement with FE-DA Electronics Company Private Limited, or FE-DA, and its original shareholder, to acquire the entire equity interests of FE-DA for a total consideration of US$35 million, which shall be paid in several installments, subject to the fulfilment of certain performance conditions by FE-DA. The acquisition framework agreement was subsequently amended and supplemented on September 28, 2020 pursuant to which the original shareholder of FE-DA has undertaken certain performance guarantees of FE-DA’s net profits, and VIYI is entitled to seek refund from the original shareholder of FE-DA. VIYI paid US$ 15 million on November 27, 2020 and the remaining payments for this acquisition are expected to be made in three installments during the next three years, subject to the fulfilment of certain performance conditions by FE-DA. The first payment of US$ 6 million is due on March 31, 2022 if the net income of FE-DA for the year of 2021 is at least US$ 3 million; the second payment of US$ 6 million is due on March 31, 2023 if the net income of FE-DA for the year of 2022 is at least US$ 6 million; and the third payment of US$ 8 million is due on March 31, 2024 if the net income of FE-DA for the year of 2023 is at least US$ 9 million. If FE-DA is unable to meet the performance target in any year, we are entitled to a refund of consideration that is twice of the difference between FE-DA’s actual net profits and the guaranteed net profits. On March 26, 2021, FE-DA and VIYI entered into a second amended agreement to amend the terms of the payment for the three installments so that all payments will be settled on March 31, 2024. FE-DA is a provider of Internet of Things solutions based in Singapore, and primarily engages in the central processing algorithm integrated circuit (“CPA-IC”) solution business in Southeast Asia.

On November 15, 2020, we entered into an equity transfer agreement with Bofeng Investment Limited and Bravo Great Enterprises Limited, pursuant to which we transferred 4.0% and 6.0% of the issued share capital of VIYI to Bofeng Investment Limited and Bravo Great Enterprises Limited, respectively, for a total consideration of US$10.0 million. On December 7, 2020, we entered into an equity transfer agreement with Universal Winnings Holding Limited, pursuant to which we transferred 3.5% of the issued share capital of VIYI to Universal Winnings Holding Limited for a consideration of US$3.5 million.

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On March 25, 2021, we completed our second follow-on public offering in which we offered and sold an aggregate of 11,173,335 units, each unit consists of one ADS and four-tenths of a warrant to purchase one ADS at an exercise price of US$8.60 per ADS. The units were sold at an offering price of US$7.50 per unit and generated gross proceeds of approximately US$83.8 million, and net proceeds of approximately US$77.8 million after deducting placement agent fees and other expenses.

In March 2021, we changed the name of VIYI from VIYI Technology Inc. to VIYI Algorithm Inc. On March 25, 2021, Bofeng Investment Limited and Bravo Great Enterprises Limited transferred their respective shareholdings in VIYI to MIDI Capital Markets LLC and Guosheng Holdings Limited. Due to restrictions imposed by PRC laws and regulations on foreign ownership of companies that engage in internet and other related business, Hologram WiMi later entered into a series of contractual arrangements with Beijing WiMi. On December 18, 2020, for the purpose of internal restructuring and under the continuous control of Hologram WiMi, the then shareholders of Beijing WiMi, transferred all of their respective equity interests in Beijing WiMi to Ms. Yadong Sun and Ms. Zhaohua Yao, the nominee shareholders of Beijing WiMi. On the same day, Ms. Yadong Sun and Ms. Zhaohua Yao, Beijing WiMi, and Hologram WiMi entered into a series of contractual agreements that allow us to exert effective control over our Beijing WiMi and its subsidiaries. On December 24, 2020, Shenzhen Weiyixin Technology Co., Ltd., or Shenzhen Weiyixin, a wholly-owned subsidiary of VIYI, also entered into a series of contractual agreements with Shenzhen Yitian, and its shareholders, which allow us to exert effective control over Shenzhen Yitian. We have depended on these contractual arrangements with Beijing WiMi and Shenzhen Yitian, or our VIEs, in which we have no ownership interests, and their shareholders to conduct most aspects of our operations. We have relied and expect to continue to rely on these contractual arrangements to conduct our business in China.

Due to the business strategy adjustment, Shenzhen Yitian and its subsidiaries no longer operate their business involving foreign investment restrictions since March 1, 2022, therefore, VIYI can own direct equity interest in Shenzhen Yitian and its subsidiaries. VIYI voluntarily terminated the agreements under the VIE structure with Shenzhen Yitian, and VIYI’s WFOE Shenzhen Weiyixin Technology Co., Ltd. (“Shenzhen Weiyixin” or “VIYI WFOE”) achieved 100% equity control of Shenzhen Yitian and its subsidiaries on April 1, 2022. For more details, see “Item 4. Information on the Company — C. Organizational Structure — Contractual Arrangements with the VIE and Their Respective Shareholders”. The shareholders of our VIE may have potential conflicts of interest with us. See “Item 3.D. Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure — Our shareholders or the shareholders of our VIE may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business” for details.

On June 10, 2021, our wholly-owned subsidiary, VIYI Algorithm Inc., or VIYI, entered into a definitive merger agreement with Venus Acquisition Corporation, a Cayman Islands exempted company and a publicly traded special purpose acquisition corporation. Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, a newly created merger subsidiary of Venus will be merged with and into VIYI with VIYI being the surviving entity and becoming Venus’ wholly owned subsidiary. The proposed merger completed on December 9, 2022, Venus has changed its name to MicroAlgo Inc. and continue as a Cayman Islands exempted company.

On July 6, 2021, we completed the shelf registration of Class B ordinary shares, including Class B ordinary shares represented by ADSs, warrants, preferred shares, subscription rights, units, or any combination for an aggregate offering price of up to US$ 500,000,000. We plan to use the net proceeds for (i) operating expenses and the research and development of the application of holographic AR technologies in the semiconductor industry, (ii) strategic acquisitions and investments in complementary business, and (iii) other general corporate purposes, including working capital, operating expenses, and capital expenditures.

Our corporate headquarters is located at Room#2002, Building A, Wentley Center, 1st West Dawang Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, the People’s Republic of China. Our telephone number at this address is +86-10-5338-4913. Our registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at the office of Maples Corporate Services Limited at PO Box 309, Ugland House, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands. Our agent for service of process in the United States is Puglisi & Associates, located at 850 Library Avenue, Suite 204, Newark, DE 19711.

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We are subject to the periodic reporting and other informational requirements of the Exchange Act as applicable to foreign private issuers. Under the Exchange Act, we are required to file reports and other information with the SEC. Specifically, we are required to file annually a Form 20-F within four months after the end of each fiscal year. Copies of reports and other information, when so filed with the SEC, can be inspected and copied at the public reference facilities maintained by the SEC at 100 F Street, N.E., Room 1580, Washington, D.C. 20549. You can request copies of these documents, upon payment of a duplicating fee, by writing to the SEC. The public may obtain information regarding the Washington, D.C. Public Reference Room by calling the Commission at 1-800-SEC-0330. SEC maintains a website (http://www.sec.gov), which contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding us that are filed electronically with the SEC.

Capital Expenditure

Our capital expenditure amounted to approximately RMB 0.5 million, RMB 25.2 million and RMB 1.1 million (USD 0.2 million) for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2021 and 2022, respectively of which was primarily for vehicles.

B.     BUSINESS OVERVIEW

We offer AR-based holographic services and products to cater to our customers’ needs, focusing on providing an innovative, immersive and interactive holographic AR experience for our customers and end users. We also engage in the provision of central processing algorithm services and computer chip products to enterprise customers and the sales of comprehensive solutions for central processing algorithms and related services with software and hardware integration. Our AR service and product offerings primarily consist of holographic AR advertising services and holographic AR entertainment products. The core of our holographic AR business is holographic AR technologies used in software engineering, content production, cloud and big data. By leveraging our strong technological capabilities and infrastructure, we are able to deliver superior products and services and conduct our operations in a highly efficient manner. Approximately 44.0%, 48.2% and 70.6% of our revenues were generated by our holographic AR advertising and entertainment services for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2021 and 2022, respectively.

We believe that the application demand for holographic 3D vision in the semiconductor sector is growing rapidly and represents huge market potentials. Starting in July 2020, we began to develop our semiconductor business by establishing two joint ventures, ICinit Limited and VIDA Semicon Co., Limited, and one wholly-owned subsidiary, Lixin Technology Co., Ltd. In September 2020, we established VIYI, and acquired 100% equity interests of FE-DA to further develop our semiconductor business. For our semiconductor business, we engage in the provision of central processing algorithm services and computer chip products to enterprise customers and the sales of comprehensive solutions for central processing algorithms and related services with software and hardware integration. We began to generate revenues from our semiconductor business in September 2020.

Holographic AR Advertising Services

Our holographic AR advertising software enables users to insert into video footages real or animated three dimensional (“3D”) objects that integrate seamlessly within the scene of such footages. Our online holographic AR advertising solution embeds holographic AR ads into films and shows that are hosted by leading online streaming platforms in China. Through our proprietary image and video recognition technologies, our software enables users to analyze the underlying video footages at a pixel level to identify ad spaces that can be augmented by 3D objects. Advertisers and their agencies purchase these ad spaces through application programming interfaces, or APIs, integrated with our systems, specifying their target audience and budgets and typically providing the 3D models to be embedded in the videos. When the ad space is detected and 3D objects are generated, the 3D objects are embedded into the underlying streaming videos automatically on a batch-processing basis as determined by our software.

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The following diagram illustrates the key steps of our online holographic AR advertising business:

As compared with traditional forms of digital ads, we believe that ads generated using our holographic AR technology have the following key benefits:

        Engaging and interactive.    Holographic AR ads tend to create a more engaging, memorable experience that likely stimulates the purchase impulse. Holographic AR ads encourage engagement between the consumers and brands, creating a relationship that is more interactive than other forms of ads.

        Natural and non-disruptive.    As compared with traditional banner ads and video-based ads that flash and spin on the screen, holographic AR ads are naturally blended with the scenes in the films or TV shows, which helps to overcome advertising blindness and create a natural, non-disruptive viewing experience.

        Cost-effectiveness and flexibility.    Our technologies identify appropriate ad space that can be used repeatedly for ads of multiple brands. While video-embedded 3D objects provide substantially the same level of reality as compared to tangible ads, they tend to be more cost-effective as they save the costs associated with shooting a commercial.

Holographic AR Entertainment Products

Our holographic AR entertainment products primarily consist of payment middleware software, game distribution platform and holographic MR software.

Payment middleware is a software solution that connects mobile apps to payment channels, giving mobile app users convenient access to a wide range of online payment options. We cooperate with app developers to embed our payment middleware, most of which feature AR functions, in mobile apps.

Our advanced payment middleware streamlines the often time-consuming mobile payment process. Our mobile payment middleware facilitates app developers to build an in-app payment infrastructure that allows micropayments to be made or received through an efficient, secure system, without any interface redirection.

Such mobile payment middleware enables app developers to store users’ payment credentials in a trusted and safe environment and eases user’s burden of repeatedly entering and authenticating payment information for each transaction.

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Our payment middleware can be fully integrated with various types of mobile apps, especially those employing AR technologies, such as live streaming, gaming, selfie, photo editing, and video-sharing apps. Currently, our payment middleware supports substantially all of the major online payment channels in China and is compatible with the mainstream mobile operating systems.

The following graphic illustrates the key steps involved in the holographic AR payment middleware services that we provide to app developers:

We generate revenues from our mobile payment middleware by sharing revenues with app developers at an agreed-upon percentage. In addition, in 2018, we launched 233 Game Platform, an online game distribution platform. This platform provides game developers with technical support and value-added services that may help them target, reach and monetize their audiences. We started generating revenue from our platform in the second quarter of 2019, as we started adding new apps to the platform that gained polarity with users, and certain existing games became more popular among users.

We also sell MR software, a comprehensive holographic application platform independently developed by our research and development team, which includes holographic audio-visual integrated operation, holographic advertising service, holographic media asset management and holographic data management on the platform level and holographic interactive system, holographic recognition system, holographic labeling system, holographic tracking system, holographic capture system and holographic analysis system. Our MR software also includes multiple modules that allow end-users to edit and display holographic AR contents and create their own custom visual effects.

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Our AR holographic entertainment business is based on users’ demand for entertainment applications in the field of 3D computer vision. We charge the customers software license fees. With the development and popularization of AR holographic hardware devices, we expect that there will be more applications in the future for our AR holographic entertainment products.

Semiconductor Business

We engage in the provision of central processing algorithm services and computer chip products to enterprise customers and the sales of comprehensive solutions for central processing algorithms and related services with software and hardware integration. Through optimizing advertising content and content matching, as well as integrating the hardware performance optimization of the central processing algorithm with software algorithm optimization, our central processing algorithm services enable internet integration agencies to enhance their cloud service computing and processing capabilities. We also provide central processing algorithm services, hardware performance optimization and software algorithm optimization services to online game developers and game distributors to help them reach the target end-users. Our smart chip optimization solutions refer to the provision of more efficient data services under optimizations of algorithm software as well as through equipping instruction chip central processing unit (“CPU”) with smart chips that have outstanding computing power. Different CPU and smart chip combinations are equipped in accordance with the diverse requirements of data processing and various data type of different industries with an aim to enhance the overall energy efficiency ratio of data services. Through the provision of CPU products and smart application solutions and value-added services, we meet the specific needs of customers. Through the sales of CPU products, we have expanded the provision of integrated smart application solutions and value-added services to our customers, which is an important link between the upstream and downstream of the CPU industry chain.

Our Technology

We have developed powerful, cutting-edge holographic AR technologies.

Holographic Image Processing and Recognition Intelligence Technology

We insert holographic AR advertisements into online videos based on our imaging detection and recognition technology, template matching and detection technology, video processing and recognition technology, holographic 3D layer replacement technology in imaging recognition and dynamic fusion processing technology in imaging tracking. We expect that these technologies will be applied to our future strategic blueprint, such as the development and application of holographic 3D facial recognition technology and holographic facial change technology.

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Development and Application in Holographic 3D Facial Recognition Technology

The development of holographic 3D facial recognition software is based on our holographic imaging featured imaging detection and recognition technology, template matching holographic imaging detection technology, and deep learning and training-based video processing and recognition technology. Traditional 2D facial recognition technology is a biographic recognition technology based on facial features, which captures the information from the facial images or facial video streaming, and automatically detects and tracks the targeted face. By contrast, we believe our holographic 3D facial recognition technology is a biographic recognition technology consisting of a combination of holographic imaging capture and 3D portrait. We focus on the development and application of our software technology, and have technologies in AI, machine recognition, machine learning, model theory, and video imaging processing. Holographic 3D facial recognition technology is a technology using the collection of structured light and infrared light, and the collected featured points can exceed 30,000 points. By contrast, the collected featured points for traditional 2D facial recognition technology are less than 1,000 points. Our 3D technology is also expected to be less affected by the surrounding environment and is expected to overcome many of the issues found in traditional 2D facial recognition technology, such as light, posture, occlusion, dynamic recognition and facial expression.

Development and Application of Holographic Facial Change Technology

Holographic facial change technology is based on our holographic 3D layer replacement technology involving image recognition and dynamic fusion processing technology based on AI, tracking images in real time and replacing faces with other faces. This technology replaces faces in video frames, synthesizing the video and adding the original audio. We have validated these technology modules in holographic AR plug-in advertisement applications and continue to develop and upgrade these technology modules. We believe this technology will bring new business growth to applications such as celebrity advertising, film distribution, and live video streaming.

Software Engineering

Since our inception, we have devoted the majority of our research and development resources to software development. Our software engineering team is responsible for building the company-wide software platform, supporting the integration of our products and applications within our cloud infrastructure, as well as developing the holographic AR-related and MR-related software and solutions we license to our entertainment industry customers.

Our holographic AR software development services provide customers with the following benefits:

        Convenience.    We design our software for simplicity, ease of use and user-friendly experience. Through our software’s intuitive, visual interface, users can rapidly and easily manage, distribute and implement holographic AR contents.

        Adaptability.    Our integrated holographic AR software is built with broad compatibility and can run on various computer operating systems, including Windows, Mac OS and Linux. Customers can install our software in the cloud, on-premises or using a hybrid approach.

        Functionality and Intelligence.    We continue to leverage our software engineering capabilities to improve our offerings, which allows for richer software functionality. As our customer base continues to grow, we believe we will be able to further enhance our software intelligence with the increased volume of data processed.

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        Reliability.    We value the long-term relationship with our customers and provide our customers continuous ancillary technical support and services. We perform security and code quality reviews before releasing the software to our customers and we also embed mature security practices throughout the whole life span of our holographic AR software to protect our customers’ data and proprietary information.

Content Production

Our leading holographic AR content production capabilities are built around image acquisition, object recognition, automated image process, and computer vision technologies. Our software engineering team and visualization design team work closely to consistently advance such visualization-related technologies, and harness them to design and produce innovative holographic AR contents. Through real-time computer vision algorithms which provide an accurate pose estimation, we are able to perform scene recognition and tracking within seconds. Such cutting-edge algorithms also allow us to perform visualization of photorealistic high-resolution renderings of products on a pixel basis. In the course of scene reconstruction, our automated image processing tools can perform noise cleaning and feature enhancement on the image we initially captured, enabling us to create best-in-class holographic AR designs with an industry-leading simulation degree.

We have built a comprehensive holographic AR content library. The formats of our holographic AR contents range from 3D models to holographic short videos. Our AR holographic contents can be applied in various scenarios, such as education, tourism, arts and entertainment, and popular science. In addition, our content library is also enriched by copyrighted contents that we have licensed from third parties. We cooperate with various content owners, including brands, film producers and talent agencies, to adapt high-quality, popular IPs into holographic AR formats.

Cloud

We believe that the next-generation cloud delivery technology provides the flexibility and scalability necessary for holographic AR experience. Cloud technology is of high importance to build our comprehensive holographic AR ecosystem. We have developed our cloud architecture to work effectively in a flexible cloud environment that has a high degree of elasticity. Meanwhile, benefiting from our cloud storage and connecting capabilities, users of our integrated holographic AR software are able to access our large-size holographic AR content library on their own devices.

Big Data

We have developed advanced data analytics capabilities to derive actionable insights from the large amounts of data we collected from our products and third party sources, enabling us to maintain a solid end-user base in order to collect raw data. Our processing capabilities enable us to manage extremely large volumes of data and deliver real-time analysis at scale, making it possible for us to continue to improve and innovate our products and services. Our data mining and user behavioral data analytics technologies allow us to build and segment context-rich user profiles and apply such analysis in numerous applications.

Artificial Intelligence

Our holographic image processing capabilities are regularly optimized and improved, including two core technologies: holographic AI facial recognition technology and holographic AI facial change technology. As a result of the development of our video processing and recognition technology, our holographic AR advertising and holographic imaging services, which are based on image detection, recognition, template matching, image dynamic fusion and replacement, are currently in a leading position in the industry.

5G+

We believe that our holographic services will adapt to 5G technology. Due to the high speed and low latency of 5G technology, the transmission delay of the long-distance communication and data transmission from the system terminal to the service server is lower than the 4G network transmission delay. Such improvement ensures less stagnation, low delay, high efficiency, and diversity of the interaction of multiple terminals in holographic AR remote communication and data transmission. We expect our holographic AR advertising business to develop accordingly.

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Our Customers

We have a broad and diverse customer base. Currently, our customers for holographic AR business mainly consist of advertisers, distribution channels, app developers and entertainment companies. Our customer base covers a wide range of industries, including manufacturing, real estate, entertainment, technology, media and telecommunications, travel, education and retails. Our customers typically enter into a master agreement with us for a term of one year, although they do not necessarily purchase products or services from us during each quarter of such year. A separate request is submitted by a customer for each order of products or services.

Generally, we enter into service agreements with customers relating to our holograph AR ad services and our AR SDK payment customers relating to our AR SDK services. We provide customized holographic MR software and middleware software to distributors under software development agreements, who subsequently sub-license the customized software to enterprises and individual end users. The software development agreements entered into between us and the distributors include customization of our integrated holographic AR and MR entertainment software, ancillary technical training, as well as professional service and support. We charge distributors on a fixed-price basis. For our AR ad services, we charge service fees based on the number of views. For our AR SDK payment services, we charge a percentage of the total fees paid by the end users. We generally maintain annual agreements with our customers.

Our customers for semiconductor business primarily include manufacturers of electronic products and internet information infrastructure service providers. We provide manufacturers of electronic products with software and hardware integrated solutions that combine chip hardware and intelligent application software. We offer hardware products and server algorithm optimization and integration solution services to internet information infrastructure service providers.

Sales and Marketing

We promote our products and services directly through our experienced and creative sales and marketing team by making direct office visits, attending conferences and industry exhibitions. Customers unfamiliar with our services and products may also consult with our support team to achieve best solutions. We believe that our sales and marketing team is well respected and helps attracting more customers.

We also grow our customer base through word-of-mouth referrals. We focus on continuously improving the quality of our products and services as we believe satisfied customers are more likely to continue using our products and recommend our products and services to others.

Intellectual Property

We regard our patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets and other intellectual properties as critical to our success. We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws and restrictions on disclosure to protect our intellectual property rights. Details of our intellectual properties portfolio as of December 31, 2022 are set out as follows:

        Patent:    We had 237 registered patents in China, which covers technologies for image processing and display, model input/output and 3D modeling, 20 pending patent applications with the PRC China National Intellectual Property Administration, and no patent under the patent cooperation treaty. 233 of our 237 registered patents were granted as patent for utility model;

        Software copyrights.    We maintain a large portfolio of copyright-protected software. We had 586 registered software copyrights in China;

        Trademarks.    We had 84 registered trademarks in China, and no pending trademark application with the PRC State Administration for Industry and Commerce; and

        Domain names.    We had 24 registered domain names in China.

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In addition to the foregoing protections, we generally control access to and use of our proprietary and other confidential information through the use of internal and external controls. For example, for external controls, we enter into confidentiality agreements or agree to confidentiality clauses with our customers and, for internal controls, we adopt and maintain relevant policies governing the operation and maintenance of our systems and the management of user-generated data.

Competition

There are many other companies addressing various aspects/verticals of the holographic AR market. The competitive landscape we are faced with is fragmented and evolving. With respect to our holographic AR advertising products, we compete against both holographic AR advertisement producers and traditional advertisement producers. The semiconductor industry is also highly competitive. Our major competitors include digital marketing service providers and online game service providers.

We believe the principal competitive factors in our market are:

        breadth of use cases supported;

        product features and functionality;

        capability for customization, configurability, integration, security, scalability and reliability;

        quality of technologies and research and development capabilities;

        ability to innovate and rapidly respond to customer needs;

        availability of holographic compatible, high-quality content;

        diversified customer base;

        relationships with key participants in holographic AR value chain;

        sufficient capital support;

        platform extensibility and ability to integrate with other holographic AR infrastructures; and

        brand awareness and reputation.

We believe we compete favorably on the basis of the above factors; however, we expect competition to intensify in the future. Our ability to remain competitive will largely depend on the quality of our applications, the effectiveness of our sales and marketing efforts, the quality of our customer service and our ability to acquire complementary technologies, products and businesses to enhance the features and functionality of our applications.

Insurance

We do not maintain insurance policies covering damages to our Information Technology systems. We also do not maintain business interruption insurance or general third-party liability insurance, nor do we maintain product liability insurance or key-man insurance. We consider our insurance coverage to be in line with that of other companies in the same industry of similar size in China.

Regulations

We are subject to a variety of PRC laws, rules and regulations across a number of aspects of our business. The following is a summary of the principal PRC laws and regulations relating to our business and operations within the territory of the PRC.

Regulation on Foreign Investment Restrictions

Investment activities in the PRC by foreign investors are principally governed by the Catalog of Industries for Encouraging Foreign Investment, or the Encouraging Catalog, and the Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for Foreign Investment Access, or the Negative List, which were promulgated and are amended

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from time to time by Ministry of Commerce, or MOFCOM, and National Development and Reform Commission, or NDRC, and together with the Foreign Investment Law and its respective implementation rules and ancillary regulations. The Encouraging Catalog and the Negative List lay out the basic framework for foreign investments in China, classifying businesses into three categories with regard to foreign investments: “encouraged”, “restricted” and “prohibited”. Industries not listed in the Encouraging Catalog or the Negative List are generally deemed as falling into a fourth category “permitted” unless specifically restricted by other PRC laws.

The MOFCOM and NDRC, promulgated the Special Administrative Measures for the Access of Foreign Investment (Negative List) (2021 Version) (the “2021 Negative List”) on December 27, 2021, which became effective on January 1, 2022. The 2021 Negative List replaced the Special Administrative Measures for the Access of Foreign Investment (2020 Version) and serves as the main basis for management and guidance for the MOFCOM to manage and supervise foreign investments.

On March 15, 2019, the Foreign Investment Law was formally issued, and become effective on January 1, 2020, on which Regulation for the Implementation of Foreign Investment Law of the People’s Republic of China and Measures for Reporting of Information on Foreign Investment become effective. The Foreign Investment Law and its implementation regulation mainly focuses on the foreign investment promotion, foreign investment protection and foreign investment management. Comparing with the draft Foreign Investment Law (2015), the Foreign Investment Law does not mention concepts such as “De facto control” and “controlling PRC companies by contracts or trusts”, nor did it specify the regulation requirements on controlling through contractual arrangements. Pursuant to Measures for Reporting of Information on Foreign Investment, a foreign investor or foreign-invested enterprise shall, through the enterprise registration system and the enterprise credit information disclosure system, report investment information to the competent departments in charge of commerce. The foreign investment information reports include the initial report, report of changes, report of deregistration, and annual report.

Regulations on AR Industry

On December 21, 2018, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issues the Guidance on Accelerating the Development of AR Industry, which requires that the AR Industry in China shall be promoted and application innovation in AR technology shall be promoted.

Regulations on Value-added Telecommunication Services

On September 25, 2000, the State Council promulgated the Telecommunications Regulations of the People’s Republic of China, or the Telecom Regulations, which was amended on July 29, 2014 and February 6, 2016. The Telecom Regulations is the primary PRC law governing telecommunication services and sets out the general regulatory framework for telecommunication services provided by PRC companies. The Telecom Regulations distinguishes between “basic telecommunication services” and “value-added telecommunication services.” The Telecom Regulations defines value-added telecommunications services as telecommunications and information services provided through public networks. Pursuant to the Telecom Regulations, commercial operators of value-added telecommunications services must first obtain an operating license from the MIIT, or its provincial level counterparts.

The Catalog of Telecommunications Business, or the Catalog, which was issued as an attachment to the Telecom Regulations and updated in February 21, 2003 and December 28, 2015, further categorizes value-added telecommunication services into two classes: Class 1 value-added telecommunication services and Class 2 value-added telecommunication services. Information services provided via cable networks, mobile networks or internet fall within Class 2 value-added telecommunications services.

On July 3, 2017, the MIIT issued the Measures on the Administration of Telecommunications Business Operating Permits, or the Telecom License Measures, which became effective on September 1, 2017, to supplement the Telecom Regulations. The Telecom License Measures sets forth the types of licenses required to operate value-added telecommunications services and the qualifications and procedures for obtaining such licenses. The Telecom License Measures also provides that an operator providing value-added services in multiple provinces is required to obtain an inter-regional license, whereas an operator providing value-added services in one province is required to obtain an intra-provincial license. Any telecommunication services operator must conduct its business in accordance with the specifications in its license.

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Regulations on Internet Content Providers

The Administrative Measures on Internet Information Services, or the Internet Content Measures, which was promulgated by the State Council on September 25, 2000 and amended on January 8, 2011, set out guidelines on the provision of internet information services. The Internet Content Measures classifies internet information services into commercial internet information services and non-commercial internet information services. Commercial internet information services refer to services that provide information or services to internet users with charge. A provider of commercial internet information services must obtain an ICP License.

Regulations on Foreign Direct Investment in Value-Added Telecommunications Companies

Foreign direct investment in telecommunications companies in China is governed by the Provisions on the Administration of Foreign-Invested Telecommunications Enterprises, which was promulgated by the State Council on December 11, 2001 and amended on September 10, 2008 and February 6, 2016. These regulations require that foreign-invested value-added telecommunications enterprises in China must be established as Sino-foreign equity joint ventures and that the foreign investors may acquire up to 50% equity interests in such joint ventures. In addition, a major foreign investor in a value-added telecommunications business in China must demonstrate a good track record and experience in operating value-added telecommunications business. Moreover, foreign investors that meet these requirements must obtain approvals from the MIIT and the MOFCOM, to provide value-added telecommunication services in China.

On July 13, 2006, the Ministry of Information Industry, or the MII, released the Notice on Strengthening the Administration of Foreign Investment in the Operation of Value-added Telecommunications Business, or the MII Notice, pursuant to which, for any foreign investor to invest in telecommunications business in China, a foreign-invested telecommunications enterprise must be established and such enterprise must apply for the relevant telecommunications business operation licenses. Furthermore, under the MII Notice, domestic telecommunications enterprises may not rent, transfer or sell a telecommunications business operation license to foreign investors in any form, and they may not provide any resources, premises, facilities and other assistance in any form to foreign investors for their illegal operation of any telecommunications business in China. In addition, under the MII Notice, the internet domain names and registered trademarks used by a value-added telecommunication service operator shall be legally owned by such operator or its shareholders.

Regulations on Infringement upon Intellectual Property Rights via Internet

The Civil Code of the People’s Republic of China, which was adopted by the National People’s Congress on May 28, 2020 and became effective on January 1, 2021, provides that (i) network users and network service providers shall assume tort liability if they infringe upon another person’s civil rights and interests through the network. Where it is otherwise prescribed in law, such provisions shall prevail; (ii) where a network user commits any tortious act through network services, the right holder shall have the right to notify the network service provider to take necessary action such as deletion, block or disconnection. The notice shall include preliminary evidence of the infringement and the real identity information of the right holder. After receiving the notice, the network service provider shall promptly forward the notice to the relevant network user and take necessary measures in light of the preliminary evidence of infringement and the type of service; if the network service provider fails to take necessary action after being notified, it shall assume joint and several liability with the network user with regard to the aggravated part of the damage. If the network user or network service provider is damaged due to wrong notice, the right holder shall assume tort liability. Where it is otherwise prescribed in law, such provisions shall prevail; (iii) Where a network service provider knows or should have known that a network user is infringing upon another person’s civil rights and interests through its network service but fails to take necessary action, it shall assume joint and several liability with the network user.

Regulation on Intellectual Property Rights

The PRC has adopted comprehensive legislation governing intellectual property rights, including patents, trademarks, copyrights and domain names.

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Patents

Pursuant to the PRC Patent Law, most recently amended on December 27, 2008, and its implementation rules, most recently amended on January 9, 2010, patents in China fall into three categories: invention, utility model and design. An invention patent is granted to a new technical solution proposed in respect of a product or method or an improvement of a product or method. A utility model is granted to a new technical solution that is practicable for application and proposed in respect of the shape, structure or a combination of both of a product. A design patent is granted to the new design of a certain product in shape, pattern or a combination of both and in color, shape and pattern combinations aesthetically suitable for industrial application. Under the PRC Patent Law, the term of patent protection starts from the date of application. Patents relating to invention are effective for twenty years, and utility models and designs are effective for ten years from the date of application. The PRC Patent Law adopts the principle of “first-to-file” system, which provides that where more than one person files a patent application for the same invention, a patent will be granted to the person who files the application first. Existing patents can become narrowed, invalid or unenforceable due to a variety of grounds, including lack of novelty, creativity, and deficiencies in patent application. In China, a patent must have novelty, creativity and practical applicability. Under the PRC Patent Law, novelty means that before a patent application is filed, no identical invention or utility model has been publicly disclosed in any publication in China or overseas or has been publicly used or made known to the public by any other means, whether in or outside of China, nor has any other person filed with the patent authority an application that describes an identical invention or utility model and is recorded in patent application documents or patent documents published after the filing date. Creativity means that, compared with existing technology, an invention has prominent substantial features and represents notable progress, and a utility model has substantial features and represents any progress. Practical applicability means an invention or utility model can be manufactured or used and may produce positive results. Patents in China are filed with the State Intellectual Property Office, or SIPO. Normally, the SIPO publishes an application for an invention patent within 18 months after the filing date, which may be shortened at the request of applicant. The applicant must apply to the SIPO for a substantive examination within three years from the date of application. Article 20 of the PRC Patent Law provides that, for an invention or utility model completed in China, any applicant (not just Chinese companies and individuals), before filing a patent application outside of China, must first submit it to the SIPO for a confidential examination. Failure to comply with this requirement will result in the denial of any Chinese patent for the relevant invention. This added requirement of confidential examination by the SIPO has raised concerns by foreign companies who conduct research and development activities in China or outsource research and development activities to service providers in China.

Patent Enforcement

Unauthorized use of patents without consent from owners of patents, forgery of the patents belonging to other persons, or engagement in other patent infringement acts, will subject the infringers to infringement liability. Serious offences such as forgery of patents may be subject to criminal penalties. When a dispute arises out of infringement of the patent owner’s patent right, Chinese law requires that the parties first attempt to settle the dispute through mutual consultation. However, if the dispute cannot be settled through mutual consultation, the patent owner, or an interested party who believes the patent is being infringed, may either file a civil legal suit or file an administrative complaint with the relevant patent administration authority. A Chinese court may issue a preliminary injunction upon the patent owner’s or an interested party’s request before instituting any legal proceedings or during the proceedings. Damages for infringement are calculated as the loss suffered by the patent holder arising from the infringement, and if the loss suffered by the patent holder arising from the infringement cannot be determined, the damages for infringement shall be calculated as the benefit gained by the infringer from the infringement. If it is difficult to ascertain damages in this manner, damages may be determined by using a reasonable multiple of the license fee under a contractual license. Statutory damages may be awarded in the circumstances where the damages cannot be determined by the above mentioned calculation standards. The damage calculation methods shall be applied in the aforementioned order. Generally, the patent owner has the burden of proving that the patent is being infringed. However, if the owner of an invention patent for manufacturing process of a new product alleges infringement of its patent, the alleged infringer has the burden of proof.

Trademark Law

The PRC Trademark Law and its implementation rules protect registered trademarks. The PRC Trademark Office of State Administration of Industry and Commerce is responsible for the registration and administration of trademarks throughout the PRC. The Trademark Law has adopted a “first-to-file” principle with respect to trademark

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registration. In addition, pursuant to the PRC Trademark Law, counterfeit or unauthorized production of the label of another person’s registered trademark, or sale of any label that is counterfeited or produced without authorization will be deemed as an infringement to the exclusive right to use a registered trademark. The infringing party will be ordered to stop the infringement immediately, a fine may be imposed and the counterfeit goods will be confiscated. The infringing party may also be held liable for the right holder’s damages, which will be equal to the gains obtained by the infringing party or the losses suffered by the right holder as a result of the infringement, including reasonable expenses incurred by the right holder for stopping the infringement. If the gains or losses are difficult to determine, the court may render a judgment awarding damages of no more than RMB3 million.

Software Copyright Law

On September 7, 1990, Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress promulgated The Copyright Law of the PRC or the Copyright Law, which was amended on October 27, 2001 and April 1, 2010. The Copyright Law provides that Chinese citizens, legal persons, or other organizations shall, whether published or not, enjoy copyright in their works, which include, among others, works of literature, art, natural science, social science, engineering technology and computer software.

The Computer Software Copyright Registration Measures or the Software Copyright Measures promulgated by the National Copyright Administration on April 6, 1992, which was amended on February 20, 2002, regulate registrations of software copyright, exclusive licensing contracts for software copyright and transfer contracts. The National Copyright Administration of China shall be the competent authority for the nationwide administration of software copyright registration and the Copyright Protection Centre of China (the “CPCC”), is designated as the software registration authority. The CPCC shall grant registration certificates to the Computer Software Copyrights applicants which conforms to the provisions of both the Software Copyright Measures and the Computer Software Protection Regulations (Revised in 2013).

Regulation on Domain Name

The domain names are protected under the Administrative Measures for Internet Domain Names promulgated by MIIT on August 24, 2017, the effective date of which was November 1, 2017. MIIT is the major regulatory body responsible for the administration of the PRC Internet domain names, under supervision of which China Internet Network Information Center, or CNNIC, is responsible for the daily administration of CN domain names and Chinese domain names. On September 25, 2002, CNNIC promulgated the Implementation Rules of Registration of Domain Name, or the CNNIC Rules, which was renewed on June 5, 2009 and May 29, 2012, respectively. Pursuant to the Administrative Measures on the Internet Domain Names and the CNNIC Rules, the registration of domain names adopts the “first to file” principle and the registrant shall complete the registration via the domain name registration service institutions. In the event of a domain name dispute, the disputed parties may lodge a complaint to the designated domain name dispute resolution institution to trigger the domain name dispute resolution procedure in accordance with the CNNIC Measures on Resolution of the Top Level Domains Disputes, file a suit to the People’s Court or initiate an arbitration procedure.

Regulations on Online Advertising Services

On April 24, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress enacted the revised Advertising Law of the PRC, or the Advertising Law, effective on September 1, 2015 which was further amended on October 26, 2018. The Advertising Law increases the potential legal liability of advertising services providers and strengthens regulations of false advertising. The Advertising Law sets forth certain content requirements for advertisements including, among other things, prohibitions on false or misleading content, superlative wording, socially destabilizing content or content involving obscenities, superstition, violence, discrimination or infringement of the public interest.

On July 4, 2016, the SAIC issued the Interim Measures on the Administration of Online Advertising, or the SAIC Interim Measures, which came into effect on September 1, 2016. The Advertising Law and the SAIC Interim Measures require that online advertisements may not affect users’ normal use of internet and internet pop-up ads must display a “close” sign prominently and ensure one-key closing of the pop-up windows. The SAIC Interim Measures provide that all online advertisements must be marked “advertisement” so that consumers can distinguish them from non-advertisement information. Moreover, the SAIC Interim Measures require that, among other things,

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sponsored search advertisements shall be prominently distinguished from normal research results and it is forbidden to send advertisements or advertisement links by email without the recipient’s permission or induce internet users to click on an advertisement in a deceptive manner.

Regulations on Internet Security

On December 28, 2000, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress enacted the Decision on the Protection of Internet Security, as amended on August 27, 2009, which provides that the following activities conducted through the internet are subject to criminal liabilities: (a) gaining improper entry into any of the computer information networks relating to state affairs, national defensive affairs, or cutting-edge science and technology; (b) spreading rumor, slander or other harmful information via the internet for the purpose of inciting subversion of the state political power; (c) stealing or divulging state secrets, intelligence or military secrets via internet; (d) spreading false or inappropriate commercial information; or (e) infringing on the intellectual property. The Ministry of Public Security issued the Administrative Measures on Security Protection for International Connections to Computer Information Networks on December 16, 1997 and amended it on January 8, 2011, which prohibits using internet to leak state secrets or to spread socially destabilizing content.

On November 23, 2005, the Ministry of Public Security issued the Provisions on the Technical Measures for the Protection of the Security of the Internet, which requires that internet services providers shall have the function of backing up the records for at least 60 days. Also, internet services providers shall (a) set up technical measures to record and keep the information as registered by users; (b) record and keep the corresponding relation between the internet web addresses and Intranet web addresses as applied by users; (c) record and follow up the net operation and have the functions of security auditing.

On January 21, 2010, the MIIT promulgated the Administrative Measures for Communications Network Security Protection, which requires that all communication network operators including telecommunications services providers and internet domain name service providers divide their own communication networks into units. The unit category shall be classified in accordance with degree of damage to national security, economic operation, social order and public interest. In addition, the communication network operators must file the division and ratings of their communication network with MIIT or its local counterparts. If a communication network operator violates these measures, the MIIT or its local counterparts may order rectification or impose a fine up to RMB30,000 in case such violation is not duly rectified.

Regulations on Privacy Protection

On December 29, 2011, the MIIT promulgated the Several Provisions on Regulation of Order of Internet Information Service Market, which prohibit internet information service providers from collecting personal information of any user without prior consent. Internet information service providers shall explicitly inform the users of the means of collecting and processing personal information, the scope of contents, and purposes. In addition, internet information service providers shall properly keep the personal information of users, if the preserved personal information of users is divulged or may possibly be divulged, internet information service providers shall immediately take remedial measures and report any material leak to the telecommunications regulatory authority.

On December 28, 2012, the Decision on Strengthening Network Information Protection promulgated by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress emphasizes the need to protect electronic information that contains individual identification information and other private data. The decision requires internet service providers to establish and publish policies regarding the collection and use of electronic personal information and to take necessary measures to ensure the security of the information and to prevent leakage, damage or loss.

In July 2013, the MIIT promulgated the Regulations on Protection of Personal Information of Telecommunications and Internet Users, or the Regulations on Network Information Protection, effective on September 1, 2013, to enhance and enforce legal protection over user information security and privacy on the internet. The Regulations on Network Information Protection require internet operators to take various measures to ensure the privacy and confidentiality of users’ information.

Pursuant to the Ninth Amendment to the Criminal Law of the PRC issued by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on August 29, 2015, effective on November 1, 2015, any internet service provider that fails to fulfill the obligations related to internet information security as required by applicable laws and refuses

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to take corrective measures, will be subject to criminal liability for (i) any large-scale dissemination of illegal information; (ii) any severe effect due to the leakage of users’ personal information; (iii) any serious loss of evidence of criminal activities; or (iv) other severe situations, and any individual or entity that (a) sells or provides personal information to others unlawfully or (b) steals or illegally obtains any personal information will be subject to criminal liability in severe situations.

On May 9, 2017, the Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate released the Interpretations of the Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate on Several Issues Concerning the Application of Law in the Handling of Criminal Cases Involving Infringement of Citizens’ Personal Information, effective from June 1, 2017, which clarify several concepts regarding the crime of “infringement of citizens’ personal information” stipulated by Article 253A of the Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of, including “citizen’s personal information”, “provision”, and “unlawful acquisition”. Also, the Interpretations specify the standards for determining “serious circumstances” and “particularly serious circumstances” of this crime.

On November 7, 2016, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress promulgated the Cyber Security Law of the PRC, or the Cyber Security Law, which came into effect on June 1, 2017. Pursuant to the Cyber Security Law, network operators shall follow their Cyber Security obligations according to the requirements of the classified protection system for Cyber Security, including: (a) formulating internal security management systems and operating instructions, determining the persons responsible for Cyber Security, and implementing the responsibility for Cyber Security protection; (b) taking technological measures to prevent computer viruses, network attacks, network intrusions and other actions endangering Cyber Security; (c) taking technological measures to monitor and record the network operation status and Cyber Security incidents; (d) taking measures such as data classification, and back-up and encryption of important data; and (e) other obligations stipulated by laws and administrative regulations. In addition, network operators shall follow the principles of legitimacy to collect and use personal information and disclose their rules of data collection and use, clearly express the purposes, means and scope of collecting and using the information, and obtain the consent of the persons whose data is gathered.

Regulations on Online Games

Regulations Relating to Operation Permits for Online Games

The Provisional Regulations for the Administration of Online Culture (the “Online Culture Regulations”) which were issued by the Ministry of Culture (“MOC”) and took effect on April 1, 2011 and were amended on December 15, 2017, apply to entities engaging in activities related to “online cultural products,” which include cultural products that are produced specifically for Internet use, such as online music and entertainment, online games, online plays, online performances, online works of art and web animation, and other online cultural products that through technical means, produce or reproduce music, entertainment, games, plays and other art works for Internet dissemination. Under the Online Culture Regulations, commercial entities are required to apply to the relevant local branch of the MOC for an Online Culture Operating Permit if they engage in for-profit Internet cultural activities, including the production, duplication, importation, release or broadcasting of online cultural products; the dissemination of online cultural products on the Internet or the transmission of such products via Internet or mobile phone networks to player terminals, such as computers, phones, television sets and gaming consoles, or Internet surfing service sites such as Internet cafés; or the holding of exhibition or contests related to online cultural products. The MOC issued the Circular on Implementation of the Newly Revised Provisional Regulations for the Administration of Online Culture Interim Provisions on the Administration of Internet Culture on March 18, 2011, which provides that the authorities will temporarily not accept applications by foreign-invested Internet content providers for operation of Internet culture business (other than online music business).

The Notice on Adjusting the Scope and Standardizing the Examination and Approval Process of Network Culture Operation License (“Notice”), issued by the Office of Ministry of Culture and Tourism on May 14, 2019, provides that any network culture operation licenses whose business scope contains online-games related activities remains valid, while such licenses may not be renewed upon expiration thereof.

The Notice on Interpretation of the State Commission Office for Public Sector Reform on Several Provisions relating to Animation, Online Game and Comprehensive Law Enforcement in Culture Market in the ‘Three Provisions’ jointly promulgated by the MOC, the State Administration of Radio Film and Television, or the SARFT, and the General Administration of Press and Publication (“GAPP”), which was issued by the State Commission

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Office for Public Sector Reform (a division of the State Council) which became effective on September 7, 2009, provides that the GAPP will have responsibility for the examination and approval of online games to be uploaded on the Internet and that, after such upload, online games will be administered by the MOC.

Regulations on Online Gambling and Virtual Currency

On January 25, 2007, the Ministry of Public Security, the MOC, the MIIT and the GAPP jointly issued the Notice on Regulating Operation Order of Online Games and Inspection of Gambling via Online Games (the “Anti-gambling Notice”). To curtail online games that involve online gambling while addressing concerns that virtual currency might be used for money laundering or illicit trade, the notice (a) prohibits online game operators from charging commissions in the form of virtual currency in connection with winning or losing of games; (b) requires online game operators to impose limits on use of virtual currency in guessing and betting games; (c) bans the conversion of virtual currency into real currency or property; and (d) prohibits services that enable game players to transfer virtual currency to other players.

The Notice on the Reinforcement of the Administration of Internet Cafés and Online Games (the “Internet Cafés Notice”) jointly issued by the MOC, the PBOC and other governmental authorities in February 15, 2007 with the goal of strengthening the administration of virtual currency in online games and to avoid any adverse impact on the PRC economy and financial system, places strict limits on the total amount of virtual currency issued by online game operators and the amount purchased by individual players and requires a clear division between virtual transactions and real transactions carried out by way of electronic commerce. The Internet Cafés Notice further provides that virtual currency should only be used to purchase virtual items and prohibits any resale of virtual currency.

The Notice on Strengthening the Administration of Online Game Virtual Currency (the “Virtual Currency Notice”) jointly issued by the MOC and the MOFCOM on June 4, 2009, defines the meaning of the term “virtual currency” and places a set of restrictions on the trading and issuance of virtual currency. The Virtual Currency Notice also states that online game operators are not allowed to give out virtual items or virtual currency through lottery base activities, such as lucky draws, betting or random computer sampling, in exchange for players’ cash or virtual money.

Regulations on Anti-fatigue Compliance System and Real-name Registration System

On July 25, 2014, the SAPPRFT issued the Notice on Deepening Implementation of Authentication of Real Names for Anti-addiction System on Online Games and effected on October 1, 2014, which specifies that subject to the hardware, technology and other factors, the anti-addiction compliance system applies to all online games excluding mobile games temporarily. The Service Guidance for the Approval of Publishing Domestic Online Games issued by the SAPPRFT on January 12, 2017 further clarifies that, the introduction of the adopted anti-addiction system and the evidential documents of the real-name authentication procedures are required for applying for publishing online games excluding mobile games temporarily.

On August 30, 2018, the NRTA, the MOE, the NAPP and five other PRC regulatory authorities jointly issued the Notice of Issuance of the Implementation Program on Comprehensive Prevention and Control of Adolescent Myopia (the “Myopia Prevention Program”), proposing to limit the number of new online games in operation, and to restrict the time minors spend playing online games. As of the Latest Practicable Date, the press and publication authorities have not issued any detailed rules to enforce the Myopia Prevention Program and therefore, its impact on our future operations and financial performance remains unclear.

Regulations on Employment and Social Welfare

Labor Contract Law

The Labor Contract Law of the PRC, or the Labor Contract Law, which was promulgated on January 1, 2008 and amended on December 28, 2012, is primarily aimed at regulating rights and obligations of employer and employee relationships, including the establishment, performance and termination of labor contracts. Pursuant to the Labor Contract Law, labor contracts shall be concluded in writing if labor relationships are to be or have been established between employers and the employees. Employers are prohibited from forcing employees to work above certain time limit and employers shall pay employees for overtime work in accordance to national regulations. In addition, employee wages shall be no lower than local standards on minimum wages and shall be paid to employees timely.

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Social Insurance and Housing Fund

As required under the Regulation of Insurance for Labor Injury implemented on January 1, 2004 and amended in 2010, the Provisional Measures for Maternity Insurance of Employees of Corporations implemented on January 1, 1995, the Decisions on the Establishment of a Unified Program for Old-Aged Pension Insurance of the State Council issued on July 16, 1997, the Decisions on the Establishment of the Medical Insurance Program for Urban Workers of the State Council promulgated on December 14, 1998, the Unemployment Insurance Measures promulgated on January 22, 1999 and the Social Insurance Law of the PRC implemented on July 1, 2011, employers are required to provide their employees in the PRC with welfare benefits covering pension insurance, unemployment insurance, maternity insurance, labor injury insurance and medical insurance.

In accordance with the Regulations on the Management of Housing Fund which was promulgated by the State Council in 1999 and amended in 2002, employers must register at the designated administrative centers and open bank accounts for depositing employees’ housing funds. Employer and employee are also required to pay and deposit housing funds, with an amount no less than 5% of the monthly average salary of the employee in the preceding year in full and on time. See “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Doing Business in China — The enforcement of the PRC Labor Contract Law and other labor-related regulations in the PRC may adversely affect our business and results of operations.”

Employee Stock Incentive Plan

Pursuant to the Notice of Issues Related to the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plan of Overseas Listed Company, or Circular 7, which was issued by the SAFE on February 15, 2012, employees, directors, supervisors, and other senior management who participate in any stock incentive plan of a publicly-listed overseas company and who are PRC citizens or non-PRC citizens residing in China for a continuous period of no less than one year, subject to a few exceptions, are required to register with SAFE through a qualified domestic agent, which may be a PRC subsidiary of such overseas listed company, and complete certain other procedures. In addition, the SAT has issued certain circulars concerning employee stock options and restricted shares. Under these circulars, employees working in the PRC who exercise stock options or are granted restricted shares will be subject to PRC individual income tax. The PRC subsidiaries of an overseas listed company are required to file documents related to employee stock options and restricted shares with relevant tax authorities and to withhold individual income taxes of employees who exercise their stock option or purchase restricted shares. If the employees fail to pay or the PRC subsidiaries fail to withhold income tax in accordance with relevant laws and regulations, the PRC subsidiaries may face sanctions imposed by the tax authorities or other PRC governmental authorities.

Regulations on Taxation

Enterprise Income Tax

On March 16, 2007, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress promulgated the Enterprise Income Tax Law of the PRC which was amended on February 24, 2017 and December 29, 2018. On December 6, 2007, the State Council enacted the Implementation Regulations for the Enterprise Income Tax Law of the PRC (with the Enterprise Income Tax Law of the PRC, collectively called the PRC EIT Law), which was amended on April 23, 2019. Under the PRC EIT Law, both resident enterprises and non-resident enterprises are subject to tax in the PRC. Resident enterprises are defined as enterprises that are established in China in accordance with PRC laws, or that are established in accordance with the laws of foreign countries but are actually or in effect controlled from within the PRC. Non-resident enterprises are defined as enterprises that are organized under the laws of foreign countries and whose actual management is conducted outside the PRC, but have established institutions or premises in the PRC, or have no such established institutions or premises but have income generated from inside the PRC. Under the PRC EIT Law and relevant implementing regulations, a uniform enterprise income tax rate of 25% is applied. However, if non-resident enterprises have not formed permanent establishments or premises in the PRC, or if they have formed permanent establishment or premises in the PRC but there is no actual relationship between the relevant income derived in the PRC and the established institutions or premises set up by them,

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enterprise income tax is set at the rate of 10% with respect to their income sourced from inside the PRC. Pursuant to the PRC EIT Law, the EIT tax rate of a high and new technology enterprise or HNTE, is 15%. According to the Administrative Measures for the Recognition of HNTE, effective on January 1, 2008 and amended on January 29, 2016, for each entity accredited as HNTE, its HNTE status is valid for three years if it meets the qualifications for HNTE on a continuing basis during such period.

Value-added Tax

The Provisional Regulations of on Value-added Tax of the PRC were promulgated by the State Council on December 13, 1993 and came into effect on January 1, 1994 which were subsequently amended on November 10, 2008 and came into effect on January 1, 2009, and were further amended on February 6, 2016 and November 19, 2017. The Detailed Rules for the Implementation of Provisional Regulations of on Value-added Tax of the PRC were promulgated by the Ministry of Finance on December 25, 1993 and subsequently amended on December 15, 2008 and October 28, 2011, or collectively, VAT Law. On November 19, 2017, the State Council promulgated The Order on Abolishing the Provisional Regulations of the PRC on Business Tax and Amending the Provisional Regulations of on Value-added Tax of the PRC, or Order 691. According to the VAT Law and Order 691, all enterprises and individuals engaged in the sale of goods, the provision of processing, repair and replacement services, sales of services, intangible assets, real property and the importation of goods within the territory of the PRC are the taxpayers of VAT. The VAT rates generally applicable are simplified as 17%, 11%, 6% and 0%, and the VAT rate applicable to the small-scale taxpayers is 3%.

On April 4, 2018, the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation issued the Circular on Adjustment of VAT Rates, which became effective as of May 1, 2018. According to the Circular on the Adjustment of VAT Rates, relevant VAT rates have been reduced from May 1, 2018, such as: (i) VAT rates of 17% and 11% applicable to the taxpayers who have VAT taxable sales activities or imported goods are adjusted to 16% and 10%, respectively; (ii) VAT rate of 11% originally applicable to the taxpayers who purchase agricultural products is adjusted to 10% and so on.

Dividend Withholding Tax

The PRC EIT Law provides that since January 1, 2008, an enterprise income tax rate of 10% will normally be applicable to dividends declared to non-PRC resident investors which do not have an establishment or place of business in the PRC, or which have such establishment or place of business but the relevant income is not effectively connected with the establishment or place of business, to the extent such dividends are derived from sources within the PRC.

Pursuant to the Arrangement Between the Mainland of China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Incomes, or the Double Tax Avoidance Arrangement and other applicable PRC laws, if a Hong Kong resident enterprise is determined by the competent PRC tax authority to have satisfied the relevant conditions and requirements under such Double Tax Avoidance Arrangement and other applicable laws, the 10% withholding tax on the dividends the Hong Kong resident enterprise receives from a PRC resident enterprise may be reduced to 5%. However, based on the Circular on Certain Issues with Respect to the Enforcement of Dividend Provisions in Tax Treaties, or the SAT Circular 81, issued on February 20, 2009 by the State Administration of Taxation, or the SAT, if the relevant PRC tax authorities determine, in their discretion, that a company benefits from such reduced income tax rate due to a structure or arrangement that is primarily tax-driven, such PRC tax authorities may adjust the preferential tax treatment. According to the Circular on Several Issues regarding the “Beneficial Owner” in Tax Treaties, which was issued on February 3, 2018 by the SAT, effective as of April 1, 2018, when determining the applicant’s status of the “beneficial owner” regarding tax treatments in connection with dividends, interests or royalties in the tax treaties, several factors, including without limitation, whether the applicant is obligated to pay more than 50% of its income in twelve months to residents in third country or region, whether the business operated by the applicant constitutes the actual business activities, and whether the counterparty country or region to the tax treaties does not levy any tax or grant tax exemption on relevant incomes or levy tax at an extremely low rate, will be taken into account, and it will be analyzed according to the actual circumstances of the specific cases. This circular further provides that applicants who intend to prove his or her status of the “beneficial owner” shall submit the relevant documents to the relevant tax bureau according to the Announcement on Issuing the Measures for the Administration of Non-Resident Taxpayers’ Enjoyment of the Treatment under Tax Agreements.

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Tax on Indirect Transfer

On February 3, 2015, the SAT issued the Circular on Issues of Enterprise Income Tax on Indirect Transfers of Assets by Non-PRC Resident Enterprises, or SAT Circular 7. Pursuant to SAT Circular 7, an “indirect transfer” of assets, including equity interests in a PRC resident enterprise, by non-PRC resident enterprises, may be re-characterized and treated as a direct transfer of PRC taxable assets, if such arrangement does not have a reasonable commercial purpose and was established for the purpose of avoiding payment of PRC enterprise income tax. As a result, gains derived from such indirect transfer may be subject to PRC enterprise income tax. When determining whether there is a “reasonable commercial purpose” of the transaction arrangement, features to be taken into consideration include, inter alia, whether the main value of the equity interest of the relevant offshore enterprise derives directly or indirectly from PRC taxable assets; whether the assets of the relevant offshore enterprise mainly consist of direct or indirect investment in China or if its income is mainly derived from China; and whether the offshore enterprise and its subsidiaries directly or indirectly holding PRC taxable assets have real commercial nature which is evidenced by their actual function and risk exposure. According to SAT Circular 7, where the payor fails to withhold any or sufficient tax, the transferor shall declare and pay such tax to the tax authority by itself within the statutory time limit. Late payment of applicable tax will subject the transferor to default interest. SAT Circular 7 does not apply to transactions of sale of shares by investors through a public stock exchange where such shares were acquired on a public stock exchange. On October 17, 2017, the SAT issued the Circular on Issues of Tax Withholding regarding Non-PRC Resident Enterprise Income Tax, or SAT Circular 37, which further elaborates the relevant implemental rules regarding the calculation, reporting and payment obligations of the withholding tax by the non-resident enterprises. Nonetheless, there remain uncertainties as to the interpretation and application of SAT Circular 7. SAT Circular 7 may be determined by the tax authorities to be applicable to our offshore transactions or sale of our shares or those of our offshore subsidiaries where non-resident enterprises, being the transferors, were involved.

Regulation on Foreign Exchange

The principal regulations governing foreign currency exchange in China are the Foreign Exchange Administration Regulations, most recently amended on August 5, 2008. Under the Foreign Exchange Administration Regulations, payments of current account items, such as profit distributions and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval from SAFE, by complying with certain procedural requirements. However, approval from or registration with appropriate government authorities is required where RMB is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of foreign currency-denominated loans.

On March 30, 2015, SAFE issued SAFE Circular No. 19, which took effective and replaced SAFE Circular No. 142 on June 1, 2015. Although SAFE Circular No. 19 allows for the use of RMB converted from the foreign currency-denominated capital for equity investments in China, the restrictions continue to apply as to foreign-invested enterprises’ use of the converted RMB for purposes beyond the business scope, for entrusted loans or for inter-company RMB loans. SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming and Standardizing the Foreign Exchange Settlement Management Policy of Capital Account, or Circular 16, effective on June 9, 2016, which reiterates some of the rules set forth in Circular 19, but changes the prohibition against using RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested company to issue RMB entrusted loans to a prohibition against using such capital to issue loans to non-associated enterprises. Violations of SAFE Circular 19 or Circular 16 could result in administrative penalties.

On November 19, 2012, SAFE promulgated the Circular of Further Improving and Adjusting Foreign Exchange Administration Policies on Foreign Direct Investment which substantially amends and simplifies the current foreign exchange procedure. Pursuant to this circular, the opening of various special purpose foreign exchange accounts (e.g., pre-establishment expenses accounts, foreign exchange capital accounts and guarantee accounts), the reinvestment of lawful incomes derived by foreign investors in China (e.g. profit, proceeds of equity transfer, capital reduction, liquidation and early repatriation of investment), and purchase and remittance of foreign exchange as a result of capital reduction, liquidation, early repatriation or share transfer in a foreign-invested enterprise no longer require SAFE approval, and multiple capital accounts for the same entity may be opened in different provinces, which was not possible before. In addition, SAFE promulgated the Circular on Printing and

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Distributing the Provisions on Foreign Exchange Administration over Domestic Direct Investment by Foreign Investors and the Supporting Documents in May 2013, which specifies that the administration by SAFE or its local branches over direct investment by foreign investors in the PRC shall be conducted by way of registration and banks shall process foreign exchange business relating to the direct investment in China based on the registration information provided by SAFE and its branches.

On February 13, 2015, SAFE promulgated the Circular on Further Simplifying and Improving the Policies Concerning Foreign Exchange Control on Direct Investment, or SAFE Circular No. 13, which took effect on June 1, 2015. SAFE Circular No. 13 delegates the authority to enforce the foreign exchange registration in connection with the inbound and outbound direct investment under relevant SAFE rules to certain banks and therefore further simplifies the foreign exchange registration procedures for inbound and outbound direct investment.

Regulation on Foreign Exchange Registration of Offshore Investment by PRC Residents

On July 4, 2014, SAFE issued the Circular on Relevant Issues Concerning Foreign Exchange Control on Domestic Residents’ Offshore Investment and Financing and Roundtrip Investment through Special Purpose Vehicles, or SAFE Circular 37, and its implementation guidelines. Pursuant to SAFE Circular 37 and its implementation guidelines, PRC residents (including PRC institutions and individuals) must register with local branches of SAFE in connection with their direct or indirect offshore investment in an overseas special purpose vehicle, or SPV, directly established or indirectly controlled by PRC residents for the purposes of offshore investment and financing with their legally owned assets or interests in domestic enterprises, or their legally owned offshore assets or interests. Such PRC residents are also required to amend their registrations with SAFE when there is a change to the basic information of the SPV, such as changes of a PRC resident individual shareholder, the name or operating period of the SPV, or when there is a significant change to the SPV, such as changes of the PRC individual resident’s increase or decrease of its capital contribution in the SPV, or any share transfer or exchange, merger, division of the SPV. Failure to comply with the registration procedures set forth in the Circular 37 may result in restrictions being imposed on the foreign exchange activities of the relevant onshore company, including the payment of dividends and other distributions to its offshore parent or affiliate, the capital inflow from the offshore entities and settlement of foreign exchange capital, and may also subject relevant onshore company or PRC residents to penalties under PRC foreign exchange administration regulations.

Regulation on Dividend Distributions

The principal regulations governing distribution of dividends paid by wholly foreign-owned enterprises include:

        Company Law of the PRC (1993), as amended in 1999, 2004, 2005 and 2013;

        Foreign Investment Enterprise Law of the PRC (1986), as amended in 2000 and 2016; and

        Administrative Rules under the Foreign Investment Enterprise Law (1990), as amended in 2001 and 2014.

Under these laws and regulations, foreign-invested enterprises in China may pay dividends only out of their accumulated profits, if any, determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. In addition, a wholly foreign-owned enterprise in China is required to set aside at least 10.0% of its after-tax profit based on PRC accounting standards each year to its general reserves until the accumulative amount of such reserves reach 50.0% of its registered capital. These reserves are not distributable as cash dividends. The foreign-invested enterprise has the discretion to allocate a portion of its after-tax profits to staff welfare and bonus funds. A PRC company is not permitted to distribute any profits until any losses from prior fiscal years have been offset. Profits retained from prior fiscal years may be distributed together with distributable profits from the current fiscal year.

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Regulation on Overseas Listings

On August 8, 2006, six PRC regulatory agencies, namely, the Ministry of Commerce, the State Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, SAT, SAIC, China Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC, and SAFE, jointly adopted the Regulations on Mergers and Acquisitions of Domestic Enterprises by Foreign Investors, or the M&A Rules, which became effective on September 8, 2006 and were amended on June 22, 2009. The M&A Rules purport, among other things, to require that offshore special purpose vehicles, or SPVs, that are controlled by PRC companies or individuals and that have been formed for overseas listing purposes through acquisitions of PRC domestic interest held by such PRC companies or individuals, to obtain the approval of the CSRC prior to publicly listing their securities on an overseas stock exchange. On September 21, 2006, the CSRC published a notice on its official website specifying documents and materials required to be submitted to it by SPVs seeking CSRC approval of their overseas listings. In our case, the CSRC approval was considered not required under the M&A Rules for the listing and trading of our ADSs on the Nasdaq Global Market given that (i) our PRC subsidiary was directly established by us as wholly foreign-owned enterprises, and we have not acquired any equity interest or assets of a PRC domestic company owned by PRC companies or individuals as defined under the M&A Rules that are our beneficial owners after the effective date of the M&A Rules, and (ii) no provision in the M&A Rules clearly classifies the contractual arrangements as a type of transaction subject to the M&A Rules. However, there can be no assurance that the relevant PRC government agencies, including the CSRC, would reach the same conclusion.

On December 19, 2020, the NDRC and the Ministry of Commerce jointly promulgated the Measures for the Security Review for Foreign Investment, effective on January 18, 2021, setting forth provisions concerning the security review mechanism on foreign investment, including the types of investments subject to review, scopes of review and procedures, among others. The Office of the Working Mechanism of the Security Review of Foreign Investment will lead the task together with the Ministry of Commerce. Foreign investor or relevant parties in China must declare the security review to the aforesaid office prior to the investments in, among other industries, important cultural products and services, important information technology and internet products and services, important financial services, key technologies, and other important fields relating to national security and obtaining control in the target enterprise.

On December 24, 2021, the CSRC released the Provisions of the State Council on the Administration of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (Draft for Comments), which requires that, among other things, domestic companies that seek to offer or list securities overseas, both directly and indirectly, should fulfill the filing procedures and report relevant information with the CSRC. If a domestic company fails to complete the filing procedures or conceals any material fact or falsifies any major content in its filing documents, such domestic company will be subject to administrative penalties such as warnings, fines, suspension of relevant business or operations, and revocation of licenses and permits, and its controlling shareholders, actual controllers, directors, supervisors, and senior executives may also be subject to administrative penalties such as warnings and fines. On the same day, the CSRC also issued the Administrative Measures for the Filing of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (Draft for comments) which, among others, sets forth the standards in determination of an indirect overseas listing by a domestic company, the responsible filing persons, and the procedures for the filing. The period for which the CSRC solicits comments on these two drafts ended on January 23, 2022. On February 17, 2023, the CSRC promulgated a new set of regulations that consists of the Trial Administrative Measures for Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (the “Trial Measures”) and five supporting guidelines, which will become effective on March 31, 2023.

Loans by Foreign Companies to their PRC Subsidiaries

Loans made by foreign investors as shareholders in foreign invested enterprises established in China are considered to be foreign debts and are mainly regulated by the Regulation of the People’s Republic of China on Foreign Exchange Administration, the Interim Provisions on the Management of Foreign Debts, the Statistical Monitoring of Foreign Debts Tentative Provisions, the Detailed Rules for the Implementation of Provisional Regulations on Statistics and Supervision of External Debt, and the Administrative Measures for Registration of Foreign Debts. Pursuant to these regulations and rules, a shareholder loan in the form of foreign debt made to a

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PRC entity does not require the prior approval of SAFE, but such foreign debt must be registered with and recorded by SAFE or its local branches within 15 business days after entering into the foreign debt contract. Under these regulations and rules, the balance of the foreign debts of a foreign invested enterprise shall not exceed the difference between the total investment and the registered capital of the foreign invested enterprise, or Total Investment and Registered Capital Balance.

The Interim Provisions of the State Administration for Industry and Commerce on the Ratio of the Registered Capital to the Total Investment of a Sino-Foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise was promulgated by SAIC on February 17, 1987 and effective on March 1, 1987. According to these provisions, with respect to a sino-foreign equity join venture, the registered capital shall be (i) no less than seven-tenths of its total investment, if the total investment is US$3 million or under US$3 million; (ii) no less than one-half of its total investment, if the total investment is ranging from US$3 million to US$10 million (including US$10 million), provided that the registered capital shall not be less than US$2.1 million if the total investment is less than US$4.2 million; (iii) no less than two-fifths of its total investment, if the total investment is ranging from US$10 million to US$30 million (including US$30 million), provided that the registered capital shall not be less than US$5 million if the total investment is less than US$12.5 million; and (iv) no less than one-third of its total investment, if the total investment exceeds US$30 million, provided that the registered capital shall not be less than US$12 million if the total investment is less than US$36 million.

The Notice of the People’s Bank of China on Matters concerning the Macro-Prudential Management of Full-Covered Cross-Border Financing, or PBOC Notice No. 9, issued by the PBOC on January 12, 2017, provides that within a transition period of one year from January 12, 2017, the foreign invested enterprises may adopt the currently valid foreign debt management mechanism, or Current Foreign Debt Mechanism, or the mechanism as provided in PBOC Notice No. 9, or Notice No. 9 Foreign Debt Mechanism, at their own discretion. PBOC Notice No. 9 provides that enterprises may conduct independent cross-border financing in RMB or foreign currencies as required. According to the PBOC Notice No. 9, the outstanding cross-border financing of an enterprise (the outstanding balance drawn, here and below) shall be calculated using a risk-weighted approach, or Risk-Weighted Approach, and shall not exceed the specified upper limit, namely: risk-weighted outstanding cross-border financing ≤ the upper limit of risk-weighted outstanding cross-border financing. Risk-weighted outstanding cross-border financing = © outstanding amount of RMB and foreign currency denominated cross-border financing x maturity risk conversion factor x type risk conversion factor + © outstanding foreign currency denominated cross-border financing x exchange rate risk conversion factor. Maturity risk conversion factor shall be 1 for medium- and long-term cross-border financing with a term of more than one year and 1.5 for short-term cross-border financing with a term of less than one year. Type risk conversion factor shall be 1 for on-balance-sheet financing and 1 for off-balance-sheet financing (contingent liabilities) for the time being. Exchange rate risk conversion factor shall be 0.5. The PBOC Notice No. 9 further provides that the upper limit of risk-weighted outstanding cross-border financing for enterprises shall be 200% of its net assets, or Net Asset Limits. Enterprises shall file with SAFE in its capital item information system after entering into a cross-border financing agreement, but no later than three business days before making a withdrawal.

Based on the foregoing, if we provide funding to our wholly foreign owned subsidiaries through shareholder loans, the balance of such loans shall not exceed the Total Investment and Registered Capital Balance and we will need to register such loans with SAFE or its local branches in the event that the Current Foreign Debt Mechanism applies, or the balance of such loans shall be subject to the Risk-Weighted Approach and the Net Asset Limits and we will need to file the loans with SAFE in its information system in the event that the Notice No. 9 Mechanism applies. Under the PBOC Notice No. 9, after a transition period of one year from January 11, 2017, the PBOC and SAFE will determine the cross-border financing administration mechanism for the foreign-invested enterprises after evaluating the overall implementation of PBOC Notice No. 9. As of the date hereof, neither the PBOC nor SAFE has promulgated and made public any further rules, regulations, notices or circulars in this regard. It is uncertain which mechanism will be adopted by the PBOC and SAFE in the future and what statutory limits will be imposed on us when providing loans to our PRC subsidiaries.

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C.     ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

The following diagram illustrates our corporate structure as of December 31, 2022, including our significant subsidiaries and VIEs.

Contractual Arrangements with Our VIEs and Their Respective Shareholders