Company Quick10K Filing
Workiva
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$0.00 46 $2,562
10-K 2020-02-20 Annual: 2019-12-31
10-Q 2019-11-06 Quarter: 2019-09-30
10-Q 2019-08-06 Quarter: 2019-06-30
10-Q 2019-05-01 Quarter: 2019-03-31
10-K 2019-02-20 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-11-07 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-08-07 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-05-02 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2018-02-22 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-11-07 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-05-04 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2017-02-23 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-11-09 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-08-03 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-05-04 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2016-03-01 Annual: 2015-12-31
10-Q 2015-11-05 Quarter: 2015-09-30
10-Q 2015-08-05 Quarter: 2015-06-30
10-Q 2015-05-05 Quarter: 2015-03-31
10-K 2015-03-11 Annual: 2014-12-31
8-K 2020-02-27 Officers
8-K 2020-02-20 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-12-10 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2019-11-06 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-09-03 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2019-08-28 Off-BS Arrangement, Sale of Shares, Exhibits
8-K 2019-08-13 Enter Agreement, Leave Agreement, Off-BS Arrangement, Sale of Shares, Regulation FD, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2019-08-06 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-06-11 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2019-05-01 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-20 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-01 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-07 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-06-13 Officers, Shareholder Vote, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-02 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-03-02 Enter Agreement, Off-BS Arrangement, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-22 Earnings, Exhibits
WK 2019-12-31
Part I.
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosure
Part II.
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Item 6. Selected Consolidated Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III.
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services
Part IV.
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
EX-4.06 exhibit406-description.htm
EX-21.01 exhibit211subsidiaries.htm
EX-23.01 exhibit231consentofaud.htm
EX-31.01 exhibit311-section302x.htm
EX-31.02 exhibit312-section302x.htm
EX-32.01 exhibit321-section906x.htm
EX-32.02 exhibit322-section906x.htm

Workiva Earnings 2019-12-31

WK 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

Comparables ($MM TTM)
Ticker M Cap Assets Liab Rev G Profit Net Inc EBITDA EV G Margin EV/EBITDA ROA
BL 2,630 976 575 271 213 -30 -10 2,102 79% -208.4 -3%
MIME 2,234 679 476 382 283 -6 25 2,130 74% 84.2 -1%
CYBR 2,742 674 207 0 0 0 0 2,480 0%
TENB 2,324 532 409 333 278 -80 -73 2,152 84% -29.6 -15%
RPD 2,204 627 540 235 170 -39 -18 2,089 72% -118.2 -6%
ALRM 2,336 501 165 473 303 48 68 2,235 64% 33.0 10%
BOX 2,595 844 823 513 354 -114 -69 2,434 69% -35.2 -14%
WK 2,088 627 557 282 203 -40 -33 1,699 72% -51.9 -6%
APPN 3,306 319 166 256 163 -53 -50 3,140 64% -63.3 -17%
TWOU 1,002 1,214 481 527 0 -186 -150 1,081 0% -7.2 -15%

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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
___________________________________
FORM 10-K
___________________________________
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For transition period from               to
Commission File Number 001-36773
___________________________________
WORKIVA INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
___________________________________
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
47-2509828
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
2900 University Blvd
Ames, IA 50010
(Address of principal executive offices and zip code)
(888) 275-3125
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
___________________________________

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading Symbol
Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A common stock, par value $.001
WK
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act:
None
___________________________________
Indicate by a check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No ý
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ý No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.



Large accelerated filer
ý
Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer
o
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act): Yes  No ý
The aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant on June 30, 2019, based on the closing price of $58.09 for shares of the Registrant’s Class A common stock as reported by the New York Stock Exchange, was approximately $2.1 billion. Shares of common stock beneficially owned by each executive officer, director, and holder of more than 10% of our common stock have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.
As of February 18, 2020, there were approximately 38,298,548 shares of the registrant’s Class A common stock and 8,595,596 shares of the registrant’s Class B common stock outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Information required in response to Part III of Form 10-K (Items 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14) is hereby incorporated by reference to portions of the Registrant’s Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held in 2020. The Proxy Statement will be filed by the Registrant with the Securities and Exchange Commission no later than 120 days after the end of the Registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2019.



Table of Contents
WORKIVA INC.
FORM 10-K
For the Year Ended December 31, 2019
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page



Table of Contents
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Certain statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (Exchange Act) and are subject to the safe harbor created thereby. All statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K other than statements of historical facts, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, our business strategy and plans and our objectives for future operations, are forward-looking statements. The words “believe,” “may,” “will,” “estimate,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “expect” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, short-term and long-term business operations and objectives, and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties and assumptions, including those described in “Item 1A. Risk Factors.” Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the future events and trends discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.
Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance, achievements or events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements will occur. We are under no duty to update any of these forward-looking statements after completion of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to conform these statements to actual results or revised expectations.


Table of Contents
Part I.
Item 1. Business
Overview
Workiva provides the world’s leading connected reporting and compliance platform, which is used by thousands of public and private companies, government agencies and higher-education institutions. The Workiva platform offers controlled collaboration, data linking, data integrations, granular permissions, process management and a full audit trail. Our users can connect narrative with their data, which greatly improves insight into their financial, regulatory, management and compliance reports. As of December 31, 2019, 3,510 organizations, including nearly 75% of Fortune 500® companies, subscribed to our platform.
Wdata, the component of our platform that includes data integration and preparation, enables our customers to connect data from Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Governance Risk and Compliance (GRC) and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) platforms as well as other third-party cloud and on-premise systems. Once the data is connected in the Workiva platform, users can automate data and workflow updates, track every change and seamlessly collaborate with colleagues to create trusted reports and regulatory filings.
After users integrate their enterprise systems of record with our platform, many manual steps are removed, thereby improving data integrity throughout the entire reporting process. Wdata also enables a broader set of business users to explore complex data at scale and better manage data transformations in the office of the CFO.
Many organizations throughout the world are required to report business data to a variety of managers, regulators, boards and other stakeholders. However, these organizations often struggle to produce accurate and consistent information and reports because their ever-expanding volume of business data is typically stored in incompatible formats and spread across hundreds of different sources and locations. The stakes for enterprises are high: reporting incorrect, incomplete or untimely information increases the risks of poor decision-making, legal liability, reputational damage and a weakened competitive position.
By addressing these challenges, Workiva is changing the way people manage and report business data. Our platform enables our users to collect, aggregate and prepare their unstructured and structured data in an integrated, secure, cloud-based environment. Numbers, narrative, charts and graphics can be linked inside our platform, which becomes an organization’s central repository for critical data, providing a single source of truth. With linked data and a full audit trail, users can trust that their spreadsheets, text documents, charts and graphs, presentations, dashboards and reports in the Workiva platform are up-to-date and consistent, reducing the risk of reporting incorrect data or taking action based on erroneous information.
When our platform serves as a consolidated record of business data, our customers are able to eliminate many repetitive, manual and time-consuming tasks imposed by legacy software, giving them more time to perform value-added work. Technology features familiar to people as consumers – speed, access, accountability and real-time collaboration – are available at work with our platform, thereby enabling our users to become more efficient and flexible, which we believe leads to greater job satisfaction, employee retention and career opportunities.
1

Table of Contents
Coworkers use our platform to create, review and publish data-linked documents and reports with greater control, consistency, accuracy and productivity than ever before. Users are able to collaborate in the same document simultaneously, which improves efficiency and version control. Our platform is flexible and scalable, so users can easily adapt it to define, automate and change their business processes in real time, which helps our users streamline and modernize legacy processes and methods.
With our platform’s data-linking capabilities, every change is automatically updated in all linked instances—including narrative and numbers—throughout customers’ spreadsheets, word-processing documents, charts and graphs, presentation decks and dashboards in our platform. Linking enables data consistency and ensures that collaborators are working with the most current data, which reduces operational costs related to tedious ticking and tying and gives our customers peace of mind that their data and reports are accurate and up-to-date.
Workiva provides accountability and transparency through a detailed audit trail that tracks every change made by every user over time. A complete record of data provenance and all changes helps our customers mitigate risk, gain insights and make better, data-driven decisions.
With permission controls in our platform, administrators can manage access at all levels for each user to create, review and edit data and documents that relate directly to them. This control feature also enables users to grant access to their external auditors, outside counsel and other consultants, which streamlines the review process and reduces expenses.
Workiva Technology
Our technology is enterprise-grade and developed to perform at scale, allowing users to work anytime from anywhere with an internet connection. Workiva utilizes Amazon Web Services and Google Cloud Platform, which enable us to scale our compute and storage capacity on demand. We can deploy incremental changes to our customers on a daily basis by employing a continuous delivery process supported by Agile software development methodologies. In addition, in order to keep our customers’ data secure, we have developed advanced data security protocols that augment the standard security of the Amazon and Google cloud services. Our architecture has scalability for global enterprises, as well as advantages in reliability and cloud delivery.
Platform Milestones
In March 2010, we released our first software solution, which focused on streamlining reporting to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
In March 2013, we launched a broader-based platform to respond to the growing demand from our customers to use Workiva for work beyond SEC reporting.
In September 2016, we released enhancements to our platform that included: new capabilities to our spreadsheet application, making it one of the largest and fastest spreadsheet applications in the cloud; more powerful, dynamic dashboards; advanced testing and workflow capabilities; and expanded data relationships for the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) and internal control teams.
In July 2017, we began offering our customers the ability to connect our platform with more than 100 cloud and on-premise applications. Integrating enterprise business systems with our platform enables customers to directly connect the datasets they need into a central hub of trusted data, with powerful linking, auditability and control features.
In June 2018, we expanded our platform with Wdata, which combines new data preparation capabilities with existing connectors and Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) to enable customers to more easily capture, enrich and connect large datasets to the Workiva platform.
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Table of Contents
In the summer of 2019, we began rolling out the next generation of our platform, which is faster and more scalable with dozens of new capabilities, including improved real-time collaboration, new data importers and exporters, multi-monitor support, drag and drop capabilities, better charts, Workspaces for teams, additional languages and currencies, an improved filing wizard and more ways to link data through Workiva Connected Sheets.
In September 2019, we announced additional Wdata functionality that enables customers to fully connect data from ERPs, GRC, and CRM platforms as well as other third-party, on-premise systems and cloud applications. Once the data is connected in the Workiva platform, users are able to create and manage sequences of tasks—known as chains—to automate workflows across on-premise or cloud data sources. Chains can be configured to automatically refresh data from multiple sources, and then push that data to spreadsheets, documents and presentations for connected reports. Wdata enables a broader set of business users to explore complex data at scale and better manage data transformations in the office of the CFO.
Markets and Use Cases
Although Workiva solutions are used for dozens of different use cases, we currently focus our sales and marketing resources in four areas: Regulatory Reporting, Non-Regulatory Reporting, Financial Services and Integrated Risk.
We distribute our software and services through field sales, inside sales and partnership channels. We focus on a “land-and-expand” strategy to acquire new customers and expand our existing customer relationships.
Our customer success, professional services and solution architect teams help our account managers build our existing customer relationships by providing advice on best practices that enable users to harness the full power of our platform.
Many of the largest and most demanding enterprises in the world are included in our broadly diversified customer base. Our largest customer represented less than 1% of our revenue in 2019. We believe that we have exceptional customer satisfaction, as evidenced by our subscription and support revenue retention rate of 94.7% (excluding add-on seats) as of December 2019. Our subscription and support revenue retention rate including add-ons was 113.0% as of December 2019.
We have experienced strong revenue growth since we released our first solution in March 2010. Our revenue increased from $207.9 million in 2017 to $297.9 million in 2019, representing a 20% compound annual growth rate. We incurred a net loss of $44.4 million in 2017, $50.1 million in 2018 and $48.1 million in 2019. Approximately 83% of our revenue in 2019 was derived from subscription and support fees, with the remainder from professional services.
Our Industry
Industry Trends are Driving a Fundamental Shift in How Enterprises Collect, Manage, Report and Analyze Critical Business Data.
Data is Widespread and Disconnected. Enterprise data is typically spread across hundreds of different sources and stored in incompatible formats. Organizations often struggle with creating efficient and trusted solutions to harness this data in ways that can support decision-making.
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Regulatory Requirements are Continually Changing. Legislation, such as SOX and the Dodd-Frank Act in the United States, and requirements in Europe for reporting with a Single Electronic Format (ESEF) taxonomy continue to drive complex reporting mandates. For example, SOX requires public company CEOs and CFOs to individually certify that their annual and quarterly financial reports are accurate and complete and to assess the effectiveness of their internal controls over financial reporting. Increased scrutiny from the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) on audits of management’s assessment of internal controls – and the transition in the framework used for assessing internal controls – is driving public companies to find more efficient and accurate solutions for SOX compliance.
Charged with implementing these legislative mandates and others, governmental agencies such as the SEC, the Canadian Securities Administrators, the Federal Reserve System, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the European Securities and Markets Authority, the European Banking Authority and the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority continue to issue and change regulations that affect existing reporting requirements. Regulators are also implementing new, industry-specific reporting requirements. For example, in recent years insurance companies have been required to produce reports for Own Risk Solvency Assessment (ORSA) and Model Audit Rule, often referred to as MAR-SOX because of its similarity to SOX compliance. The European Banking Authority’s Supervisory Review and Evaluation Process (SREP) requires institutions to report on their Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process (ICAAP) and Internal Liquidity Adequacy Assessment Process (ILAAP). The Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates financial services firms and financial markets in the UK, requires reporting under the Client Assets Sourcebook (CASS) rules for registered firms who hold or control client money or custody assets.
Use of Machine-Readable Data Is Growing. Regulators are demanding greater use of structured, machine-readable data in companies’ reports. For example, the SEC requires that public companies include “structured financial data” in filed annual and quarterly reports so that an investor can automate extraction of the data the instant it is filed and compare it to performance in past years, information from other companies and industry averages. The SEC implemented its structured data mandate by requiring companies to tag the data in their financial statements using XBRL, which is a royalty-free, international standard designed specifically for digital reporting of financial, performance, risk and compliance information. XBRL provides a unique, machine-readable tag for individual disclosures within business reports. Use of XBRL enables government agencies to automate screening and analysis of filed documents. For example, the SEC Division of Enforcement has integrated the analysis of XBRL data into its investigative processes.
The U.S. federal government is beginning to mandate the use of open data standards for a variety of regulatory reports. Inline XBRL is a standard that embeds XBRL in financial statements, thus eliminating the need to file separate HTML and XBRL documents. The SEC has the following phased-in deadlines for Inline XBRL reporting (beginning with fiscal periods ending on or after): June 15, 2019 for large accelerated filers, June 15, 2020 for accelerated filers, and June 15, 2021 for all other smaller companies that are required to file reports with the SEC.
The demand for multi-document Inline XBRL filings increased in the Spring of 2019 when the SEC adopted rules to implement the FAST Act Modernization and Simplification of Regulation S-K, which requires Inline XBRL on the cover page of several SEC forms. Since the information on the cover and the financials in the filing itself may exist in different documents, creating multiple Inline XBRL documents within a single submission is necessary to comply with new SEC requirements.
In September 2019, the Financial Transparency Act (HR 4476) (FTA) was introduced to Congress. If enacted, the FTA would require the eight major U.S. financial regulatory agencies to adopt uniform, machine-readable data standards for the information they collect from regulated entities.
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In December 2019, the Grant Reporting Efficiency and Agreements Transparency Act of 2019 (GREAT Act) was signed into law to modernize federal grant reporting by developing government-wide data standards for information reported by grant recipients. The Act applies to recipients of the more than $700 billion in annual financial assistance from the U.S. federal government.
Outside of the United States, there are 147 mandates for XBRL in 52 countries, and we expect its application to continue to grow. The SEC now requires Foreign Private Issuers (FPI) that prepare their financial statements in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) to include XBRL tagging in their SEC filings. In addition, the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) now mandates Inline XBRL for its ESEF taxonomy. More than 5,000 European Union (E.U.) issuers will be required to use this taxonomy for their annual financial reports, for periods ending on or after January 1, 2020.
Management Oversight is Increasing. Enterprises are under increasing pressure to report a growing amount of information to internal management teams, boards of directors, internal and external auditors and other stakeholders. We believe that data needs to be collected, reported and analyzed more rapidly than ever before. Management teams are increasingly focused on leveraging data to support critical decisions. At the same time, boards of directors are pressing organizations to improve transparency in order to better fulfill their fiduciary duties.
Workforces are Becoming More Geographically Dispersed. Market dynamics and the globalization of enterprises have changed where people work and how they work together. Organizations are becoming increasingly global, with employees geographically distributed to support strategic and business needs. Workforce flexibility initiatives have resulted in more employees working remotely, increasing the demand for cloud-based enterprise software that can be accessed from anywhere with an internet connection.
Consumerization of Workplace Technology. Technical advancements in laptop computers, smart phones, tablets and wireless networks have enabled mobility across the enterprise. The rapid advancement of consumer applications, particularly social media, has raised expectations for enterprise technology as employees expect their workplace technology to achieve the same level of functionality, performance, cloud access, data integration and ease of use as the consumer technologies that permeate their daily lives.
Legacy Business Processes and Solutions Are Insufficient for Meeting the Requirements of Modern Enterprises.
For many enterprises, the process of compiling, reporting and analyzing critical data has been manual, repetitive and error-prone. Large enterprises often employ hundreds or even thousands of people to manually collect data with unencrypted emails and create and update rolling versions of draft documents and disconnected spreadsheets. Modern enterprises require a level of collaboration, security and control that we believe outdated business software and point solutions do not deliver. Shortcomings of legacy business processes and solutions include the following: 
Access to resources is restricted. Traditional solutions require employees to be physically present at, or remotely logged into, a machine with the required technology and access permissions.
Collaboration is inefficient and risky. Traditional office software requires one person to work on one version of a presentation or report at one time. This rigidity creates challenges as concurrent versions lead to a tedious and time-consuming reconciliation process.
Workflows are rigid and serial. Workflows for presentation and report production operate as a series of dependent events, with workers being unable to advance sections they are responsible for while waiting for their turn in the document-production process.
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Dataset creation is highly manual. Traditional dataset creation relies on ad-hoc processes and loosely defined protocols to consolidate a patchwork of disparate data sources with different owners and storage locations across the enterprise.
Edits are error-prone and lack audit trails. Traditional software does not permit linking references to a single source, so when a change is made it does not flow throughout the document or related documents, increasing the risk of errors.
Changes are difficult to audit. Traditional solutions do not offer visibility into data provenance or the lineage of changes to a document.
Control is limited. With legacy software, multiple versions of a spreadsheet, presentation or report may be stored in numerous locations across an enterprise, making it difficult to control who can review and edit, and even more difficult to adjust these roles as the creation process evolves.
Workiva Platform Benefits
Public and private companies across a wide range of industries, as well as government agencies and higher-education institutions, use the Workiva platform to help coworkers simultaneously create, review and publish data-linked documents and reports with greater speed, control and accuracy. Our platform component, Wdata, enables our customers to connect data from ERP, GRC and CRM platforms, as well as other third-party, on-premise systems and cloud applications. Once the data is connected in the Workiva platform, users are able to automate updates, track every change through a detailed audit trail and seamlessly collaborate with colleagues to create trusted reports and regulatory filings. A complete record of data provenance and all changes helps our customers save time, mitigate risk, gain insights and make better, data-driven decisions.
Benefits to Decision-Makers
Reduces Risk. Numbers, narrative, charts and graphics can be linked inside the Workiva platform, which becomes an organization’s central repository for business data or single source of truth. Managers can trust that Workiva spreadsheets, word documents, presentations, dashboards and reports are up-to-date and consistent, reducing the risk of reporting incorrect data or taking action based on erroneous information. In addition, our platform ensures that presentations and reports are published using the most recent business rules, formats and XBRL and Inline XBRL protocols where applicable.
Improves Data Transparency. Workiva provides accountability and transparency through a detailed audit trail that tracks every change made by every user over time. Decision-makers benefit from the ability to drill down into each discrete data point, which increases data transparency, accountability and trust that critical business data across an organization is verified and accurate.
Saves Time. With linked data in a single version – along with embedded tasks, comments and supporting documentation—Workiva helps our customers reduce or completely eliminate repetitive, manual tasks, giving teams more time for analysis and other value-added work.
Streamlines Reviews. With Workiva permission controls, administrators can grant access to their external auditors, outside counsel, and other consultants, which streamlines the review process and reduces expenses.
Better-Informed Decision-Making. People who use our platform know that they are working on the most current and accurate version, which helps our customers make quicker and better-informed decisions.
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Benefits to Users
Ubiquitous Access. Users can access the Workiva platform through a secure, web-based interface any time and anywhere an internet connection is available. By providing flexible access to our platform, users can be productive from wherever and whenever they choose to work.
Faster Time to Value. The Workiva interface is familiar and intuitive so it can be easily deployed in days or weeks, enabling new users to make quick improvements to business data processes.
Better Collaboration. Our platform enables collaborators to draft and edit original work, assign and respond to tasks, make and resolve comments, track progress and certify sign-offs within the same document, spreadsheet, presentation or report at the same time from any location with internet access.
Higher Job Satisfaction. Workiva helps users reduce or completely eliminate repetitive, manual and time-consuming functions, thereby becoming more efficient and flexible, which we believe leads to greater job satisfaction, employee retention, cross-role training and career opportunities.
Transferable Job Skills. The ability to work in Workiva platform is increasingly being recognized as a transferable skill set desired by accounting, finance, compliance and operations teams. Workiva proficiency often appears in our users’ resumes and becomes an attractive consideration in promotions within an organization or by recruiters looking for professionals with advanced skills.
Growth Strategy
We continue to add new customers as well as add seats at existing customers for a wide range of use cases at public and private companies, as well as government agencies and higher-education institutions. In addition, customer demand for our platform continues to expand as we improve platform features and capabilities, including data integrations, and expand our ecosystem of customers and partners.
Core elements of our growth strategy
Generate Growth From Existing Customers. The Workiva platform can exhibit a powerful network effect within an organization that attracts additional users and more data. As more employees in an enterprise use our platform, additional opportunities for collaboration and automation drive demand among their colleagues. Expansion within current customers includes adding users for both existing solutions and new use cases. Our solution-based licensing model, which offers subscriptions by solution rather than by our previous seat-based model, makes it easier for customers to add colleagues to our platform and delivers more value to our customers.
Pursue New Customers. Our first software solution enabled customers to streamline and automate their SEC regulatory filings. In 2013, we began expanding into additional markets that were faced with managing large, complex processes with many contributors and disparate sets of business data. We currently sell to new customers in the areas of Regulatory Reporting, Non-Regulatory Reporting, Financial Services and Integrated Risk. We intend to continue to build our sales and marketing organization and leverage our brand equity to attract new customers in the U.S., Canada, Europe and Asia.
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Expand our Partnership Ecosystem. Our ecosystem of partners extends our geographic reach, accelerates the usage and adoption of our platform, promotes thought leadership and enables more efficient delivery of professional services. We intend to expand and deepen our relationships with global and regional partners, including global consulting firms, systems integrators, large and mid-sized Independent Software Vendors (ISV) and implementation partners. Our advisory and service partners offer a wider range of domain and functional expertise that broadens our platform’s capabilities and promotes Workiva as part of the financial transformation projects they drive for their customers. Our technology partners enable powerful data and process integrations to help customers connect critical transactional systems directly to our platform, which becomes a central repository of trusted data, with powerful linking, auditability and control features.
Offer Solutions for Large Financial Transformations. We help companies support large financial transformations, which drives wider adoption of our platform. Our user management functionality and Workiva Workspaces give our customers a trusted environment for teams and enable our solution-based licensing model. These platform capabilities enable even larger teams to benefit from our core strengths: collaboration, control, accountability and data assurance.
Offer More Solutions. We intend to introduce new solutions to continue to meet growing demand for our platform. Our close and trusted relationships with our customers are often sources for new use cases, features and solutions. We have a disciplined process for tracking, developing and releasing new solutions that are designed to have immediate, broad applicability; a strong value proposition and a high return on investment for both Workiva and our customers. Our advance planning team assesses customer needs, conducts industry-based research and defines new markets. This vetting process involves our sales, product marketing, customer success, professional services, research and development, finance and senior management teams.
Close the Reporting Gap. Many organizations struggle to produce accurate and consistent data and reports because their business data is typically spread across hundreds of different sources and stored in ERP systems or other incompatible formats. When enterprises need to report their data, they often resort to exporting that data to legacy, disconnected spreadsheets that lack the control, auditability and transparency that is required for accurate reporting to board, regulators and other stakeholders. Workiva closes this data gap in the reporting process.
Continue to Innovate. We believe we are the first technology company to build an integrated, cloud-based platform that provides a secure ecosystem to manage structured and unstructured business data that spans data integrations, data collection and linking, controlled collaboration, process management, granular permissions, streamlined reporting and data-driven decision-making. Our research and development efforts are focused on improving our platform for broad use across all of our solutions and use cases.
Growth Vectors
In 2019, we began focusing our investments in key growth opportunities: EMEA expansion, global statutory reporting, integrated risk, Wdata and the U.S. federal government.
Expand Internationally. For the year ended December 31, 2019, we generated approximately 96% of our revenue in North America. However, the growth drivers for our solution are similar in other parts of the world, including the need to manage complex datasets, reduce errors and risk, improve efficiency and respond to regulatory requirements. In addition to the U.S., we market our platform and solutions to organizations in Canada, EMEA and parts of Asia. In 2020, we plan to continue to increase our sales and marketing presence in EMEA to target the following use cases:
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XBRL Tagging for Foreign Private Issuers. The SEC requires Foreign Private Issuers (FPI) that prepare their financial statements in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) to include XBRL tagging in their SEC filings for fiscal periods ending on or after December 15, 2017.
Inline XBRL for ESEF Taxonomy. The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) now mandates Inline XBRL for its European Single Electronic Format (ESEF) taxonomy. More than 5,000 E.U. issuers will be required to use this taxonomy for their annual financial reports, ending on or after January 1, 2020.
European Companies that Report to U.S. Regulators. There are a variety of reports required by European companies that do business in the U.S., including Resolution and Recovery Plans (RRP), Stress Testing, SEC filings and SOX and internal controls compliance.
European Banking Authority Requirements. The European Banking Authority’s Supervisory Review and Evaluation Process (SREP) requires institutions to report on their Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process (ICAAP) and the Internal Liquidity Adequacy Assessment Process (ILAAP).
CASS Reporting. The Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates financial services firms and financial markets in the United Kingdom (U.K.), requires reporting under the Client Asset Sourcebook (CASS) rules for registered firms who hold or control client money or custody assets.
Expand Global Statutory Reporting. We also plan to accelerate our investments in global statutory reporting, which is a complex and painful process for our multinational customers that are required to report tax information throughout different countries and local jurisdictions where they do business. Our early go-to-market efforts have validated three important factors: demand for our solutions in this marketplace, our product fit, and the lack of significant competition — all of which are contributing to early sales activity.
Increase Adoption for Integrated Risk Solutions. We also plan to continue to invest in expanding our solution set in the integrated risk market. Part of this expansion is based on requests from our customers and prospects to go beyond SOX and audit to provide a broader integrated risk platform that supports general frameworks for internal controls, a wide variety of audit types, ERM, and policies and procedures.
Integrate More Systems of Record. Wdata, which includes data preparation tools along with data connectors and APIs, allows our customers to create direct connections to their data and bring much larger amounts of data into the Workiva platform. Direct integration removes manual steps in the reporting and analysis process after the data leaves our customers’ ERP and other data systems, and it enables data assurance throughout the entire reporting process with an immutable audit trail.
Most of our customers are worried about risk when reporting vast amounts of data from their systems of record, such as ERP, HCM, GRC and CRM systems, as well as specialized applications for financial consolidation, reconciliation and planning. To solve this universal problem, we continue to invest in Wdata to build more APIs and connectors to improve data integrations and automate downstream reports and analyses. With Wdata, our customers are able to seamlessly connect data between many of their systems and applications, resulting in accurate and transparent data for reporting and compliance.
Wdata enables our customers to integrate their systems and applications with our platform. With new capabilities – including automatic data updates and workflows, improved connectivity and risk and controls integration – we believe that Wdata is changing the way people work.
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Expand Across U.S. Federal Government Agencies. In October of 2019, Workiva was authorized as a Moderate Impact Cloud Service Provider under the Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (FedRAMP). Workiva achieved the Moderate authorization one year after receiving FedRAMP’s Low Impact status, signifying Workiva’s ongoing commitment to FedRAMP’s stringent cybersecurity requirements, which benefits all of our customers. Our higher level of authorization enables us to help federal agencies connect, control and report up to 80 percent of their information types, which are classified up to the moderate-impact level. In addition, many commercial enterprises, particularly those in regulated industries, consider FedRAMP the highest standard of security assessment, authorization and continuous monitoring for cloud software.
Workiva Platform Use Cases
Our platform enables customers to collect, link, manage, report and analyze business data for a wide range of use cases across public and private companies, government agencies and higher-education institutions. In addition, customer demand for a broader-based Workiva platform continues to expand as we improve features and capabilities and grow our ecosystem of partners. Our advisory and service partners offer a wider range of domain and functional expertise that broadens the capabilities of our platform, bringing scale and support to customers and prospects. Our technology partners enable more data and process integrations to help customers connect critical transactional systems directly to our platform, which becomes a central repository of trusted data, with powerful linking, auditability and control features.
Although Workiva solutions are used for dozens of different use cases, we currently focus our sales and marketing resources in four areas: Regulatory Reporting, Non-Regulatory Reporting, Financial Services and Integrated Risk.
Regulatory Reporting
Changing regulations and mandates create complexity in regulatory and compliance reporting, which is often carried out by teams scattered across different departments and geographies within organizations. While we cannot predict future changes that could affect federal regulations, we expect demand for our platform to remain strong for its ability to improve transparency, accountability and insight into business and government data.
SEC and SEDAR Reporting. We developed our platform to give customers control over the entire SEC reporting process, from data collection to drafting to embedding supporting documentation to the actual filing with XBRL or Inline XBRL. Our SEC reporting solution allows our customers to prepare and file all major SEC reports, such as Form 10-K, Form 10-Q and Form 8-K, as well as Form S-1 and other registration statements, proxy statements and Section 16 reports. Features tailored to the SEC reporting process include the capability to concurrently create reports in the HTML format required for filing on the SEC’s Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval (EDGAR) system and the ability to perform XBRL tagging as well as to submit SEC reports with Inline XBRL. Foreign Private Issuers in Europe can use our platform to include XBRL tagging in their 20-F and 40-F filings with the SEC. Workiva also enables customers to create earnings press releases, earnings call scripts, presentations and other investor relations materials with data linked to the corresponding filing. Canadian issuers can use our platform to draft and file reports on the System for Electronic Analysis and Retrieval (SEDAR).
ESEF Reporting. We market our platform in Europe to help companies comply with the ESMA mandate to use Inline XBRL for its ESEF taxonomy. More than 5,000 E.U. issuers are required to use this taxonomy for their annual financial reports, ending on or after January 1, 2020.
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Global Statutory Reporting. We see growing demand for our platform in the U.S. and in Europe for statutory reporting, which is a complex and painful process for our multinational customers that are required to report tax information throughout different countries and local jurisdictions where they do business. Currently, most of these enterprises rely on hundreds of legacy word-processing documents and spreadsheets, circulating in emails with no digital audit trail. This disconnected, antiquated process is prone to errors and creates inconsistent reports to different entities within the same local jurisdiction. Without a standardized process, companies face enormous risk and high expenses related to outsourcing to a bevy of local consultants and accounting firms, which weakens control and extends review time.
Government Regulatory Reporting. State and local governments use our platform to streamline and modernize Comprehensive Annual Financial Reports (CAFR) and budgeting. We are also expanding adoption of our platform across U.S. federal government agencies. With our 2019 Moderate-level FedRAMP authorization, we are now able to help federal agencies connect, control and report up to 80 percent of their information types, which are classified up to the moderate-impact level.
Non-Regulatory Reporting
Public and private companies, government agencies and higher-education institutions must create a vast array of complex financial and managerial reports. Organizations of all sizes typically have to collect, track, manage and report on a wide range of operating metrics to drive better business outcomes. Our customers continuously find new use cases across their organizations, including Financial Planning and Analysis (FP&A), board committee and quarterly reporting, C-Suite reporting, strategic business plans, financial statements, variance reports, monthly management reports, managing and tracking key performance indicators, data collection for domestic sales, performance reporting and employee benefit financial statements.
Integrated Risk
We sell our platform to teams that work in SOX compliance, internal audit management, enterprise risk management and policy and procedure management.
SOX Compliance. Our customers use our platform to increase efficiency in documenting, implementing and assessing internal controls over financial reporting (ICFR) as required by SOX. SOX also requires public company CEOs and CFOs to individually certify that their annual and quarterly financial reports are accurate and complete and to assess the effectiveness of their ICFR. Increased scrutiny from the PCAOB on audits of management’s assessment of internal controls – and the transition in the framework used for assessing internal controls – is driving public companies to find more efficient and accurate solutions for SOX compliance. Our customers can collect data from multiple departments, centralize that information in a linked platform, create and track process narratives and flows with co-workers, embed evidence and directly test controls. We began selling our SOX solution in the second quarter of 2014.
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Internal Audit Management. We sell to the broad-based audit market because users in that market often collaborate with colleagues working in SOX, risk and controls across an organization. Internal audit management extends throughout an organization, drawing in Workiva users from a wide range of departments. Internal audit management includes audit risk assessments, the audit planning process, workpaper management, testing, issues management and audit reports that encompass the audit committee report and the internal audit group. Workiva allows simultaneous collaboration with control and accountability and enables robust documentation, accurate audit conclusions and complete audit trails, which are essential to auditors, executives and boards. With permission controls, administrators can restrict access at all levels for each user to create, review and edit data and documents that relate directly to them. This control feature also enables users to grant access to their external auditors, which further streamlines the review process and reduces expenses.
Enterprise Risk Management (ERM). With our platform, risk management practices can be integrated throughout the organization while maintaining information privacy, audit trails and security resulting in highly efficient and transparent compliance. Therefore, we also sell a solution for ERM to help enterprises identify systemic risks, determine risk probabilities, assess risk magnitude, plan strategic responses, report to boards and other stakeholders, and ultimately make real-time ERM decisions.
Policy and Procedure Management. Our customers can use our platform to establish a connected, enterprise-wide policy and procedure management process. Teams can access and manage all content for policies, standards, procedures and guidelines for the entire enterprise in our platform, and they can efficiently manage ongoing policy review cycles throughout the year. Customers can map policies directly to risks, controls, processes and regulations and create a consistent template-driven format or taxonomy for all policies. Customers can also distribute and track employee attestation of policies and procedures with automated certification reminders and progress dashboards.
Financial Services.
We market our platform to address regulatory compliance risk and enterprise risk at banks, insurance companies and other financial services companies. Examples of regulations facing our customers include the Dodd-Frank Act, Basel III, Capital Requirements Regulation (CRR), Capital Requirements Directive (CRD), Resolution and Recovery Plans (RRP), Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review (CCAR), and Dodd-Frank Stress Testing (DFAST). We also help investment management companies streamline industry-specific compliance and capital markets transactions.
Regulations outside of the U.S. include the European Banking Authority’s Supervisory Review and Evaluation Process (SREP), which requires institutions to report on their Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process (ICAAP) and the Internal Liquidity Adequacy Assessment Process (ILAAP). The Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates financial services firms and financial markets in the UK, requires reporting under the Client Asset Sourcebook (CASS) rules for registered firms who hold or control client money or custody assets.
Workiva Platform Technology
Workiva is the cloud-based, multi-tenant technology platform upon which all Workiva software solutions run. Our platform is built on Amazon Web Services and Google Cloud Platform and is composed of proprietary and open-source technologies. Users can access all Workiva solutions with any standard web browser and iPad and Android applications. We believe that the following characteristics comprise our platform’s key competitive advantages:
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Easy to Deploy and Configure. The Workiva platform can be deployed within days or weeks for new customers and can be easily configured by the customer for individual employees or entire teams. Because our solutions are browser-based, customers avoid costly, time-intensive deployments typically associated with on-premise enterprise software.
High Performance. The architecture, design, deployment and management of our solutions are focused on enterprise-grade scalability, availability and security. The performance of the Workiva platform has been tested and proven by some of the largest, most demanding enterprises in the world.
Always Improving. Additionally, constant customer collaboration and development iteration allows us to offer our customers continuous improvements by releasing a new version of our platform several times each week.
Scales Rapidly. The Workiva platform is designed to support millions of end users as a result of its scalability and our relationship with Google Cloud Platform and Amazon Web Services. A number of our customers have reported millions of links to single sources of data, among multiple documents, spreadsheets and presentations, without any noticeable negative effects on performance.
Secure. Many of the largest enterprises in the world trust us with their most sensitive data. We employ stringent data security, reliability, integrity and privacy practices. In addition to our regular customer security assessments, we employ best practice web technologies, including continuous and ongoing penetration and vulnerability testing (manual and automatic, internal and third-party). The quality of our data security efforts is validated by our annual completion of an independent audit process.
Research and Development
Our research and development team is distributed among nine office locations in North America and Europe, including our headquarters in Ames, Iowa. Our research and development efforts are focused on improving the Workiva platform for broad use across all of our solutions. Our innovation is driven by listening to our customers and creating solutions to meet their needs. We employ Agile software development methods that place customers at the heart of the design process. This includes constant collaboration and iteration that delivers new software functionality at a very fast pace.
Customers
Thousands of organizations, including global enterprises with hundreds of thousands of employees trust Workiva. As of December 31, 2019, we had more than 3,500 customers, including nearly 75% of Fortune 500 companies. Our Workiva platform modernizes the way our customers work. Our customers are passionate, loyal supporters of our solutions, as demonstrated by our subscription and support revenue retention rate of 94.7% (excluding add-on seats) as of the December 2019 measurement date. Our subscription and support revenue retention rate including add-on seats was 113.0% as of the December 2019 measurement date.
Competition
The intensity and nature of our competition varies significantly across our different solutions, as changes in regulation and market trends result in evolving customer requirements and demand for enterprise software. Our primary competitors include:
Status quo, manual business processes that rely on legacy business software tools;
Diversified enterprise software providers;
Niche software providers that provide point solutions;
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Providers of professional services, including consultants and business and financial printers;
Governance, risk and compliance software providers; and
Business intelligence / performance management software providers.
As our markets expand, we expect to compete with more highly specialized software vendors as well as larger vendors that may continue to acquire or bundle their products more effectively.
The principal competitive factors in our market include: product features, reliability, performance and effectiveness; product line breadth, diversity and applicability; product extensibility and ability to integrate with other technology infrastructures; price and total cost of ownership; adherence to industry standards and certifications; strength of sales and marketing efforts; and brand awareness and reputation. We believe that our cloud-based platform has the combination of features and value to our customers that will continue to allow us to compete favorably.
Sales and Marketing
Our “land-and-expand” sales strategy focuses on acquiring new customers and growing our existing customer relationships. We believe that we have penetrated only a small fraction of our market opportunity, and we intend to continue investing in sales and marketing to drive growth in the U.S., Canada, Europe and parts of Asia.
Sales
Our sales organization employs a combination of field sales, inside sales and partnership channels.
Our sales organization comprises sales development representatives, pre-sales engineers and account managers. Our sales development representatives qualify sales-accepted opportunities for our account managers. Our pre-sales engineers focus on solutions and custom product demonstrations and consultative sales. Our account managers work to attract new customers as well as expand our platform into new use cases and departments across our current customers’ organizations.
Our customer success and professional services teams also help our account managers grow our existing customer relationships by providing advice and best practices that enable users to harness the full power of our platform.
We expect to continue to strengthen our sales coverage in our current markets, as well as expand our sales footprint in locations where we see a demand for our solutions. To achieve this growth, we plan to continue to hire motivated sales people with experience in large enterprise software sales and in specific geographical regions. We believe that our approach to hiring sales people, along with a progressive training, culture and compensation package will allow us to retain sales talent and continue to drive growth.
In 2019, we continued to expand our ecosystem of partners, including global consulting firms, systems integrators, large and mid-sized Independent Software Vendors (ISV) and implementation partners. Our advisory and service partners offer a wider range of domain and functional expertise that broadens our platform’s capabilities and promotes Workiva as part of the financial transformation projects they drive for their customers. Our technology partners enable powerful data and process integrations to help customers connect critical transactional systems directly to our platform.
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Marketing
Our marketing organization promotes our brand, generates demand for our offerings and researches and assesses product and market needs. Our advance planning team assesses customer needs, conducts industry-based research and identifies new markets. Our product marketing team develops the go-to-market strategy for Workiva solutions and manages pricing and licensing strategies. The product marketing team also supports our sales team with playbooks that include profiles of typical buyers, key messages, value propositions, competitive analysis and sales strategies.
Our demand generation programs are categorized by solution and industry and are focused on engaging business leaders, process owners and technology teams. We use a variety of marketing programs across traditional and social channels to target current and prospective customers.
Professional Services and Customer Success
We believe our professional services and customer success teams are essential contributors to our long-term success and differentiate our services from our competitors.
Professional Services. Professional Services include initial setup of documents; XBRL mapping, tagging and review; best practices implementation; and business process consulting. Our XBRL team is primarily composed of people with accounting or financial reporting experience who work with our customers to perform XBRL mapping, tagging and review services. We also employ a team of Solution Architects who offer consulting services to customers to improve and streamline their Workiva-related business data processes.
Customer Success. Our Customer Success Managers (CSMs) partner with our users to understand their business goals and objectives and offer in-depth knowledge and best practices. In addition to our CSMs, our Customer Success Experts (CSEs) provide 24/7 live customer support via phone, digital messaging and web-based conferencing. We provide intensive training to both our CSMs and CSEs and segment them for each solution and market focus. In addition, we pay for employees to maintain professional certifications and licenses that are important to our customers, and we host regular company-wide employee education sessions on business, industry, technology and workplace topics.
Intellectual Property
Our intellectual property and proprietary rights are important to our business. To safeguard these rights, we rely on a combination of patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws and contractual protections in the United States and other jurisdictions.
As of December 31, 2019, we had 44 issued patents and 19 patent applications pending in the United States relating to our platform. We cannot assure you that any of our patent applications will result in the issuance of a patent or whether the examination process will require us to narrow or otherwise limit our claims. Any patents issued may be contested, designed around, found unenforceable, or invalidated, and we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing them. We also license software from third parties for integration into our solutions, including open source software and other software available on commercially reasonable terms. We cannot assure you that such third parties will maintain such software or continue to make it available.
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We control access to and use of our proprietary software and other confidential information through the use of internal and external controls, including contractual protections with employees, contractors, end-customers, and partners, and our software is protected by U.S. and international copyright laws. Despite our efforts to protect our trade secrets and proprietary rights through intellectual property rights, licenses, and confidentiality agreements, unauthorized parties may still copy or otherwise obtain and use our software and technology. In addition, we intend to expand our international operations, and effective patent, copyright, trademark, and trade-secret protection may not be available or may be limited in foreign countries.
If we continue to be successful, we believe that competitors will be more likely to try to develop solutions and services that are similar to ours and that may infringe our proprietary rights. It may also be more likely that competitors or other third parties will claim that our platform infringes their proprietary rights.
Our industry is characterized by the existence of a large number of patents and frequent claims and related litigation regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. In particular, leading companies in the enterprise software industry have extensive patent portfolios and are regularly involved in both offensive and defensive litigation. From time to time, third parties, including certain of these leading companies, may assert claims of infringement, misappropriation or other violations of intellectual property rights against us, and our standard license and other agreements obligate us to indemnify our customers against such claims. Successful claims of infringement by a third party could prevent us from distributing certain solutions or performing certain services, require us to expend time and money to develop non-infringing solutions, or force us to pay substantial damages (including enhanced damages if we are found to have willfully infringed patents or copyrights), royalties or other fees. In addition, to the extent that we gain greater visibility and market exposure as a public company, we face a higher risk of being the subject of intellectual property infringement claims from third parties. We cannot assure you that we do not currently infringe, or that we will not in the future infringe, upon any third-party patents, copyrights or other proprietary rights. 
We have registered a number of trademarks and logos, including “Workiva,” “Wdesk” and "Wdata" with the United States Patent and Trademark Office and in several jurisdictions outside the United States. We have also registered other trademarks in the United States and in other jurisdictions outside the United States. In addition, we intend to expand our international operations, and we cannot assure you that these names will be available for use in all such jurisdictions.
Litigation
From time to time we may become involved in legal proceedings or be subject to claims arising in the ordinary course of our business. Although the results of litigation and claims cannot be predicted with certainty, we currently believe that the final outcome of any currently pending legal proceedings to which we are a party will not have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial condition or cash flows. Regardless of the outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources and other factors.
Employees
As of December 31, 2019, we had 1,580 full-time employees. Our headcount as of December 31, 2019 increased 19.8% from 1,319 full-time employees as of December 31, 2018. None of our U.S. employees is represented by a labor organization or is a party to any collective bargaining arrangement. We have never experienced a strike or similar work stoppage, and we consider our relations with our employees to be good.
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Corporate Information
We were formed in California in August 2008 as WebFilings LLC. In July 2014, we changed our name to Workiva LLC, and we converted into a Delaware limited liability company in September 2014. On December 10, 2014, Workiva LLC was converted into a Delaware corporation and renamed Workiva Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 2900 University Boulevard, Ames, Iowa 50010, and our telephone number is (888) 275-3125. Our website address is www.workiva.com.
Copies of annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act), are available, free of charge, on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we file such material electronically with or furnish it to the SEC. The SEC also maintains a website that contains our SEC filings. The address of the site is www.sec.gov.
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Item 1A. Risk Factors
Our operations and financial results are subject to various risks and uncertainties, including those described below. You should carefully consider the following risks and all of the other information contained in this report, including our consolidated financial statements and related notes, before investing in any of our securities. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that adversely affect our business. If any of the following risks, or other risks and uncertainties that are not yet identified or that we currently think are immaterial, actually occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and future prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the market price of our Class A common stock could decline. We may amend, supplement or add to the risk factors described below from time to time in future reports filed with the SEC.
Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
We have a relatively limited operating history, which makes it difficult to predict our future operating results.
We were founded in 2008 and have a relatively limited operating history. We began offering our first solution in 2010 and launched our platform in 2013. As a result of our limited operating history, our ability to forecast our future operating results is limited and subject to a number of uncertainties, including our ability to plan for and model future growth. We have encountered and will encounter risks and uncertainties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing industries, such as the risks and uncertainties described herein. If our assumptions regarding these risks and uncertainties (which we use to plan our business) are incorrect or change due to changes in our markets, or if we do not address these risks successfully, our operating and financial results could differ materially from our expectations and our business could suffer.
We have not been profitable historically and may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future.
We have posted a net loss in each fiscal year since we began operations in 2008, including net losses of approximately $48.1 million in fiscal 2019, $50.1 million in fiscal 2018 and $44.4 million in fiscal 2017. While we have experienced continued revenue growth in recent periods, we are not certain whether or when we will obtain a high enough volume of subscriptions to sustain or increase our growth or achieve or maintain profitability in the future. In addition, we plan to continue to invest in our infrastructure, new solutions, research and development and sales and marketing, and as a result, we cannot assure you that we will achieve or maintain profitability. Because we intend to continue spending in anticipation of the revenue we expect to receive from these efforts, our expenses will be greater than the expenses we would incur if we developed our business more slowly. In addition, we may find that these efforts are more expensive than we currently anticipate, which would further impact our profitability.
We may incur losses in the future for a number of reasons, including the other risks and uncertainties described in this annual report. Additionally, we may encounter unforeseen operating expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other unknown factors that may result in losses in future periods. If our revenue growth does not meet our expectations in future periods, our financial performance may be harmed, and we may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future.
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Our revenue growth rate in recent periods may not be indicative of our future performance.
We experienced revenue growth rates of 22%, 18% and 16% in fiscal 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. Our historical revenue growth rates are not indicative of future growth, and we may not achieve similar revenue growth rates in future periods. You should not rely on our revenue or revenue growth for any prior quarterly or annual periods as any indication of our future revenue or revenue growth. If we are unable to maintain consistent revenue or revenue growth, our stock price could be volatile, and it may be difficult to achieve and maintain profitability.
Failure to manage our growth may adversely affect our business or operations.
Since 2010, we have experienced significant growth in our business, customer base, employee headcount and operations, and we expect to continue to grow our business over the next several years. This growth places a significant strain on our management team and employees and on our operating and financial systems. To manage our future growth we must continue to scale our business functions, improve our financial and management controls and our reporting systems and procedures and expand and train our work force. In particular, we grew from 109 employees as of December 31, 2010 to more than 1,500 employees as of December 31, 2019. We anticipate that additional investments in sales personnel, infrastructure and research and development spending will be required to:
scale our operations and increase productivity;
address the needs of our customers;
further develop and enhance our existing solutions and offerings;
develop new technology; and
expand our markets and opportunity under management, including into new solutions and geographic areas.
We cannot assure you that our controls, systems and procedures will be adequate to support our future operations or that we will be able to manage our growth effectively. We also cannot assure you that we will be able to continue to expand our market presence in the United States, Europe, and other current markets or successfully establish our presence in other markets. Failure to effectively manage growth could result in difficulty or delays in deploying customers, declines in quality or customer satisfaction, increases in costs, difficulties in introducing new features or other operational difficulties, and any of these difficulties could adversely impact our business performance and results of operations.
Our quarterly results may fluctuate significantly and may not fully reflect the underlying performance of our business.
Our quarterly results of operations, including the levels of our revenue, gross margin, profitability, cash flow and deferred revenue, may vary significantly in the future, and period-to-period comparisons of our operating results may not be meaningful. Accordingly, the results of any one quarter should not be relied upon as an indication of future performance. Our quarterly financial results may fluctuate as a result of a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, and therefore, may not fully reflect the underlying performance of our business. Fluctuations in quarterly results may negatively impact the value of our Class A common stock. Factors that may cause fluctuations in our quarterly financial results include, without limitation, those listed below:
our ability to attract new customers in multiple regions around the world;
the addition or loss of large customers, including through acquisitions or consolidations;
the timing of recognition of revenue;
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the amount and timing of operating expenses related to the maintenance and expansion of our business, operations and infrastructure;
network outages, security breaches, technical difficulties or interruptions with our services;
general economic, industry and market conditions;
customer renewal rates;
pricing changes upon any renewals of customer agreements;
the pace of transition of customers from seat-based licensing to solution-based licensing;
changes in our pricing policies or those of our competitors;
the mix of solutions sold during a period;
seasonal variations in sales of our solutions;
seasonal variations in the delivery of our services;
the timing and success of new product and service introductions by us or our competitors or any other change in the competitive dynamics of our industry, including consolidation among competitors, customers or strategic partners;
the announcement or adoption of new regulations and policy mandates or changes to existing regulations and policy mandates;
changes in foreign currency exchange rates;
future accounting pronouncements or changes in our accounting policies;
general economic conditions, both domestically and in the foreign markets in which we sell our solutions;
the timing of expenses related to the development or acquisition of technologies or businesses and potential future charges for impairment of goodwill from acquired companies; and
unforeseen litigation and intellectual property infringement.
We derive a majority of our revenue from customers using our platform for SEC filings. Our efforts to continue to increase use of our platform in other applications may not succeed and may reduce our revenue growth rate.
We derive a majority of our revenue from customers using our platform for SEC filings. We began our sales and marketing of our platform for regulatory risk, SOX, enterprise risk management and audit management relatively recently. While non-SEC use cases generated just over half of our total bookings in 2019, it is uncertain whether these non-SEC use cases will achieve the level of market acceptance we have achieved in the SEC filing market. Further, the introduction of new solutions beyond these markets may not be successful. Any factor adversely affecting sales of our platform or solutions, including release cycles, market acceptance, competition, performance and reliability, reputation and economic and market conditions, could adversely affect our business and operating results.
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Our solutions face intense competition in the marketplace. If we are unable to compete effectively, our operating results could be adversely affected.
The market for our solutions is increasingly competitive, rapidly evolving and fragmented, and is subject to changing technology and shifting customer needs. Although we believe that our platform and the solutions that it offers are unique, many vendors develop and market products and services that compete to varying extents with our offerings, and we expect competition in our market to continue to intensify. Moreover, industry consolidation may increase competition. In addition, many companies have chosen to invest in their own internal reporting solutions and therefore may be reluctant to switch to solutions such as ours.
We compete with many types of companies, including diversified enterprise software providers; providers of professional services, such as consultants and business and financial printers; governance, risk and compliance software providers; and business intelligence/corporate performance management software providers. Many of our existing competitors, as well as a number of potential new competitors, have longer operating histories, greater name recognition, more established customer bases and significantly greater financial, technical, marketing and other resources than we do. As a result, our competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards or customer requirements. We could lose customers if our competitors introduce new competitive products, add new features, acquire competitive products, reduce prices, form strategic alliances with other companies or are acquired by third parties with greater available resources. We also face competition from a variety of vendors of cloud-based and on-premise software applications that address only a portion of one of our solutions. We may also face increasing competition from open source software initiatives, in which competitors may provide software and intellectual property for free. In addition, if a prospective customer is currently using a competing solution, the customer may be unwilling to switch to our solutions without access to setup support services. If we are unable to provide those services on terms attractive to the customer, the prospective customer may be unwilling to utilize our solutions. If our competitors’ products, services or technologies become more accepted than our solutions, if they are successful in bringing their products or services to market earlier than ours, or if their products or services are more technologically capable than ours, then our revenue could be adversely affected. In addition, some of our competitors may offer their products and services at a lower price. If we are unable to achieve our target pricing levels, our operating results would be negatively affected. Pricing pressures and increased competition could result in reduced sales, reduced margins, losses or a failure to maintain or improve our competitive market position, any of which would adversely affect our business.
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Our revenue growth will depend in part on the success of our efforts to augment our direct-sales channels by developing relationships with third parties.
Prior to 2017, we relied almost exclusively on the direct-sales model to market our platform. In order to continue to build our business, we plan to continue to develop partnerships to support our sales efforts through referrals and co-selling arrangements. Our efforts to develop relationships with partners are still at an early stage, we have generated limited revenue through these relationships to date, and we cannot assure you that we will be able to develop and maintain successful partnerships or that these partners will be successful in marketing and selling our platform or solutions based upon our platform. Identifying partners, negotiating and supporting relationships with them and maintaining relationships requires a significant commitment of time and resources that may not yield a significant return on our investment. We expect that our partners will have only limited commitments to dedicate resources to marketing and promoting our solutions. In addition, our competitors may be more effective in providing incentives to our partners or prospective partners to favor their products or services over our solutions. If we are unsuccessful in establishing or maintaining our relationships with partners, or if these partners are unsuccessful in marketing or selling our solutions or are unable or unwilling to devote sufficient resources to these activities, our ability to compete in the marketplace or to grow our revenue could be impaired and our operating results may suffer. Further, new or emerging technologies, technological trends or changes in customer requirements may result in certain third parties de-emphasizing their dealings with us or becoming potential competitors in the future.
Failure to establish and maintain partnerships that can provide complementary technology offerings and software integrations could limit our ability to grow our business.
Our growth strategy includes expanding the use of our platform through complementary technology offerings and software integrations, such as third-party application programming interfaces, or APIs. While we have established relationships with certain providers of complementary technology offerings and software integrations, we cannot assure you that we will be successful in maintaining partnerships with these providers or in establishing additional partnerships of this type. Third-party providers of complementary applications and APIs may decline to enter into partnerships with us or may later terminate their relationships with us, change the features of their applications and platforms, restrict our access to their applications and platforms or alter the terms governing use of their applications and APIs and access to those applications and platforms in an adverse manner. Such changes could functionally limit or terminate our ability to use these third-party applications and platforms with the Workiva platform, which could negatively impact our offerings and harm our business. Further, if we fail to integrate the Workiva platform with new third-party applications and platforms that our customers use, or to adapt to the data transfer requirements of such third-party applications and platforms, we may not be able to offer the functionality that our customers need, which would negatively impact our offerings and, as a result, could negatively affect our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, we may benefit from these partners’ brand recognition, reputations, referrals and customer bases. Any losses or shifts in the referrals from or the market positions of these partners in general, in relation to one another or to new competitors or new technologies could lead to losses in our relationships or customers or our need to identify or transition to alternative channels for marketing our solutions.
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If we do not keep pace with technological changes, our solutions may become less competitive and our business may suffer.
Our market is characterized by rapid technological change, frequent product and service innovation and evolving industry standards. If we are unable to provide enhancements and new features for our existing solutions or new solutions that achieve market acceptance or that keep pace with these technological developments, our business could be adversely affected. For example, we are in the process of transitioning customers to the next generation of our platform. In addition, we focus on enhancing the features of our platform to improve its utility for larger customers with complex, dynamic and global operations. The success of enhancements, new features and solutions depends on several factors, including the timely completion, introduction and market acceptance of the enhancements or new features or solutions. If we fail to successfully complete the transition to the next generation of our platform or to complete and introduce platform enhancements, or if our customers experience difficulties using our platform as a result of the transition or of the implementation of these enhancements, our revenue retention and revenue growth may be adversely affected. In addition, because our solutions are designed to operate on a variety of systems, we will need to continuously modify and enhance our solutions to keep pace with changes in internet-related hardware, software, communication, browser and database technologies. We may not be successful in either developing these modifications and enhancements or in bringing them to market in a timely fashion. Furthermore, uncertainties about the timing and nature of new network platforms or technologies, or modifications to existing platforms or technologies, could increase our research and development expenses. Any failure of our solutions to keep pace with technological changes or operate effectively with future network platforms and technologies could reduce the demand for our solutions, result in customer dissatisfaction and adversely affect our business.
If we fail to manage our technical operations infrastructure, our existing customers may experience service outages, and our new customers may experience delays in the deployment of our solutions.
We have experienced significant growth in the number of users, projects and data that our operations infrastructure supports. We seek to maintain sufficient excess capacity in our operations infrastructure to meet the needs of all of our customers. We also seek to maintain excess capacity to facilitate the rapid provision of new customer deployments and the expansion of existing customer deployments. In addition, we need to properly manage our technological operations infrastructure in order to support changes in hardware and software parameters and the evolution of our solutions, all of which require significant lead time. Our platform interacts with technology provided by Google, Amazon and other third-party providers, and our technological infrastructure depends on this technology. We have experienced, and may in the future experience, website disruptions, outages and other performance problems. These problems may be caused by a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, human or software errors, viruses, security attacks, fraud, spikes in customer usage and denial of service issues. In some instances, we may not be able to identify the cause or causes of these performance problems within an acceptable period of time. If we do not accurately predict our infrastructure requirements, our existing customers may experience service outages that may subject us to financial penalties, financial liabilities and customer losses. If our operations infrastructure fails to keep pace with increased sales, customers may experience delays as we seek to obtain additional capacity, which could adversely affect our reputation and our revenue.
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As a provider of cloud-based software, we rely on the services of third-party data center hosting facilities. Interruptions or delays in those services could impair the delivery of our service and harm our business.
Our platform has been developed with, and is based on, cloud computing technology. It is hosted pursuant to service agreements on servers by third-party service providers, including those with Google and Amazon. We do not control the operation of these providers or their facilities, and the facilities are vulnerable to damage, interruption or misconduct. Unanticipated problems at these facilities could result in lengthy interruptions in our services. If the services of one or more of these providers are terminated, disrupted, interrupted or suspended for any reason, we could experience disruption in our ability to offer our solutions, or we could be required to retain the services of replacement providers, which could increase our operating costs and harm our business and reputation. In addition, as we grow, we may move or transfer our data and our customers’ data to other cloud hosting providers. Despite precautions taken during this process, any unsuccessful data transfers may impair the delivery of our service. Further, any damage to, or failure of, the cloud servers that we use could result in interruptions in our services. Interruptions in our service may damage our reputation, reduce our revenue, cause us to issue credits or pay penalties, cause customers to terminate their subscriptions and adversely affect our renewal rates and our ability to attract new customers. Our business would be harmed if our customers and potential customers believe our service is unreliable.
Any failure or interruptions in the internet infrastructure, bandwidth providers, data center providers, other third parties or our own systems for providing our solutions to customers could negatively impact our business.
Our ability to deliver our solutions is dependent on the development and maintenance of the internet and other telecommunications services by third parties. Such services include maintenance of a reliable network backbone with the necessary speed, data capacity and security for providing reliable internet access and services and reliable telecommunications systems that connect our operations. While our solutions are designed to operate without interruption, we may experience interruptions and delays in services and availability from time to time. We rely on systems as well as third-party vendors, including data center, bandwidth, and telecommunications equipment providers, to provide our solutions. We do not maintain redundant systems or facilities for some of these services. In the event of a catastrophic event with respect to one or more of these systems or facilities, we may experience an extended period of system unavailability, which could negatively impact our relationship with our customers.
Any failure to offer high-quality technical support services may adversely affect our relationships with our customers and our financial results.
Once our solutions are deployed, our customers depend on our customer success organization to resolve technical issues relating to our solutions. In addition, in order to maintain our high levels of customer satisfaction and retention, we may need to provide additional support to customers as they transition to the next generation of our platform. We may be unable to respond quickly enough to accommodate short-term increases in customer demand for support services without incurring additional expenses or at all. We also may be unable to modify the format of our support services to compete with changes in support services provided by our competitors. Increased customer demand for these services, without corresponding revenue, could increase costs and adversely affect our operating results. In addition, our sales process is highly dependent on our solutions and business reputation and on positive recommendations from our existing customers. Any failure to maintain high-quality technical support, or a market perception that we do not maintain high-quality support, could adversely affect our reputation, our ability to sell our solutions to existing and prospective customers, and our business, operating results and financial position.
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Because our platform is offered on a subscription basis, we are required to recognize revenue for it over the term of the subscription. As a result, downturns or upturns in sales may not be immediately reflected in our operating results.
We generally recognize subscription and support revenue from customers ratably over the terms of their subscription agreements, which are typically on a quarterly or annual cycle and automatically renew for additional periods. As a result, a substantial portion of the revenue we report in each quarter will be derived from the recognition of deferred revenue relating to subscription agreements entered into during previous quarters. Consequently, a decline in new or renewed subscriptions in any one quarter may not be immediately reflected in our revenue results for that quarter. Such a decline, however, would negatively affect our revenue in future quarters. Accordingly, the effect of any significant downturns in sales and market acceptance of our solutions and potential changes in our rate of renewals may not be fully reflected in our results of operations until future periods. Our subscription model also makes it difficult for us to rapidly increase our subscription revenue through additional sales in any period, as revenue from new customers must be recognized over the applicable subscription term. In addition, we may be unable to adjust our cost structure to reflect the changes in revenue, which could adversely affect our operating results.
We cannot accurately predict subscription renewal or upgrade rates and the impact these rates may have on our future revenue and operating results.
Our business depends substantially on customers renewing their subscriptions with us and expanding their use of our services. Our customers have no obligation to renew their subscriptions for our services after the expiration of their initial subscription period. While we have historically maintained a subscription and support revenue retention rate of greater than 94%, we may be unable to maintain this historical rate and we may be unable to accurately predict our subscription and support revenue retention rate. In addition, our customers may renew for shorter contract lengths, lower prices or fewer users. We cannot accurately predict new subscription or expansion rates and the impact these rates may have on our future revenue and operating results. Our renewal rates may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including customer dissatisfaction with our service, customers’ ability to continue their operations and spending levels and deteriorating general economic conditions. If our customers do not renew their subscriptions for our service, purchase fewer solutions at the time of renewal, or negotiate a lower price upon renewal, our revenue will decline and our business will suffer. Our future success also depends in part on our ability to sell additional solutions and services, more subscriptions or enhanced editions of our services to our current customers, which may also require increasingly sophisticated and costly sales efforts that are targeted at senior management. If our efforts to sell additional solutions and services to our customers are not successful, our growth and operations may be impeded. In addition, any decline in our customer renewals or failure to convince our customers to broaden their use of our services would harm our future operating results.
Adverse economic conditions or reduced technology spending may adversely impact our business.
Our business depends on the overall demand for technology and on the economic health of our current and prospective customers. In general, worldwide economic conditions remain unstable, and these conditions make it difficult for our customers, prospective customers and us to forecast and plan future business activities accurately. These conditions could cause our customers or prospective customers to reevaluate their decision to purchase our solutions. Weak global economic conditions, or a reduction in technology spending even if economic conditions improve, could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations in a number of ways, including longer sales cycles, lower prices for our solutions, reduced bookings and lower or no growth.
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If we cannot maintain our corporate culture as we grow, we could lose the innovation, teamwork, passion and focus on execution that we believe contribute to our success, and our business may be harmed.
We believe our corporate culture is a critical component to our success. We have invested substantial time and resources in building our team. As we grow and develop the infrastructure of a public company, we may find it difficult to maintain our corporate culture. Any failure to preserve our culture could negatively affect our future success, including our ability to retain and recruit personnel and effectively focus on and pursue our corporate objectives.
We depend on our senior management team and other key employees, and the loss of one or more key employees could adversely affect our business.
Our success depends largely upon the continued services of our key executive officers. We also rely on our leadership team and other mission-critical individuals in the areas of research and development, marketing, sales, services and general and administrative functions. From time to time, there are changes in our management team resulting from the hiring or departure of executives or other key employees, which could disrupt our business. Our senior management and key employees are generally employed on an at-will basis, which means that they could terminate their employment with us at any time. The loss of one or more of our executive officers or key employees could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our ability to attract, train and retain qualified employees is crucial to our results of operations and any future growth.
To execute our growth plan, we must attract and retain highly qualified personnel. Competition for these individuals is intense, especially for engineers with high levels of experience in designing and developing software and internet-related services, senior sales executives and professional services personnel with appropriate financial reporting experience. We have, from time to time, experienced, and we expect to continue to experience, difficulty in hiring and retaining employees with appropriate qualifications. Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have. If we hire employees from competitors or other companies, their former employers may attempt to assert that these employees have breached their legal obligations or that we have induced such breaches, resulting in a diversion of our time and resources. If we fail to attract new personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, our business and future growth prospects could be adversely affected.
Our workforce is our primary operating expense and subjects us to risks associated with increases in the cost of labor as a result of increased competition for employees, higher employee turnover rates and required wage increases and health benefit coverage, lawsuits or labor union activity.
Labor is our primary operating expense. As of December 31, 2019, we employed 1,580 full-time employees. For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, employee compensation and benefits accounted for approximately 76% of our total operating expense. We may face labor shortages or increased labor costs because of increased competition for employees, higher employee turnover rates, or increases in employee benefit costs. If labor-related expenses increase, our operating expense could increase, which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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We are subject to the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) and various federal and state laws governing such matters as minimum wage requirements, overtime compensation and other working conditions, citizenship requirements, discrimination and family and medical leave. In recent years, a number of companies have been subject to lawsuits, including class action lawsuits, alleging violations of federal and state law regarding workplace and employment matters, overtime wage policies, discrimination and similar matters. A number of these lawsuits have resulted in the payment of substantial damages by the defendants. Similar lawsuits may be threatened or instituted against us from time to time, and we may incur substantial damages and expenses resulting from lawsuits of this type, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
There may be adverse tax and employment law consequences if the independent contractor status of our consultants or the exempt status of our employees is successfully challenged.
We retain consultants from time to time as independent contractors. Although we believe that we have properly classified these individuals as independent contractors, there is nevertheless a risk that the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) or another federal, state, provincial or foreign authority will take a different view. Furthermore, the tests governing the determination of whether an individual is considered to be an independent contractor or an employee are typically fact sensitive and vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Laws and regulations that govern the status and misclassification of independent contractors are subject to change or interpretation by various authorities. If a federal, state or foreign authority or court enacts legislation or adopts regulations that change the manner in which employees and independent contractors are classified or makes any adverse determination with respect to some or all of our independent contractors, we could incur significant costs under such laws and regulations, including for prior periods, in respect of tax withholding, social security taxes or payments, workers’ compensation and unemployment contributions, and recordkeeping, or we may be required to modify our business model, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. There is also a risk that we may be subject to significant monetary liabilities arising from fines or judgments as a result of any such actual or alleged non-compliance with federal, state or foreign tax laws. Further, if it were determined that any of our independent contractors should be treated as employees, we could incur additional liabilities under our applicable employee benefit plans.
In addition, we have classified many of our U.S. employees as “exempt” under the FLSA. If it were determined that any of our U.S. employees who we have classified as “exempt” should be classified as “non-exempt” under the FLSA, we may incur costs and liabilities for back wages, unpaid overtime, fines or penalties and be subject to employee litigation.
Fixed-fee engagements with customers may not meet our expectations if we underestimate the cost of these engagements.
We provide certain professional services on a fixed-fee basis. When making proposals for fixed-fee engagements, we estimate the costs and timing for completing the engagements. We provide professional services on both SEC and non-SEC solutions, including our regulated risk and SOX compliance solutions. Professional services on non-SEC solutions usually involve a different mix of subscription, support and services than professional services on our SEC solution. Growth in professional services on non-SEC solutions may impact our gross margins in ways that we cannot predict. If we are required to spend more hours than planned to perform these services, our cost of services revenue could exceed the fees charged to our customers on certain engagements and could cause us to recognize a loss on a contract, which would adversely affect our operating results. In addition, if we are unable to provide these professional services, we may lose sales or incur customer dissatisfaction, and our business and operating results could be significantly harmed.
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Our sales cycle is unpredictable. As more of our sales efforts are targeted at larger enterprise customers, our sales cycle may become more time-consuming and expensive, and we may encounter pricing pressure, which could harm our business and operating results.
The cost and length of our sales cycle varies by customer and is unpredictable. As we target more of our sales efforts at selling additional solutions to larger enterprise customers, we may face greater costs, longer sales cycles and less predictability in completing some of our sales. These types of sales often require us to provide greater levels of education regarding the use and benefits of our service. In addition, larger customers may demand more document setup services, training and other professional services. As a result of these factors, these sales opportunities may require us to devote greater sales support and professional services resources to individual customers, driving up costs and time required to complete sales and diverting sales and professional services resources to a smaller number of larger transactions.
Our quarterly results reflect seasonality in revenue from professional services, which makes it difficult to predict our future operating results.
We have historically experienced seasonal variations in our revenue from professional services as many of our customers employ our professional services just before they file their Form 10-K in the first calendar quarter. As of December 31, 2019, approximately 77% of our SEC customers report their financials on a calendar year basis. While we expect our professional services revenue to become less seasonal as our non-SEC offerings grow, a significant portion of our revenue may continue to reflect seasonality, which makes it difficult to predict our future operating results. As a result, our operating and financial results could differ materially from our expectations and our business could suffer.
The success of our cloud-based software largely depends on our ability to provide reliable solutions to our customers. If a customer were to experience a product defect, a disruption in its ability to use our solutions or a security flaw, demand for our solutions could be diminished, we could be subject to substantial liability and our business could suffer.
Because our solutions are complex and we continually release new features, our solutions could have errors, defects, viruses or security flaws that could result in unanticipated downtime for our subscribers and harm our reputation and our business. Internet-based software frequently contains undetected errors or security flaws when first introduced or when new versions or enhancements are released. We might from time to time find such defects in our solutions, the detection and correction of which could be time consuming and costly. Since our customers use our solutions for important aspects of their business, any errors, defects, disruptions in access, security flaws, viruses, data corruption or other performance problems with our solutions could hurt our reputation and may damage our customers’ businesses. If that occurs, customers could elect not to renew, could delay or withhold payment to us or may make warranty or other claims against us, which could result in an increase in our provision for doubtful accounts, an increase in collection cycles for accounts receivable or the expense and risk of litigation. We could also lose future sales. In addition, if the public becomes aware of security breaches of our solutions, our future business prospects could be adversely impacted.
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We employ third-party licensed software for use in or with our solutions, and the inability to maintain these licenses or the existence of errors in the software we license could result in increased costs or reduced service levels, which would adversely affect our business.
Our solutions incorporate certain third-party software, including the Google Cloud Platform, that may be licensed to or hosted by or on behalf of Workiva, or may be hosted by a licensor and accessed by Workiva on a Software-as-a-Service basis. We anticipate that we will continue to rely on third-party software and development tools from third parties in the future. There may not be commercially reasonable alternatives to the third-party software we currently use, or it may be difficult or costly to replace. In addition, integration of the software used in our solutions with new third-party software may require significant work and require substantial investment of our time and resources. Also, to the extent that our solutions depend upon the successful operation of third-party software in conjunction with our software, any undetected errors or defects in this third-party software could prevent the deployment or impair the functionality of our solutions, delay new solution introductions, result in a failure of our solutions and injure our reputation. Our use of additional or alternative third-party software would require us to enter into license agreements with third parties. Any inability to maintain or acquire third-party licensed software for use in our solutions could result in increased costs or reduced service levels, which would adversely affect our business.
Changes in laws and regulations related to the internet or changes in the internet infrastructure itself may diminish the demand for our solutions and could have a negative impact on our business.
The future success of our business depends upon the continued use of the internet as a primary medium for commerce, communication and business solutions. Federal, state or foreign government bodies or agencies have in the past adopted, and may in the future adopt, laws or regulations affecting the use of the internet as a commercial medium. Changes in these laws or regulations could require us to modify our solutions in order to comply with these changes. In addition, government agencies or private organizations may begin to impose taxes, fees or other charges for accessing the internet or commerce conducted via the internet. These laws or charges could limit the growth of internet-related commerce or communications generally or result in reductions in the demand for internet-based solutions such as ours.
In addition, the use of the internet as a business tool could be adversely affected due to delays in the development or adoption of new standards and protocols to handle increased demands of internet activity, security, reliability, cost, ease of use, accessibility and quality of service. The performance of the internet and its acceptance as a business tool has been adversely affected by “viruses,” “worms” and similar malicious programs, and the internet has experienced a variety of outages and other delays as a result of damage to portions of its infrastructure. If the use of the internet is adversely affected by these issues, demand for our solutions could suffer.
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We are subject to U.S. and foreign data privacy and protection laws and regulations as well as contractual privacy obligations, and our failure to comply could subject us to fines and damages and would harm our reputation and business.
We manage private and confidential information and documentation related to our customers’ finances and transactions, often prior to public dissemination. The use of insider information is highly regulated in the United States and abroad, and violations of securities laws and regulations may result in civil and criminal penalties. In addition, we are subject to the data privacy and protection laws and regulations adopted by federal, state and foreign legislatures and governmental agencies. Data privacy and protection is highly regulated and may become the subject of additional regulation in the future. Privacy laws restrict our storage, use, processing, disclosure, transfer and protection of non-public personal information that may be placed in our platform by our customers or collected from visitors while visiting our websites. We strive to comply with all applicable laws, regulations, policies and legal obligations relating to privacy and data protection. However, it is possible that these requirements may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another and may conflict with other rules or our practices. Any failure, or perceived failure, by us to comply with federal, state or international laws, including laws and regulations regulating privacy, payment card information, personal health information, data or consumer protection, could result in proceedings or actions against us by governmental entities or others.
The regulatory framework for privacy and data protection issues worldwide is evolving, and various government and consumer agencies and public advocacy groups have called for new regulation and changes in industry practices, including some directed at providers of mobile and online resources in particular. Our obligations with respect to privacy and data protection may become broader or more stringent. If we are required to change our business activities or revise or eliminate services, or to implement costly compliance measures, our business and results of operations could be harmed.
In addition, as we expand our operations internationally, compliance with regulations that differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction may also impose substantial burdens on our business. In particular, the European Union, or E.U., has traditionally taken a broader view as to what is considered personal information and has imposed greater obligations under data privacy regulations. In addition, individual E.U. member countries have had discretion with respect to their interpretation and implementation of the regulations, which has resulted in variation of privacy standards from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Complying with any additional or new regulatory requirements could force us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices in a manner that could compromise our ability to effectively pursue our growth strategy. Further, because our customers often use a Workiva account across multiple jurisdictions, E.U. regulators could determine that we transfer data from the E.U. to the U.S., which could subject us to E.U. laws with respect to data privacy. Those laws and regulations are uncertain and subject to change. For example, the E.U and U.S. recently agreed to an alternative transfer framework for data transferred from the E.U. to the U.S., called the Privacy Shield, but this new framework is subject to an annual review that could result in changes to our obligations and also may be challenged by national regulators or private parties. In addition, the other bases on which we rely to legitimize the transfer of data, such as standard Model Contractual Clauses (MCCs), have been subjected to regulatory or judicial scrutiny. If one or more of the legal bases for transferring data from Europe to the United States is invalidated, or if we are unable to transfer personal data between and among countries and regions in which we operates, it could affect the manner in which we provide our services or adversely affect our financial results.
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New or proposed legislation and regulations could also significantly affect our business. The European Commission has implemented a data protection regulation, known as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which came into force in May 2018. The GDPR includes operational requirements for companies that receive or process personal data of residents of the European Union that are different than those previously in place in the European Union, and that include significant penalties for non-compliance. In addition, some countries and states are considering or have passed legislation implementing data protection requirements or requiring local storage and processing of data or similar requirements that could increase the cost and complexity of delivering our services.There are currently a number of proposals pending before federal, state, and foreign legislative and regulatory bodies.
These laws and regulations, as well as any associated inquiries or investigations or any other government actions, may be costly to comply with and may delay or impede the development of new products, result in negative publicity, increase our operating costs, require significant management time and attention, and subject us to remedies that may harm our business, including fines or demands or orders that we modify or cease existing business practices. For example, California recently enacted legislation, the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) that requires, among other things, covered companies to provide new disclosures to California consumers, and afford such consumers new abilities to opt out of certain sales of personal information. We cannot yet predict the impact of the CCPA on our business or operations, but it may require us to modify our data processing practices and policies and to incur substantial costs and expenses in an effort to comply.
In addition to government activity, the technology industry and other industries are considering various new, additional or different self-regulatory standards that may place additional burdens on us. If the processing of private and confidential information were to be curtailed in this manner, our software solutions may be less effective, which may reduce demand for our solutions and adversely affect our business. Furthermore, government agencies may seek to access sensitive information that our customers upload to our service providers or restrict customers’ access to our service providers. Laws and regulations relating to government access and restrictions are evolving, and compliance with such laws and regulations could limit adoption of our services by customers and create burdens on our business. Moreover, investigations into our compliance with privacy-related obligations could increase our costs and divert management attention.
We are also subject to the privacy and data protection-related obligations in our contracts with our customers and other third parties. We could be adversely affected by changes to these contracts in ways that are inconsistent with our practices or in conflict with the laws and regulations of the United States, foreign or international regulatory authorities. We may also be contractually liable to indemnify and hold harmless our clients from the costs or consequences of inadvertent or unauthorized disclosure of data that we store or handle as part of providing our services. Finally, we are also subject to contractual obligations and other legal restrictions with respect to our collection and use of data, and we may be liable to third parties in the event we are deemed to have wrongfully used or gathered data.
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As our customers and prospects prepare to comply with frequently changing privacy legislation, including GDPR, we are subject to our customers’ enhanced due diligence prior to contract execution. Furthermore, the uncertainty of how regulators will apply privacy laws in different jurisdictions has caused many companies to adopt very broad and restrictive vendor policies, contract templates and pre-requisites. Many times, these policies are applied without consideration of the underlying intent of the vendor’s service or data that will be shared (e.g., a blanket policy that all vendors, regardless of services, are required to agree to a Data Protection Agreement). Due to the aforementioned changes to privacy law, our current and prospective customers have begun to require us to adopt contractual clauses or amendments to existing agreements regarding privacy compliance prior to conducting new (or any) business with us by virtue of negotiating new clauses and/or agreements. In addition, due diligence by current or prospective customers may take the form of onsite audits and questionnaires. Negotiating these clauses and satisfying customers’ concerns around privacy risk can slow down the overall sales cycle due to the coordination of so many subject matter experts. Slower sales cycles may limit our ability to grow and create focus on compliance points as opposed to new sales.
Any failure by us or a third-party contractor providing services to us to comply with applicable privacy and data protection laws, regulations, self-regulatory requirements or industry guidelines, our contractual privacy obligations or our own privacy policies, may result in fines, statutory or contractual damages, litigation or governmental enforcement actions. These proceedings or violations could force us to spend significant amounts in defense or settlement of these proceedings, result in the imposition of monetary liability, distract our management, increase our costs of doing business, and adversely affect our reputation and the demand for our solutions.
Our privacy policies and practices concerning the collection, use and disclosure of user data are available on our websites. Any failure, or perceived failure, by us to comply with our posted privacy policies or with any regulatory requirements or orders or other federal, state or international privacy or consumer protection-related laws and regulations could result in proceedings or actions against us by governmental entities or others (e.g., class action privacy litigation), subject us to significant penalties and negative publicity, require us to change our business practices, increase our costs and adversely affect our business. Data collection, privacy and security have become the subject of increasing public concern. If users were to reduce their use of our websites, products, and services as a result of these concerns, our business could be harmed.
If we or our service providers fail to keep our customers’ information confidential or otherwise handle their information improperly, our business and reputation could be significantly and adversely affected.
Because data security is a critical competitive factor in our industry, we make numerous statements in our privacy policy and customer agreements, through our certifications to privacy standards and in our marketing materials, providing assurances about the security of our platform including detailed descriptions of security measures we employ. If we fail to keep customers’ proprietary information and documentation confidential, we may lose existing customers and potential new customers and may expose them to significant loss of revenue based on the premature release of confidential information. While we have security measures in place to protect customer information and prevent data loss and other security breaches, these measures may be breached as a result of third-party action, employee error, malfeasance or otherwise. Because the techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or sabotage systems change frequently and generally are not identified until they are launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures.
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In addition, our service providers (including, without limitation, hosting facilities, disaster recovery providers and software providers) may have access to our customers’ data and could suffer security breaches or data losses that affect our customers’ information.
If an actual or perceived security breach or premature release occurs, our reputation could be damaged and we may lose future sales and customers. We may also become subject to civil claims, including indemnity or damage claims in certain customer contracts, or criminal investigations by appropriate authorities, any of which could harm our business and operating results. Furthermore, while our errors and omissions insurance policies include liability coverage for these matters, if we experienced a widespread security breach that impacted a significant number of our customers for whom we have these indemnity obligations, we could be subject to indemnity claims that exceed such coverage.
Any failure to protect our intellectual property rights could impair our ability to protect our proprietary technology and our brand.
Our success substantially depends upon our proprietary methodologies and other intellectual property rights. Unauthorized use of our intellectual property by third parties may damage our brand and our reputation. As of December 31, 2019, we had 44 issued patents and 19 patent applications pending in the United States, and we expect to seek additional patents in the future. In addition, we rely on a combination of copyright, trademark and trade secret laws, employee and third-party non-disclosure and non-competition agreements and other methods to protect our intellectual property. However, unauthorized parties may attempt to copy or obtain and use our technology to develop products with the same functionality as our solutions. We cannot assure you that the steps we take to protect our intellectual property will be adequate to deter misappropriation of our proprietary information or that we will be able to detect unauthorized use and take appropriate steps to protect our intellectual property. United States federal and state intellectual property laws offer limited protection, and the laws of some countries provide even less protection. Moreover, changes in intellectual property laws, such as changes in the law regarding the patentability of software, could also impact our ability to obtain protection for our solutions. In addition, patents may not be issued with respect to our pending or future patent applications. Those patents that are issued may not be upheld as valid, may be contested or circumvented, or may not prevent the development of competitive solutions.
We might be required to spend significant resources and divert the efforts of our technical and management personnel to monitor and protect our intellectual property. Litigation brought to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could be costly, time-consuming and distracting to management and could result in the impairment or loss of portions of our intellectual property. Furthermore, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property rights. Any failure to secure, protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could seriously adversely affect our brand and adversely impact our business.
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Assertions by third parties of infringement or other violations by us of their intellectual property rights could result in significant costs and harm our business and operating results. 
Patent and other intellectual property disputes are common in our industry. Our success depends upon our ability to refrain from infringing upon the intellectual property rights of others. Some companies, including some of our competitors, own large numbers of patents, copyrights and trademarks, which they may use to assert claims against us. As we grow and enter new markets, we will face a growing number of competitors. As the number of competitors in our industry grows and the functionality of products in different industry segments overlaps, we expect that software and other solutions in our industry may be subject to such claims by third parties. Third parties may in the future assert claims of infringement, misappropriation or other violations of intellectual property rights against us. We cannot assure you that infringement claims will not be asserted against us in the future, or that, if asserted, any infringement claim will be successfully defended. A successful claim against us could require that we pay substantial damages or ongoing royalty payments, prevent us from offering our services, or require that we comply with other unfavorable terms. We may also be obligated to indemnify our customers or business partners or pay substantial settlement costs, including royalty payments, in connection with any such claim or litigation and to obtain licenses, modify applications or refund fees, which could be costly. Even if we were to prevail in such a dispute, any litigation regarding our intellectual property could be costly and time-consuming and divert the attention of our management and key personnel from our business operations.
Some of our solutions utilize open source software, and any failure to comply with the terms of one or more of these open source licenses could negatively affect our business.
Some of our solutions include software covered by open source licenses, which may include, by way of example, GNU General Public License and the Apache License. The terms of various open source licenses have not been interpreted by United States courts, and there is a risk that such licenses could be construed in a manner that imposes unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to market our solutions. By the terms of certain open source licenses, we could be required to release the source code of our proprietary software, and to make our proprietary software available under open source licenses, if we combine our proprietary software with open source software in a certain manner. In the event that portions of our proprietary software are determined to be subject to an open source license, we could be required to publicly release the affected portions of our source code, re-engineer all or a portion of our technologies, or otherwise be limited in the licensing of our technologies, each of which could reduce or eliminate the value of our technologies and services. In addition to risks related to license requirements, usage of open source software can lead to greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or controls on the origin of the software. Many of the risks associated with usage of open source software cannot be eliminated and could negatively affect our business.
If we fail to continue to develop our brand, our business may suffer.
We believe that continuing to develop and maintain awareness of our brand is critical to achieving widespread acceptance of our solution and is an important element in attracting and retaining customers. Efforts to build our brand may involve significant expense and may not generate customer awareness or increase revenue at all, or in an amount sufficient to offset expenses we incur in building our brand.
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Promotion and enhancement of our name and the brand names of our solutions depends largely on our success in being able to provide high quality, reliable and cost-effective solutions. If customers do not perceive our solutions as meeting their needs, or if we fail to market our solutions effectively, we will likely be unsuccessful in creating the brand awareness that is critical for broad customer adoption of our solutions. That failure could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.
Legislative and regulatory changes can influence demand for our solutions and could adversely affect our business.
The market for our solutions depends in part on the requirements of the SEC, the Federal Reserve System, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and other regulatory bodies. Any legislation or rulemaking substantially affecting the content or method of delivery of documents to be filed with these regulatory bodies could have an adverse effect on our business. In addition, evolving market practices in light of regulatory developments could adversely affect the demand for our solutions. Uncertainty caused by political change in the United States and European Union (particularly Brexit) heightens regulatory uncertainty in these areas. For example, the White House and Congressional leadership have publicly announced a goal of repealing or amending parts of the Dodd Frank Act, as well as certain regulations affecting the financial services industry. New legislation, or a significant change in rules, regulations, directives or standards could reduce demand for our products and services, increase expenses as we modify our products and services to comply with new requirements and retain relevancy, impose limitations on our operations, and increase compliance or litigation expense, each of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may need to raise additional capital, which may not be available to us.
Our future liquidity and capital requirements are difficult to predict as they depend upon many factors, including the success of our solutions and competing technological and market developments. In the future, we may require additional capital to respond to business opportunities, challenges, acquisitions, a decline in the level of customer prepayments or unforeseen circumstances and may determine to engage in equity or debt financings or enter into credit facilities for other reasons, and we may not be able to timely secure additional debt or equity financing on favorable terms, or at all. Any debt financing obtained by us in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity, convertible debt securities or other securities convertible into equity, our existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution in their percentage ownership of our company, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our Class A common stock. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us when we require it, our ability to continue to grow or support our business and to respond to business challenges could be significantly limited.
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The adoption of new tax legislation could adversely affect our business and financial condition
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. federal government enacted legislation commonly referred to as the “Tax Cuts and Jobs Act” (the “TCJA”). The TCJA made widespread changes to the Internal Revenue Code, and, among other changes, reduced the federal corporate tax rate to 21%, imposed significant additional limitations on the deductibility of interest, allowed for the expensing of capital expenditures, imposed a one-time tax on unrepatriated earnings from certain foreign subsidiaries, taxes offshore earnings at reduced rates regardless of whether they are repatriated, and modified or repealed many business deductions and credits. Our financial statements for the current year reflect the effects of the TCJA based on current guidance, including the remeasurement of our deferred tax assets and liabilities, as well as the effects of the reduced rate of the U.S. corporate income tax and certain other provisions of the TCJA on our effective tax rate and operating results. Uncertainties related to the interpretation of the TCJA could materially impact our tax obligations and effective tax rate, as well as our business strategy and tax planning. In addition, the TCJA could be subject to potential amendments and technical corrections, any of which could materially lessen or increase certain adverse impacts of the legislation on us and our business. We continue to evaluate the effects of the TCJA on us as federal and state tax authorities issue additional regulations and guidance. Such additional regulations and guidance, and any amendments or technical corrections enacted with respect to the TCJA, could cause our consolidated financial results to differ from previous estimates and could materially affect our financial condition, as well as the value of an investment in our Class A common stock. Investors should consult with their own tax advisors with respect to the TCJA and the potential tax consequences of investing in common shares.
Determining our income tax rate is complex and subject to uncertainty.
The computation of provision for income tax is complex, as it is based on the laws of numerous taxing jurisdictions and requires significant judgment on the application of complicated rules governing accounting for tax provisions under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. Provision for income tax for interim quarters is based on a forecast of our U.S. and non-U.S. effective tax rates for the year, which includes forward-looking financial projections, including the expectations of profit and loss by jurisdiction, and contains numerous assumptions. Various items cannot be accurately forecasted and future events may be treated as discrete to the period in which they occur. Our provision for income tax can be materially impacted, for example, by the geographical mix of our profits and losses, changes in our business, such as internal restructuring and acquisitions, changes in tax laws and accounting guidance and other regulatory, legislative or judicial developments, most recently the TCJA, tax audit determinations, changes in our uncertain tax positions, changes in our intent and capacity to permanently reinvest foreign earnings, changes to our transfer pricing practices, tax deductions attributed to equity compensation and changes in our need for a valuation allowance for deferred tax assets. For these reasons, our actual income taxes may be materially different than our provision for income tax.
Adverse tax laws or regulations could be enacted or existing laws could be applied to us or our customers, which could increase the costs of our services and adversely impact our business.
The application of federal, state, local and international tax laws to services provided electronically is evolving. New income, sales, use or other tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be enacted at any time (possibly with retroactive effect), and could be applied solely or disproportionately to services provided over the internet. These enactments could adversely affect our sales activity due to the inherent cost increase the taxes would represent and ultimately result in a negative impact on our operating results.
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In addition, existing tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be interpreted, changed, modified or applied adversely to us (possibly with retroactive effect), which could require us or our customers to pay additional tax amounts, as well as require us or our customers to pay fines or penalties and interest for past amounts. If we are unsuccessful in collecting such taxes from our customers, we could be held liable for such costs, thereby adversely impacting our operating results.
We operate and offer our services in many jurisdictions and, therefore, may be subject to federal, state, local and foreign taxes that could harm our business.
As an organization that operates in many jurisdictions in the United States and around the world, we may be subject to taxation in several jurisdictions with increasingly complex tax laws, the application of which can be uncertain. The authorities in these jurisdictions, including state and local taxing authorities in the United States, could successfully assert that we are obligated to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties. In addition, the amount of taxes we pay could increase substantially as a result of changes in the applicable tax principles, including increased tax rates, new tax laws or revised interpretations of existing tax laws and precedents, which could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and operating results. The authorities could also claim that various withholding requirements apply to us or our subsidiaries or assert that benefits of tax treaties are not available to us or our subsidiaries, any of which could have a material impact on us and the results of our operations. In addition, we may lose sales or incur significant costs should various tax jurisdictions impose taxes on either a broader range of services or services that we have performed in the past. We may be subject to audits of the taxing authorities in any such jurisdictions that would require us to incur costs in responding to such audits. Imposition of such taxes on our services could result in substantially unplanned costs, would effectively increase the cost of such services to our customers and could adversely affect our ability to retain existing customers or to gain new customers in the areas in which such taxes are imposed.
We operate service sales centers in multiple locations. Some of the jurisdictions in which we operate may give us the benefit of either relatively low tax rates, tax holidays or government grants, in each case that are dependent on how we operate or how many jobs we create and employees we retain. We plan on utilizing such tax incentives in the future as opportunities are made available to us. Any failure on our part to operate in conformity with applicable requirements to remain qualified for any such tax incentives or grants may result in an increase in our taxes. In addition, jurisdictions may choose to increase rates at any time due to economic or other factors. Any such rate increase could harm our results of operations.
In addition, the TCJA will impact the tax treatment of our foreign earnings. Due to expansion of our international business activities, any changes in the U.S. taxation of such activities could increase our worldwide effective tax rate and adversely affect our financial position and results of operations.
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We may have additional tax liabilities, which could harm our business, results of operations or financial position.
Significant judgments and estimates are required in determining the provision for income taxes and other tax liabilities. Our tax expense may be impacted if our intercompany transactions, which are required to be computed on an arm’s-length basis, are challenged and successfully disputed by the tax authorities. Also, our tax expense could be impacted depending on the applicability of withholding taxes and indirect tax on software licenses and related intercompany transactions in certain jurisdictions. In determining the adequacy of income taxes, we assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes that could result if our tax positions were challenged by the IRS and other tax authorities. The tax authorities in the United States and other countries where we do business regularly examine our income and other tax returns. The ultimate outcome of these examinations cannot be predicted with certainty. Should the IRS or other tax authorities assess additional taxes as a result of examinations, we may be required to record charges to operations that could have a material impact on our results of operations, or financial position. In addition, uncertainties related to the interpretation of the TCJA could materially impact our tax obligations and effective tax rate, as well as our business strategy and tax planning.
Sales to customers outside the United States expose us to risks inherent in international sales.
A key element of our growth strategy is to expand our international operations and develop a worldwide customer base. A growing portion of our revenue is from customers headquartered outside the United States. Operating in international markets requires significant resources and management attention and subjects us to regulatory, economic and political risks that are different from those in the United States. Because of our limited experience with international operations, our international expansion efforts may not be successful in creating additional demand for our solutions outside of the United States or in effectively selling subscriptions to our solutions in all of the international markets we enter. In addition, we face risks in doing business internationally that could adversely affect our business, including:
the need to localize and adapt our solutions for specific countries, including translation into foreign languages and associated expenses;
increased management, travel, infrastructure, legal compliance and regulation costs associated with having multiple international operations;
sales and customer service challenges associated with operating in different countries;
data privacy laws that require customer data to be stored and processed in a designated territory;
inadequate local infrastructure and difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations;
different pricing environments, longer sales cycles and longer accounts receivable payment cycles and collections issues;
new and different sources of competition;
weaker protection for intellectual property and other legal rights than in the United States and practical difficulties in enforcing intellectual property and other rights outside of the United States;
laws and business practices favoring local competitors;
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compliance challenges related to the complexity of multiple, conflicting and changing governmental laws and regulations, including employment, tax, privacy and data protection laws and regulations;
increased financial accounting and reporting burdens and complexities;
restrictions on the transfer of funds;
an uncertain trade environment;
adverse tax consequences;
unstable regional and economic political conditions;
changes in the public perception of governments in the regions where we operate or plan to operate;
liquidity issues or political actions by sovereign nations, including nations with a controlled currency environment, which could result in decreased values of these balances or potential difficulties protecting our foreign assets or satisfying local obligations;
delays resulting from difficulty in obtaining export licenses for certain technology, tariffs, quotas and other trade barriers;
issues resulting from operations in locations with a higher incidence of corruption and fraudulent business practices; and
natural disasters, acts of war, terrorism, pandemics or security breaches.
Currently, some of our international contracts are denominated in local currencies; however, the majority of our local costs are denominated in local currencies. We anticipate that over time, an increasing portion of our international contracts may be denominated in local currencies. Therefore, fluctuations in the value of the United States dollar and foreign currencies may impact our operating results when translated into United States dollars. We do not currently engage in currency hedging activities to limit the risk of exchange rate fluctuations.
Some of our third-party business partners have international operations and are also subject to these risks and if our third-party business partners are unable to appropriately manage these risks, our business may be harmed. If sales to any of our customers outside of the United States are reduced, delayed or canceled because of any of the above factors, our revenue may decline.
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The uncertainty surrounding the implementation and effect of Brexit may cause increased economic volatility, affecting our operations and business.
Effective January 31, 2020, the U.K. commenced an exit from the E.U. (referred to as Brexit). During the transition period (set to expire on December 31, 2020), the British government will continue to negotiate the terms of the U.K.’s future relationship with the EU. The outcome of these negotiations is uncertain, and we do not know to what extent Brexit will ultimately impact the business and regulatory environment in the U.K., the rest of the E.U., or other countries. Changes impacting our ability to conduct business in the U.K. or other E.U. countries, or changes to the regulatory regime applicable to our operations in those countries may cause disruptions to, and create uncertainty surrounding, our business in the U.K. and E.U., including affecting our relationships with our existing and future customers, suppliers and employees. As a result, Brexit could have an adverse effect on our future business, financial results and operations. Brexit has resulted in significant volatility in global stock market and currency exchange rate fluctuations. The political and economic instability created by Brexit has caused and may continue to cause significant volatility in global financial markets and uncertainty regarding the regulation of data protection in the U.K. Brexit could also have the effect of disrupting the free movement of goods, services, and people between the U.K., the E.U., and elsewhere. The effects of Brexit will depend on any agreements the U.K. makes to retain access to E.U. markets either during the transition period or more permanently. Brexit could lead to legal uncertainty and potentially divergent national laws and regulations as the U.K. determines which E.U. laws to replace or replicate. In particular, it is unclear how the U.K.’s vote to leave the European Union will affect the U.K.’s enactment of the European General Data Protection Regulation, and how data transfers to and from the U.K. will be regulated. Further, uncertainty around these and related issues could lead to adverse effects on the economy of the U.K. and the other economies in which we operate. There can be no assurance that any or all of these events will not have a material adverse effect on our business operations, results of operations and financial condition.
We may acquire other companies or technologies, which could divert our management’s attention, result in additional dilution to our stockholders and otherwise disrupt our operations and adversely affect our operating results.
We periodically seek to acquire or invest in businesses, applications or technologies that we believe could complement or expand our solutions, enhance our technical capabilities or otherwise offer growth opportunities. The pursuit of potential acquisitions may divert the attention of management and cause us to incur various expenses in identifying, investigating and pursuing suitable acquisitions, whether or not they are consummated.
In addition, we have limited experience in acquiring other businesses. If we acquire additional businesses, we may not be able to integrate the acquired personnel, operations and technologies successfully or effectively manage the combined business following the acquisition. We also may not achieve the anticipated benefits from the acquired business due to a number of factors, including:
inability to integrate or benefit from acquired technologies or services in a profitable manner;
unanticipated costs or liabilities associated with the acquisition;
incurrence of acquisition-related costs;
difficulty integrating the accounting systems, operations and personnel of the acquired business;
difficulties and additional expenses associated with supporting legacy products and hosting infrastructure of the acquired business;
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difficulty converting the customers of the acquired business onto our solutions and contract terms, including disparities in the revenue, licensing, support or professional services model of the acquired company;
diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns;
adverse effects to our existing business relationships with business partners and customers as a result of the acquisition;
the potential loss of key employees;
use of resources that are needed in other parts of our business; and
use of substantial portions of our available cash to consummate the acquisition.
In addition, a significant portion of the purchase price of companies we acquire may be allocated to acquired goodwill and other intangible assets, which must be assessed for impairment at least annually. In the future, if our acquisitions do not yield expected returns, we may be required to take charges to our operating results based on this impairment assessment process, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
Acquisitions could also result in dilutive issuances of equity securities or the incurrence of debt, which could adversely affect our operating results. In addition, if an acquired business fails to meet our expectations, our operating results, business and financial position could suffer.
We are subject to general litigation that may materially adversely affect us.
From time to time, we may be involved in disputes or regulatory inquiries that arise in the ordinary course of business. We expect that the number and significance of these potential disputes may increase as our business expands and our company grows larger. While our agreements with customers limit our liability for damages arising from our solutions, we cannot assure you that these contractual provisions will protect us from liability for damages in the event we are sued. Although we carry general liability insurance coverage, our insurance may not cover all potential claims to which we are exposed or may not be adequate to indemnify us for all liability that may be imposed. Any claims against us, whether meritorious or not, could be time consuming, result in costly litigation, require significant amounts of management time, and result in the diversion of significant operational resources. Because litigation is inherently unpredictable, we cannot assure you that the results of any of these actions will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our reported financial results may be adversely affected by changes in accounting principles generally accepted in the United States, including those related to revenue recognition.
Generally accepted accounting principles in the United States are subject to interpretation by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), the SEC, and various bodies formed to promulgate and interpret appropriate accounting principles. A change in these principles or interpretations could have a significant effect on our reported financial results and could affect the reporting of transactions completed before the announcement of a change.
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In February 2016, the FASB issued guidance codified in Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 842, Leases (ASU 2016-02), which amends the guidance in former ASC 840, Leases. We adopted this new standard on the effective date of January 1, 2019. The application of this guidance resulted in the addition of right-of-use assets and lease liabilities on our consolidated balance sheet. We have implemented changes to our accounting processes, internal controls and disclosures to support the new standard. See Note 1 to our accompanying consolidated financial statements for information about ASU 2016-02.
Any difficulties in implementing new or revised accounting principles could cause us to fail to meet our financial reporting obligations, which could result in regulatory discipline, harm investors’ confidence in us, and adversely affect our stock price.
Our ability to use our net operating losses to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.
In general, under Section 382 of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the "Code"), a corporation that undergoes an ownership change within the meaning of Section 382 of the Code and the underlying regulations is subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its pre-change net operating losses ("NOLs"), to offset future taxable income. If our existing NOLs are subject to limitations arising from previous ownership changes, our ability to utilize NOLs could be limited by Section 382 of the Code. Future changes in our stock ownership, some of which are outside of our control, could result in an ownership change under Section 382 of the Code. Furthermore, our ability to utilize the NOLs of companies that we may acquire in the future may be subject to limitations. There is also a risk that either under prior regulations or other unforeseen reasons, our prior year NOLs could expire or otherwise be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities. For these reasons, we may not be able to realize a tax benefit from the use of our NOLs, whether or not we attain profitability.
The conditional conversion feature of our convertible senior notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.
We completed an offering of convertible notes in August 2019. In the event the conditional conversion feature of our convertible senior notes is triggered, holders of notes will be entitled to convert the notes at any time during specified periods at their option. If one or more holders elect to convert their notes, unless we elect to satisfy our conversion obligation by delivering solely shares of our Class A common stock (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we would be required to settle a portion or all of our conversion obligation through the payment of cash, which could adversely affect our liquidity. In addition, even if holders do not elect to convert their notes, we could be required under applicable accounting rules to reclassify all or a portion of the outstanding principal of the notes as a current rather than long-term liability, which would result in a material reduction of our net working capital.
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Conversion of our convertible senior notes may dilute the ownership interest of our stockholders or may otherwise depress the price of our Class A common stock.
The conversion of some or all of our convertible senior notes may dilute the ownership interests of our stockholders. Upon conversion of the notes, we have the option to pay or deliver, as the case may be, cash, shares of our Class A common stock, or a combination of cash and shares of our Class A common stock. If we elect to settle our conversion obligation in shares of our Class A common stock or a combination of cash and shares of our Class A common stock, any sales in the public market of our Class A common stock issuable upon such conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our Class A common stock. In addition, the existence of the notes may encourage short selling by market participants that engage in hedging or arbitrage activity, and anticipated conversion of the notes into shares of our Class A common stock could depress the price of our Class A common stock.
Certain provisions in the indenture governing the notes offered in our convertible note offering may delay or prevent an otherwise beneficial takeover attempt of us.
Certain provisions in the indenture governing our convertible senior notes may make it more difficult or expensive for a third party to acquire us. For example, the indenture governing the notes will require us to repurchase the notes for cash upon the occurrence of a fundamental change (as defined in the indenture governing the notes) of us and, in certain circumstances, to increase the conversion rate for a holder that converts its notes in connection with a make-whole fundamental change. A takeover of us may trigger the requirement that we repurchase the notes and/or increase the conversion rate, which could make it more costly for a potential acquirer to engage in such takeover. Such additional costs may have the effect of delaying or preventing a takeover of us that would otherwise be beneficial to investors.
Servicing our debt requires a significant amount of cash, and we may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to pay our substantial debt.
Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on or to refinance our indebtedness, including our convertible senior notes, depends on our future performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. In addition, holders of the notes will have the right to require us to repurchase their notes for cash upon the occurrence of certain fundamental changes. Upon conversion of the notes, unless we elect to deliver solely shares of our Class A common stock to settle such conversion (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we will be required to make cash payments in respect of the notes being converted. Our business may not continue to generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations.
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The accounting method for convertible debt securities that may be settled in cash, such as our convertible senior notes, could have a material effect on our reported financial results.
Under FASB ASC 470-20, Debt with Conversion and Other Options, (ASC 470-20), an entity must separately account for the liability and equity components of convertible debt instruments (such as our convertible senior notes) that may be settled entirely or partially in cash upon conversion in a manner that reflects the issuer’s economic interest cost. ASC 470-20 requires the value of the conversion option of the notes, representing the equity component, to be recorded as additional paid-in capital within stockholders’ equity in our consolidated balance sheet and as a discount to the notes, which reduces their initial carrying value. The carrying value of the notes, net of the discount and issuance costs, will be accreted up to the principal amount of the notes from the issuance date until maturity, which will result in non-cash charges to interest expense in our consolidated statement of operations. Accordingly, we will report lower net income or higher net loss in our financial results because ASC 470-20 requires interest to include both the current period’s accretion of the debt discount and issuance costs and the instrument's coupon interest, which could adversely affect our reported or future financial results, the trading price of our Class A common stock and the trading price of the notes.
In addition, under certain circumstances, convertible debt instruments (such as the notes) that may be settled entirely or partly in cash are currently accounted for utilizing the treasury stock method, the effect of which is that the shares issuable upon conversion of the notes are not included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share to the extent that the conversion value of the notes exceeds their principal amount, and the effect of the conversion on diluted earnings per share is not antidilutive. Under the treasury stock method, for diluted earnings per share purposes, the transaction is accounted for as if the number of share of Class A common stock that would be necessary to settle such excess, if we elected to settle such excess in shares, are issued. We cannot be sure that the accounting standards in the future will continue to permit the use of the treasury stock method. If we are unable to use the treasury stock method in accounting for the shares issuable upon conversion of the notes, then our diluted earnings per share would be adversely affected.
We may still incur substantially more debt or take other actions which would intensify the risks discussed above.
We and our subsidiaries may incur substantial additional debt in the future, some of which may be secured debt. We will not be restricted under the terms of the indenture governing the notes from incurring additional debt, securing existing or future debt, repurchasing our stock, pledging our assets, making investments, paying dividends, guaranteeing debt, or taking a number of other actions that are not limited by the terms of the indenture governing the notes that could have the effect of diminishing our ability to make payments on the notes when due.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Class A Common Stock
Our stock price has been and will likely continue to be volatile or may decline regardless of our operating performance, resulting in substantial losses for our investors.
The trading price for shares of our Class A common stock has been, and is likely to continue to be, volatile for the foreseeable future. The market price of our Class A common stock may fluctuate in response to many risk factors listed in this section, and others beyond our control, including:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our financial condition and operating results;
changes in projected operational and financial results;
addition or loss of significant customers;
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changes in laws or regulations applicable to our solutions;
actual or anticipated changes in our growth rate relative to our competitors;
announcements of technological innovations or new offerings by us or our competitors;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital-raising activities or commitments;
additions or departures of key personnel;
changes in our financial guidance or securities analysts’ estimates of our financial performance;
discussion of us or our stock price by the financial press and in online investor communities;
changes in accounting principles;
announcements related to litigation;
fluctuations in the valuation of companies perceived by investors to be comparable to us;
sales of our Class A or Class B common stock by us or our stockholders;
share price and volume fluctuations attributable to inconsistent trading volume levels of our shares; and
general economic and market conditions.
Furthermore, the stock markets recently have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have affected and continue to affect the market prices of equity securities of many companies, and technology companies in particular. These fluctuations often have been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of those companies. These broad market and industry fluctuations, as well as general economic, political and market conditions such as recessions, interest rate changes or international currency fluctuations, may negatively impact the market price of our Class A common stock. In the past, companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have been subject to securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Securities litigation against us could result in substantial costs and divert our management’s attention from other business concerns, which could harm our business.
If there are substantial sales of shares of our Class A common stock, the price of our Class A common stock could decline.
Certain officers and other significant stockholders completed a secondary offering of our Class A common stock in August 2019. The price of our Class A common stock could decline if there are substantial additional sales of our Class A common stock, particularly sales by our directors, executive officers and significant stockholders, or if there is a large number of shares of our Class A common stock available for sale. All of the shares of Class A common stock sold in our prior registered offering are freely tradeable without restrictions or further registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (Securities Act), except for any shares held by our affiliates as defined in Rule 144 under the Securities Act. Shares held by directors, executive officers and other affiliates are subject to volume limitations under Rule 144 under the Securities Act. In addition, the shares of Class A common stock subject to outstanding options under our equity incentive plans and the shares reserved for future issuance under our equity incentive plans are eligible for sale to the public, subject to certain legal and contractual limitations. The market price of the shares of our Class A common stock could decline as a result of the sale of a substantial number of our shares of common stock in the public market or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell their shares.
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The dual class structure of our common stock has the effect of concentrating voting control with our executives and their affiliates.
Our Class B common stock has ten votes per share, and our Class A common stock has one vote per share. As of December 31, 2019, the holders of shares of our Class B common stock collectively beneficially owned shares representing approximately 69% of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock. Our executive officers collectively beneficially owned shares representing a majority of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock as of that date. Because of the ten-to-one voting ratio between our Class B and Class A common stock, the holders of our Class B common stock collectively will continue to control a majority of the combined voting power of our common stock and therefore be able to control all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval so long as the shares of Class B common stock represent at least 9.1% of all outstanding shares of our Class A and Class B common stock. This concentrated control will limit the ability of Class A common stockholders to influence corporate matters for the foreseeable future and may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control, impeding a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination involving us, or discouraging a potential acquirer from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our business, even if such a transaction would benefit other stockholders. The holders of Class B common stock may also have interests that differ from those of Class A common stock holders and may vote in a way that may be adverse to the interests of holders of Class A common stock.
Future transfers by holders of Class B common stock will generally result in those shares converting to Class A common stock, subject to limited exceptions, such as certain transfers to family members and transfers effected for estate planning purposes. The conversion of Class B common stock to Class A common stock will have the effect, over time, of increasing the relative voting power of those holders of Class B common stock who retain their shares in the long term. If, for example, certain holders of Class B common stock retain a significant portion of their holdings of Class B common stock for an extended period of time, and a significant portion of the Class B common stock initially held by other executives is converted to Class A common stock, the remaining holders of Class B common stock could, as a result, acquire control of a majority of the combined voting power. As directors and executive officers, the initial beneficial owners of Class B common stock owe a fiduciary duty to our stockholders and must act in good faith in a manner they reasonably believe to be in the best interests of our stockholders. As stockholders, even if one of them becomes a controlling stockholder, each beneficial owner of Class B common stock is entitled to vote his shares in his own interests, which may not always be in the interests of our stockholders generally.
Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of us more difficult, limit attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management and may negatively affect the market price of our Class A common stock.
Provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control or changes in our management. Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws include provisions that:
establish that our board of directors is divided into three classes, with each class serving three-year staggered terms;
provide that our directors may be removed only for cause;
provide that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by a majority of directors then in office, even though less than a quorum;
require that any action to be taken by our stockholders be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting and not by written consent;
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specify that special meetings of our stockholders can be called only by our board of directors, the chairman of our board of directors or our chief executive officer or president (in the absence of a chief executive officer);
establish an advance notice procedure for stockholder proposals to be brought before an annual meeting, including proposed nominations of persons for election to our board of directors;
authorize our board of directors to issue, without further action by the stockholders, up to 100,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock;
require the approval of our board of directors or the holders of a supermajority of our outstanding shares of capital stock to amend our bylaws and certain provisions of our certificate of incorporation; and
reflect two classes of common stock, as discussed above. 
These provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors, which is responsible for appointing the members of our management. In addition, we are a Delaware corporation and governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which generally prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any of a broad range of business combinations with any “interested” stockholder, in particular those owning 15% or more of our outstanding voting stock, for a period of three years following the date on which the stockholder became an “interested” stockholder.
Future sales and issuances of our capital stock or rights to purchase capital stock could result in additional dilution of the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could cause our stock price to decline.
Our certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue up to 1,000,000,000 shares of Class A common stock. Future sales and issuances of our capital stock or rights to purchase our capital stock could result in substantial dilution to our existing stockholders. We may sell Class A common stock, convertible securities and other equity securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner as we may determine from time to time. If we sell any such securities in subsequent transactions, investors may be materially diluted. New investors in subsequent transactions could gain rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our Class A common stock.
We incur significant costs and devote substantial management time as a result of operating as a public company.
As a public company, we incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we would not incur as a private company. For example, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, and are required to comply with the applicable requirements of SOX and the Dodd-Frank Act, as well as rules and regulations subsequently implemented by the SEC and the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), including the establishment and maintenance of effective disclosure and financial controls and changes in corporate governance practices. Compliance with these requirements has increased our legal and financial compliance costs and made some activities more time consuming and costly. Many of these costs recur annually. As a result, management’s attention may be diverted from other business concerns, which could adversely affect our business and operating results.
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In addition, changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure are creating uncertainty for public companies, increasing legal and financial compliance costs and making some activities more time consuming. These laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as regulatory and governing bodies provide new guidance. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices. We will continue to invest resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards, and this investment may result in increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management’s time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities. If our efforts to comply with new laws, regulations and standards differ from the activities intended by regulatory or governing bodies due to ambiguities related to their application and practice, regulatory authorities may initiate legal proceedings against us and our business could be adversely affected.
As a result of disclosure of information as a public company, our business and financial condition are more visible than for a private company, which we believe may result in threatened or actual litigation, including by competitors and other third parties. If the claims are successful, our business operations and financial results could be adversely affected, and even if the claims do not result in litigation or are resolved in our favor, these claims, and the time and resources necessary to resolve them, could divert the resources of our management and adversely affect our business operations and financial results. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified employees, executive officers and members of our board of directors.
A failure to maintain adequate internal controls over our financial and management systems could cause errors in our financial reporting, which could cause a loss of investor confidence and result in a decline in the price of our Class A common stock.
In order to meet our reporting obligations as a public company, we must maintain effective financial and management systems and internal controls. Moreover, SOX requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. In order to maintain and, if required, improve our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting to meet this standard, significant resources and management oversight may be required. If we have a material weakness or deficiency in our internal control over financial reporting, we may not detect errors on a timely basis and our financial statements may be materially misstated. Effective internal controls are necessary for us to produce reliable financial reports and are important to prevent fraud. As a result, our failure to maintain effective financial and management systems and internal controls could result in errors in our financial reporting, us being subject to regulatory action and a loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements, any of which in turn could cause the market value of our Class A common stock to decline and adversely affect our ability to raise capital.
We do not intend to pay dividends for the foreseeable future.
We may not declare or pay cash dividends on our capital stock in the near future. We currently intend to retain any future earnings to finance the operation and expansion of our business, and we do not expect to declare or pay any dividends in the foreseeable future. Consequently, stockholders must rely on sales of their Class A common stock after price appreciation as the only way to realize any future gains on their investment.
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If securities or industry analysts do not regularly publish or cease publishing research or reports about us, our business or our market, or if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our stock, or if our actual results differ significantly from our guidance, our stock price and trading volume could decline.
The trading market for our Class A common stock depends in part on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. If few securities analysts maintain coverage of us, or if industry analysts cease coverage of us, the trading price for our Class A common stock could be negatively affected. If one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our Class A common stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, the price of our Class A common stock would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our Class A common stock could decrease, which might cause our Class A common stock price and trading volume to decline.
In addition, from time to time, we release earnings guidance or other forward-looking statements in our earnings releases, earnings conference calls or otherwise regarding our future performance that represent our management’s estimates as of the date of release. Some or all of the assumptions of any future guidance that we furnish may not materialize or may vary significantly from actual future results. Any failure to meet guidance or analysts’ expectations could have a material adverse effect on the trading price or trading volume of our Class A common stock and may result in shareholder litigation.
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Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2. Properties
Our corporate headquarters is located in Ames, Iowa, where we lease approximately 120,000 square feet of office space. We also lease office facilities in ten U.S. cities located in Arizona, Colorado, the District of Columbia, Georgia, Illinois, Montana, New York, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina. Internationally, we lease offices in Ontario and Saskatchewan, Canada, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Hong Kong, Australia and Singapore. We believe that our properties are generally suitable to meet our needs for the foreseeable future. In addition, to the extent we require additional space in the future, we believe that it would be readily available on commercially reasonable terms.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
From time to time we may become involved in legal proceedings or be subject to claims arising in the ordinary course of our business. We are not presently a party to any legal proceedings that in the opinion of our management, if determined adversely to us, would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results or cash flows. Regardless of the outcome, litigation can have an adverse impact on us because of defense and settlement costs, diversion of management resources and other factors.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosure
Not applicable.
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Part II.
Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Our Class A common stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “WK”. Our Class B common stock is not listed or traded on any stock exchange.
Stockholders
As of December 31, 2019, there were approximately 108 stockholders of record of our Class A common stock as well as 13 stockholders of record of our Class B common stock.
Dividends
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain any future earnings and do not expect to pay any dividends on our capital stock. Any future determination to pay dividends on our capital stock will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements and other factors that our board of directors considers relevant.
Stock Performance Graph
The following shall not be deemed incorporated by reference into any of our other filings under the Exchange Act or the Securities Act.
The graph below compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our Class A common stock with the cumulative total return on the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index and the Nasdaq Computer Index. The chart assumes $100 was invested at the close of market on December 31, 2014, in the Class A common stock of Workiva Inc., the S&P 500 Index and the Nasdaq Computer Index, and assumes the reinvestment of any dividends.
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The comparisons in the graph below are based upon historical data and are not indicative of, nor intended to forecast, future performance of our Class A common stock.
wk-20191231_g1.jpg
Use of Proceeds from Public Offerings of Common Stock
On December 17, 2014, we closed our initial public offering of 7,200,000 shares of Class A common stock at a price to the public of $14.00 per share. The offer and sale of all of the shares in the initial public offering were registered under the Securities Act pursuant to a registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-199459), which was declared effective by the SEC on December 11, 2014.
There has been no material change in the planned use of proceeds from our initial public offering as described in our final prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act on December 12, 2014. Pending the uses described in our prospectus, we have invested the net proceeds in money market funds and marketable securities. We have also repaid a $2.0 million forgivable loan with proceeds from our initial public offering, allowing us to cancel letters of credit in the amount that served as security for the forgivable loan.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Not applicable.

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Item 6. Selected Consolidated Financial Data
The following selected consolidated financial data for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. The following selected consolidated financial data for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements not included in this Form 10-K. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future. Additional information on the comparability of results is included in "Section 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations."
Consolidated Statement of Operations Data
Year ended December 31,
20192018201720162015
(in thousands, except share and per share information)
Revenue
Subscription and support
$245,765  $200,392  $169,283  $143,120  $116,288  
Professional services
52,126  43,952  38,586  35,526  28,984  
Total revenue297,891  244,344  207,869  178,646  145,272  
Cost of revenue
Subscription and support(1)
42,881  34,215  32,646  27,895  22,559  
Professional services(1)
42,131  31,645  27,599  23,730  17,645  
Total cost of revenue85,012  65,860  60,245  51,625  40,204  
Gross profit212,879  178,484  147,624  127,021  105,068  
Operating expenses
Research and development(1)
89,921  81,602  68,172  57,438  50,466  
Sales and marketing(1)
120,300  90,337  84,161  80,466  69,569  
General and administrative(1)(2)
48,380  56,333  39,594  32,695  28,716  
Total operating expenses258,601  228,272  191,927  170,599  148,751  
Loss from operations(45,722) (49,788) (44,303) (43,578) (43,683) 
Interest income4,657  1,278  586  286  151  
Interest expense(6,366) (1,827) (1,845) (1,875) (2,025) 
Other income and (expense), net(3)
(564) 513  1,197  1,214  2,151  
Loss before provision for income taxes(47,995) (49,824) (44,365) (43,953) (43,406) 
Provision (benefit) for income taxes139  247  61  24  (7) 
Net loss$(48,134) $(50,071) $(44,426) $(43,977) $(43,399) 
Net loss per common share:
Basic and diluted
(1.04) (1.15) (1.07) (1.08) (1.09) 
Weighted-average common shares outstanding - basic and diluted
46,302,656  43,640,408  41,618,838  40,671,133  39,852,624  
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(1) Stock-based compensation expense included in these line items is as follows:
Year ended December 31,
20192018201720162015
(in thousands)
Cost of revenue
Subscription and support
$1,554  $700  $738  $493  $363  
Professional services
1,725  619  465  411  349  
Operating expenses
Research and development
8,006  5,842  2,224  2,365  1,924  
Sales and marketing
8,792  5,416  2,983  2,075  1,727  
General and administrative
15,707  18,264  13,066  8,903  6,637  
Total stock-based compensation expense
$35,784  $30,841  $19,476  $14,247  $11,000  
(2) During the second quarter of 2018, we recorded an additional $5.9 million and $3.6 million of cash-based and equity-based compensation, respectively, to general and administrative expense pursuant to a separation agreement with our former CEO.
(3) During December 2015, we resolved all contingencies associated with a government grant agreement resulting in higher government grant income recorded to “Other income and (expense), net” for the year ended December 31, 2015. See Note 5, Commitments and Contingencies, to the Consolidated Financial Statements.
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data
As of December 31,
20192018201720162015
(in thousands)
Cash and cash equivalents$381,742  $77,584  $60,333  $51,281  $58,750  
Working capital, excluding deferred revenue512,917  134,195  90,635  74,171  69,535  
Total assets646,396  231,111  157,715  143,143  143,895  
Deferred revenue, current and long term206,186  173,716  127,393  97,501  63,338  
Total current liabilities231,932  191,581  129,341  99,887  84,084  
Convertible senior notes, net280,601  —  —  —  —  
Total non-current liabilities349,121  49,270  45,308  46,381  34,092  
Total stockholders’ (deficit) equity65,343  (9,740) (16,934) (3,125) 25,719  

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of our operations should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report. In addition to historical consolidated financial information, this discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed below. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include, but are not limited to, those identified below, and those discussed in “Section 1A. Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this Annual Report.
Overview
Workiva provides the world’s leading connected reporting and compliance platform, which is used by thousands of public and private companies, government agencies and higher-education institutions. The Workiva platform offers controlled collaboration, data linking, data integrations, granular permissions, process management and a full audit trail. Our users can connect narrative with their data, which greatly improves insight into their financial, regulatory, management and compliance reports. As of December 31, 2019, 3,510 organizations, including nearly 75% of Fortune 500® companies, subscribed to our platform.
Wdata, the component of our platform that includes data integration and preparation, enables our customers to connect data from Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Governance Risk and Compliance (GRC) and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) platforms as well as other third-party cloud and on-premise systems. Once the data is connected in the Workiva platform, users can automate data and workflow updates, track every change and seamlessly collaborate with colleagues to create trusted reports and regulatory filings.
After users integrate their enterprise systems of record with our platform, many manual steps are removed, thereby improving data integrity throughout the entire reporting process and providing an immutable audit trail. Wdata also enables a broader set of business users to explore complex data at scale and better manage data transformations in the office of the CFO.
Although Workiva solutions are used for dozens of different use cases, we currently focus our sales and marketing resources in four areas: Regulatory Reporting, Non-Regulatory Reporting, Financial Services and Integrated Risk.
We operate our business on a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) model. Customers enter into quarterly, annual and multi-year subscription contracts to gain access to our platform. Our subscription fee includes the use of our software and technical support. Prior to the third quarter of 2018, our subscription pricing was based primarily on the number of corporate entities, number of users, level of customer support and length of contract. Thereafter, we began converting existing customer orders to, and signing new orders primarily based on, a solution-based licensing model. Under this new model, operating metrics related to a customer’s expected use of each solution determine the price. At December 31, 2019, a majority of our revenue was priced on a solution-based licensing model. We charge customers additional fees primarily for document setup and XBRL tagging services.




(1) Claim not confirmed by FORTUNE or Fortune Media IP Limited. FORTUNE® and FORTUNE 500® are registered trademarks of Fortune Media IP Limited and are used under license. FORTUNE and Fortune Media IP Limited are not affiliated with, and do not endorse products or services of, Workiva Inc.
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We generate sales primarily through our direct sales force and, to a lesser extent, our customer success and professional services teams. In addition, we augment our direct sales channel with partnerships. Our advisory and service partners offer a wider range of domain and functional expertise that broadens the capabilities of our platform, bringing scale and support to customers and prospects. Our technology partners enable more data and process integrations to help customers connect critical transactional systems directly to our platform, which becomes a central repository of trusted data, with powerful linking, auditability and control features.
We continue to invest in the development of our solutions, infrastructure and sales and marketing to drive long-term growth. Our full-time employee headcount expanded to 1,580 at December 31, 2019 from 1,319 at December 31, 2018, an increase of 19.8%.
We have achieved significant revenue growth in recent periods. Our revenue grew to $297.9 million in 2019 from $244.3 million in 2018, an increase of 21.9%. We incurred net losses of $48.1 million and $50.1 million in 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Converting existing customer orders to a solution-based licensing model contributed to the acceleration of growth in our subscription revenue in 2019. This conversion also contributed to the improvement in our subscription and support revenue retention rate including add-ons for the same period. The benefit of this contribution began to wane in the fourth quarter of 2019. Accordingly, we will need to find new sources of revenue to sustain our growth rate beyond 2019. To maintain our revenue growth for the longer term, we have been accelerating our investments in talent, processes and technology, particularly for expansion in EMEA, integrated risk, statutory reporting and Wdata. If these investments do not meet our expectations, we may be unable to sustain our revenue growth rate. We expect these investments to increase operating losses in absolute terms and as a percentage of revenue, ahead of any incremental revenue contribution they may generate.
Key Factors Affecting Our Performance
Generate Growth From Existing Customers. The Workiva platform can exhibit a powerful network effect within an enterprise, meaning that the usefulness of our platform attracts additional users. Since solution-based licensing offers our customers an unlimited number of seats for each solution purchased, we expect customers to add more seats over time. As more employees in an enterprise use our platform, additional opportunities for collaboration and automation drive demand among their colleagues for additional solutions. Furthermore, converting customer contracts to solution-based licensing typically generates a one-time increase in contract value for each solution.
Pursue New Customers. Our first software solution enabled customers to streamline and automate their SEC regulatory filings. In 2013, we began expanding into additional markets that were faced with managing large, complex processes with many contributors and disparate sets of business data. We now sell to new customers in the areas of: finance and accounting, regulatory reporting, management and performance reporting, integrated risk management, and global statutory reporting. We intend to continue to build our sales and marketing organization and leverage our brand equity to attract new customers.
Offer More Solutions. We intend to introduce new solutions to continue to meet growing demand for our platform. Our close and trusted relationships with our customers are a source for new use cases, features and solutions. We have a disciplined process for tracking, developing and releasing new solutions that are designed to have immediate, broad applicability; a strong value proposition; and a high return on investment for both Workiva and our customers. Our advance planning team assesses customer needs, conducts industry-based research and defines new markets. This vetting process involves our sales, product marketing, customer success, professional services, research and development, finance and senior management teams.
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Expand Across Enterprises. Our success in delivering multiple solutions has created demand from customers for a broader-based, enterprise-wide Workiva platform. In response, we have been improving our technology and realigning sales and marketing to capitalize on our growing enterprise-wide opportunities. We believe this expansion will add seats and revenue and continue to support our high revenue retention rates. However, we expect that enterprise-wide deals will be larger and more complex, which tend to lengthen the sales cycle.
Add Partners. We continue to expand our relationships with partners, including consulting and advisory firms, technology partners, and implementation partners. Our global partners, including global strategic consulting and advisory firms, identify opportunities for our platform to help companies transform financial reporting and integrated risk processes. We also partner with regional accounting, consulting and implementation partners. These highly skilled regional partners provide subject-matter expertise in the implementation of specific solutions and extend our direct sales force by referring opportunities to us. Technology partners expand the ecosystem of our connected reporting and compliance platform and enable data connections and process integrations to further transform critical business functions, as we capitalize on growing demand for enterprise-wide opportunities. We believe that our partner ecosystem extends our global reach, accelerates the usage and adoption of our platform, and enables more efficient delivery of professional services.
Investment in growth. We plan to continue to invest in the development of our platform to enhance our current offerings and build new features. In addition, we expect to continue to invest in our sales, marketing, professional services and customer success organizations to drive additional revenue and support the needs of our growing customer base and to take advantage of opportunities that we have identified in EMEA, as well as use cases for integrated risk, global statutory reporting, Wdata and the U.S. federal government.
Seasonality. Our revenue from professional services has some degree of seasonality. Many of our customers employ our professional services just before they file their Form 10-K, often in the first calendar quarter. As of December 31, 2019, approximately 77% of our SEC customers report their financials on a calendar-year basis. Our sales and marketing expense also has some degree of seasonality. Sales and marketing expense is generally higher in the third quarter since we hold our annual user conference in September. In addition, the timing of the payments of cash bonuses to employees during the first and fourth calendar quarters may result in some seasonality in operating cash flow.

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Key Performance Indicators
Year ended December 31,
201920182017
(dollars in thousands)
Financial metrics
Total revenue
$297,891  $244,344  $207,869  
Year-over-year percentage increase in total revenue
21.9 %17.5 %16.4 %
Subscription and support revenue
$245,765  $200,392  $169,283  
Year-over-year percentage increase in subscription and support revenue
22.6 %18.4 %18.3 %
Subscription and support as a percent of total revenue
82.5 %82.0 %81.4 %

As of December 31,
201920182017
Operating metrics
Number of customers
3,510  3,340  3,063  
Subscription and support revenue retention rate
94.7 %96.1 %96.0 %
Subscription and support revenue retention rate including add-ons
113.0 %107.1 %107.6 %
Number of customers with annual contract value $100k+652  443  324  
Number of customers with annual contract value $150k+285  190  146  
Total customers. We believe total number of customers is a key indicator of our financial success and future revenue potential. We define a customer as an entity with an active subscription contract as of the measurement date. Our customer is typically a parent company or, in a few cases, a significant subsidiary that works with us directly. Companies with publicly listed securities account for a substantial majority of our customers.
Subscription and support revenue retention rate. We calculate our subscription and support revenue retention rate based on all customers that were active at the end of the same calendar quarter of the prior year (“base customers”). We begin by annualizing the subscription and support revenue recorded in the same calendar quarter of the prior year for those base customers who are still active at the end of the current quarter. We divide the result by the annualized subscription and support revenue in the same quarter of the prior year for all base customers.
Our subscription and support revenue retention rate was 94.7% as of December 31, 2019, down modestly from 96.1% as of December 31, 2018. We believe that our success in maintaining a high rate of revenue retention is attributable primarily to our robust technology platform and strong customer service. Customers being acquired or otherwise ceasing to file SEC reports have been the largest contributing factor to our revenue attrition.
Subscription and support revenue retention rate including add-ons. Add-on revenue includes the change in both solutions and pricing for existing customers. We calculate our subscription and support revenue retention rate including add-ons by annualizing the subscription and support revenue recorded in the current quarter for our base customers that were active at the end of the current quarter. We divide the result by the annualized subscription and support revenue in the same quarter of the prior year for all base customers.
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Our subscription and support revenue retention rate including add-ons was 113.0% as of the quarter ended December 31, 2019, up from 107.1% as of December 31, 2018. 
In 2019, we began calculating revenue retention rates using quarterly ASC 606 revenue instead of our prior method using monthly ASC 605 revenue. We expect quarterly measurements will be less variable than the single month measurements we previously reported.
Annual contract value. Our annual contract value (“ACV”) for each customer is calculated by annualizing the subscription and support revenue recognized during each quarter. We believe the increase in the number of larger contracts shows our progress in expanding our customers’ adoption of our platform.
Components of Results of Operations
Revenue
We generate revenue through the sale of subscriptions to our cloud-based software and the delivery of professional services. We serve a wide range of customers in many industries, and our revenue is not concentrated with any single customer or small group of customers. For each of the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, no single customer represented more than 1% of our revenue, and our largest 10 customers accounted for less than 5% of our revenue in the aggregate.
We generate sales directly through our sales force and partners. We also identify some sales opportunities with existing customers through our customer success and professional services teams.
Our customer contracts typically range in length from twelve to 36 months. We typically invoice our customers for subscription fees annually in advance. For contracts with a two or three year term, customers sometimes elect to pay the entire multi-year subscription term in advance. Our arrangements do not contain general rights of return.
Subscription and Support Revenue. We recognize subscription and support revenue on a ratable basis over the contract term beginning on the date that our service is made available to the customer. Amounts that are invoiced are initially recorded as deferred revenue.
Professional Services Revenue. We believe our professional services facilitate the sale of our subscription service to certain customers. To date, most of our professional services have consisted of document set up, XBRL tagging, and consulting to help our customers with business processes and best practices for using our platform. Our professional services are not required for customers to utilize our solution. We recognize revenue for document set ups when the service is complete and control has transferred to the customer. Revenues from XBRL tagging and consulting services are recognized as the services are performed.  
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue consists primarily of personnel and related costs directly associated with our professional services, customer success teams and training personnel, including salaries, benefits, bonuses, and stock-based compensation; the costs of contracted third-party vendors; the costs of server usage by our customers; information technology costs; and facility costs. Costs of server usage are comprised primarily of fees paid to Amazon Web Services and Google Cloud Platform.
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Sales and Marketing Expenses
Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of personnel and related costs, including salaries, benefits, bonuses, commissions, travel, and stock-based compensation. Other costs included in this expense are marketing and promotional events, our annual user conference, online marketing, product marketing, information technology costs, and facility costs. Sales commissions paid where the amortization period is one year or less are expensed as incurred. All other sales commissions are considered incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer and are deferred and amortized on a straight-line basis over a period of benefit that we have determined to be three years.
Research and Development Expenses
Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel and related costs, including salaries, benefits, bonuses, and stock-based compensation; costs of server usage by our developers; information technology costs; and facility costs.
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel and related costs for our executive, finance and accounting, legal, human resources, and administrative personnel, including salaries, benefits, bonuses, and stock-based compensation; legal, accounting, and other professional service fees; other corporate expenses; information technology costs; and facility costs.
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Results of Operations
The following table sets forth selected consolidated statement of operations data for each of the periods indicated:
Year ended December 31,
201920182017
(in thousands)
Revenue
Subscription and support
$245,765  $200,392  $169,283  
Professional services
52,126  43,952  38,586  
Total revenue297,891  244,344  207,869  
Cost of revenue
Subscription and support(1)
42,881  34,215  32,646  
Professional services(1)
42,131  31,645  27,599  
Total cost of revenue85,012  65,860  60,245  
Gross profit212,879  178,484  147,624  
Operating expenses
Research and development(1)
89,921  81,602  68,172  
Sales and marketing(1)
120,300  90,337  84,161  
General and administrative(1)
48,380  56,333  39,594  
Total operating expenses258,601  228,272  191,927  
Loss from operations(45,722) (49,788) (44,303) 
Interest income4,657  1,278  586  
Interest expense
(6,366) (1,827) (1,845) 
Other (expense) and income, net (564) 513  1,197  
Loss before provision for income taxes(47,995) (49,824) (44,365) 
Provision for income taxes  139  247  61  
Net loss$(48,134) $(50,071) $(44,426) 
(1) Stock-based compensation expense included in these line items was as follows:
Year ended December 31,
201920182017
(in thousands)
Cost of revenue
Subscription and support
$1,554  $700  $738  
Professional services
1,725  619  465  
Operating expenses
Research and development
8,006  5,842  2,224  
Sales and marketing
8,792  5,416  2,983  
General and administrative
15,707  18,264  13,066  
Total stock-based compensation expense
$35,784  $30,841  $19,476  
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The following table sets forth our consolidated statement of operations data as a percentage of revenue for each of the periods indicated:
Year ended December 31,
201920182017
Revenue
Subscription and support
82.5 %82.0 %81.4 %
Professional services
17.5  18.0  18.6  
Total revenue100.0  100.0  100.0  
Cost of revenue
Subscription and support
14.4  14.0  15.7  
Professional services
14.1  13.0  13.3  
Total cost of revenue28.5  27.0  29.0  
Gross profit71.5  73.0  71.0  
Operating expenses
Research and development
30.2  33.4  32.8  
Sales and marketing
40.4  37.0  40.5  
General and administrative
16.2  23.1  19.0  
Total operating expenses86.8  93.5  92.3  
Loss from operations(15.3) (20.5) (21.3) 
Interest income1.6  0.5  0.3