20-F 1 d22278d20f.htm FORM 20-F Form 20-F
3M USD LiborP1Y73.46falseFY000135657021424000Other reserves include the Special Economic Zone Re-Investment Reserve created out of the profits of eligible Special Economic Zones (“SEZ”) units in terms of the provisions of the Indian Income-tax Act, 1961. Further, these provisions require the reserve to be utilized by the Company for acquiring new plant and machinery for the purpose of its business (Refer Note 25).For reconciliation of lease liabilities Refer Note 12.Short-term deposits can be withdrawn by the Company at any time without prior notice and are readily convertible into known amounts of cash with an insignificant risk of changes in value.Excludes South Africa, Research and Analytics, Technology services, Denali and HealthHelp goodwill.Excludes South Africa, Research and Analytics, Technology services, HealthHelp and Denali CGUs.Excludes service mark, as it has an indefinite useful lifeExcluding non-financial assets $246.Excluding non-financial assets $191.Excluding non-financial assets $22,539.Excluding non-financial assets $18,454.Excluding non-financial assets $30,766.Excluding non-financial assets $26,241.Excluding non-financial asset (unamortized debt issuance cost) $52.Excluding non-financial liabilities 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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
 
FORM 20-F
 
 
 
REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2022
OR
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to             
OR
 
SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report
Commission file number
001-32945
 
 
WNS (Holdings) Limited
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)
 
 
Not Applicable
(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)
Jersey, Channel Islands
(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
Gate 4, Godrej & Boyce Complex
Pirojshanagar, Vikhroli (W)
Mumbai 400 079, India
(Address of principal executive offices)
Gopi Krishnan
General Counsel
Gate 4, Godrej & Boyce Complex
Pirojshanagar, Vikhroli (W)
Mumbai 400 079, India
(91-22)
4095-2100
gopi.krishnan@wns.com
(Name, Telephone,
E-mail
and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.
 
Title of each class
 
Trading Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
American Depositary Shares, each represented by
 
WNS
 
The New York Stock Exchange
one Ordinary Share, par value 10 pence per share
       
Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.
None
(Title of Class)
Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act
None
(Title of Class)
Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report.
As at March 31, 202
2
, 48,849,907 ordinary shares, par value 10 pence per share, were issued and outstanding, of which
48,618,585
ordinary shares were held in the form of American Depositary Shares (“ADSs”). Each ADS represents one ordinary share.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    ☒  Yes    ☐  No
If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.    ☐  Yes    ☒  No
Note — Checking the box above will not relieve any registrant required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 from their obligations under those Sections.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     ☒  Yes    ☐  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation
S-T
(§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).     ☒  Yes    ☐  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a
non-accelerated
filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company,” in
Rule 12b-2
of the Exchange Act.
 
Large accelerated filer  ☒    Accelerated filer  ☐   
          Non-accelerated
filer  ☐
     
          Emerging growth company  
If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.    
Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:
 
U.S. GAAP  ☐
  
International Financial Reporting Standards as issued
by the International Accounting Standards Board  ☒
   Other  ☐
If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow:    ☐  Item 17     ☐  Item 18
If this report is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in
Rule 12b-2
of the Exchange Act).    ☐  Yes      No
 
 
 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
WNS (HOLDINGS) LIMITED
 
    
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F-1
 
Ex-2.3
Description of securities registered under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended
Ex 4.4 Form of the Third Amended and Restated WNS (Holdings) Limited 2016 Incentive Award Plan — incorporated by reference to Exhibit 99.1 of WNS (Holdings) Limited’s Report on Form
6-K
(File
No. 001-32945),
as furnished to the Commission on July 16, 2021
Ex 4.9 Lease Deed dated December 16, 2020 between WNS Global Services Private Limited and DLF Assets Private Limited with respect to the lease of office premises on the 10th floor of Block 10 at DLF IT Park.
Ex 4.10 Leave and License Agreement dated Feb 15, 2021 between Godrej and Boyce Manufacturing Company Limited and WNS Global Services Private Limited with respect to the lease of the office premises with an aggregate area of 84,429 square feet at plant 10.
Ex 4.11 Leave and License Agreement dated Feb 15, 2021 between Godrej and Boyce Manufacturing Company Limited and WNS Global Services Private Limited with respect to the lease of the office premises with an aggregate area of 1,08,000 square feet at plant 5.
Ex 4.12 Leave and License Agreement dated Feb 15, 2021 between Godrej and Boyce Manufacturing Company Limited and WNS Global Services Private Limited with respect to the lease of the office premises with an aggregate area of 84,934 square feet at plant 11.
Ex-4.13
Facility Agreement dated March 10, 2017 among WNS (Mauritius) Limited, HSBC Bank (Mauritius) Limited and Standard Chartered Bank, UK
Ex-8.1
List of subsidiaries of WNS (Holdings) Limited
Ex-12.1
Certification by the Chief Executive Officer to 17 CFR 240,
15d-14(a),
as adopted pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
Ex-12.2
Certification by the Chief Financial Officer to 17 CFR 240,
15d-14(a),
as adopted pursuant to Section 302 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
Ex-13.1
Certification by the Chief Executive Officer to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
Ex-13.2
Certification by the Chief Financial Officer to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
Ex-15.1
Consent of Grant Thornton Bharat LLP, independent registered public accounting firm
 
1

CONVENTIONS USED IN THIS ANNUAL REPORT
In this annual report, references to “US” are to the United States of America, its territories and its possessions. References to “UK” are to the United Kingdom. References to “EU” are to the European Union. References to “India” are to the Republic of India. References to “China” are to the People’s Republic of China. References to “South Africa” are to the Republic of South Africa. References to “$” or “dollars” or “US dollars” are to the legal currency of the US, references to “
 ” or “Indian rupees” are to the legal currency of India, references to “pound sterling” or “£” are to the legal currency of the UK, references to “pence” are to the legal currency of Jersey, Channel Islands, references to “Euro” are to the legal currency of the European Monetary Union, references to “South African rand” or “R” or “ZAR” are to the legal currency of South Africa, references to “A$” or “AUD” or “Australian dollars” are to the legal currency of Australia, references to “CHF” or “Swiss Franc” are to the legal currency of Switzerland, references to “RMB” are to the legal currency of China, references to “LKR” or “Sri Lankan rupees” are to the legal currency of Sri Lanka, references to “PHP” or “Philippine Peso” are to the legal currency of the Philippines and references to “NZD” or “New Zealand Dollar” are to the legal currency of New Zealand. Our financial statements are presented in US dollars. Our financial statements included in this annual report are prepared in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards and its interpretations (“IFRS”), as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”). Unless otherwise indicated, references to “GAAP” in this annual report are to IFRS, as issued by the IASB.
References to a particular “fiscal” year are to our fiscal year ended March 31 of that calendar year. Any discrepancies in any table between totals and sums of the amount listed are due to rounding. Any amount stated to be $0.0 million represents an amount less than $5,000.
In this annual report, unless otherwise specified or the context requires, the term “WNS” refers to WNS (Holdings) Limited, a public company incorporated under the laws of Jersey, Channel Islands, and the terms “our company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer to WNS (Holdings) Limited and its subsidiaries.
In this annual report, references to “SEC” or “Commission” are to the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.
We also refer in various places within this annual report to “revenue less repair payments,” which is a
non-GAAP
financial measure that is calculated as (a) revenue less (b) in our auto claims business, payments to repair centers for “fault” repair cases where we act as the principal in our dealings with the third party repair centers and our clients. This
non-GAAP
financial information is not meant to be considered in isolation or as a substitute for our financial results prepared in accordance with GAAP.
We refer to information regarding the business process management (“BPM”) industry, our company and our competitors from market research reports, analyst reports and other publicly available sources. Although we believe that this information is reliable, we have not independently verified the accuracy and completeness of the information. We caution you not to place undue reliance on this data. BPM services are also sometimes referred to as business process outsourcing (“BPO”) services.
 
2

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This annual report contains “forward-looking statements” that are based on our current expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections about our company and our industry. The forward-looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties. Generally, these forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “will,” “project,” “seek,” “should” and similar expressions. Those statements include, among other things, the discussions of our business strategy and expectations concerning our market position, future operations, margins, profitability, liquidity and capital resources, tax assessment orders and future capital expenditures. We caution you that reliance on any forward-looking statement inherently involves risks and uncertainties, and that although we believe that the assumptions on which our forward-looking statements are based are reasonable, any of those assumptions could prove to be inaccurate, and, as a result, the forward-looking statements based on those assumptions could be materially incorrect. These risks and uncertainties include but are not limited to:
 
   
worldwide economic and business conditions;
 
   
our dependence on a limited number of clients in a limited number of industries;
 
   
the impact of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019
(“COVID-19”)
pandemic on our and our clients’ business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows;
 
   
currency fluctuations among the Indian rupee, the pound sterling, the US dollar, the Australian dollar, the Euro, the South African rand and the Philippine peso;
 
   
political or economic instability in the jurisdictions where we have operations;
 
   
regulatory, legislative and judicial developments;
 
   
increasing competition in the BPM industry;
 
   
technological innovation;
 
   
our liability arising from cybersecurity attacks, fraud or unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential client and customer data;
 
   
telecommunications or technology disruptions;
 
   
our ability to attract and retain clients;
 
   
negative public reaction in the US or the UK to offshore outsourcing;
 
   
our ability to collect our receivables from, or bill our unbilled services to, our clients;
 
   
our ability to expand our business or effectively manage growth;
 
   
our ability to hire and retain enough sufficiently trained employees to support our operations;
 
   
the effects of our different pricing strategies or those of our competitors;
 
   
our ability to successfully consummate, integrate and achieve accretive benefits from our strategic acquisitions, and to successfully grow our revenue and expand our service offerings and market share;
 
   
future regulatory actions and conditions in our operating areas;
 
   
our ability to manage the impact of climate change on our business; and
 
   
volatility of our ADS price.
These and other factors are more fully discussed in “Part I — Item 3. Key Information — D. Risk Factors,” “Part I — Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects” and elsewhere in this annual report. In light of these and other uncertainties, you should not conclude that we will necessarily achieve any plans, objectives or projected financial results referred to in any of the forward-looking statements. Except as required by law, we do not undertake to release revisions of any of these forward-looking statements to reflect future events or circumstances.
 
3

PART I
ITEM 1.  IDENTITY OF DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND ADVISERS
Not applicable.
ITEM 2.  OFFER STATISTICS AND EXPECTED TIMETABLE
Not applicable.
ITEM 3.  KEY INFORMATION
A. [Reserved]
B. Capitalization and Indebtedness
Not applicable.
C. Reason for the Offer and the Use of Proceeds
Not applicable.
 
4

D. Risk Factors
This annual report contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of a number of factors, including those described in the following risk factors and elsewhere in this annual report. If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could suffer and the trading price of our ADSs could decline.
Risks Related to Our Business
The global economic and
geo-political
conditions have been and continue to be challenging and have had, and may continue to have, an adverse effect on the financial markets and the economy in general, which has had, and may continue to have, a material adverse effect on our business, clients, employees, financial performance, results of operations and cash flows and the prices of our equity shares and ADSs.
The global outbreak and spread of the disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus known as
COVID-19,
which was reported to have surfaced in December 2019, has caused a slowdown in growth of the global economy. The global economy is entering a pronounced slowdown in 2022 after having shown some momentums of growth in 2021. The global spread of
COVID-19
has created, and is likely to continue to create, significant volatility and uncertainty and economic disruption. Global prospects remain highly uncertain as the
COVID-19
pandemic resurgence and economic recoveries diverge across countries and sectors, reflecting variations in pandemic-induced disruptions and the extent of policy support. In addition, volatility in the domestic politics of major markets may lead to changes in the institutional framework of the international economy. For further information, see “— Our business operations and future growth have been, and may continue to be, negatively impacted on account of the
COVID-19
pandemic.”
In February 2022, a military conflict arose between Russia and Ukraine, with the latter being supported by countries in the NATO alliance as well as others around the globe, including imposition of financial and trade sanctions against Russia. Although the length, impact and outcome of the ongoing military conflict in Ukraine is highly unpredictable, this conflict could lead to significant market and other disruptions, including significant volatility in commodity prices, supply of energy resources, instability in financial markets, supply chain interruptions, political and social instability, changes in consumer or purchaser preferences as well as increase in cyberattacks and espionage. In the event the conflict continues or extends beyond Ukraine, together with reduction or stoppage of energy exports from Russia, the global economy could face a recessionary downturn. We have operations in Poland and Romania, which border Ukraine and are partly dependent on gas supplies from Russia for their energy needs. The economies of Poland and Romania may be materially and adversely affected in the event of any disruption of gas supplies or extension of the conflict beyond Ukraine. In addition, as a result of the ongoing military conflict, there has been a growing number of migrants in Poland and Romania. Such an influx of migrants could lead to rising inflations in these two countries, thereby resulting in an upward pressure on wages, which could have a material adverse effect on our operations in these two countries.
The withdrawal of the UK from the EU in January 2020, commonly referred to as “Brexit,” has also created significant political and economic uncertainty regarding the future trading relationship between the UK and the EU as well as other countries, such as the United States, Australia, and New Zealand. In particular, the UK and the EU have ratified a trade and cooperation agreement governing their future relationship and the UK continues to negotiate agreements on specific areas of trade and economic arrangements with other countries. The
UK-EU
trade and cooperation agreement addresses trade, economic arrangements, law enforcement, judicial cooperation and a governance framework including procedures for dispute resolution, among other things. Because the agreement merely sets forth a framework in many respects and will require complex additional bilateral negotiations between the UK and the EU as both parties continue to work on the rules for implementation, significant political and economic uncertainty remains about how the precise terms of the relationship between the parties will differ from the terms before withdrawal. These developments, or the perception that any of them could occur, have had and may continue to have a material adverse effect on global economic conditions and financial markets, and may significantly reduce global market liquidity, restrict the ability of key market participants to operate in certain financial markets or restrict our access to capital. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
29.5% of our revenues and 23.8% of our revenue less repair payments
(non-GAAP)
in fiscal 2022 and 28.0% of our revenues and 24.4% of our revenue less repair payments
(non-GAAP)
in fiscal 2021 are denominated in pound sterling. The extent and duration of the decline in the value of the pound sterling to the US dollar and other currencies is unknown at this time. A long-term reduction in the value of the pound sterling as a result of Brexit or otherwise could adversely impact our earnings growth rate and profitability. We believe that our hedging program is effective, however there is no assurance that it will protect us against fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates.
In many countries globally there are concerns over rising inflation and potential economic recessions, including due to the impacts of the
COVID-19
pandemic. In particular, any worsening of the ongoing labor shortage and ongoing rise in inflation could significantly weaken global economies. In parts of Europe and India where we operate, there are similar signs of continued economic slowdown and weakness. Sri Lanka, where we have operations, is facing a significant economic crisis resulting from rapidly depleting foreign reserves, a depreciating local currency, and rising prices. Globally, countries have required and may continue to require additional financial support, sovereign credit ratings have declined and may continue to decline, and there may be default on sovereign debt obligations of certain countries. In addition, the U.S. Federal Reserve System and other regulatory bodies around the world may raise, or may announce intentions to raise, interest rates. Any of these global economic conditions may increase the cost of borrowing and cause credit to become more limited, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. The global economic slowdown may be further prolonged by subsequent outbreaks of
COVID-19
in countries which are taking, or which have taken, steps to ease lockdown measures; such outbreaks may require those countries to extend their lockdown measures or roll-back previous measures taken to facilitate the
re-opening
of their economies.
These economic and
geo-political
conditions have affected, and may continue to affect, our business in a number of ways, as we have operations in 12 countries and we service clients across multiple geographic regions. The general level of economic activity, such as decreases in business and consumer spending, may result in a decrease in demand for our services, thus reducing our revenue. The cost and availability of credit has been and may continue to be adversely affected by illiquid credit markets and wider credit spreads. The current global economic slowdown and the possibility of continued turbulence or uncertainty in the European, US, Asian and international financial markets and economies, and the political climate in the US and the UK, has adversely affected, and may continue to adversely affect, our liquidity and financial condition, and the liquidity and financial condition of our clients. If these market conditions continue or worsen, they may further limit our ability to access financing or increase our cost of financing to meet liquidity needs, and further affect the ability of our clients to use credit to purchase our services or to make timely payments to us, resulting in adverse effects on our financial condition and results of operations. In the US, there is concern over slowing economic growth and continuing trade tensions.
Changing economic conditions may also have an effect on foreign exchange rates, which in turn may affect our business. For further information, see “— Currency fluctuations among the Indian rupee, the pound sterling, the US dollar, the Australian dollar, the Euro, the South African rand and the Philippine peso could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.”
The current global economic slowdown and uncertainty about the future global economic conditions could also continue to increase the volatility of our ADS price. We cannot predict the timing or duration of an economic slowdown or the timing or strength of a subsequent economic recovery generally or in our targeted industries, including the insurance and travel and leisure industries. If macroeconomic conditions worsen or the current global economic conditions continue for a prolonged period of time, we are not able to predict the impact that such conditions will have on our targeted industries, in general, and our results of operations specifically.
 
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A few major clients account for a significant portion of our revenue and any loss of business from these clients could reduce our revenue and significantly harm our business.
We have derived and believe that we will continue to derive in the near term a significant portion of our revenue from a limited number of large clients. In fiscal 2022 and 2021, our five largest clients accounted for 27.1% and 26.8% of our revenue and 27.6% and 27.6% of our revenue less repair payments
(non-GAAP),
respectively. In fiscal 2022 and 2021, our three largest clients accounted for 18.1% and 19.2% of our revenue and 19.6% and 20.2% of our revenue less repair payments
(non-GAAP),
respectively. In fiscal 2022, our largest client individually accounted for 7.3% and 7.9% of our revenue and revenue less repair payments
(non-GAAP),
respectively, as compared to 8.1% and 8.5% in fiscal 2021, respectively. Any loss of business from any major client could reduce our revenue and significantly harm our business.
For example, in October 2021, we ceased to provide certain services to a telecommunications company which was one of our top fifteen customers by revenue contribution in fiscal 2021 as a result of consolidation initiatives of the customer. The customer accounted for 2.4% and 3.1% of our revenue and 2.6% and 3.2% of our revenue less repair payments
(non-GAAP)
in fiscal 2021 and in fiscal 2020, respectively.
We have derived, and we expect to continue deriving for the foreseeable future,
a significant portion of our revenue from Aviva Global Services (Management Services) Private Limited (“Aviva MS”). Under our master services agreement with Aviva MS, Aviva MS is permitted to terminate the agreement without cause with 180 days’ notice upon payment of a termination fee.
In addition, the volume of work performed for specific clients is likely to vary from year to year, particularly since we may not be the exclusive outside service provider for our clients. Thus, a major client in one year may not provide the same level of revenue in any subsequent year. For example, until fiscal 2018, Aviva MS was our largest client and revenue from Aviva MS decreased from $54.5 million in fiscal 2017 to $51.9 million in fiscal 2018 to $50.1 million in fiscal 2019 and increased to $53.3 million in fiscal 2020. Part of this decline in revenue of fiscal 2018 and 2019 was attributable to revised pricing terms and part was attributable to a reduction of services due to automation performed by Aviva MS and the automation of certain services by WNS.
The loss of some or all of the business of any large client could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. A number of factors other than our performance could cause the loss of or reduction in business or revenue from a client, and these factors are not predictable. For example, a client may demand price reductions, change its outsourcing strategy or move work
in-house.
A client may also be acquired by a company with a different outsourcing strategy that intends to switch to another BPM service provider or return work
in-house.
 
6

Our revenue is highly dependent on clients concentrated in a few industries, as well as clients located primarily in the US, the UK, Europe and Australia. Economic slowdowns or factors that affect these industries or the economic environment in the US, the UK, Europe or Australia could reduce our revenue and seriously harm our business.
A substantial portion of our clients are concentrated in the insurance industry, healthcare industry and the travel and leisure industry. In fiscal 2022 and 2021, 29.9% and 29.2% of our revenue, respectively, and 24.3% and 25.6% of our revenue less repair payments
(non-GAAP),
respectively, was derived from clients in the insurance industry. During the same periods, clients in the healthcare industry contributed 17.7% and 18.9% of our revenue, respectively, and 19.1% and 19.9% of our revenue less repair payments
(non-GAAP),
respectively and clients in the travel and leisure industry contributed 14.8% and 14.2% of our revenue, respectively, and 16.0% and 14.9% of our revenue less repair payments
(non-GAAP),
respectively. Our business and growth largely depend on continued demand for our services from clients in these industries and other industries that we may target in the future, as well as on trends in these industries to outsource business processes.
The current global economic slowdown has affected, and may continue to affect, both the industries in which our clients are concentrated and the geographies in which we do business. For more information, see “— The global economic and
geo-political
conditions have been and continue to be challenging and have had, and may continue to have, an adverse effect on the financial markets and the economy in general, which has had, and may continue to have, a material adverse effect on our business, clients, employees, financial performance, results of operations and cash flows and the prices of our equity shares and ADSs.” Certain of our targeted industries are especially vulnerable to crises in the financial and credit markets and potential economic downturns. Our results of operations depend on, among other things, our ability to maintain and increase our sales volume with existing clients and to attract new clients. The impact of the
COVID-19
pandemic has affected, and may continue to affect, the demand for our services across industries from a number of clients, depending on the ability of each client, and the nature of their industries, products and services, in coping with the crisis. A downturn in any of our targeted industries, a slowdown or reversal of the trend to offshore business process outsourcing in any of these industries or the introduction of regulation which restricts or discourages companies from outsourcing could result in a decrease in the demand for our services and adversely affect our results of operations. For instance, the travel and leisure industry is presently impacted by travel restrictions imposed by governments across the globe, as a response to the
COVID-19
outbreak, and the resulting reduction in business and personal travel. While such restrictions are being gradually eased over time, the volume of business from our travel and leisure clients may continue to be lower than in previous years. In addition, the ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine, especially in the event of further escalation beyond the borders of Ukraine and potential cascading effects of the sanctions on Russia, could have a material adverse effect on global trade and travel. Our business has been, and we expect it will continue to be, impacted across industry verticals due to the
COVID-19
pandemic and the Russia-Ukraine conflict. We have observed demand reductions in a range of verticals, particularly travel and leisure, insurance, diversified businesses (especially manufacturing and retail) and utilities during fiscal 2022, as compared to demand levels prior to the
COVID-19
pandemic.
In addition, any further weakening of or continuing uncertainty in worldwide economic and business conditions could result in a few of our clients reducing or postponing their outsourced business requirements. Additionally, the
COVID-19
pandemic has caused, and may continue to cause significant financial distress to some of our clients. These issues impacting our clients have in turn reduced, and may continue to reduce, the demand for our services and adversely affect our results of operations. In particular, our revenue is highly dependent on the economic environments in the US, the UK, Europe and Australia. In fiscal 2022 and 2021, 45.4% and 44.2% of our revenue, respectively, and 49.1% and 46.5% of our revenue less repair payments
(non-GAAP),
respectively, were derived from clients located in the US. During the same periods, 32.8% and 31.4% of our revenue, respectively, and 27.4% and 27.9% of our revenue less repair payments
(non-GAAP),
respectively, were derived from clients located in the UK, 6.1% and 6.7% of our revenue, respectively, and 6.6% and 7.1% of our revenue less repair payments
(non-GAAP),
respectively, were derived from clients located in Europe (excluding the UK), and 6.1% and 7.7% of our revenue, respectively, and 6.6% and 8.1% of our revenue less repair payments
(non-GAAP),
respectively, were derived from clients located in Australia. Although we have not had any significant project cancelations to date, we have agreed to limited volume commitment and payment term concessions with certain clients that have been significantly affected by the
COVID-19
pandemic. Any further weakening of or continuing uncertainty in the US, UK, European or Australian economy will likely have a further adverse impact on our revenue.
Other developments may also lead to a decline in the demand for our services in our targeted industries. Significant changes in the financial services industry or any of the other industries on which we focus, or a consolidation in any of these industries or acquisitions, particularly involving our clients, may decrease the potential number of buyers of our services and have an adverse impact on our profitability. Any significant reduction in or the elimination of the use of the services we provide within any of these industries would result in reduced revenue and harm our business. Our clients may experience rapid changes in their prospects, substantial price competition and pressure on their profitability. Although such pressures can encourage outsourcing as a cost reduction measure, they may also result in increasing pressure on us from clients in these key industries to lower our prices which could negatively affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
 
7

Our business operations and future growth have been, and may continue to be, negatively impacted on account of the
COVID-19
pandemic.
Countries around the world have started easing restrictions imposed over the past two years during the global outbreak of
COVID-19,
including the removal or relaxation of travel restrictions. However, the global outbreak of
COVID-19
continues to evolve, with a resurgence of infections seen in several countries around the world and the
re-imposition
of restrictions as a result thereof. The
COVID-19
pandemic continues to be active, at varying levels, in the majority of countries around the world, including countries where all of our delivery centers are located, and has created, and continues to create, significant uncertainty and disruption. Governmental measures and regulations, such as city or country-wide lockdowns, local, domestic and international travel restrictions as well as closures of the enabling ecosystem necessary for our business to operate smoothly, have impacted, and continue to impact, our ability to fully deliver services to our clients especially from our delivery centers. Such measures present concerns that may have affected, and continue to affect, our ability to conduct our business effectively, including, but not limited to adverse effects on employees’ health, a slowdown and often a stoppage of delivery, work, travel and other activities which are essential and critical for maintaining
on-going
business activities. Our ability to continue operations is dependent on a number of factors, such as the continued availability of high-quality internet bandwidth, an uninterrupted supply of electricity and the sustainability of social infrastructure to enable our remote-working employees to continue delivering services. See also “– If we cause disruptions to our clients’ businesses, provide inadequate service or are in breach of our representations or obligations, our clients may have claims for substantial damages against us. Our insurance coverage may be inadequate to cover these claims and, as a result, our profits may be substantially reduced.”
Given the uncertainty around the extent and timing of the future spread or mitigation of the
COVID-19
and around the imposition or relaxation of protective measures, we cannot reasonably estimate the impact to our future results of operations, cash flows or financial condition. In addition, the unknown scale and duration of these developments has had, and continues to have, macro and micro negative effects on the financial markets and global economy, which has resulted in an economic downturn that has affected, and may continue to affect, demand for our services and has had, and may continue to have, a material adverse effect on our operations and financial results, earnings, cash flow, financial condition and our ADS price. These effects could be material and long-term in duration. Subsequent outbreaks of
COVID-19
could therefore prolong the economic impact of the
COVID-19
pandemic.
Following guidance from local public health authorities in the countries in which we operate, we have taken various measures, and transitioned into new processes, to help reduce the spread of the virus and maintain the health and safety of our workforce, including but not limited to, implementing remote-working arrangements, restricting access to sites and implementing other measures to help maintain the safety of our workforce, which will allow us to carry out operations from our delivery centers when the local public health authorities allow it. The effects of these policies have negatively impacted, and may continue to negatively impact, productivity and the magnitude of any effect will depend, in part, on the length and severity of the restrictions and other limitations on our ability to conduct our business in the ordinary course. Some of these measures have required, and continue to require, us to provide services and operate client processes in an unsupervised environment, and while this has been acknowledged by our clients, such alternative operating models may result in breaches of our contractual obligations. Also, if a natural disaster, power outage, connectivity issue, or other event occurs that impacts our employees’ ability to work remotely, it may be difficult or, in certain cases, impossible, for us to continue our business for a substantial period of time. The increase in remote working may also result in client privacy, IT security and fraud concerns as well as increase our exposure to potential wage and hour issues.
For example, in India, the Philippines, South Africa and the United States, we have large concentrations of employees performing critical operations. The closure or partial closure of those facilities, or restrictions inhibiting our employees’ ability to access those facilities, during the past two years had disrupted our ability to provide our services and solutions to our clients and had resulted in, among other things, losses of revenue. Similar closure and restrictions continue to be required to be imposed to varying degrees in different jurisdictions from time to time, and such closure and restrictions continue to cause such disruptions to our business. In addition, clients may defer decision making or delay planned work. Certain of our clients have entered into insolvency proceedings as a result of the
COVID-19
pandemic, and terminated their current agreements with us. International, as well as domestic, travel bans imposed as emergency measures by governments, our reduced ability to hire new employees, disruptions to our supply chain, lockdowns in geographies where clients are located and temporary closure of our delivery centers have impaired, and may continue to impair, our ability to sell new business or expand our relationships with existing clients and hence may have an impact on our growth, financial condition, results and/or ADS price. Further, we might suffer delays in managerial and financial reporting and SEC filings, inability to perform audits and apply effective financial controls, or failures under other regulatory or compliance requirements to which we are subject.
To the extent that the
COVID-19
pandemic has adversely affected, and continues to adversely affect, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows, it may also have the effect of heightening many of the other risks described in this “Risk Factors” section, such as, but not limited to, those relating to:
 
   
the global economic and
geo-political
conditions and financial markets and the economy in general and the resultant potential fluctuations in foreign exchange rates;
 
   
our revenue being highly dependent on clients concentrated in a few industries, as well as clients located primarily in the US, the UK, Europe and Australia;
 
   
us potentially causing disruptions to our clients’ businesses, providing inadequate service or being in breach of our representations or obligations;
 
   
the negative public reaction to offshore outsourcing, proposed legislation or otherwise;
 
   
our operating results, which may differ from period to period and make it difficult for us to prepare accurate internal financial forecasts for responding in a timely manner to offset such
period-to-period
fluctuations;
 
   
a substantial portion of our assets and operations being located in India and we being subjected to regulatory, economic, social and political uncertainties in India;
 
   
restrictions on entry visas that may affect our ability to compete for and provide services to clients in the US and the UK; and
 
   
our ability to maintain effective controls that may materially impact or are reasonably likely to materially impact our disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls over financial reporting.
 
8

Currency fluctuations among the Indian rupee, the pound sterling, the US dollar, the Australian dollar, the Euro, the South African rand and the Philippine peso could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
Although substantially all of our revenue is denominated in pound sterling, US dollars, and to a lesser extent, Australian dollars, Euro and South African rand, a significant portion of our expenses (other than payments to repair centers, which are primarily denominated in pound sterling) are incurred and paid in Indian rupees and, to a lesser extent, in South African rand and Philippine peso. Therefore, a weakening of the rate of exchange for the pound sterling, the US dollar, Euro or the Australian dollar against the Indian rupee or, to a lesser extent, a weakening of the pound sterling against the South African rand or the Philippine peso would adversely affect our results. Furthermore, we report our financial results in US dollars and our results of operations would be adversely affected if the pound sterling, Euro or the Australian dollar depreciates against the US dollar, or if the Indian rupee or, to a lesser extent, the South African rand or the Philippine peso appreciates against the US dollar. Fluctuations between the Indian rupee, the Philippine peso, the pound sterling, the South African rand, the Euro or the Australian dollar, on the one hand, and the US dollar, on the other hand, expose us to translation risk when transactions denominated in such currencies are translated to US dollars, our reporting currency. The exchange rates between each of the Indian rupee, the Philippine peso, the pound sterling, the South African rand, the Euro or the Australian dollar, on the one hand, and the US dollar, on the other hand, have changed substantially in recent years and may fluctuate substantially in the future. The ongoing
COVID-19
pandemic has impacted, and may continue to impact, the proper functioning of financial and capital markets and may result in unpredictable fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates.
In addition, the military conflict between Russia and Ukraine may result in a global economic downturn and may result in unpredictable fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, and in particular, may negatively impact the Euro, the pound sterling and other currencies in which our revenue is denominated. The withdrawal of the UK from the EU in January 2020 has created significant political and economic uncertainty regarding the future trading relationship between the UK and the EU. See “— The UK’s withdrawal from the EU may have a negative effect on global economic conditions, financial markets and our operations in the UK and EU, which could reduce the value of our ADS.” These developments have caused, and may continue to cause, volatility in the exchange rates between the pound sterling and other currencies.
The average Indian rupee to US dollar exchange rate was approximately
74.49 per $1.00 in fiscal 2022, which represented a depreciation of the Indian rupee by an average of 0.3% as compared with the average exchange rate of approximately
74.25 per $1.00 in fiscal 2021, which in turn represented a depreciation of the Indian rupee by an average of 4.7% as compared with the average exchange rate of approximately
70.91 per $1.00 in fiscal 2020.
The average pound sterling to US dollar exchange rate was approximately £0.73 per $1.00 in fiscal 2022, which represented an appreciation of the pound sterling by an average of 4.6% as compared with the average exchange rate of approximately £0.77 per $1.00 in fiscal 2021, which in turn represented an appreciation of the pound sterling by an average of 2.7% as compared with the average exchange rate of approximately £0.79 per $1.00 in fiscal 2020.
The average Australian dollar to US dollar exchange rate was approximately A$1.35 per $1.00 in fiscal 2022, which represented an appreciation of the Australian dollar by an average of 3.0% as compared with the average exchange rate of approximately A$1.39 per $1.00 in fiscal 2021, which in turn represented an appreciation of the Australian dollar by an average of 5.3% as compared with the average exchange rate of approximately A$1.47 per $1.00 in fiscal 2020.
The average Euro to US dollar exchange rate was approximately €0.860 per $1.00 in fiscal 2022, which represented a depreciation of the Euro by an average of 0.3% as compared with the average exchange rate of approximately €0.857 per $1.00 in fiscal 2021, which in turn represented an appreciation of the Euro by an average of 5.0% as compared with the average exchange rate of approximately €0.900 per $1.00 in fiscal 2020.
The average South African rand to US dollar exchange rate was approximately R14.85 per $1.00 in fiscal 2022, which represented an appreciation of the South African rand by an average of 9.3% as compared with the average exchange rate of approximately R16.37 per $1.00 in fiscal 2021, which in turn represented a depreciation of the South African rand by an average of 10.9% as compared with the average exchange rate of approximately R14.76 per $1.00 in fiscal 2020.
The average Philippine peso to US dollar exchange rate was approximately PHP50.07 per $1.00 in fiscal 2022, which represented a depreciation of the Philippine peso by an average of 2.2% as compared with the average exchange rate of approximately PHP49.00 per $1.00 in fiscal 2021, which in turn represented an appreciation of the Philippine peso by an average of 4.7% as compared with the average exchange rate of approximately PHP51.43 per $1.00 in fiscal 2020.
Our results of operations would be adversely affected if the Indian rupee appreciates significantly against the pound sterling or the US dollar or if the pound sterling or the Australian dollar depreciates against the US dollar or, to a lesser extent, if the South African rand or the Philippine peso appreciates significantly against the US dollar.
For example, the depreciation of the Indian rupee and the Philippine peso and the appreciation of the pound sterling and the Australian dollar against the US dollar in fiscal 2022 positively impacted our results of operations whereas the appreciation of the South African rand against the US dollar negatively impacted our results of operations during that year.
The depreciation of the Indian rupee and the South African rand against the US dollar in fiscal 2021 positively impacted our results of operations whereas the appreciation of the Philippine peso against the US dollar negatively impacted our results of operations during that year.
We hedge a portion of our foreign currency exposures using options and forward contracts. We cannot assure you that our hedging strategy will be successful or will mitigate our exposure to currency risk.
The international nature of our business exposes us to several risks, such as unexpected changes in the regulatory requirements and governmental policy changes of multiple jurisdictions.
We have operations in China, Costa Rica, India, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Turkey, the UK and the US, and we service clients across Asia, Europe, South Africa, Australia and North America. Our corporate structure also spans multiple jurisdictions, with our parent holding company incorporated in Jersey, Channel Islands, and intermediate and operating subsidiaries (including branch offices) incorporated in Australia, Canada, China, Costa Rica, France, India, Mauritius, the Netherlands, the Philippines, Romania, South Africa, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Spain, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, the UK and the US. As a result, we are exposed to risks typically associated with conducting business internationally, many of which are beyond our control. These risks include:
 
   
legal uncertainty owing to the overlap of different legal regimes, and problems in asserting contractual or other rights across international borders;
 
   
potentially adverse tax consequences, such as scrutiny of transfer pricing arrangements by authorities in the countries in which we operate;
 
   
potential tariffs and other trade barriers;
 
   
unexpected changes in legal regimes and regulatory requirements;
 
   
policy changes due to changes in government;
For example, during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2017, proposed changes to the laws of the UK governing personal injury claims generated uncertainty regarding the future earnings trajectory of our legal services business in our WNS Auto Claims BPM segment, as a result of which we had expected that we would eventually exit from providing legal services in relation to personal injury claims. We also experienced a decrease in volume of and loss of business from certain clients of our traditional repair services in our WNS Auto Claims BPM segment in fiscal 2017. As a result, we had in fiscal 2017 expected the future performance of our WNS Auto Claims BPM segment to decline significantly and therefore significantly reduced our financial projections and estimates of our WNS Auto Claims BPM segment. Accordingly, we performed an impairment review of the goodwill associated with the companies we had acquired for our auto claims business and recorded an impairment charge of $21.7 million to our results of operations in fiscal 2017.
During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020, Brexit had a negative impact on the insurance industry and applied downward pressure on the expected future performance of the WNS Auto Claims reportable segment, due to contract renegotiations and loss of certain clients. These factors, together with the highly uncertain operating environment in the UK, have negatively impacted and caused us to significantly reduce our financial projections and estimates of the WNS Auto Claims BPM reportable segment from our previous estimates. Accordingly, we performed an impairment review of the goodwill associated with the companies we had acquired for our auto claims business and recorded an impairment charge of $4.1 million to our results of operations in fiscal 2020 for the remaining goodwill balance of our auto claims business.
The occurrence of other changes in legal regimes or regulatory requirements, or any other events associated with the risks of conducting business internationally, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
 
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Our global operations expose us to numerous and sometimes conflicting legal and regulatory requirements. Failure to adhere to the laws and regulations that govern our business or our clients’ businesses that we are required to comply with in performing our services could harm our business.
We have operations in 12 countries and our corporate structure spans multiple jurisdictions. Further, we service clients across multiple geographic regions and multiple industries. We are required to comply with numerous, and sometimes conflicting and uncertain, laws and regulations including on matters relating to import/export controls, trade restrictions, taxation, immigration, internal disclosure and control obligations, securities regulation, anti-competition, data privacy and protection, anti-corruption, and employment and labor relations. In addition, we are required to obtain and maintain permits and licenses for the conduct of our business in various jurisdictions. Our clients’ business operations are also subject to numerous regulations in the jurisdiction in which they operate or that are applicable to their industry, and our clients may contractually require that we perform our services in compliance with regulations applicable to them or in a manner that will enable them to comply with such regulations. For example, regulations to which our and our clients’ business operations are subject include the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act and the California Consumer Privacy Act in the US, the Financial Services Act in the UK and the General Data Protection Regulation in the EU. Countries around the world, including those where we have business operations and where we service customers for our clients, have adopted or have proposed to adopt in the near future, comprehensive privacy and personal data protection laws, including the Protection of Personal Information Act (POPI) in South Africa and the upcoming Personal Data Protection Bill (PDPB) in India. In addition, HealthHelp, which we acquired in March 2017, administers programs offered by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, a United States federal agency that administers Medicare and Medicaid.
Regulatory changes may result in our exiting certain parts of our business.
On account of the global nature of our and our clients’ operations, compliance with diverse legal and regulatory requirements is difficult, time-consuming and requires significant resources. Further, the extent of development of legal systems varies across the countries in which we operate and local laws may not be adequately developed or be able to provide us clear guidance to sufficiently protect our rights. Specifically, in many countries including those in which we operate and/or seek to expand to, the practices of local businesses may not be in accordance with international business standards and could violate anti-corruption laws and regulations, including the UK Bribery Act 2010 and the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act 1977. Our employees, subcontractors, agents, business partners, the companies we acquire and their employees, subcontractors and agents, and other third parties with which we associate, could act in a manner which violates policies or procedures intended to ensure compliance with laws and regulations, including applicable anti-corruption laws or regulations.
Violations of such laws or regulations by us, our employees or any of these third parties could subject us to criminal or civil enforcement actions (whether or not we participated or were aware of the actions leading to the violations), including fines or penalties, breach of contract damages, disgorgement of profits and suspension or disqualification from work, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, including our results of operations and our reputation. If we are unable to maintain our licenses, permits or other qualifications necessary to provide our services, we may not be able to provide services to existing clients or be able to attract new clients and could lose revenue, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
 
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We face competition from onshore and offshore BPM companies and from information technology companies that also offer BPM services. Our clients may also choose to run their business processes themselves, either in their home countries or through captive units located offshore.
The market for outsourcing services is very competitive and we expect competition to intensify and increase from a number of sources. We believe that the principal competitive factors in our markets are price, service quality, sales and marketing skills, business process transformation capabilities and industry expertise. We face significant competition from our clients’ own
in-house
groups including, in some cases,
in-house
departments operating offshore or captive units. Clients who currently outsource a significant proportion of their business processes or information technology services to vendors in India may, for various reasons, including diversifying geographic risk, seek to reduce their dependence on any one country. We also face competition from onshore and offshore BPM and information technology services companies. In addition, the trend toward offshore outsourcing, international expansion by foreign and domestic competitors and continuing technological changes will result in new and different competitors entering our markets. The
COVID-19
pandemic further hastened the development and adoption of such technological changes that may accelerate the pace of disintermediation, which may impact the services that the BPM industry currently provides.
These competitors may include entrants from the communications, software and data networking industries or entrants in geographic locations with lower costs than those in which we operate. Technological changes include the development of complex automated systems for the processing of transactions that are formerly labor intensive, which may reduce or replace the need for outsourcing such transaction processing.
Some of these existing and future competitors have greater financial, human and other resources, longer operating histories, greater technological expertise, more recognizable brand names and more established relationships in the industries that we currently serve or may serve in the future. In addition, some of our competitors may enter into strategic or commercial relationships among themselves or with larger, more established companies in order to increase their ability to address client needs, or enter into similar arrangements with potential clients. Increased competition, our inability to compete successfully against competitors, pricing pressures or loss of market share could result in reduced operating margins which could harm our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Changes in technology could lead to changes in our clients’ businesses as well as their requirements for business process services, which may adversely impact our business and results of operations.
Proliferation of accessible technology, such as smartphones and internet, has had an impact on the manner in which customers and businesses interact with each other. Companies are increasingly adopting social media platforms, online self-help portals and mobile applications for communicating with and servicing their customers rather than utilizing BPM companies such as ourselves to manage these interactions. Our clients also continue to invest in technology by upgrading their platforms and application capabilities towards increased automation of transactions. Advances in software, such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, robotic process automation and voice recognition, have the potential to reduce dependency on human processing transactions. Such developments and other innovations, such as autonomous vehicles, have the potential to significantly change the way our clients’ businesses operate and may reduce their dependency on BPM companies, including our company, for managing their business processes. We are therefore subject to a risk of disintermediation on account of such changes in technology, which could impact our future growth prospects and may require continued investments in our business.
If we cause disruptions to our clients’ businesses, provide inadequate service or are in breach of our representations or obligations, our clients may have claims for substantial damages against us. Our insurance coverage may be inadequate to cover these claims and, as a result, our profits may be substantially reduced.
Most of our contracts with clients contain service level and performance requirements, including requirements relating to the quality of our services and the timing and quality of responses to the client’s customer inquiries. In some cases, the quality of services that we provide is measured by quality assurance ratings and surveys which are based in part on the results of direct monitoring by our clients of interactions between our employees and our clients’ customers. Lockdowns and other measures imposed by governments around the world, as well as other resulting impacts of the
COVID-19
pandemic, may result in our temporary inability to meet the service level and performance requirements of our clients. Failure to consistently meet service level requirements of a client or errors made by our associates or the software and/or platforms we use in the course of delivering services to our clients could disrupt the client’s business and result in a reduction in revenue or a claim for substantial damages against us. For example, some of our agreements stipulate standards of service that, if not met by us, will require us to pay penalties to our clients or result in lower payment to us. Failure to meet these service level requirements could result in the payment of significant penalties by us to our clients which in turn could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. In addition, in connection with acquiring new business from a client or entering into client contracts, our employees may make various representations, including representations relating to the quality of our services, abilities of our associates and our project management techniques. A failure or inability to meet a contractual requirement or our representations could seriously damage our reputation and affect our ability to attract new business or result in a claim for substantial damages against us.
 
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Our dependence on our offshore delivery centers requires us to maintain active data and voice communications between our main delivery centers in China, Costa Rica, India, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Turkey, the UK and the US, our international technology hubs in the UK and the US and our clients’ offices. Although we maintain redundant facilities and communications links, disruptions could result from, among other things, technical and electricity breakdowns, computer glitches and viruses and adverse weather conditions. For instance, we depend on a continuous supply of electricity to operate our IT infrastructure. As a result of the
COVID-19
pandemic, we have adopted a hybrid-working model, whereby a significant portion of our employees are working from home. While we have implemented multiple levels of electrical redundancies at our operating premises to mitigate against the risk of power shortage, such measures may not be available at our employees’ homes. Several countries where we operate from could face power shortage in the future, which may disrupt our operations, including for employees working from home, and slow down the expansion of our operations in these countries. For instance:
 
   
South Africa has been facing widespread rolling power blackouts, with the current period of rolling blackouts taking place since March 2021, due to breakdowns in multiple power stations resulting in planned and unplanned power outages.
 
   
Sri Lanka has been unable to import sufficient oil required for electricity generation due to a foreign exchange crisis since 2021 and has experienced nationwide power cuts.
 
   
Poland and Romania are partly dependent on supply of gas from Russia for their electricity generation, which may be impacted as a result of the ongoing conflict between Ukraine and Russia.
 
   
India faced temporary power shortages in October-November 2021 as a result of shortages of coal used to generate electricity.
Any significant failure of our equipment or systems, or any major disruption to basic infrastructure like power and telecommunications in the locations in which we operate, could impede our ability to provide services to our clients, have a negative impact on our reputation, cause us to lose clients, reduce our revenue and harm our business.
We depend on human resources to process transactions for our clients. Disruptive incidents, including
man-made
events such as military conflicts, civil strikes and shutdowns, may impact the ability of our employees to commute to and from our operating premises.
Non-natural
disasters, whether unintentional (such as those caused by accidents) or intentional (such as those caused by terrorist attacks), may also disrupt our operations. While we have implemented business continuity plans for clients where we have contractually agreed to do so, we may not always be able to provide services to our clients for the duration of such incidents. For further information on the impact of the
COVID-19
pandemic on our human resources planning, see “— Our business operations and future growth have been, and may continue to be, negatively impacted on account of the
COVID-19
pandemic.”
Although under most of our contracts with our clients, our liability for breach of our obligations is limited to actual damages suffered by the client and capped at a portion of the fees paid or payable to us under the relevant contract, our liability for breach of our obligations under certain of our contracts is unlimited. With respect to those of our contracts that contain limitations on liability, such limitations may be unenforceable or otherwise may not protect us from liability for damages. In addition, certain liabilities, such as claims of third parties for which we may be required to indemnify our clients, are generally not limited under those agreements. Further, although we have professional indemnity insurance coverage, the coverage may not continue to be available on reasonable terms or in sufficient amounts to cover one or more large claims and our insurers may disclaim coverage as to any future claims. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, or changes in our insurance policies (including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or
co-insurance
requirements), could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We are liable to our clients for damages caused by unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential information, whether through a breach or circumvention of our or our clients’ computer systems and processes, through our employees or otherwise. Further, cybersecurity and data privacy considerations could impact our business.
We are typically required to manage, utilize and store sensitive or confidential client data in connection with the services we provide. Under the terms of our client contracts, we are required to keep such information strictly confidential. Our client contracts do not include any limitation on our liability to them with respect to breaches of our obligation to maintain confidentiality of the information we receive from them. Although we seek to implement measures to protect sensitive and confidential client data, there can be no assurance that we would be able to prevent breaches of security. Further, some of our projects require us to conduct business functions and computer operations using our clients’ systems over which we do not have control and which may not be compliant with industry security standards. In addition, some of the client designed processes that we are contractually required to follow for delivering services to them and which we are unable to unilaterally change, could be designed in a manner that allows for control weaknesses to exist and be exploited. Any vulnerability in a client’s system or client designed process, if exploited, could result in breaches of security or unauthorized transactions and result in a claim for substantial damages against us. Although we have implemented appropriate policies, procedures and infrastructure to reduce the possibility of physical, logical and personnel security breaches, along with appropriate audit oversight for verifying continued operating effectiveness of the same through internal audits and external SSAE18 / ISAE3402, ISO27001 and
PCI-DSS
reviews, such measures can never completely eliminate the risk of cybersecurity attacks. Additionally, remote-working solutions deployed during the
COVID-19
pandemic could potentially result in heightened information technology security and data protection risks on account of services being delivered in a physically unsupervised environment. If any person, including any of our employees, penetrates our or our clients’ network security or otherwise mismanages or misappropriates sensitive or confidential client data, we could be subject to significant liability and lawsuits from our clients or their customers for breaching contractual confidentiality provisions or privacy laws.
The threat of cyberattacks has increased and evolved in recent years. In particular, during the
COVID-19
pandemic, many companies across the world, including us, have experienced a significant increase in attempted malicious attacks. To date, although there has not been a material cybersecurity attack that has had an adverse effect on our operations, there can be no assurance that there will be no material adverse effect in the future. Rapid advancements and changes to the technological landscape may require us to make significant further investments in the domain of cybersecurity in order to protect our and our clients’ data and infrastructure. In addition, such advancements coupled with the rise in the sophisticated nature of cyber threats and attacks make it possible that certain threats or vulnerabilities may not be detected in time to prevent an attack on our or our clients’ business. On account of the interconnected nature of our business, there is an interdependency between our clients, business partners and our business to implement appropriate cybersecurity controls in order to mitigate cybersecurity risk. A failure of cybersecurity controls at our client or business partners could therefore result in a breach at our company.
While we have insurance coverage for mismanagement or misappropriation of such information by our employees, that coverage may not continue to be available on reasonable terms or in sufficient amounts to cover one or more large claims against us, and our insurers may disclaim coverage as to any future claims. Penetration of the network security of our or our clients’ data centers or computer systems or unauthorized use or disclosure of sensitive or confidential client data, whether through breach of our or our clients’ computer systems, systems failure, loss or theft of assets containing confidential information or otherwise, could also have a negative impact on our reputation which would harm our business.
We also cannot be certain that advances in criminal capabilities (including cyber-attacks or cyber intrusions over the internet, malware, computer viruses and the like), discovery of new vulnerabilities or attempts to exploit existing vulnerabilities in our or our clients’ or business partners’ systems, other data thefts, physical system or network
break-ins
or inappropriate access, or other developments will not compromise or breach the technology protecting our or our client’s or business partners’ computer systems and networks that access and store sensitive information. Cyber threats, such as phishing and trojans, could intrude into our or our clients’ or business partners’ network to steal data or to seek sensitive information. Any intrusion into our network or our clients’ or business partners’ network (to the extent attributed to us or perceived to be attributed to us) that results in any breach of security could cause damage to our reputation and adversely impact our business and financial results. A significant failure in security measures could have a material adverse effect on our business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition.
 
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Our business could be materially and adversely affected if we do not protect our intellectual property or if our services are found to infringe on the intellectual property of others.
Our success depends in part on certain methodologies, practices, tools and technical expertise we utilize in designing, developing, implementing and maintaining applications and other proprietary intellectual property rights. In order to protect our rights in such intellectual properties, we rely upon a combination of nondisclosure and other contractual arrangements as well as trade secret, copyright and trademark laws. We also generally enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, clients and potential clients, and limit access to and distribution of our proprietary information to the extent required for our business purpose.
India is a member of the Berne Convention, an international intellectual property treaty, and has agreed to recognize protections on intellectual property rights conferred under the laws of other foreign countries, including the laws of the United States. There can be no assurance that the laws, rules, regulations and treaties in effect in the United States, India and the other jurisdictions in which we operate and the contractual and other protective measures we take, are adequate to protect us from misappropriation or unauthorized use of our intellectual property, or that such laws will not change. We may not be able to detect unauthorized use and take appropriate steps to enforce our rights, and any such steps may not be successful. Infringement by others of our intellectual property, including the costs of enforcing our intellectual property rights, may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our clients may provide us with access to, and require us to use, third party software in connection with our delivery of services to them. Our client contracts generally require our clients to indemnify us for any infringement of intellectual property rights or licenses to third party software when our clients provide such access to us. If the indemnities under our client contracts are inadequate to cover the damages and losses, we suffer due to infringement of third party intellectual property rights or licenses to third party software to which we were given access, our business and results of operations could be adversely affected. We are also generally required by our client contracts to indemnify our clients for any breaches of intellectual property rights by our services. Although we believe that we are not infringing on the intellectual property rights of others, claims may nonetheless be successfully asserted against us in the future. The costs of defending any such claims could be significant, and any successful claim may require us to modify, discontinue or rename any of our services. Any such changes may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Our clients may terminate contracts before completion or choose not to renew contracts, which could adversely affect our business and reduce our revenue.
The terms of our client contracts typically range from three to five years. Many of our client contracts can be terminated by our clients with or without cause, with three to six months’ notice and, in most cases, without penalty. The termination of a substantial percentage of these contracts could adversely affect our business and reduce our revenue. Contracts that will expire on or before March 31, 2023 (including work orders/statement of works that will expire on or before March 31, 2023) represented approximately 12.8% of our revenue and 13.8% of our revenue less repair payments
(non-GAAP)
from our clients in fiscal 2022. Failure to meet contractual requirements could result in cancellation or
non-renewal
of a contract. Some of our contracts may be terminated by the client if certain of our key personnel working on the client project leave our employment and we are unable to find suitable replacements. In addition, a contract termination or significant reduction in work assigned to us by a major client could cause us to experience a higher than expected number of unassigned employees, which would increase our cost of revenue as a percentage of revenue until we are able to reduce or reallocate our headcount. We may not be able to replace any client that elects to terminate or not renew its contract with us, which would adversely affect our business and revenue. Further, we may face difficulties in providing
end-to-end
business solutions or delivering complex, large or unique projects for our clients that could cause clients to terminate or not renew their contracts with us, which in turn could harm our business and our reputation.
For example, in October 2021, we ceased to provide services to a telecommunications company which was one of our top fifteen customers by revenue contribution in fiscal 2021 as a result of consolidation initiatives of the customer. The customer accounted for 2.4% and 3.1% of our revenue and 2.6% and 3.2% of our revenue less repair payments
(non-GAAP)
in fiscal 2021 and in fiscal 2020, respectively. For more information, see “— A few major clients account for a significant portion of our revenue and any loss of business from these clients could reduce our revenue and significantly harm our business.”
 
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Some of our client contracts contain provisions which, if triggered, could result in lower future revenue and have an adverse effect on our business.
In many of our client contracts, we agree to include certain provisions which provide for downward revision of our prices under certain circumstances. For example, certain contracts allow a client in certain limited circumstances to request a benchmark study comparing our pricing and performance with that of an agreed list of other service providers for comparable services. Based on the results of the study and depending on the reasons for any unfavorable variance, we may be required to make improvements in the service we provide or to reduce the pricing for services to be performed under the remaining term of the contract. Some of our contracts also provide that, during the term of the contract and for a certain period thereafter ranging from six to 12 months, we may not provide similar services to certain or any of their competitors using the same personnel. These restrictions may hamper our ability to compete for and provide services to other clients in the same industry, which may result in lower future revenue and profitability.
Some of our contracts specify that if a change in control of our company occurs during the term of the contract, the client has the right to terminate the contract. These provisions may result in our contracts being terminated if there is such a change in control, resulting in a potential loss of revenue.
Fraud on account of circumvention of controls within our or our clients’ computer systems and processes could adversely impact our business.
Our business is dependent on the secure and reliable operation of controls within our and our clients’ information systems and processes, whether operated or executed by our clients themselves or by us in connection with our provision of services to them. Although we take adequate measures to safeguard against system-related and other fraud, there can be no assurance that we would be able to prevent fraud or even detect them on a timely basis, particularly where it relates to our clients’ information systems which are not managed by us. For example, we have identified incidences where our employees have allegedly exploited weaknesses in information systems as well as processes in order to record fraudulent transactions. Additionally, the physically unsupervised nature of remote-working solutions adopted during the
COVID-19
pandemic could potentially expose us to potential instances of fraud. We are generally required to indemnify our clients from third party claims arising out of such fraudulent transactions and our client contracts generally do not include any limitation on our liability to our clients’ losses arising from fraudulent activities by our employees. Our expansion into new markets may create additional challenges with respect to managing the risk of fraud due to the increased geographical dispersion and use of intermediaries. Accordingly, we may have significant liability arising from fraudulent transactions which may materially affect our business and financial results. Although we have professional indemnity insurance coverage for losses arising from fraudulent activities by our employees, that coverage may not continue to be available on reasonable terms or in sufficient amounts to cover one or more large claims against us, and our insurers may also disclaim coverage as to any future claims. We may also suffer reputational harm as a result of fraud committed by our employees, or by our perceived inability to properly manage fraud related risks, which could in turn lead to enhanced regulatory oversight and scrutiny.
 
14

Our business may not develop in ways that we currently anticipate due to negative public reaction to offshore outsourcing, proposed legislation or otherwise.
We have based our strategy of future growth on certain assumptions regarding our industry, services, and future demand in the market for such services. However, the trend to outsource business processes may not continue and could reverse. In addition, we cannot accurately predict the impact that the
COVID-19
pandemic might have on our clients’ outsourcing demands and efforts, which might be lower in the future, as some of our clients might decide to refrain from offshore outsourcing due to the pressures they may face from increased unemployment in the regions in which they operate as a result of the
COVID-19
pandemic.
The issue of domestic companies outsourcing services to organizations operating in other countries is a topic of political discussion in the United States, as well as in Europe, Asia Pacific and other regions in which we have clients. Some countries and special interest groups have expressed concerns about a perceived association between offshore outsourcing and the loss of jobs in the domestic economy. This has resulted in increased political and media attention, especially in the United States, where the subject of outsourcing and immigration reform has been a focus of the current presidential administration. It is possible that there could be a change in the existing laws that would restrict or require disclosure of offshore outsourcing or impose new standards that have the effect of restricting the use of certain visas in the foreign outsourcing context. The measures that have been enacted to date are generally directed at restricting the ability of government agencies to outsource work to offshore business service providers. These measures have not had a significant effect on our business because governmental agencies are not a focus of our operations. However, some legislative proposals would, for example, require contact centers to disclose their geographic locations, require notice to individuals whose personal information is disclosed to
non-US
affiliates or subcontractors, require disclosures of companies’ foreign outsourcing practices, or restrict US private sector companies that have federal government contracts, federal grants or guaranteed loan programs from outsourcing their services to offshore service providers. Potential changes in tax laws may also increase the overall costs of outsourcing or affect the balance of offshore and onshore business services. Such changes could have an adverse impact on the economics of outsourcing for private companies in the US, which could in turn have an adverse impact on our business with US clients.
Such concerns have also led the UK and other EU jurisdictions to enact regulations which allow employees who are dismissed as a result of transfer of services, which may include outsourcing to
non-UK
or EU companies, to seek compensation either from the company from which they were dismissed or from the company to which the work was transferred. This could discourage EU companies from outsourcing work offshore and/or could result in increased operating costs for us. In addition, there has been publicity about the negative experiences, such as theft and misappropriation of sensitive client data, of various companies that use offshore outsourcing, particularly in India.
Current or prospective clients may elect to perform such services themselves or may be discouraged from transferring these services from onshore to offshore providers to avoid negative perceptions that may be associated with using an offshore provider. Any slowdown or reversal of existing industry trends towards offshore outsourcing would seriously harm our ability to compete effectively with competitors that operate out of facilities located in the UK or the US.
Adverse changes to our relationships with the companies with whom we have an alliance or in the business of the companies with whom we have an alliance could adversely affect our results of operations.
We have alliances with companies whose capabilities complement our own. For example, some of our services and solutions are based on technology, software or platforms provided by these companies. The priorities and objectives of these companies with whom we have an alliance may differ from ours. As most of our alliance relationships are
non-exclusive,
these companies with whom we have an alliance are not prohibited from competing with us or forming closer or preferred arrangements with our competitors. One or more of these companies with whom we have an alliance may be acquired by a competitor, or may merge with each other, either of which could reduce our access over time to the technology, software or platforms provided by those companies. In addition, these companies with whom we have an alliance could experience reduced demand for their technology, software or platforms, including, for example, in response to changes in technology, which could lessen related demand for our services and solutions. If we do not obtain the expected benefits from our alliance relationships for any reason, we may be less competitive and our ability to offer attractive solutions to our clients may be negatively affected, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
 
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If we are unable to collect our receivables from, or bill our unbilled services to, our clients, our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.
Our business depends on our ability to successfully obtain payment from our clients for work performed. We evaluate the financial condition of our clients and usually bill and collect on relatively short cycles. We maintain allowances, using the expected credit loss model, against receivables and unbilled services. Actual losses on client balances could differ from those that we currently anticipate and, as a result, we might need to adjust our allowances. We might not accurately assess the creditworthiness of our clients. Macroeconomic conditions, such as any domestic or global credit crisis and disruption of the global financial system, including on account of the
COVID-19
pandemic, have also and may continue to result in financial difficulties for our clients, including, but not limited to, limited access to the credit markets, insolvency or bankruptcy and, as a result, have caused and may continue to cause, clients to delay payments to us, request modifications to their payment arrangements that could increase our receivables balance, or default on their payment obligations to us. Timely collection of client balances also depends on our ability to complete our contractual commitments and bill and collect our contracted revenues. If we are unable to meet our contractual requirements, we might experience delays in collection of and/or be unable to collect our client balances, and if this occurs, our results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected. In addition, if we experience an increase in the time to bill and collect for our services, our cash flows could be adversely affected.
We may face difficulties as we expand our operations to establish delivery centers in onshore locations and offshore in countries in which we have limited or no prior operating experience.
In April 2014 our delivery center in South Carolina in the US became fully operational. We also opened an additional delivery center in Pennsylvania in the US in September 2014. In 2016, we opened an additional delivery center in the Philippines at Iloilo, and in fiscal 2017 we expanded into France, Germany and Turkey. In fiscal 2019, we added new facilities in Palma, Spain, and the Philippines. In fiscal 2020, we added new facilities in Pune and Gurgaon, India and the Philippines. In fiscal 2021, we added new facilities in Gurgaon, India, Australia and the Philippines. In fiscal 2022, we added new facilities in Hyderabad, India and the Philippines. We intend to continue to expand our global footprint in order to maintain an appropriate cost structure and meet our clients’ delivery needs. We plan to establish additional delivery centers in the Asia Pacific, North America and Europe, which may involve expanding into countries other than those in which we currently operate. Our expansion plans may also involve expanding into less developed countries, which may have less political, social or economic stability and less developed infrastructure and legal systems. As we expand our business into new countries, we may encounter regulatory, personnel, technological and other difficulties that increase our expenses or delay our ability to start up our operations or become profitable in such countries. This may affect our relationships with our clients and could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We may be unable to effectively manage our growth and maintain effective internal controls, which could have a material adverse effect on our operations, results of operations and financial condition.
We were founded in April 1996, and we have experienced growth and significantly expanded our operations. For example, over the last five fiscal years, our employees have increased to 52,081 as at March 31, 2022 from 34,547 as at March 31, 2017. In fiscal 2015, our delivery centers in South Carolina and Pennsylvania, in the US, as well as in South Africa, became fully operational, as did our newest facility in China. In fiscal 2016, we added new facilities in Durban and Port Elizabeth, South Africa and Iloilo, the Philippines. In fiscal 2017, we added new facilities in Durban and Centurion, South Africa. In fiscal 2019, we added new facilities in Palma, Spain and the Philippines. In fiscal 2020, we added new facilities in Pune and Gurgaon, India and the Philippines. In fiscal 2021, we added new facilities in Gurgaon, India, Australia and the Philippines. In fiscal 2022, we added new facilities in Hyderabad, India and the Philippines. We have delivery centers across 12 countries in China, Costa Rica, India, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Turkey, the UK, and the US. We intend to further expand our global delivery capability, and we are exploring plans to do so in Asia Pacific, North America and Europe.
We have also completed numerous acquisitions. For example, in the first quarter of fiscal 2017, we acquired Value Edge, a provider of commercial research and analytics services to clients in the pharma industry based in India, the US and Europe. In January 2017, we acquired Denali, a leading provider of strategic procurement BPM solutions based in the United States. In March 2017, we acquired HealthHelp, an industry leader in care management based in the United States. For more information about more recent acquisitions, see “— We may not succeed in identifying suitable acquisition targets or integrating any acquired business into our operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.”
 
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This growth places significant demands on our management and operational resources. In order to manage growth effectively, we must implement and improve operational systems, procedures and internal controls on a timely basis. If we fail to implement these systems, procedures and controls on a timely basis, we may not be able to service our clients’ needs, hire and retain new employees, pursue new business, complete future acquisitions or operate our business effectively. Failure to effectively transfer new client business to our delivery centers, properly budget transfer costs or accurately estimate operational costs associated with new contracts could result in delays in executing client contracts, trigger service level penalties or cause our profit margins not to meet our expectations or our historical profit margins. As a result of any of these potential problems associated with expansion, our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.
We are subject to various risks relating to human capital management.
We face risks with respect to the management of human capital resources. If not managed properly, these risks could compromise our future success and harm our business. These risks are discussed in detail below.
Our executive and senior management team and other key team members in our business units are critical to our continued success and the loss of such personnel could harm our business.
Our future success substantially depends on the performance of the members of our executive and senior management team and other key team members in each of our business units. These personnel possess technical and business capabilities including domain expertise that are difficult to replace. There is intense competition for experienced senior management and personnel with technical and industry expertise in the BPM industry, and we may not be able to retain our key personnel due to various reasons, including the compensation philosophy followed by our company as described in “Part I — Item 6. Directors, Senior Management and Employees — Compensation”. Although we have entered into employment contracts with our executive officers, certain terms of those agreements may not be enforceable and in any event these agreements do not ensure the continued service of these executive officers. In the event of a loss of any key personnel, there is no assurance that we will be able to find suitable replacements for our key personnel within a reasonable time. The loss of key members of our senior management or other key team members, particularly to competitors, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We may fail to attract and retain enough sufficiently trained employees to support our operations, as competition for highly skilled personnel is significant and we experience significant employee attrition. These factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
The BPM industry relies on large numbers of skilled employees, and our success depends to a significant extent on our ability to attract, hire, train and retain qualified employees. The BPM industry, including our company, experiences high employee attrition. As companies, including our company, transition from a “work from home” model to a return to the office, we may face higher levels of attrition if employees are unwilling to return to
pre-COVID
working schedules. In addition, client mandates that restrict our delivery of services remotely could also adversely affect our ability to attract talents in the future. During each of fiscal 2022, 2021 and 2020, the attrition rate for our employees who have completed six months of employment with us was 36%, 22% and 30%, respectively. We cannot assure you whether our attrition rate will increase or decrease in the future. There is significant competition in the jurisdictions where our operation centers are located, including India, the Philippines, Romania, South Africa and Sri Lanka, for professionals with the skills necessary to perform the services we offer to our clients. Increased competition for these professionals, in the BPM industry or otherwise, could have an adverse effect on us. A significant increase in the attrition rate among employees with specialized skills could decrease our operating efficiency and productivity and could lead to a decline in demand for our services.
In addition, our ability to maintain and renew existing engagements and obtain new business will depend largely on our ability to attract, train and retain personnel with skills that enable us to keep pace with growing demands for outsourcing, evolving industry standards and changing client preferences. Our failure either to attract, train and retain personnel with the qualifications necessary to fulfill the needs of our existing and future clients or to assimilate new employees successfully could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our success in attracting talent depends on our ability to foster a culture of diversity, equity and inclusion at our workplace. We are focused on promoting a range of matters to help foster our workplace culture, including diversity, equal opportunities,
non-discrimination,
inclusion and employee health and safety. We have adopted policies to promote compliance with laws and regulations as well as to foster a respectful workplace for all employees. Any failure in adhering to these policies could harm our reputation and result in negative publicity, thereby negatively affecting our ability to attract and retain talent.
Employee strikes and other labor-related disruptions may adversely affect our operations.
Our business depends on a large number of employees executing client operations. Strikes or labor disputes with our employees at our delivery centers may adversely affect our ability to conduct business. Our employees are not unionized, although they may in the future form unions. We cannot assure you that there will not be any strike, lock out or material labor dispute in the future. Work interruptions or stoppages could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
 
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Our loan agreements impose operating and financial restrictions on us and our subsidiaries.
While we had no indebtedness as of March 31, 2022, we had in the past incurred a substantial amount of indebtedness in connection with our acquisitions. See “Part I — Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Liquidity and Capital Resources.” Generally, our loan agreements contain a number of covenants and other provisions that, among other things, may impose operating and financial restrictions on us and our subsidiaries. These restrictions could put a strain on our financial position. For example:
 
   
they may increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
 
   
they may require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our loans, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow to fund capital expenditure, working capital and other general corporate purposes;
 
   
they may require us to seek lenders’ consent prior to paying dividends on our ordinary shares;
 
   
they may limit our ability to incur additional borrowings or raise additional financing through equity or debt instruments; and
 
   
they may impose certain financial covenants on us that we may not be able to meet, which may cause the lenders to accelerate the repayment of the remaining loan outstanding.
Further, the restrictions that may be contained in our loan agreements may limit our ability to plan for or react to market conditions, meet capital needs or make acquisitions or otherwise restrict our activities or business plans. Our ability to comply with the covenants of our loan agreements may be affected by events beyond our control, and any material deviations from our forecasts could require us to seek waivers or amendments of covenants or alternative sources of financing or to reduce expenditures. We cannot assure you that such waivers, amendments or alternative financing could be obtained, or if obtained, would be on terms acceptable to us.
To fund our capital expenditures, service indebtedness and fund other potential liquidity requirements, we will require a significant amount of cash. Our ability to generate cash depends on many factors beyond our control and we may need to access the credit market to meet our liquidity requirements.
Our ability to fund planned capital expenditures and to make payments on outstanding loans will depend on our ability to generate cash in the future. This, to a large extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control. Furthermore, given the recent global economic slowdown and that uncertainty over global economic conditions remains, including on account of the
COVID-19
pandemic and the Russia-Ukraine military conflict, there can be no assurance that our business activity will be maintained at our expected level to generate the anticipated cash flows from operations, or that our credit facilities will be available or sufficient. If the current global economic slowdown and uncertainties continue, we may experience a decrease in demand for our services, resulting in our cash flows from operations being lower than anticipated. This may in turn result in our need to obtain financing, which may not be available to us on favorable terms or at all.
If we cannot fund our capital expenditures, service indebtedness or fund our other potential liquidity requirements, we may have to take actions such as seeking additional equity or reducing or delaying capital expenditures, strategic acquisitions and investments. We cannot assure you that any such actions, if necessary, could be effected on commercially reasonable terms or at all.
 
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If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or prevent or detect fraud. As a result, current and potential investors could lose confidence in our financial reporting, which could harm our business and have an adverse effect on our ADS price.
Effective internal control over financial reporting is necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports. The effective internal controls together with adequate disclosure controls and procedures are designed to prevent or detect fraud. Deficiencies in our internal controls may adversely affect our management’s ability to record, process, summarize, and report financial data on a timely basis. As a public company, we are required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 to include a report of management’s assessment on our internal control over financial reporting and an independent auditor’s attestation report on our internal control over financial reporting in our annual reports on Form
20-F.
If material weaknesses are identified in our internal controls over financial reporting, we could be required to implement remedial measures. If we fail to maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures or internal control over financial reporting, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which could have a material adverse effect on our ADS price.
Wage increases may prevent us from sustaining our competitive advantage and may reduce our profit margin.
Salaries and related benefits of our operations staff and other employees in countries where we have delivery centers, in particular India, are among our most significant costs. Wage costs in India have historically been significantly lower than wage costs in the US and Europe for comparably skilled professionals, which has been one of our competitive advantages. However, rapid economic growth in India, increased demand for BPM outsourcing to India, increased competition for skilled employees in India, and regulatory developments resulting in wage increases in India, may reduce this competitive advantage. For example, the Code on Wages 2019, Industrial Relations Code 2020, Social Security Code 2020 and Occupational Safety, Health & Working Condition Code 2020 received assent from the President of India on September 28, 2020. However, the rules for these Acts have not yet been published and the effective date from which these changes are applicable is yet to be notified. Accordingly, while we are unable to determine with certainty the financial impact due to these changes, it is possible that our wage costs in India may increase as a result of these changes when they become effective. In addition, if the US dollar or the pound sterling declines in value against the Indian rupee, wages in the US or the UK will further decrease relative to wages in India, which may further reduce our competitive advantage. We may need to increase our levels of employee compensation more rapidly than in the past to remain competitive in attracting the quantity and quality of employees that our business requires. Wage increases may reduce our profit margins and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and cash flows.
Further, following the establishment of our delivery centers in the US in 2014, our operations in the US have expanded and our wage costs for employees located in the UK and the US now represent a larger proportion of our total wage costs. Wage increases in the UK and the US may therefore also reduce our profit margins and have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and cash flows.
Our operating results may differ from period to period, which may make it difficult for us to prepare accurate internal financial forecasts and respond in a timely manner to offset such period to period fluctuations.
Our operating results may differ significantly from period to period due to factors such as client losses, variations in the volume of business from clients resulting from changes in our clients’ operations, the business decisions of our clients regarding the use of our services, delays or difficulties in expanding our operational facilities and infrastructure, changes to our pricing structure or that of our competitors, inaccurate estimates of resources and time required to complete ongoing projects, currency fluctuations and seasonal changes in the operations of our clients. For example, our clients in the travel and leisure industry experience seasonal changes in their operations in connection with the US summer holiday season, as well as episodic factors such as adverse weather conditions. Transaction volumes have been, and continue to be, impacted by market conditions affecting the travel industry, including natural disasters, outbreak of infectious diseases (such as the
COVID-19
pandemic, which led to a significant fall in air travel volumes) or other serious public health concerns, military conflict and terrorist attacks. In addition, our contracts do not generally commit our clients to provide us with a specific volume of business.
 
19

In addition, the long sales cycle for our services, which typically ranges from three to 12 months, and the internal budget and approval processes of our prospective clients make it difficult to predict the timing of new client engagements. The extent to which the
COVID-19
pandemic impacts the length of sales cycle for our services will depend on numerous evolving factors that we may not be able to accurately predict, including resurgence of the pandemic, the duration and scope thereof; the effect on our potential and existing clients and client demand for our services and solutions; our ability to sell and provide our services and solutions; the ability of our clients to pay for our services and solutions; and any further closures of our and our clients’ offices and facilities. Commencement of work and ramping up of volume of work with certain new and existing clients have in the past been slower than we had expected and may in the future be slower than we expect. Revenue is recognized upon actual provision of services and when the criteria for recognition are achieved. Accordingly, the financial benefit of gaining a new client may be delayed due to delays in the implementation of our services. These factors may make it difficult for us to prepare accurate internal financial forecasts or replace anticipated revenue that we do not receive as a result of those delays. Due to the above factors, it is possible that in some future quarters our operating results may be significantly below the expectations of the public market, analysts and investors.
If our pricing structures do not accurately anticipate the cost and complexity of performing our work, our profitability may be negatively affected.
The terms of our client contracts typically range from three to five years. In many of our contracts, we commit to long-term pricing with our clients, and we negotiate pricing terms with our clients utilizing a range of pricing structures and conditions. Depending on the particular contract, these include input-based pricing (such as full-time equivalent-based pricing arrangements), fixed-price arrangements, output-based pricing (such as transaction-based pricing), outcome-based pricing, and contracts with features of all these pricing models. Our pricing is highly dependent on our internal forecasts and predictions about our projects and the marketplace, which are largely based on limited data and could turn out to be inaccurate. If we do not accurately estimate the costs and timing for completing projects, our contracts could prove unprofitable for us or yield lower profit margins than anticipated. Some of our client contracts do not allow us to terminate the contracts except in the case of
non-payment
by our client. If any contract turns out to be economically
non-viable
for us, we may still be liable to continue to provide services under the contract.
We intend to focus on increasing our service offerings that are based on
non-linear
pricing models (such as fixed-price and outcome-based pricing models) that allow us to price our services based on the value we deliver to our clients rather than the headcount deployed to deliver the services to them.
Non-linear
revenues may be subject to short-term pressure on margins as initiatives in developing the products and services take time to deliver. The risk of entering into
non-linear
pricing arrangements is that if we fail to properly estimate the appropriate pricing for a project, we may incur lower profits or losses as a result of being unable to execute projects with the amount of labor we expected or at a margin sufficient to recover our initial investments in our solutions. While
non-linear
pricing models are expected to result in higher revenue productivity per employee and improved margins, they also mean that we continue to bear the risk of cost overruns, wage inflation, fluctuations in currency exchange rates and failure to achieve clients’ business objectives in connection with these projects.
Our profit margin, and therefore our profitability, is largely a function of our asset utilization and the rates we are able to recover for our services. An important component of our asset utilization is our seat utilization rate, which is the average number of work shifts per day, out of a maximum of three, for which we are able to utilize our work stations, or seats. During fiscal 2022, 2021 and 2020, we incurred significant expenditures to increase our number of seats by establishing additional delivery centers or expanding production capacities in our existing delivery centers. If we are not able to maintain the pricing for our services or an appropriate seat utilization rate, without corresponding cost reductions, our profitability will suffer. The rates we are able to recover for our services are affected by a number of factors, including our clients’ perceptions of our ability to add value through our services, competition, introduction of new services or products by us or our competitors, our ability to accurately estimate, attain and sustain revenue from client contracts, margins and cash flows over increasingly longer contract periods and general economic and political conditions. Our profitability is also a function of our ability to control our costs and improve our efficiency. As we increase the number of our employees and execute our strategies for growth, we may not be able to manage the significantly larger and more geographically diverse workforce that may result, which could adversely affect our ability to control our costs or improve our efficiency. Further, because there is no certainty that our business will
ramp-up
at the rate that we anticipate, we may incur expenses for the increased capacity for a significant period of time without a corresponding growth in our revenue. Commencement of work and ramping up of volume of work with certain new and existing clients have in the past been slower than we had expected and may in the future be slower than we expect. If our revenue does not grow at our expected rate, we may not be able to maintain or improve our profitability. The
COVID-19
pandemic has also led to, and may continue to lead to, increased costs, as we have to incur additional expenses in relation to the measures we have implemented to safeguard our employees’ health and safety and client operations, such as enhanced sanitization measures at our office premises, laptop rental costs for employees who are working remotely, telecommunications costs for mobile broadband devices, additional software licenses and logistics costs for the movement of equipment and we may need to pay higher costs for compensation, rental, accommodation and other fixed costs as a result of disruptions caused by the continued spread of the virus.
 
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We have in the past and may in the future enter into subcontracting arrangements for the delivery of services. For example, in China, in addition to delivering services from our own delivery center, we used to deliver services through a subcontractor’s delivery center. We could face greater risk when pricing our outsourcing contracts, as our outsourcing projects typically entail the coordination of operations and workforces with our subcontractor, and utilizing workforces with different skill sets and competencies. Furthermore, when outsourcing work we assume responsibility for our subcontractors’ performance. Our pricing, cost and profit margin estimates on outsourced work may include anticipated long-term cost savings from transformational and other initiatives that we expect to achieve and sustain over the life of the outsourcing contract. There is a risk that we will underprice our contracts, fail to accurately estimate the costs of performing the work or fail to accurately assess the risks associated with potential contracts. In particular, any increased or unexpected costs, delays or failures to achieve anticipated cost savings, or unexpected risks we encounter in connection with the performance of this work, including those caused by factors outside our control, could make these contracts less profitable or unprofitable, which could have an adverse effect on our profit margin.
We may not succeed in identifying suitable acquisition targets or integrating any acquired business into our operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our growth strategy involves gaining new clients and expanding our service offerings, both organically and through strategic acquisitions. It is possible that in the future, we may not succeed in identifying suitable acquisition targets available for sale or investments on reasonable terms, have access to the capital required to finance potential acquisitions or investments, or be able to consummate any acquisition or investments. Future acquisitions or joint ventures may also result in the incurrence of indebtedness or the issuance of additional equity securities, which may present difficulties in financing the acquisition or joint venture on attractive terms. The inability to identify suitable acquisition targets or investments or the inability to complete such transactions may affect our competitiveness and our growth prospects.
Historically, we have expanded some of our service offerings and gained new clients through strategic acquisitions. For example, in January 2017, we acquired Denali, a leading provider of strategic procurement BPM solutions in the high technology, retail and CPG, banking and financial services, utilities and healthcare verticals, and in March 2017, we acquired HealthHelp, an industry leader in care management whose solutions are delivered by combining a proprietary technology platform rooted in evidence-based medical research,
high-end
predictive analytics, and deep healthcare industry expertise. In June 2016, we acquired Value Edge, a provider of commercial research and analytics services to clients in the pharma industry. The lack of profitability of any of our acquisitions or joint ventures could have a material adverse effect on our operating results.
In addition, our management may not be able to successfully integrate any acquired business into our operations or benefit from any joint ventures that we enter into, and any acquisition we do complete or any joint venture we do enter into may not result in long-term benefits to us. For instance, if we acquire a company, we could experience difficulties in assimilating that company’s personnel, operations, technology and software, or the key personnel of the acquired company may decide not to work for us. There is no assurance that these acquisitions will be profitable for us. Further, we face the risk that the legal regime or regulatory requirements imposed on any business that we acquire may change following our acquisition and such changes may adversely affect our ability to achieve the expected accretive benefits from the acquisition, which could in turn require us to recognize an impairment of goodwill associated with the acquired business. For more information see “— The international nature of our business exposes us to several risks, such as unexpected changes in the regulatory requirements and government policy changes of multiple jurisdictions.”
We also face risks arising from acquisitions of businesses reliant upon a small number of key clients. The value of such acquisitions may decline in the event that their key clients decide not to renew their contracts, or decrease their volume of business or the prices paid for services. For example, HealthHelp is primarily reliant on one client. A decline in the volume of business from this client or in the pricing of our services to this client would likely adversely affect our ability to achieve the expected accretive benefits from our acquisition of HealthHelp.
Further, we may receive claims or demands by the sellers of the entities acquired by us on the indemnities that we have provided to them for losses or damages arising from any breach of contract by us. Conversely, while we may be able to claim against the sellers on their indemnities to us for breach of contract or breach of the representations and warranties given by the sellers in respect of the entities acquired by us, there can be no assurance that our claims will succeed, or if they do, that we will be able to successfully enforce our claims against the sellers at a reasonable cost. Acquisitions and joint ventures also typically involve a number of other risks, including diversion of management’s attention, legal liabilities and the need to amortize acquired intangible assets, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
 
21

Goodwill, intangible or other assets that we carry on our balance sheet could give rise to significant impairment charges in the future.
As at March 31, 2022, we had goodwill and intangible assets of approximately $189.0 million, which primarily resulted from our acquisitions of HealthHelp, Denali and Value Edge. Under IFRS, we are required to review our goodwill, intangibles or other assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. In addition, goodwill, intangible or other assets with indefinite lives are required to be tested for impairment at least annually. For example, during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2017, proposed changes to the laws of the UK governing personal injury claims generated uncertainty regarding the future earnings trajectory of our legal services business in our WNS Auto Claims BPM segment, as a result of which we had expected that we would eventually exit from providing legal services in relation to personal injury claims. We also experienced a decrease in volume of and loss of business from certain clients of our traditional repair services in our WNS Auto Claims BPM segment in fiscal 2017. As a result, we had in fiscal 2017 expected the future performance of our WNS Auto Claims BPM segment to decline significantly and therefore significantly reduced our financial projections and estimates of our WNS Auto Claims BPM segment. Accordingly, we performed an impairment review of the goodwill associated with the companies we had acquired for our auto claims business and recorded an impairment charge of $21.7 million to our results of operations in fiscal 2017. During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020, Brexit had a negative impact on the insurance industry and applied downward pressure on the expected future performance of the WNS Auto Claims reportable segment, due to contract renegotiations and loss of certain clients. These factors, together with the highly uncertain operating environment in the UK, have negatively impacted and caused us to significantly reduce our financial projections and estimates of the WNS Auto Claims BPM reportable segment from our previous estimate. Accordingly, we performed an impairment review of the goodwill associated with the companies we had acquired for our auto claims business and recorded an impairment charge of $4.1 million to our results of operations in fiscal 2020 for the remaining goodwill balance of our auto claims business. See also “— The international nature of our business exposes us to several risks, such as unexpected changes in the regulatory requirements of multiple jurisdictions.” We may be required to record further impairment charges to our goodwill and intangible assets associated with other acquisitions in the future. For example, if the research and analytics industry experiences a significant decline in business and we determine that we will not be able to achieve the cash flows that we had expected from our acquisitions of Marketics Technologies (India) Private Limited, a provider of offshore analytics services which we acquired in 2007, and Value Edge, we may have to record an impairment of all or a portion of the goodwill or intangible assets relating to those acquisitions. Any further impairment to our goodwill or intangible assets may have a significant adverse impact on our results of operations.
We are incorporated in Jersey, Channel Islands and are subject to Jersey laws and regulations. If the tax benefits enjoyed by our company are withdrawn or changed, we may be liable for higher tax, thereby reducing our profitability.
As a company incorporated in Jersey, Channel Islands, we are currently subject to Jersey income tax at a rate of 0%. Although we continue to enjoy the benefits of the Jersey business tax regime, if Jersey tax laws change or the tax benefits we enjoy are otherwise withdrawn or changed, we may become liable for higher tax, thereby reducing our profitability.
 
22

Risks Related to Key Delivery Locations
A substantial portion of our assets and operations are located in India and we are subject to regulatory, economic, social and political uncertainties in India.
Our primary operating subsidiary, WNS Global Services Private Limited (“WNS Global”), is incorporated in India, and a substantial portion of our assets and employees are located in India. The Government of India, however, has exercised and continues to exercise significant influence over many aspects of the Indian economy. The Government of India has provided significant tax incentives and relaxed certain regulatory restrictions in order to encourage foreign investment in specified sectors of the economy, including the BPM industry. Those programs that have benefited us include tax holidays, liberalized import and export duties and preferential rules on foreign investment and repatriation. We cannot assure you that such liberalization policies will continue. The Government of India may also enact new tax legislation or amend the existing legislation that could impact the way we are taxed in the future. For more information, see “— Tax legislation and the results of actions by taxing authorities may have an adverse effect on our operations and our overall tax rate.” Other legislation passed by the Government of India may also impact our business. For example, the Code on Wages 2019, Industrial Relations Code 2020, Social Security Code 2020 and Occupational Safety, Health & Working Condition Code 2020 received assent from the President of India on September 28, 2020. However, the rules for these Acts have not yet been published and the effective date from which these changes are applicable is yet to be notified. Accordingly, while we are unable to determine with certainty the financial impact due to these changes, it is possible that our wage costs in India may increase as a result of these changes when they become effective. In December 2019, the Parliament of India passed the Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019, which provides citizenship to religious minorities in Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan, prompting protests across India. In addition, there are concerns over the slowing growth of India’s economy and the negative impact that
COVID-19
has had, and may continue to have, on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Our financial performance and the market price of our ADSs may be adversely affected by changes in inflation, exchange rates and controls, interest rates, Government of India policies (including taxation regulations and policies), social stability or other political, economic or diplomatic developments affecting India in the future.
India has witnessed communal clashes in the past. Although such clashes in India have, in the recent past, been sporadic and have been contained within reasonably short periods of time, any such civil disturbance in the future could result in disruptions in transportation or communication networks, as well as have adverse implications for general economic conditions in India. Such events could have a material adverse effect on our business, the value of our ADSs and your investment in our ADSs.
The UK’s withdrawal from the EU may have a negative effect on global economic conditions, financial markets and our operations in the UK and EU, which could reduce the value of our ADS.
We have operations in the UK, Romania, Spain and Poland. Brexit has created significant political and economic uncertainty regarding the future trading relationship between the UK and the EU and could cause disruptions to, and create uncertainty surrounding, our operations in the UK and the EU. The long-term effects of Brexit will depend on the agreements or arrangements with the EU for the UK to retain access to EU markets either during a transitional period or more permanently. These developments may have an adverse effect on our operations in the UK and the EU, the value of our ADSs and your investment in our ADSs.
Our business in South Africa is evaluated for compliance with the South African government’s Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (“BBBEE”) legislation. Failure to maintain a minimum BBBEE rating would result in a loss of certain government grants, and may also result in us losing certain business opportunities or clients imposing contractual penalties on us.
Our business in South Africa is evaluated for compliance with the South African government’s BBBEE legislation against a BBBEE scorecard, which has different levels based on various criteria. South African government grants are available to businesses that meet specified conditions, including achieving a specified minimum BBBEE rating. A level one BBBEE rating has the most rigorous criteria. Additionally, many South African companies require their service providers to maintain a minimum BBBEE rating, and many of our South African client contracts contain clauses that allow our clients to terminate their contracts with us or impose specified penalties on us if we do not maintain a minimum BBBEE rating.
We conduct our domestic business in South Africa (serving clients based in South Africa) through our South Africa subsidiary, WNS South Africa (Pty) Ltd, and our international business in South Africa (serving clients based outside South Africa) through our South Africa subsidiary, WNS Global Services SA (Pty) Limited. During fiscal 2020, pursuant to the requirements of the South African government’s BBBEE Codes of Good Practice, the WNS
B-BBEE
Staff Share Trust subscribed to one participating preference share issued by WNS Global Services SA (Pty) Ltd, which entitles it to 45.56% of voting rights in WNS South Africa (Pty) Ltd. In fiscal 2022, the voting rights were increased to 48.84% to help ensure WNS South Africa (Pty) Ltd maintains the same level of rating. We achieved a level one rating in respect of WNS South Africa (Pty) Ltd in May 2022, which is valid until April 2023 whereas the BBBEE verification audit for WNS Global Services SA (Pty) Limited is currently in progress and the new rating is expected to be issued in the first quarter of fiscal 2023. Our program developed for the purpose of meeting the criteria to achieve the requisite BBBEE rating in respect of WNS Global Services SA (Pty) Limited includes, among other measures, divesting some of our interests in such subsidiary to address the criterion relating to the percentage of ownership of an entity by “black people” (as defined under the applicable legislation). We achieved a level six rating in respect of WNS Global Services SA (Pty) Limited in our last BBBEE verification audit in February 2021, which is valid until February 2022.
With the achievement of a level six rating in respect of WNS Global Services SA (Pty) Limited and a level one rating in respect of WNS South Africa (Pty) Ltd, we currently continue to meet the minimum BBBEE rating required under our contracts with South African clients and be eligible for government grants associated with our domestic and international business.
However, there is no assurance that we will maintain our existing BBBEE rating with respect to WNS Global Services SA (Pty) Limited or WNS South Africa (Pty) Ltd in our next annual BBBEE verification audits or thereafter. If we fail to maintain or achieve the required minimum BBBEE ratings, we will cease to be eligible for government grants, will be disqualified from bidding for certain business, and certain of our clients may terminate their contracts with us or impose penalties on us. These outcomes would have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
 
23

Our facilities are at risk of damage by natural disasters.
Our operational facilities and communication hubs may be damaged in natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, heavy rains, tsunamis and cyclones. For example, Chennai was affected by severe flooding in November 2015. Although our clients experienced minimal disruptions during the Chennai flood due to the business continuity planning and infrastructure resiliency measures we have implemented with a view to minimizing the impact of natural disasters on our business, such measures may be rendered less effective in other circumstances. In addition, we have operational facilities and communication hubs located in regions which are considered to be particularly vulnerable to natural disasters, such as the Philippines and Houston in the United States, which have experienced severe natural disasters such as typhoons, hurricanes and floods. Such natural disasters may lead to disruption to information systems and telephone service for sustained periods. Damage or destruction that interrupts our provision of BPM services could damage our relationships with our clients and may cause us to incur substantial additional expenses to repair or replace damaged equipment or facilities. We may also be liable to our clients for disruption in service resulting from such damage or destruction. While we currently have property damage insurance and business interruption insurance, our insurance coverage may not be sufficient. Furthermore, we may be unable to secure such insurance coverage at premiums acceptable to us in the future or secure such insurance coverage at all. Prolonged disruption of our services as a result of natural disasters would also entitle our clients to terminate their contracts with us.
If the tax benefits and other incentives that we currently enjoy are reduced or withdrawn or not available for any other reason, our financial condition would be negatively affected.
We have benefitted from, and continue to benefit from, certain tax holidays and exemptions in various jurisdictions in which we have operations.
In fiscal 2022, fiscal 2021 and 2020, our tax rate in India, the Philippines and Sri Lanka impacted our effective tax rate. We would have incurred approximately $20.9 million, $11.1 million and $17.7 million in additional income tax expense on our combined operations in our Special Economic Zone operations in India, the Philippines and Sri Lanka, if the tax holidays and exemptions described below had not been available for the respective periods.
We expect our tax rate in India, the Philippines and Sri Lanka to continue to impact our effective tax rate.
In the past, the majority of our Indian operations were eligible to claim income tax exemption with respect to profits earned from export revenue from operating units registered under the Software Technology Parks of India (“STPI”). The benefit was available for a period of 10 years from the date of commencement of operations, but not beyond March 31, 2011. Effective April 1, 2011, upon the expiration of this tax exemption, income derived from our operations in India became subject to the prevailing annual tax rate of 34.95% in fiscal 2022, fiscal 2021 and 2020. In December 2019, the Government of India enacted the India Tax Law effective retroactively to April 1, 2019, which enables Indian companies to elect to be taxed at a lower income tax rate of 25.17% as compared to the current rate of 34.95%. Once a company elects into the lower income tax rate, a company may not benefit from any tax holidays associated with Special Economic Zones and certain other tax incentives and may not reverse its election. Our current intent is to continue to be subject to the current rate of 34.95% and claim tax holidays associated with SEZ. See “Part I — Item 4. Information on the Company — B. Business Overview — Regulations.”
When any of our tax holidays or exemptions expire or terminate, or if the applicable government withdraws, changes the conditions or reduces the benefits of a tax holiday or exemption that we enjoy, our tax expense may materially increase and this increase may have a material impact on our results of operations. For example, any changes in the regulations relating to work from home arrangements may impact the tax exemption benefits available to us. The applicable tax authorities may also disallow deductions claimed by us and assess additional taxable income on us in connection with their review of our tax returns.
Tax legislation and the results of actions by taxing authorities may have an adverse effect on our operations and our overall tax rate.
The government of India, the US or other jurisdictions where we have a presence could enact new tax legislation which would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. In addition, our ability to repatriate surplus earnings from our delivery centers in a
tax-efficient
manner is dependent upon interpretations of local laws, possible changes in such laws and the renegotiation of existing double tax avoidance treaties. Changes to any of these may adversely affect our overall tax rate, or the cost of our services to our clients, which would have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The UK has revised the corporate tax rate from 19% to 25% from fiscal 2024. South Africa has reduced the corporate tax rate from 28% to 27% from fiscal 2023. The US Government has proposed to increase the US corporate tax rate. Once effective, this tax rate increase will have an impact on the various current and deferred tax items recorded by the Company’s subsidiaries.
Member countries of the OECD/G20 Inclusive Framework on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting have agreed on a two Pillar approach to address the tax challenges arising from the digitalization of the global economy. This is expected to alter the global tax landscape. The rules to operationalize the implementation of these changes have been recently issued and may have an impact on the various current and deferred tax items recorded by the Company’s subsidiaries.
 
24

We are subject to transfer pricing and other tax related regulations and any determination that we have failed to comply with them could materially adversely affect our profitability.
Transfer pricing regulations to which we are subject require that any international transaction among our company and its subsidiaries, or the WNS group enterprises, be on
arm’s-length
terms. We believe that the international transactions among the WNS group enterprises are on
arm’s-length
terms. If, however, the applicable tax authorities determine that the transactions among the WNS group enterprises do not meet
arm’s-length
criteria, we may incur increased tax liability, including accrued interest and penalties. This would cause our tax expense to increase, possibly materially, thereby reducing our profitability and cash flows. We have signed an advance pricing agreement with the Government of India providing for the agreement on transfer pricing matters over certain transactions covered thereunder for a period of five years starting from April 2013, which has been renewed on similar terms for another five years starting from April 2018.
We may be required to pay additional taxes in connection with audits by the tax authorities.
From time to time, we receive orders of assessment from Indian tax authorities assessing additional taxable income on us and/or our subsidiaries in connection with their review of our tax returns. We currently have orders of assessment in fiscal 2003 through fiscal 2018 pending before various appellate authorities. These orders assess additional taxable income that could in the aggregate give rise to an estimated
1,867.0 million ($24.6 million based on the exchange rate on March 31, 2022) in additional taxes, including interest of
470.9 million ($6.2 million based on the exchange rate on March 31, 2022).
These orders of assessment allege, among others, that the transfer prices we applied to certain of the international transactions between WNS Global or WNS Business Consulting Services Private Limited (“WNS BCS”), each of which is one of our Indian subsidiaries, as the case may be, and our other wholly-owned subsidiaries were not on
arm’s-length
terms, disallow a tax holiday benefit claimed by us, deny the
set-off
of brought forward business losses and unabsorbed depreciation and disallow certain expenses claimed as tax deductible by WNS Global or WNS BCS, as the case may be. As at March 31, 2022 we have provided a tax reserve of
774.3 million ($10.2 million based on the exchange rate on March 31, 2022) primarily on account of the Indian tax authorities’ denying the set off of brought forward business losses and unabsorbed depreciation. We have appealed against these orders of assessment before higher appellate authorities. For more details on these assessments, See “Part II — Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations —Tax Assessment Orders.”
In addition, we currently have orders of assessment pertaining to similar issues that have been decided in our favor by appellate authorities, vacating tax demands of
5,435.2 million ($71.7 million based on the exchange rate on March 31, 2022) in additional taxes, including interest of
1,931.3 million ($25.5 million based on the exchange rate on March 31, 2022). The income tax authorities have filed or may file appeals against these orders at higher appellate authorities.
In case of disputes, the Indian tax authorities may require us to deposit with them all or a portion of the disputed amounts pending resolution of the matters on appeal. Any amount paid by us as deposits will be refunded to us with interest if we succeed in our appeals. We have deposited
898.1 million ($11.8 million based on the exchange rate on March 31, 2022) of the disputed amount with the tax authorities and may be required to deposit the remaining portion of the disputed amount with the tax authorities pending final resolution of the respective matters.
As at March 31, 2022, corporate tax returns in fiscal 2019 and thereafter remain subject to examination by tax authorities in India.
After consultation with our Indian tax advisors and based on the facts of these cases, certain legal opinions from counsel, the nature of the tax authorities’ disallowances and the orders from appellate authorities deciding similar issues in our favor in respect of assessment orders for earlier fiscal years, we believe these orders are unlikely to be sustained at the higher appellate authorities and we intend to dispute the orders of assessment.
In fiscal 2021, the Company received an assessment order from the Indian service tax authority, demanding payment of
148.9 million ($2.0 million based on the exchange rate on March 31, 2022) towards service tax for the period April 1, 2014 to June 30, 2017. The tax authorities have rejected input service tax credit on certain types of input services. The Company has orders of assessment pertaining to similar issues for earlier fiscal years that have been decided in favor of the Company by appellate authorities. We intend to dispute the order of assessment.
 
25

In 2016, we also received an assessment order from the Sri Lankan Tax Authority, demanding payment of LKR 25.2 million ($0.1 million based on the exchange rate on March 31, 2022) in connection with the review of our tax return in fiscal 2012. The assessment order challenges the tax exemption that we have claimed for export business. We have filed an appeal against the assessment order with the Sri Lankan Tax Appeal Commission. Based on consultations with our tax advisors, we believe this order of assessment is more likely than not to be upheld in our favor. We intend to continue to dispute the assessment.
No assurance can be given, however, that we will prevail in our tax disputes. If we do not prevail, payment of additional taxes, interest and penalties may adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. There can also be no assurance that we will not receive similar or additional orders of assessment in the future.
Terrorist attacks, civil unrest and other acts of violence in any of the countries in which we operate or their neighboring countries could adversely affect our operations, resulting in a loss of client confidence and materially adversely affecting our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Terrorist attacks and other acts of violence or war in any of the countries in which we operate or their neighboring countries may adversely affect worldwide financial markets and could potentially lead to economic recession, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. For example, South Asia has, from time to time, experienced instances of terrorism, civil unrest and hostilities in and among neighboring countries, including Sri Lanka, India and Pakistan. In February 2022, a military conflict arose between Russia and Ukraine, and we have operations in Poland and Romania, which border Ukraine. While the conflict has not presently spread beyond Ukraine, such an escalation in the future may directly impact our operations in those countries. In April 2019, several churches and hotels in Sri Lanka, including premises within one kilometer of one of our delivery centers, were targeted in a series of coordinated terrorist bombings. In previous years, military confrontations between India and Pakistan have occurred in the region of Kashmir and along the India/Pakistan border. There have also been incidents in and near India, such as the bombings of the Taj Mahal Hotel and Oberoi Hotel in Mumbai in 2008, a terrorist attack on the Parliament of India, troop mobilizations along the India/Pakistan border and an aggravated geopolitical situation in the region. Such military activity or terrorist attacks in the future could disrupt our operations or influence the Indian economy by disrupting communications and making travel more difficult. Resulting political tensions could create a greater perception that investments in Indian companies involve a high degree of risk. Such political tensions could similarly create a perception that there is a risk of disruption of services provided by India-based companies, which could have a material adverse effect on the market for our services. Furthermore, if India were to become engaged in armed hostilities, particularly hostilities that were protracted or involved the threat or use of nuclear weapons, we might not be able to continue our operations.
Climate change risks, if not managed properly, can adversely affect our operations and profitability.
Enterprises are increasingly focused on managing risks arising from climate change and compliance with relevant laws and regulations. Extreme weather due to climate change can lead to epidemics as well as business disruptions. Climate change events can result in physical damage to our building infrastructure and other physical assets, disrupt the continued functioning of infrastructures such as the transportation network and utilities in the countries where we operate and negative affect the morale of our employees. For example, drought can result in increases in food prices and food shortages. Changes in the availability of natural resources like water in countries where we operate could directly impact our operations and our employees’ livelihood, which could impact our ability to do business and to ensure business continuity.
In response to increasing awareness in climate change and other related socio-environmental issues, clients increasingly request for our emission performance during the RFP or bidding stage. This could translate into filtering criteria or other parameters in the clients’ process of selecting their service providers. If our performance is not managed in these areas, it may adversely impact our ability to compete and win contracts.
As countries worldwide undertake to lower greenhouse gas emissions, we may be increasingly subject to regulatory requirements relating to reduced emissions, including carbon tax and other emission reduction targets Such new regulations can lead to increased cost of compliance including reporting and disclosure requirements. Risks resulting from potential violations or
non-compliance
with such laws and regulations can impact our profitability through penalties and/or by limiting our ability to operate in certain countries and can also adversely affect our reputation and brand.
Restrictions on entry visas may affect our ability to compete for and provide services to clients in the US and the UK, which could have a material adverse effect on future revenue.
The vast majority of our employees are Indian nationals. The ability of some of our executives to work with and meet our European and North American clients and our clients from other countries depends on the ability of our senior managers and employees to obtain the necessary visas and entry permits. In response to previous terrorist attacks and global unrest, US and European immigration authorities have sharply increased the level of scrutiny in granting visas. Immigration laws in those countries may also require us to meet certain other legal requirements as a condition to obtaining or maintaining entry visas. These restrictions have significantly lengthened the time requirements to obtain visas for our personnel, which has in the past resulted, and may continue to result, in delays in the ability of our personnel to meet with our clients. Further, the
COVID-19
pandemic resulted in the temporary suspension of existing visas and several governments not granting new visas. While a number of countries have resumed the issuance of visas and are reopening of their borders for travel, continuing or intermittent restrictions on visas and travel may recur in the future. In addition, immigration laws are subject to legislative change and varying standards of application and enforcement due to political forces, economic conditions or other events, including terrorist attacks. We cannot predict the political or economic events that could affect immigration laws or any restrictive impact those events could have on obtaining or monitoring entry visas for our personnel. If we are unable to obtain the necessary visas for personnel who need to visit our clients’ sites or, if such visas are delayed, we may not be able to provide services to our clients or to continue to provide services on a timely basis, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
If more stringent labor laws become applicable to us, our profitability may be adversely affected.
India has stringent labor legislation that protects the interests of workers, including legislation that sets forth detailed procedures for dispute resolution and employee removal and legislation that imposes financial obligations on employers upon retrenchment. Though we are exempt from a number of these labor laws at present, there can be no assurance that such laws will not become applicable to the BPM industry in India in the future. In addition, our employees may in the future form unions. If these labor laws become applicable to our workers or if our employees unionize, it may become difficult for us to maintain flexible human resource policies, discharge employees or downsize, and our profitability may be adversely affected.
 
26

Most of our delivery centers operate on leasehold property and our inability to renew our leases on commercially acceptable terms or at all may adversely affect our results of operations.
Most of our delivery centers operate on leasehold property. Our leases are subject to renewal and we may be unable to renew such leases on commercially acceptable terms or at all. Our inability to renew our leases, or a renewal of our leases with a rental rate higher than the prevailing rate under the applicable lease prior to expiration, may have an adverse impact on our operations, including disrupting our operations or increasing our cost of operations. In addition, in the event of
non-renewal
of our leases, we may be unable to locate suitable replacement properties for our delivery centers or we may experience delays in relocation that could lead to a disruption in our operations. Any disruption in our operations could have an adverse effect on our results of operations.
 
27

Risks Related to our ADSs
Substantial future sales of our shares or ADSs in the public market could cause our ADS price to fall.
Sales by us or our shareholders of a substantial number of our ADSs in the public market, or the perception that these sales could occur, could cause the market price of our ADSs to decline. These sales, or the perception that these sales could occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell securities in the future at a time or at a price that we deem appropriate or to pay for acquisitions using our equity securities. As at March 31, 2022, we had 48,849,907 ordinary shares outstanding (excluding Nil treasury shares), including 48,618,585 shares represented by 48,618,585 ADSs. In addition, as at March 31, 2022, a total of 2,943,777 ordinary shares or ADSs are issuable upon the exercise or vesting of options and restricted share units (“RSUs”) outstanding under our 2006 Incentive Award Plan (as amended and restated, the “2006 Incentive Award Plan”) and our 2016 Incentive Award Plan (as amended and restated, the “2016 Incentive Award Plan”). All ADSs are freely transferable, except that ADSs owned by our affiliates may only be sold in the US if they are registered or qualify for an exemption from registration, including pursuant to Rule 144 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”). The remaining ordinary shares outstanding may also only be sold in the US if they are registered or qualify for an exemption from registration, including pursuant to Rule 144 under the Securities Act.
The market price for our ADSs may be volatile.
The market price for our ADSs is likely to be highly volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to factors including the following:
 
   
announcements of technological developments;
 
   
regulatory developments in our target markets affecting us, our clients or our competitors;
 
   
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results;
 
   
changes in financial estimates by securities research analysts;
 
   
changes in the economic performance or market valuations of other companies engaged in BPM;
 
   
addition or loss of executive officers or key employees;
 
   
sales or expected sales of additional shares or ADSs;
 
   
loss of one or more significant clients; and
 
   
a change in control, or possible change of control, of our company.
In addition, securities markets generally and from time to time experience significant price and volume fluctuations that are not related to the operating performance of particular companies. These market fluctuations may also have a material adverse effect on the market price of our ADSs.
 
28

We may not be able to pay any dividends on our shares and ADSs.
We have never declared or paid any dividends on our ordinary shares. We cannot give any assurance that we will declare dividends of any amount, at any rate or at all. Because we are a holding company, we rely principally on dividends, if any, paid by our subsidiaries to us to fund our dividend payments, if any, to our shareholders. Any limitation on the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends to us could have a material adverse effect on our ability to pay dividends to you.
Any future determination to pay cash dividends will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will be dependent upon our results of operations and cash flows, our financial position and capital requirements, general business conditions, legal, tax, regulatory and any contractual restrictions on the payment of dividends and any other factors our Board of Directors deems relevant at the time.
Subject to the provisions of the Companies (Jersey) Law 1991 (the “1991 Law”) and our Articles of Association, we may by ordinary resolution declare annual dividends to be paid to our shareholders according to their respective rights and interests in our distributable reserves. Any dividends we may declare must not exceed the amount recommended by our Board of Directors. Our Board of Directors may also declare and pay an interim dividend or dividends, including a dividend payable at a fixed rate, if paying an interim dividend or dividends appears to the Board to be justified by our distributable reserves. We can only declare dividends if our directors who are to authorize the distribution make a prior statement that, having made full enquiry into our affairs and prospects, they have formed the opinion that:
 
   
immediately following the date on which the distribution is proposed to be made, we will be able to discharge our liabilities as they fall due; and
 
   
having regard to our prospects and to the intentions of our directors with respect to the management of our business and to the amount and character of the financial resources that will in their view be available to us, we will be able to continue to carry on business and we will be able to discharge our liabilities as they fall due until the expiry of the period of 12 months immediately following the date on which the distribution is proposed to be made or until we are dissolved under Article 150 of the 1991 Law, whichever first occurs.
Subject to the deposit agreement governing the issuance of our ADSs, holders of ADSs will be entitled to receive dividends paid on the ordinary shares represented by such ADSs. See “— Risks Related to Our Business — Our loan agreements impose operating and financial restrictions on us and our subsidiaries.”
Holders of ADSs may be restricted in their ability to exercise voting rights.
At our request, the depositary of our ADSs will mail to you any notice of shareholders’ meeting received from us together with information explaining how to instruct the depositary to exercise the voting rights of the ordinary shares represented by ADSs. If the depositary timely receives voting instructions from you, it will endeavor to vote the ordinary shares represented by your ADSs in accordance with such voting instructions. However, the ability of the depositary to carry out voting instructions may be limited by practical and legal limitations and the terms of the ordinary shares on deposit. We cannot assure you that you will receive voting materials in time to enable you to return voting instructions to the depositary in a timely manner. Ordinary shares for which no voting instructions have been received will not be voted.
As a foreign private issuer, we are not subject to the proxy rules of the Commission, which regulate the form and content of solicitations by
US-based
issuers of proxies from their shareholders. The form of notice and proxy statement that we have been using does not include all of the information that would be provided under the Commission’s proxy rules.
 
29

Holders of ADSs may be subject to limitations on transfers of their ADSs.
The ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its transfer books at any time or from time to time when it deems necessary or advisable in connection with the performance of its duties. In addition, the depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when the transfer books of the depositary are closed, or at any time or from time to time if we or the depositary deem it necessary or advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body or commission or any securities exchange on which the American Depositary Receipts or our ordinary shares are listed, or under any provision of the deposit agreement or provisions of or governing the deposited shares, or any meeting of our shareholders, or for any other reason.
Holders of ADSs may not be able to participate in rights offerings or elect to receive share dividends and may experience dilution of their holdings, and the sale, deposit, cancellation and transfer of our ADSs issued after exercise of rights may be restricted.
If we offer our shareholders any rights to subscribe for additional shares or any other rights, the depositary may make these rights available to them after consultation with us. We cannot make rights available to holders of our ADSs in the US unless we register the rights and the securities to which the rights relate under the Securities Act, or an exemption from the registration requirements is available. In addition, under the deposit agreement, the depositary will not distribute rights to holders of our ADSs unless we have requested that such rights be made available to them and the depositary has determined that such distribution of rights is lawful and reasonably practicable. We can give no assurance that we can establish an exemption from the registration requirements under the Securities Act, and we are under no obligation to file a registration statement with respect to these rights or underlying securities or to endeavor to have a registration statement declared effective. Accordingly, holders of our ADSs may be unable to participate in our rights offerings and may experience dilution of your holdings as a result. The depositary may allow rights that are not distributed or sold to lapse. In that case, holders of our ADSs will receive no value for them. In addition, US securities laws may restrict the sale, deposit, cancellation and transfer of ADSs issued after exercise of rights.
We may be classified as a passive foreign investment company, which could result in adverse US federal income tax consequences to US holders of our ADSs or ordinary shares.
Based on our financial statements and relevant market and shareholder data, we believe that we should not be treated as a passive foreign investment company for US federal income tax purposes (“PFIC”) with respect to our most recently closed taxable year. However, the application of the PFIC rules is subject to uncertainty in several respects, and we cannot assure you that we will not be a PFIC for any taxable year. A
non-US
corporation will be a PFIC for any taxable year if either (i) at least 75% of its gross income for such year is passive income or (ii) at least 50% of the value of its assets (based on an average of the quarterly values of the assets) during such year is attributable to assets that produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income. A separate determination must be made after the close of each taxable year as to whether we were a PFIC for that year. Because the value of our assets for purposes of the PFIC test will generally be determined by reference to the market price of our ADSs and ordinary shares, fluctuations in the market price of the ADSs and ordinary shares may cause us to become a PFIC. In addition, changes in the composition of our income or assets may cause us to become a PFIC. If we are a PFIC for any taxable year during which a US holder (as defined in “Part I — Item 10. Additional Information — E. Taxation — US Federal Income Taxation” of our annual report on Form
20-F
for our fiscal year ended March 31, 2022) holds an ADS or ordinary share, certain adverse US federal income tax consequences could apply to such US holder.
If a United States person is treated as owning at least 10% of our ordinary shares (or ADSs), such holder may be subject to adverse US federal income tax consequences.
If a United States person is treated as owning (directly, indirectly or constructively) at least 10% of the value or voting power of our ordinary shares (or ADSs), such person may be treated as a “United States shareholder” with respect to each “controlled foreign corporation” in our group (if any). Because our group includes one or more US subsidiaries, certain of our
non-US
subsidiaries could be treated as controlled foreign corporations regardless of whether we are or are not treated as a controlled foreign corporation (although there is currently a pending legislative proposal to limit the application of these rules). A United States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation may be required to annually report and include in its US taxable income its pro rata share of “Subpart F income,” “global intangible
low-taxed
income” and investments in US property by controlled foreign corporations, whether or not we make any distributions. An individual that is a United States shareholder with respect to a controlled foreign corporation generally would not be allowed certain tax deductions or foreign tax credits that would be allowed to a United States shareholder that is a US corporation. A failure to comply with these reporting obligations may subject such holder to significant monetary penalties and may prevent the statute of limitations with respect to such holder’s US federal income tax return for the year for which reporting was due from starting. We cannot provide any assurances that we will assist investors in determining whether any of our
non-US
subsidiaries are treated as a controlled foreign corporation or whether such investor is treated as a United States shareholder with respect to any of such controlled foreign corporations or furnish to any United States shareholders information that may be necessary to comply with the aforementioned reporting and tax paying obligations. The IRS has provided limited guidance on situations in which investors may rely on publicly available information to comply with their reporting and taxpaying obligations with respect to certain controlled foreign corporations. A United States investor should consult its own advisors regarding the potential application of these rules to its investment in our ordinary shares (or ADSs).
 
30

Our share repurchase programs could affect the price of our ADSs.
In March 2018, our shareholders authorized our 2018 share repurchase program for the repurchase of up to 3,300,000 of our ADSs, each representing one ordinary share, at a price range of $10 to $100 per ADS. Pursuant to the terms of our 2018 share repurchase program, our ADSs may be purchased in the open market from time to time for 36 months from March 30, 2018, the date on which the shareholders approved our 2018 share repurchase program. To date, we have repurchased 3,300,000 ADSs in the open market under this repurchase program and completed the authorized repurchases under this share repurchase program. We funded the repurchases under this repurchase program with cash on hand.
In September 2020, our shareholders authorized a new share repurchase program for the repurchase of up to 3,300,000 of our ADSs, each representing one ordinary share, at a price range of $10 to $110 per ADS. Pursuant to the terms of the repurchase program, our ADSs may be purchased in the open market from time to time for 36 months from April 1, 2021 to March 31, 2024. To date, we have repurchased 1,100,000 ADSs in the open market under this repurchase program.
We have funded, and intend to continue to fund, the repurchases of ADSs under our repurchase programs with cash on hand. We are not obligated under our repurchase programs to repurchase a specific number of ADSs, and our repurchase programs may be suspended at any time at our discretion. We intend to hold the shares underlying any such repurchased ADSs as treasury shares.
Any repurchases pursuant to our repurchase programs could affect the price of our ADSs and increase its volatility. The existence of a repurchase program could also cause the price of our ADSs to be higher than it would be in the absence of such a program and could potentially reduce the market liquidity of our ADSs. There can be no assurance that any repurchases will enhance shareholder value because the market price of our ADSs may decline below the levels at which we repurchase any ADSs. In addition, although our repurchase programs are intended to enhance long-term shareholder value, short-term price fluctuations in our ADSs could reduce the program’s effectiveness. Significant changes in the price of our ADSs and our ability to fund our repurchase programs with cash on hand could impact our ability to repurchase ADSs. The timing and amount of future repurchases is dependent on our cash flows from operations, available cash on hand and the market price of our ADSs. Furthermore, our programs do not obligate us to repurchase any dollar amount or number of ADSs and may be suspended at any time at our discretion, and any suspension or discontinuation could cause the market price of our ADSs to decline.
We have certain anti-takeover provisions in our Articles of Association that may discourage a change in control.
Our Articles of Association contain anti-takeover provisions that could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us without the consent of our Board of Directors. These provisions include:
 
   
a classified Board of Directors with staggered three-year terms; and
 
   
the ability of our Board of Directors to determine the rights, preferences and privileges of our preferred shares and to issue the preferred shares without shareholder approval, which could be exercised by our Board of Directors to increase the number of outstanding shares and prevent or delay a takeover attempt.
These provisions could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if the third party’s offer may be considered beneficial by many shareholders. As a result, shareholders may be limited in their ability to obtain a premium for their shares.
It may be difficult for you to effect service of process and enforce legal judgments against us or our affiliates.
We are incorporated in Jersey, Channel Islands, and our primary operating subsidiary, WNS Global, is incorporated in India. A majority of our directors and senior executives are not residents of the US and the majority of our assets and the assets of those persons are located outside the US. As a result, it may not be possible for you to effect service of process within the US upon those persons or us. In addition, you may be unable to enforce judgments obtained in courts of the US against those persons outside the jurisdiction of their residence, including judgments predicated solely upon the securities laws of the US. Furthermore, shareholders of Jersey companies may not have standing to initiate a shareholders derivative action in courts of the US.
 
31

ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY
 
A.
History and Development of our Company
WNS (Holdings) Limited was incorporated as a private liability company on February 18, 2002 under the laws of Jersey, Channel Islands, and maintains a registered office in Jersey at 22 Grenville Street, St Helier, Jersey JE4 8PX, Channel Islands. We converted from a private limited company to a public limited company on January 4, 2006 in accordance with Article 17A of the 1991 Law, when we acquired more than 30 shareholders as calculated in accordance with Article 17A of the 1991 Law. We gave notice of this to the Jersey Financial Services Commission (“JFSC”) in accordance with Article 17(3) of the 1991 Law on January 12, 2006. Our principal executive office is located at Gate 4, Godrej & Boyce Complex, Pirojshanagar, Vikhroli (W), Mumbai 400 079, India, and the telephone number for this office is
(91-22)
4095-2100. Our website address is
www.wns.com
.
Information contained on our website does not constitute part of this annual report.
Our agent for service in the US is our subsidiary, WNS North America Inc., 515 Madison Avenue, 8th Floor, New York, NY 10022.
We began operations as an
in-house
unit of British Airways in 1996 and became a business process outsourcing service provider for third parties in fiscal 2003. Warburg Pincus acquired a controlling stake in our company from British Airways in May 2002 and inducted a new senior management team.
Fiscal 2003 — 2008
We made a number of acquisitions that helped expand our service offerings. These acquisitions included:
 
   
Town and Country Assistance Limited (which we subsequently rebranded as WNS Assistance and which is part of WNS Auto Claims BPM), a
UK-based
automobile claims handling company, in fiscal 2003;
 
   
the health claims management business of Greensnow Inc. in fiscal 2004;
 
   
Trinity Partners Inc. (which we subsequently merged into our subsidiary, WNS North America Inc.), a provider of BPM services to financial institutions, focusing on mortgage banking, in fiscal 2006;
 
   
The fare audit services business of PRG Airlines Services Limited and the financial accounting business of GHS Holdings LLC in fiscal 2007;
 
   
Marketics, a provider of offshore analytics services, in fiscal 2008; and
 
   
Flovate (which we subsequently renamed as WNS Workflow Technologies Limited), a company engaged in the development and maintenance of software products and solutions, in fiscal 2008
In July 2006, we completed our initial public offering, whereupon our ADSs became listed on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under the symbol “WNS.” In February 2012, in connection with our
follow-on
offering, we issued new ordinary shares in the form of ADSs, at a price of $9.25 per ADS, aggregating approximately $50.0 million and at the same time, Warburg Pincus divested 6,847,500 ordinary shares in the form of ADSs. In February 2013, Warburg Pincus sold its remaining 14,519,144 ordinary shares in the form of ADSs, thereby divesting its entire stake in our company.
We invested in our infrastructure to expand our service portfolio from data-oriented processing to include complex voice and blended data/voice service capabilities, and commenced offering comprehensive processes in the travel and leisure, banking and financial services and insurance industries.
We opened facilities in a number of locations, including Gurgaon, India; Colombo, Sri Lanka; and Bucharest, Romania, thereby expanding our operating footprint across India, Sri Lanka and Romania. We also expanded our facilities in Gurgaon, Mumbai and Pune, India. In fiscal 2008, we transferred our delivery center in Sri Lanka to Aviva Global pursuant to “build-operate-transfer” contractual arrangement we had with Aviva.
We entered into a joint venture with ACS, a provider in BPM services and customer care in the Philippines, to form WNS Philippines Inc. (which became our wholly owned subsidiary following our acquisition of ACS’s shareholding in WNS Philippines Inc, in fiscal 2012)
Fiscal 2009 — Fiscal 2013
We acquired a number of companies, including:
 
   
Chang Limited, an auto insurance claims processing services provider in the UK, in fiscal 2009;
 
   
BizAps, a provider of SAP
®
solutions, in fiscal 2008 to optimize the enterprise resource planning functionality for our finance and accounting processes;
 
   
Fusion (which we subsequently renamed as WNS Global Services SA (Pty) Ltd), a provider of a range of management services, including contact center, customer care and business continuity services, to both South African and international clients, in fiscal 2013.
We opened facilities in Manila, the Philippines; San Jose, Costa Rica; Vizag, India; and Gydnia, Poland; and also expanded various facilities in India, the Philippines, Costa Rica and Romania, as well as our sales office in the UK.
We completed a
follow-on
public offering of ADSs in fiscal 2012, which raised approximately $50.0 million to fund our growth initiatives and enhance delivery capability.
Fiscal 2014 — 2018
We acquired the following companies in fiscal 2017:
 
   
Value Edge Research Services Private Limited (“Value Edge”), a leading provider of commercial research and analytics services to clients in the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries;
 
   
Denali Sourcing Services Inc. (“Denali”), a leading provider of strategic procurement BPM services; and
 
   
MTS HealthHelp Inc. and its subsidiaries (“HealthHelp”), an industry leader in BPM care management.
Fiscal 2019 — present
 
   
We added new facilities in Manila and Iloilo, the Philippines; Madrid, Spain; Vizag, Hyderabad and Pune, India; and New South Wales, Australia. We also expanded our facilities in Bangalore, Gurgaon, Nashik and Pune, India;
 
   
We acquired the following companies in fiscal 2022:
 
   
On August 1, 2021, we acquired all outstanding shares of MOL Information Processing Services (I) Private Limited. Subsequently, the name of the entity was changed to WNS Information Services (India) Private Limited.
 
   
CEPROCS S.R.L. (“CEPROCS”), provider of global sourcing and procurement services in December 2021, pursuant to which we agreed to acquire its customer contract, skilled workforce and related assets.
 
32

In April 2017, we established the WNS
B-BBEE
Staff Share Trust with the principal objective of creating meaningful participation of the Black employees (as defined in the applicable legislation) of our South African subsidiaries in the growth of the company. We are committed to transformation in South Africa and are implementing this structure to benefit Black People in accordance with the objectives and requirements of the Codes of Good Practice on Black Economic Empowerment as promulgated by section 9(1) of the Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment Act No. 53 of 2003 of South Africa. In June 2017, we established WNS New Zealand Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of WNS Global Services (Australia) Pty Ltd. In July 2017, we merged Value Edge into WNS Global Services Private Limited. In September 2018, we established WNS Global Services (UK) International Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of WNS (Mauritius) Limited. In October 2018, we established WNS Global Services North Americas Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of WNS Global Services (UK) International Limited and WNS Global Services (UK) Limited, Sucursal En España, a new branch of WNS Global Services (UK) Limited. In December 2018, we established WNS SA Domestic (Pty) Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of WNS Global Services SA (Pty) Limited and
WNS-Healthhelp
Philippines Inc, a wholly owned subsidiary of HealthHelp LLC. In September 2019, we changed the name of our wholly-owned South African subsidiary, WNS SA Domestic (Pty) Ltd to WNS South Africa (Pty) Ltd. In November 2019, we established WNS Denali Sourcing Services Inc, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Denali. In January 2020, we changed the name of our wholly-owned Netherlands subsidiary, WNS Global Services Netherlands Cooperatief U.A., to WNS Global Services Netherlands B.V. and our Ireland branch, WNS Global Services Netherlands Cooperatief U.A. (Ireland Branch), to WNS Global Services Netherlands B.V. (Ireland Branch). In March 2020, we demerged our Netherlands subsidiary, WNS Global Services Netherlands B.V., and formed WNS Business Consulting Netherlands B.V. In April 2020, we established a new entity in Canada, WNS Gestion des Processus d’Affaire Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of our company. In July 2020, we changed the name of our Turkey branch, WNS Global Services Netherlands Cooperatief U.A. Merkezi Hollanda Istanbul Merkez to WNS Global Services Netherlands B.V Merkezi Hollanda Istanbul Merkez Subesi. In July 2021, we incorporated a new entity WNS Global Services AG in Switzerland. In August 2021, we incorporated a new entity in Portugal, WNS Global Services Lisbon, Unipessoal LDA. We acquired MOL Information Processing Services (India) Private Limited in August , 2021 and changed its name on December 01, 2021 to WNS Information Services (India) Private Limited. In December , 2021, we established a new branch at Romania, WNS Global Services (Romania)
SRL-Punct
De Lucru Sibiu. In April 2022, we dissolved WNS Denali Sourcing Services Inc, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Denali Sourcing Service Inc. Our organizational structure now comprises 42 entities in 25 countries, and 11 branches in Poland, UAE, China, Singapore, France, Romania, Turkey, Ireland and Spain. Of these 42 entities, WNS Cares Foundation, which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of WNS Global, is a
not-for-profit
organization registered under the Section 8 of the Indian Companies Act, 2013, India. The WNS Cares Foundation was formed for the purpose of promoting corporate social responsibilities and does not qualify as a subsidiary under IFRS 10 — Consolidated Financial Statements and hence is not considered for the purpose of preparing our consolidated financial statements.
We have our principal executive office in Mumbai, India, and we have client service offices in Beijing (China), Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Germany, London (the UK), New York (the US), Sydney (Australia) and Singapore, and we have delivery centers in Sydney (Australia) Guangzhou, Dalian and Shanghai (China), San Jose (Costa Rica), Bangalore, Chennai, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Nashik, Pune, Noida and Vizag (India), Manila, Iloilo and Alabang (the Philippines), Gydnia (Poland), Bucharest (Romania), Cape Town, Johannesburg, Durban and Port Elizabeth (South Africa), Colombo (Sri Lanka), Istanbul (Turkey), Ipswich and Manchester (the UK), Spain and Columbia, South Carolina, Pittsburgh, Bellevue, Houston and Texas (the US).
 
33

Our capital expenditures in fiscal 2022, 2021 and 2020 amounted to $28.3 million, $26.5 million and $27.9 million, respectively. Our principal capital expenditures were incurred for the purposes of setting up new delivery centers, expanding existing delivery centers and developing new technology-enabled solutions to enable execution and management of clients’ business processes. We estimate that our expected capital expenditure in fiscal 2023 would be up to $40.0 million. The geographical distribution, timing and volume of our capital expenditures in the future will depend on new client contracts we may enter into or the expansion of our business under our existing client contracts.
As at March 31, 2022, we had commitments for capital expenditures of $9.5 million (net of advances to capital vendors) relating to the purchase of property and equipment for our delivery centers. Of this committed amount, we plan to spend approximately $2.8 million in India, approximately $4.2 million in Philippines, approximately $0.7 million in South Africa, and approximately $1.8 million in the rest of the world. We expect to fund these estimated capital expenditures from cash generated from operating activities, existing cash and cash equivalents and the use of existing credit facilities. See “Part I — Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Liquidity and Capital Resources” for more information.
 
34

B. Business Overview
We are a global BPM company, offering an array of
end-to-end
industry-specific and cross-industry solutions. We combine our deep industry knowledge with technology, analytics and process expertise to
co-create
innovative, digitally enabled transformational solutions with 414 clients across various industries as at March 31, 2022 (with each client generating more than $0.01 million in revenue in fiscal 2022). Our solutions and capabilities encompass intelligent automation (robotic process automation (“RPA”), hyperautomation, artificial intelligence (“AI”) and cognitive computing), natural language processing and machine learning (“ML”), blockchain, internet of things (“IoT”), business
process-as-a-service
(“BPaaS”) platforms, embedded analytics and process
re-engineering
frameworks. Hyperautomation refers to an approach that organizations adopt to accelerate digital transformation and rapidly automate business processes. It involves the orchestrated use of technologies such as AI, RPA, ML and natural language processing.
A key element in all our transformation engagements is our ability to deliver business value through the
co-creation
of solutions and products with our clients and strategic partners. We seek to help our clients “transform” their businesses by identifying business and process optimization opportunities through technology-enabled solutions, improvements to their processes, global delivery capabilities, analytics and
domain-led
understanding of their business. This, combined with our client-centric approach, enables us to align our people, processes, technologies and delivery network with our clients’ business requirements. Our industry-aligned approach helps us provide a specialized focus on each of the sectors that we target, effectively transform and manage our clients’ business processes, and offer customized solutions and business insights designed to improve their competitive positioning. The major industry verticals that we currently focus on are: insurance, healthcare, diversified businesses (including manufacturing, retail and consumer packaged goods (“CPG”), media and entertainment, and telecommunication (telecom)), travel and leisure, shipping and logistics,
hi-tech
and professional services (formerly known as consulting and professional services), banking and financial services, and utilities.
Our cross-industry solutions, common across multiple industries, include customer experience services, finance and accounting (including procurement), research and analytics (now branded as “WNS Triange”), consulting and transformation, human resources, technology and automation, and governance, risk and compliance services.
We measure our execution of clients’ business processes against multiple performance parameters, and aim to consistently meet and exceed these parameters in order to maintain and expand our client relationships. We strive to build long-term client relationships, and typically sign multi-year contracts with our clients that provide us with recurring revenue. In fiscal 2022, 156 and 147 clients contributed more than $1 million to our revenue and revenue less repair payments
(non-GAAP),
respectively.
As at March 31, 2022, we had 52,081 employees executing business processes for our 414 clients (with each client generating more than $0.01 million in revenue in fiscal 2022).
In fiscal 2022, our revenue was $1,109.8 million, our revenue less repair payments
(non-GAAP)
was $1,026.8 million and our profit was $132.1 million. Our revenue less repair payments is a
non-GAAP
financial measure. For a discussion of our revenue less repair payments
(non-GAAP)
and a reconciliation of our revenue less repair payments
(non-GAAP)
to revenue, see “Part I — Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects — Overview.”
 
35

Industry Overview
The global BPM market continues to evolve in response to a disruptive business landscape. While companies are still looking to benefit from process efficiency, cost advantage and labor arbitrage from their BPM solution providers, a continually evolving marketplace has resulted in a broader and more strategic narrative on outsourcing, with a strong focus on
domain-led,
technology-enabled, and innovative value creation. Customer experience,
data-led
insights and digital innovation are integral to business success, and enterprises now expect their BPM solution providers to play a bigger and more profound role in driving transformational outcomes. We are increasingly seeing BPM solution providers leverage the power of data, advanced analytics and AI to drive transformative and scalable solutions for enterprises. As companies outsource more of their complex and
high-end
business processes, the key consideration for them is the ability of the BPM provider to understand their unique industry and client-specific requirements, design and develop transformational plans, execute intricate, multi-layered process transitions, design a robust business continuity plan and successfully manage these processes on an ongoing basis. The increased focus on variable cost structures and the delivery of tangible business benefits have resulted in alternative service delivery and pricing models such as transaction-based, outcome-based and subscription models.
While BPM companies continue to address business disruptions caused by digital and technological changes and evolving customer expectations, they have also placed strong focus on cybersecurity, data privacy, and raising business continuity planning to extreme crisis continuity planning levels. Clients now expect BPM service providers to
co-architect
new, resilient and flexible solutions and models that will enable business safety and continuity during a wide array of adverse situations.
This ability to create and implement disaster recovery solutions is expected to become an important factor in evaluating BPM providers. BPM companies will be required to leverage a diversified geographical footprint and deliver continuity solutions that will enable clients to maximize operational agility, scalability and sustainability. These solutions will increasingly deploy technology and automation, and leverage the potential for increased adoption of “work-from-home” models.
In the next few years, clients will strengthen their focus on reducing costs, accelerating business transformation and digital adoption, leveraging data and analytics, and adopting outcome-based pricing models. We expect that BPM providers will play a key role in helping clients across industries to create and digitize
end-to-end
processes. It is important for BPM companies to leverage their geographical footprint and implement robust practices that help businesses achieve maximum operational agility, scalability and sustainability. Innovative digital ways of working and extensive adoption of hybrid working models have come into sharp focus, and are emerging as the new norms for BPM solutions.
In such an environment, businesses are thus undertaking a rigorous and multi-faceted evaluation process when selecting a BPM provider. Based on our experience, a client typically seeks the following key attributes in a BPM provider:
 
   
Domain knowledge and industry-specific expertise
 
   
Process expertise across horizontal service offerings
 
   
“Skin in the game” approach denoting the ability to work as a true partner, absorb risks and prioritize outcomes
 
   
Ability to invest in infrastructure and talent to innovate, automate, transform, provide operational expertise and drive best practices based on internal and external benchmarking
 
   
Proven ability to execute a diverse range of mission-critical and often complex business processes
 
   
Ability to tie service delivery, technology implementation and process automation with the client’s existing information technology (“IT”) infrastructure, negating the need for large IT overhauls
 
   
Capabilities to drive improved process standardization across business units and multiple locations, demonstrating strong global delivery capabilities
 
   
Comprehensive analytical capabilities to deliver actionable business insights;
domain-led
analytics solutions customized to industry requirements and embedded as part of the larger BPM services portfolio
 
   
Ability to deliver technology-enabled services and solutions, including RPA, cognitive computing, intelligent automation, AI, natural language processing, IoT, industrial robotics, blockchain, cloud-based offerings and platform-based BPM
 
   
Agility to build robust operational models that will swiftly and comprehensively manage disruptions and drive maximum business continuity, underpinned by an extensive geographical footprint, a seamless transition methodology, digital ways of working and a strong remote work model
 
   
Possesses a strong global presence through a mix of offshore, nearshore and onshore delivery centers to access talent and capabilities, create cultural alignment, leverage language skills, and mitigate risks
 
   
Capability to scale employees and infrastructure without a diminution in quality of service
 
   
Ability to raise client’s competitive positioning by improving operating efficiency, reducing cost, enhancing the
end-client
experience, delivering actionable insights, and creating differentiation
The global BPM industry is a large and growing industry. According to the Gartner Forecast: IT Services, Worldwide, 2020-2026, 1Q22 Update, the worldwide Business Process Services (“BPS”) market comprising traditional and digital components is estimated to be at $191.181 billion in the year ending 2022. Gartner has estimated that the revenues for the worldwide BPS market will grow from $181.32 billion in 2021 to $255.558 billion in 2026 at a compounded annual growth rate of 7.1% (compounded annual growth rate calculated by Gartner).
The following chart sets forth the estimated growth in revenue generated in the Worldwide BPS market:
 
 
Chart / Graph created by WNS Global Services based on Gartner research.
Source: Gartner, Inc., Forecast: IT Services, Worldwide, 2020-2026, 1Q22 Update. Colleen Graham, Misako Sawai, Cathy Tornbohm, Twiggy Lo et al., March 30, 2022.
The Gartner content described herein (the “Gartner Content”) represent(s) research opinion or viewpoints published, as part of a syndicated subscription service, by Gartner, Inc. (“Gartner”), and are not representations of fact. Gartner Content speaks as of its original publication date (and not as of the date of this [type of filing]), and the opinions expressed in the Gartner Content are subject to change without notice.
The industry trends continue to drive BPM providers to be more innovative, strategic and forward-looking in their approach. Against the backdrop of this changing environment, we believe that WNS, with our focused domain, digital, and
data-to-insights
capabilities, guiding principles of
co-creation
and client centricity, extensive global footprint, robust business continuity planning methodologies, and transformational and
re-engineering
frameworks, is well positioned to deliver business value to our clients. We offer hyperautomation and technology-enabled BPaaS solutions that are designed help companies adapt rapidly to changing business scenarios and accelerate their business transformation. Further, we offer customized engagement models that cater to each client’s scale and transformation journey. In addition to traditional pricing models based on headcount (often referred to as full-time equivalents (FTE)), we offer transaction-, subscription- and outcome-based pricing models to provide clients with cost flexibility and measurable business benefits.
In fiscal 2022, 36.6% of our total revenues were generated from
“non-FTE”
models. These
“non-linear”
pricing models, which
de-link
the relationship between headcount and revenue for BPM providers, create an incentive for the providers to improve the productivity of their employees, increase the use of technology, and enhance the overall efficiency of their operations.
 
36

Competitive Strengths
We believe that we have the competitive strengths necessary to maintain and enhance our position as a leading global provider of BPM services.
Well-positioned for the evolving BPM market
The BPM industry, which started with the first wave of simple outsourced processes, has now expanded to include complex business processes and higher-value services that involve process
re-engineering,
business and digital transformation, management of mission-critical operations, and generation of business insights to aid deci