10-K 1 wsbc-20231231.htm 10-K 10-K
FYfalse0000203596P1YP10YP1YP5Yhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#PropertyPlantAndEquipmentNethttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#PropertyPlantAndEquipmentNethttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherLiabilitieshttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherLiabilitieshttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherLiabilities5http://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#PropertyPlantAndEquipmentNethttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#PropertyPlantAndEquipmentNethttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherLiabilitieshttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherLiabilitiesP10Yhttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherAssetshttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherAssetshttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherLiabilitieshttp://fasb.org/us-gaap/2023#OtherLiabilitieshttp://www.wesbanco.com/20231231#NetSwapFeeAndValuationIncomehttp://www.wesbanco.com/20231231#NetSwapFeeAndValuationIncomehttp://www.wesbanco.com/20231231#NetSwapFeeAndValuationIncomehttp://www.wesbanco.com/20231231#NonInterestIncomeDerivedFromMortgageBankingActivitieshttp://www.wesbanco.com/20231231#NonInterestIncomeDerivedFromMortgageBankingActivitieshttp://www.wesbanco.com/20231231#NonInterestIncomeDerivedFromMortgageBankingActivitieshttp://www.wesbanco.com/20231231#NonInterestIncomeDerivedFromMortgageBankingActivitieshttp://www.wesbanco.com/20231231#NonInterestIncomeDerivedFromMortgageBankingActivitieshttp://www.wesbanco.com/20231231#NonInterestIncomeDerivedFromMortgageBankingActivitieshttp://www.wesbanco.com/20231231#EmployeeBenefitshttp://www.wesbanco.com/20231231#EmployeeBenefitshttp://www.wesbanco.com/20231231#EmployeeBenefitshttp://www.wesbanco.com/20231231#EmployeeBenefitshttp://www.wesbanco.com/20231231#EmployeeBenefitshttp://www.wesbanco.com/20231231#EmployeeBenefits0000203596us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member2021-12-310000203596us-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:CommercialMortgageBackedSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:WesbancoBankIncMembersrt:MinimumMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:MortgageBackedSecuritiesIssuedByUSGovernmentSponsoredEnterprisesMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMemberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:AccumulatedUnrealizedGainsLossesOnSecuritiesAvailableForSaleMember2020-12-310000203596wsbc:ShareholderReturnPlanMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596country:MDwsbc:YourCommunityBanksharesIncAndOldLineBancsharesIncMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:AccumulatedUnrealizedGainsLossesOnSecuritiesAvailableForSaleMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:TwothousandNineteenPerformancebasedrestrictedstockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:WesBancoBankCommunityDevelopmentCorporationMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:FarmersCapitalBankCorporationPostretirementMedicalBenefitPlanMember2021-12-310000203596us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2020-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:CriticizedMemberus-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:HeldtomaturitySecuritiesMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanEquitySecuritiesCommonStockMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:HomeEquityMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables30To59DaysPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Membersrt:WeightedAverageMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityNotPrimaryBeneficiaryMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:OakHillCapitalTrustThreeMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:TwoThousandTwentyOnePerformanceBasedRestrictedStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:RegisteredInvestmentCompaniesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:PassMemberwsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596srt:MaximumMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2023-12-310000203596srt:MinimumMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMember2022-03-230000203596us-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:ShareholderReturnPlanMembersrt:ScenarioForecastMemberwsbc:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementTrancheFourMember2024-01-012024-03-310000203596wsbc:RiskParticipationOutAgreementMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:SubstandardMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596srt:ParentCompanyMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMemberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2023-12-310000203596wsbc:TdrsMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-3100002035962022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member2022-01-012022-12-3100002035962020-12-310000203596wsbc:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementTrancheSixMemberwsbc:ShareholderReturnPlanMembersrt:ScenarioForecastMember2024-01-012024-03-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:PassMemberus-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberwsbc:CurrentPeriodGrossChargeOffsMember2023-12-3100002035962023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberwsbc:CurrentPeriodGrossChargeOffsMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:TwothousandtwentyperformancebasedrestrictedstockMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:DepositOverdraftMember2021-12-310000203596wsbc:ShareholderReturnPlanMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:ExtendedMaturityMemberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:BuildingAndBuildingImprovementsMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember2022-12-310000203596srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityNotPrimaryBeneficiaryMemberus-gaap:OtherAssetsMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialBankingFeesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:WesbancoBankIncMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:KPlanMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMemberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommunityBankSharesStatutoryTrustTwoMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:TwothousandNineteenPerformancebasedrestrictedstockMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:AccumulatedUnrealizedGainsLossesOnSecuritiesAvailableForSaleMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:PassMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:HomeEquityMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:OakHillCapitalTrustTwoMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:StockOptionPlanTwoThousandAndEighteenMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:DeferredCompensationShareBasedPaymentsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:WesMarkFeesMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596wsbc:NationalPeerGroupOfFinancialInstitutionsMembersrt:MinimumMemberwsbc:PerformanceBasedRestrictedStockMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:EquityAndDebtSecurityTradesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:AnnuityCommissionsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:ConsumerLoanMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMemberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Member2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202204Member2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member2021-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2023-12-310000203596wsbc:StockOptionPlanTwoThousandAndTwentyTwoMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:WesMarkFeesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596srt:ParentCompanyMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2023-12-310000203596wsbc:NationalPeerGroupOfFinancialInstitutionsMembersrt:MaximumMemberwsbc:PerformanceBasedRestrictedStockMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:BuildingAndBuildingImprovementsMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:ResidentialRealEstateLoansMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:AccruingTdrsMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:FirstFederalStatutoryTrustTwoMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:NonAccrualLoansMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberwsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Member2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommonStockMember2021-12-310000203596wsbc:WesMarkFeesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommunityBankSharesStatutoryTrustOneMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:HomeEquityMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberwsbc:CurrentPeriodGrossChargeOffsMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596wsbc:TrustAccountFeesMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596wsbc:StockOptionPlanTwoThousandAndSeventeenMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:MortgageBackedSecuritiesIssuedByUSGovernmentSponsoredEnterprisesMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:StockOptionPlanTwoThousandAndTwentyOneMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:YourCommunityBanksharesIncAndOldLineBancsharesIncMembersrt:SouthAmericaMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberwsbc:AccruingTdrsMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310000203596srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:FurnitureAndFixturesMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityNotPrimaryBeneficiaryMemberus-gaap:OtherAssetsMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:PassMemberus-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:RegisteredInvestmentCompaniesMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:ForwardTBAContractsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:AccumulatedUnrealizedGainsLossesOnSecuritiesAvailableForSaleMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:ExtendedMaturityMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:SubstandardMemberwsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberwsbc:AccruingTdrsMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommunityBankingMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310000203596srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:FirstFederalStatutoryTrustTwoMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMemberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:PassMemberwsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2021-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:NonAccrualLoansMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables30To59DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables30To59DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberwsbc:CurrentPeriodGrossChargeOffsMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberwsbc:CurrentPeriodGrossChargeOffsMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:OtherContractMemberwsbc:ForwardTBAContractsMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:FarmersCapitalBankCorporationMember2018-08-200000203596us-gaap:HomeEquityMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:PreferredStockMember2021-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:MunicipalObligationsMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:PreferredStockMember2020-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:SubstandardMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMember2023-12-210000203596us-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:SubstandardMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AssetPledgedAsCollateralWithoutRightMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:OtherContractMemberus-gaap:InterestRateLockCommitmentsMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:ManagedMoneyMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables30To59DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommunityBankSharesStatutoryTrustTwoMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:TreasuryStockCommonAndPreferredStockMember2020-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2020-12-310000203596us-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberus-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:StockOptionPlanTwoThousandAndTwentyOneMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:StockOptionPlanTwoThousandAndFifteenMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:DefinedBenefitPlanEquitySecuritiesCommonStockMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberwsbc:LoanSwapsMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member2020-12-310000203596us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:StockOptionPlanTwoThousandAndNineteenMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CriticizedMemberwsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:KPlanMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2020-12-310000203596wsbc:ManagedMoneyMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:StockOptionPlanTwoThousandAndSixteenMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialMortgageBackedSecuritiesMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:YourCommunityBanksharesIncAndOldLineBancsharesIncMembersrt:SouthAmericaMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:LandImprovementsMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:MortgageBackedSecuritiesIssuedByUSGovernmentSponsoredEnterprisesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:AccruingTdrsMemberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:StockOptionPlanTwoThousandAndTwentyMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:DeferredCompensationShareBasedPaymentsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:StockOptionPlanTwoThousandAndFourteenMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:ForwardTBAContractsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:ElectronicBankingFeesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:SubstandardMemberwsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:HomeEquityMember2020-12-310000203596wsbc:TdrsMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member2022-12-310000203596wsbc:PaymentProcessingFeesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:NonAccrualLoansMemberus-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMember2022-12-3100002035962023-10-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMemberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:TreasuryStockCommonAndPreferredStockMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancingReceivables30To59DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberwsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CriticizedMemberus-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMemberwsbc:TdrsMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:DepositOverdraftMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:AccountingStandardsUpdate202302Member2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberwsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancingReceivables30To59DaysPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:PersonalServiceChargesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:ExtendedMaturityMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMemberwsbc:AccruingTdrsMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2020-12-310000203596wsbc:TdrsMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:ExtendedMaturityMemberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:PaymentDeferralMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMember2020-12-310000203596us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310000203596srt:MaximumMemberwsbc:TwoThousandEighteenPerformanceBasedRestrictedStockMember2021-02-252021-02-250000203596us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:OakHillCapitalTrustThreeMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMemberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:TrustAndInvestmentServicesMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:OakHillCapitalTrustFourMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:PassMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:DepositOverdraftMember2020-12-310000203596us-gaap:InterestRateLockCommitmentsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMemberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:HomeEquityMember2021-12-310000203596wsbc:NonAccrualLoansMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMemberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:WesbancoCapitalTrustSixMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:SecuritiesSoldUnderAgreementsToRepurchaseMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:LimitedLiabilityCompanyMemberus-gaap:EquityMethodInvestmentNonconsolidatedInvesteeOrGroupOfInvesteesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:DepositarySharesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:DebtSecuritiesMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:StockOptionPlanTwoThousandAndNineteenMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:CriticizedMemberwsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:KPlanMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:PassMemberus-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:TrustAndInvestmentServicesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:NetSwapFeeAndValuationIncomeMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberwsbc:CurrentPeriodGrossChargeOffsMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:CurrentExpectedLossesMethodologyForAllowancesMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:KPlanMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596wsbc:CARESActPaycheckProtectionProgramMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596srt:ParentCompanyMember2020-12-310000203596us-gaap:LimitedLiabilityCompanyMemberus-gaap:EquityMethodInvestmentNonconsolidatedInvesteeOrGroupOfInvesteesMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:PassMemberus-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMemberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:MunicipalObligationsMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:DepositOverdraftMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:LimitedLiabilityCompanyMember2023-12-310000203596srt:MinimumMemberus-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:ForwardTBAContractsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:LimitedLiabilityCompanyMemberus-gaap:EquityMethodInvestmentNonconsolidatedInvesteeOrGroupOfInvesteesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:AnnuityCommissionsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:WesBancoBankCommunityDevelopmentCorporationMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202203Member2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:DeferredCompensationShareBasedPaymentsMember2020-12-310000203596us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:PreferredStockMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:NetSwapFeeAndValuationIncomeMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:TrailCommissionsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CarryingReportedAmountFairValueDisclosureMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:EquityCompensationPlanMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596wsbc:TrustAndInvestmentServicesMemberus-gaap:CustomerRelatedIntangibleAssetsMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:NetSwapFeeAndValuationIncomeMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables30To59DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CriticizedMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:VariableInterestEntityNotPrimaryBeneficiaryMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:NonAccrualTdrsMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:DebtSecuritiesMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:StockOptionPlanTwoThousandAndSixteenMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:DepositOverdraftMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:InterestRateLockCommitmentsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596srt:MinimumMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596wsbc:NonAccrualLoansMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:SubstandardMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMemberwsbc:TdrsMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:DepositsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:InterestRateLockCommitmentsMember2023-01-012023-12-3100002035962022-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:SubstandardMemberwsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:OakHillCapitalTrustFourMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AssetPledgedAsCollateralWithoutRightMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:TrustAccountFeesMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMembersrt:MaximumMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:StockOptionPlanTwoThousandAndTwentyMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:PersonalServiceChargesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:EquityMethodInvestmentsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:NonAccrualLoansMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMember2021-12-310000203596us-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberwsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:PaymentDeferralMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:CurrentPeriodGrossChargeOffsMemberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596wsbc:AccountingStandardsUpdate202301Member2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:WesbancoCapitalTrustTwoMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596srt:MinimumMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:AccumulatedUnrealizedGainsLossesOnSecuritiesAvailableForSaleMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables30To59DaysPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:WesbancoCapitalStatutoryTrustThreeMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:HomeEquityMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member2022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommunityBankingMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:AccumulatedUnrealizedGainsLossesOnSecuritiesAvailableForSaleMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:OtherContractMemberus-gaap:InterestRateLockCommitmentsMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:TrailCommissionsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2022-12-310000203596wsbc:NonAccrualTdrsMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:TdrsMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables30To59DaysPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialMortgageBackedSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:LatestTaxYearMemberwsbc:YourCommunityBanksharesIncAndOldLineBancsharesIncMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:CurrentPeriodGrossChargeOffsMemberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:RegisteredInvestmentCompaniesMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheTwoMemberwsbc:PerformanceBasedRestrictedStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FiduciaryAndTrustMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:WesBancoBankCommunityDevelopmentCorporationMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596srt:ParentCompanyMember2023-01-012023-12-3100002035962023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:WesbancoBankIncMembersrt:MinimumMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:RiskParticipationInAgreementsMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:EquityAndDebtSecurityTradesMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:HomeEquityMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables30To59DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:AccumulatedUnrealizedGainsLossesOnSecuritiesAvailableForSaleMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:WesbancoCapitalTrustFiveMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:WesbancoBankIncMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialBankingFeesMember2023-01-012023-12-3100002035962023-06-300000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables30To59DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:PersonalServiceChargesMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596wsbc:DebitCardSponsorshipIncomeMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596srt:MaximumMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:WesbancoCapitalTrustFourMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:ShareholderReturnPlanMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:DeferredCompensationShareBasedPaymentsMember2021-12-310000203596us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:TreasuryStockCommonAndPreferredStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:AccumulatedUnrealizedGainsLossesOnSecuritiesAvailableForSaleMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:FinancingReceivablesCurrentPastDueMemberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:EstimateOfFairValueFairValueDisclosureMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:NonAccrualLoansMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:ServiceBasedRestrictedStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:CriticizedMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:YourCommunityBanksharesIncAndOldLineBancsharesIncMemberus-gaap:EarliestTaxYearMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:HeldtomaturitySecuritiesMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:FinancingReceivablesCurrentPastDueMemberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2020-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:PassMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:StockOptionPlanTwoThousandAndFourteenMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:MunicipalObligationsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables30To59DaysPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberwsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:SubstandardMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables30To59DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:StockOptionPlanTwoThousandAndFifteenMember2023-12-310000203596country:MDwsbc:YourCommunityBanksharesIncAndOldLineBancsharesIncMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:NonAccrualLoansMemberus-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:TwoThousandEighteenPerformanceBasedRestrictedStockMembersrt:MinimumMember2021-02-252021-02-250000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialExcludingPaycheckProtectionProgramMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:FarmersCapitalBankCorporationMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2021-12-310000203596wsbc:KeyOfficersMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:WesBancoBankCommunityDevelopmentCorporationMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:WesbancoCapitalTrustSixMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:DebtSecuritiesMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:EquityCompensationPlanMember2021-04-220000203596us-gaap:CriticizedMemberus-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:YourCommunityBanksharesIncAndOldLineBancsharesIncMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:CriticizedMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:WesbancoCapitalStatutoryTrustThreeMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMember2020-12-310000203596wsbc:EquityAndDebtSecurityTradesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialMortgageBackedSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:HomeEquityMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596wsbc:FarmersCapitalBankCorporationPostretirementMedicalBenefitPlanMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:KeyOfficersMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancingReceivables30To59DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:PassMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:NonAccrualTdrsMemberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:CriticizedMemberwsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberus-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:OakHillCapitalTrustTwoMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:TrustAndInvestmentServicesMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommonStockMember2020-12-310000203596us-gaap:PassMemberus-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMemberwsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:SubstandardMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:EarliestTaxYearMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:ProductAndServiceOtherMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:FinancingReceivablesCurrentPastDueMemberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:MortgageBackedSecuritiesIssuedByUSGovernmentSponsoredEnterprisesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:StockOptionPlanTwoThousandAndTwentyThreeMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:FarmersCapitalBankCorporationPostretirementMedicalBenefitPlanMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:NonAccrualTdrsMemberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:TrailCommissionsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596wsbc:CommunityBankingMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:TreasuryStockCommonAndPreferredStockMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:CriticizedMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:ManagedMoneyMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:WesBancoBankCommunityDevelopmentCorporationMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:UnfundedLoanCommitmentMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:CurrentExpectedLossesMethodologyForAllowancesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AdditionalPaidInCapitalMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberus-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:CashAndCashEquivalentsMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:CurrentPeriodGrossChargeOffsMemberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:NonAccrualLoansMemberus-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Membersrt:WeightedAverageMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2020-12-310000203596wsbc:KeyOfficersMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:PaymentDeferralMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:NonAccrualLoansMemberus-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:HomeEquityMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMemberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:AccumulatedUnrealizedGainsLossesOnSecuritiesAvailableForSaleMember2021-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialBankingFeesMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:MortgageBackedSecuritiesIssuedByUSGovernmentSponsoredEnterprisesMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberwsbc:NonAccrualTdrsMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMember2022-03-232022-03-230000203596wsbc:RegisteredInvestmentCompaniesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:HomeEquityMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMemberwsbc:AccruingTdrsMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:SubstandardMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables30To59DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:DeferredCompensationShareBasedPaymentsMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:USGovernmentCorporationsAndAgenciesSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMemberwsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommonStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberwsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member2023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommunityBankSharesStatutoryTrustOneMember2023-12-3100002035962021-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:KPlanMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:TreasuryStockCommonAndPreferredStockMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:CurrentPeriodGrossChargeOffsMemberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2022-12-310000203596wsbc:ShareholderReturnPlanMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:FarmersCapitalBankCorporationPostretirementMedicalBenefitPlanMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member2021-12-310000203596us-gaap:RelatedPartyMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:StockOptionPlanTwoThousandAndSeventeenMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:FinancingReceivablesCurrentPastDueMemberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FiduciaryAndTrustMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:MortgageMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:CriticizedMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:CommercialMortgageBackedSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMemberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialExcludingPaycheckProtectionProgramMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:PreferredStockMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMemberwsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596srt:MaximumMemberus-gaap:DebtSecuritiesMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:ShareholderReturnPlanMember2015-11-182015-11-180000203596srt:ParentCompanyMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:CriticizedMemberwsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:MortgageBackedSecuritiesIssuedByUSGovernmentSponsoredEnterprisesMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:LimitedLiabilityCompanyMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:SevenNineSixOneSixCliffVestingMemberwsbc:ServiceBasedRestrictedStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:PassMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:UsGovernmentSecuritiesAndMortgageBackedAndCollateralizedSecuritiesIssuedByDirectGovernmentalEntityOrGovernmentSponsoredEntityMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables30To59DaysPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:TwoThousandTwentyOnePerformanceBasedRestrictedStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:DepositsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:FinancingReceivablesCurrentPastDueMemberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:AccruingTdrsMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:PaymentDeferralMemberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2021-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables30To59DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:TwothousandtwentyperformancebasedrestrictedstockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMemberwsbc:LoanSwapsMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:RiskParticipationOutAgreementMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:AnnuityCommissionsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMemberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:StockOptionPlanTwoThousandAndTwentyThreeMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:MortgageBackedSecuritiesIssuedByUSGovernmentSponsoredEnterprisesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:NonAccrualLoansMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:WesbancoCapitalTrustFourMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsNonrecurringMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel3Member2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:SecuritiesSoldUnderAgreementsToRepurchaseMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:OtherContractMemberwsbc:ForwardTBAContractsMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Member2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:SubstandardMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:PaymentProcessingFeesMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMemberus-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:TwoThousandEighteenPerformanceBasedRestrictedStockMember2023-05-012023-05-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialMortgageBackedSecuritiesMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:StockOptionPlanTwoThousandAndTwentyTwoMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:DepositOverdraftMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommonStockMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:DeferredCompensationShareBasedPaymentsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:ShareBasedCompensationAwardTrancheOneMemberwsbc:PerformanceBasedRestrictedStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccumulatedDefinedBenefitPlansAdjustmentMember2021-12-310000203596us-gaap:DeferredCompensationShareBasedPaymentsMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMemberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:StockOptionPlanTwoThousandAndEighteenMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberwsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596wsbc:EquityCompensationPlanMember2022-12-3100002035962024-02-140000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMemberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:CriticizedMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:InterestRateSwapMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:RiskParticipationInAgreementsMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2020-12-310000203596wsbc:FinancingReceivablesCurrentPastDueMemberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:SubstandardMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables60To89DaysPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:AccumulatedUnrealizedGainsLossesOnSecuritiesAvailableForSaleMemberus-gaap:ReclassificationOutOfAccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccumulatedOtherComprehensiveIncomeMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:DepositsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:EquityMethodInvestmentsMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:HomeEquityMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CorporateDebtSecuritiesMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:MortgageBackedSecuritiesIssuedByUSGovernmentSponsoredEnterprisesMember2023-12-310000203596srt:ParentCompanyMember2021-12-310000203596wsbc:FarmersCapitalBankCorporationPostretirementMedicalBenefitPlanMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancingReceivables30To59DaysPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596wsbc:TreasuryStockCommonAndPreferredStockMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:CurrentPeriodGrossChargeOffsMemberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:AccountingStandardsUpdate202305Member2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:EmployeeStockOptionMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member2020-12-3100002035962021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:HomeEquityMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberwsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:TrustAndInvestmentServicesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:HomeEquityMemberus-gaap:PaymentDeferralMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596srt:MinimumMember2020-12-310000203596us-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:PassMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMemberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:MunicipalObligationsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Member2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:SubstandardMemberwsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:EquityMethodInvestmentsMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberus-gaap:PaymentDeferralMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:RetainedEarningsMember2021-12-310000203596us-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2021-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:MortgageBackedSecuritiesIssuedByUSGovernmentSponsoredEnterprisesMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:MortgageBackedSecuritiesIssuedByUSGovernmentSponsoredEnterprisesMemberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member2020-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberwsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:NonAccrualLoansMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables30To59DaysPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:FiduciaryAndTrustMember2021-01-012021-12-310000203596us-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMemberus-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:ConsumerPortfolioSegmentMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:DepositOverdraftMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables30To59DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:WesbancoCapitalTrustFiveMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:TrustAndInvestmentServicesMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:FinancingReceivables30To59DaysPastDueMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel1Memberus-gaap:EquitySecuritiesMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:USStatesAndPoliticalSubdivisionsMemberus-gaap:FairValueInputsLevel2Memberus-gaap:FairValueMeasurementsRecurringMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:SecuredOvernightFinancingRateSofrOvernightIndexSwapRateMemberus-gaap:SubordinatedDebtMember2022-03-232022-03-230000203596wsbc:WesbancoCapitalTrustTwoMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:SubstandardMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberwsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMemberus-gaap:ExtendedMaturityMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:PassMemberus-gaap:CommercialPortfolioSegmentMemberwsbc:CommercialRealEstateLandAndConstructionMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:PaymentProcessingFeesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:PerformanceBasedRestrictedStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate201613Member2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:CurrentPeriodGrossChargeOffsMemberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2023-12-310000203596srt:ScenarioForecastMemberwsbc:ShareholderReturnPlanMemberwsbc:ShareBasedPaymentArrangementTrancheFiveMember2024-01-012024-03-310000203596wsbc:TrustAccountFeesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:AccountingStandardsUpdate202202Memberwsbc:CommercialAndIndustrialMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:CriticizedMemberus-gaap:RealEstateLoanMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:NonperformingFinancingReceivableMemberus-gaap:ResidentialPortfolioSegmentMember2022-01-012022-12-310000203596wsbc:SelectedParticipantsIncludingCertainExecutiveOfficersMember2023-05-242023-05-240000203596wsbc:TreasuryStockCommonAndPreferredStockMember2021-12-310000203596wsbc:ShareholderReturnPlanMembersrt:ScenarioForecastMember2024-01-012024-03-310000203596srt:MaximumMemberwsbc:CurrentExpectedLossesMethodologyForAllowancesMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetNotPastDueMemberus-gaap:CommercialRealEstatePortfolioSegmentMember2022-12-310000203596us-gaap:FinancialAssetPastDueMemberus-gaap:HomeEquityMember2023-12-310000203596wsbc:TwoThousandEighteenPerformanceBasedRestrictedStockMember2021-02-252021-02-250000203596us-gaap:FinancingReceivablesEqualToGreaterThan90DaysPastDueMember2023-12-310000203596us-gaap:RestrictedStockMember2023-01-012023-12-310000203596wsbc:GrantorTrustsMember2023-12-310000203596srt:ParentCompanyMember2023-12-31wsbc:Branchxbrli:purewsbc:Segmentwsbc:Borrowerwsbc:Contractwsbc:Securityiso4217:USDxbrli:shareswsbc:Portfolioxbrli:shareswsbc:Holdingwsbc:Propertywsbc:Partnershipiso4217:USDwsbc:Derivative

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, DC 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from to

Commission File Number 001-39442

WESBANCO, INC.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

WEST VIRGINIA

55-0571723

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(IRS Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

1 Bank Plaza, Wheeling, WV

26003

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: 304-234-9000

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

 

Trading Symbol

 

Name of each Exchange on which registered

Common Stock $2.0833 Par Value

 

WSBC

 

Nasdaq Global Select Market

Depositary Shares (each representing 1/40th interest in a share of 6.75% Fixed-Rate Reset Non-Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, Series A)

 

WSBCP

 

Nasdaq Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☑ No ☐

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☑ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☑ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Emerging growth company

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act.) Yes ☐ No

The aggregate market value of the registrant’s outstanding voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates on June 30, 2023, determined using a per share closing price on that date of $25.77, was $1,452,264,276.

As of February 14, 2024, there were 59,377,435 shares of Wesbanco, Inc. common stock $2.0833 par value per share, outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Certain specifically designated portions of Wesbanco, Inc.’s definitive proxy statement which will be filed by April 30, 2024 for its Annual Meeting of Shareholders (the “Proxy Statement”) to be held in 2024 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.

 

 

 


 

WESBANCO, INC.

ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ITEM #

 

ITEM

 

Page No.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

Business

 

3-12

1A

 

Risk Factors

 

13-22

1B

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

22

1C

 

Cybersecurity

 

22

2

 

Properties

 

23

3

 

Legal Proceedings

 

24

4

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

24

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part II

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

25-26

6

 

Reserved

 

26

7

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

27-63

7A

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

 

64-65

8

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

66-134

9

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

135

9A

 

Controls and Procedures

 

135

9B

 

Other Information

 

135

9C

 

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

 

135

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part III

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

136

11

 

Executive Compensation

 

136

12

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

136

13

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

136

14

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

136

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part IV

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

 

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

137

16

 

Form 10-K Summary

 

137

 

 

Signatures

 

142

 

2


 

PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

GENERAL

Wesbanco, Inc. (“Wesbanco” or the “Company”), a bank holding company incorporated in 1968 and headquartered in Wheeling, West Virginia, offers a full range of financial services including retail banking, corporate banking, personal and corporate trust services, brokerage services, mortgage banking and insurance. Wesbanco offers these services through two reportable segments, community banking and trust and investment services. For additional information regarding Wesbanco’s business segments, please refer to Note 23, “Business Segments” in the Consolidated Financial Statements.

As of December 31, 2023, Wesbanco operated one commercial bank: Wesbanco Bank, Inc. (“Wesbanco Bank” or the “Bank”). The Bank has 192 branches and 183 ATM machines located in West Virginia, Ohio, western Pennsylvania, Kentucky, southern Indiana and Maryland. Total assets of Wesbanco as of December 31, 2023 approximated $17.7 billion. Wesbanco Bank also offers trust and investment services and various alternative investment products including mutual funds and annuities. The market value of assets under management of the trust and investment services segment is approximately $5.4 billion as of December 31, 2023. These assets are held by Wesbanco Bank in fiduciary or agency capacities for its customers and therefore are not included as assets on Wesbanco’s Consolidated Balance Sheets.

Wesbanco also offers additional services through its non-banking subsidiaries:

Wesbanco Insurance Services, Inc. (“Wesbanco Insurance”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of Wesbanco Bank, is a multi-line insurance agency specializing in property, casualty, life and title insurance, with benefit plan sales and administration for personal and commercial clients.

Wesbanco Securities, Inc. (“Wesbanco Securities”) is a full service broker-dealer, which also offers discount brokerage services.

Wesbanco Asset Management, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Wesbanco Bank, holds certain investment securities and loans in a Delaware-based subsidiary.

Wesbanco Properties, Inc. holds certain commercial real estate properties. The commercial property is leased to Wesbanco Bank and to certain non-related third parties.

FAH, LLC and Flagship Acquisitions Trust, which were acquired in the Old Line Bancshares, Inc. ("OLBK") acquisition and are Maryland limited liability corporations, hold certain real estate properties located in the Maryland area. Each of these entities is a wholly owned subsidiary of Wesbanco Bank.

Wesbanco has eleven capital trusts, which are all wholly-owned trust subsidiaries formed for the purpose of issuing trust preferred securities (“Trust Preferred Securities”) and lending the proceeds to Wesbanco. For more information regarding Wesbanco’s issuance of Trust Preferred Securities, please refer to Note 10, “Subordinated Debt and Junior Subordinated Debt” in the Consolidated Financial Statements.

AMSCO, Inc. (“AMSCO”) is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Wesbanco Bank, which formerly engaged in the management of certain real estate development and construction of 1-4 family residential units. It is in the process of winding up its business activities and will be dissolved.

Wesbanco Bank’s Investment Department also serves as investment adviser to a family of mutual funds, namely the “WesMark Funds.” The fund family is comprised of the WesMark Large Company Fund, the WesMark Balanced Fund, the WesMark Small Company Fund, the WesMark Government Bond Fund, the WesMark West Virginia Municipal Bond Fund, and the WesMark Tactical Opportunity Fund.

As of December 31, 2023, none of Wesbanco’s subsidiaries were engaged in any operations in foreign countries, and only one had any transactions with customers in foreign countries. The Bank also provides letters of credit internationally for certain domestic customers and provides international wire services through a third-party correspondent bank.

WEBSITE ACCESS TO WESBANCO’S FILINGS WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Wesbanco’s electronic filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), including its Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to these reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, are made available at no cost on Wesbanco’s website, www.wesbanco.com, through the “Investors” link as soon as reasonably practicable after Wesbanco files such material with, or furnishes it to, the SEC. Wesbanco’s SEC filings are also available through the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Wesbanco routinely posts important information on the Company's website in the "Investors" section. Wesbanco may also use its website as a means of disclosing material, non-public information and for complying with our disclosure obligations under Regulation FD. Accordingly, investors should monitor the Investors section of the website in addition to following Wesbanco's press releases, SEC filings, public conference calls,

3


 

presentations and webcasts. The information contained on, or that may be accessed through, Wesbanco's website is not incorporated by reference into, and is not a part of, this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Upon written request of any shareholder of record on December 31, 2023, Wesbanco will provide, without charge, a printed copy of this 2023 Annual Report on Form 10-K, including financial statements and schedules, as required to be filed with the SEC. To obtain a copy of this report, contact: John Iannone, Wesbanco, Inc., 1 Bank Plaza, Wheeling, West Virginia 26003 (304) 905-7021.

HUMAN CAPITAL RESOURCES

At December 31, 2023, we employed 2,321 full-time equivalent employees. At that date, the average tenure of all of our full-time employees was approximately 10 years while the average tenure of our executive officers was over 16 years. None of our employees are represented by collective bargaining agreements. We believe our relations with our employees are very good. The safety and care of our employees and their families as well as their communities is paramount for us.

Of our total employees, 10% or 235 were minorities with 80 or 34% of those officers. Of our 1,105 total officers, 603 or 55% were women. Our turnover rate for 2023 was 19%. Our turnover rate for officers was 15% for 2023.

Our corporate culture has been established by senior management and overseen by our board of directors. Built upon our ‘Better Banking Pledge’ and our ‘Service & Support Pledge’, our culture, which is both customer and employee-centric, is focused on growing long-term relationships by pledging to serve all personal and business customer needs efficiently and effectively while treating our employees with dignity and respect. Wesbanco completed its first employee engagement survey which focused on employee satisfaction. We were pleased with the number of participants and their feedback. Wesbanco is in the process of rolling out its second survey in the first quarter of 2024 with a focus on Wesbanco culture.

Wesbanco has been a leader in its communities for over 150 years, and we want to continue to take a leadership role by noting our stance for equality. We are a group with diverse backgrounds and ethnicities, and share the same values of dignity and respect for our co-workers, customers, and fellow community members. We have been able to enhance our diversification through the retention of many of the employees we have acquired through our acquisition strategy who bring a strong skill set and a diverse background. Wesbanco ensures diversity in our workforce representation by reflecting the makeup of the communities it serves.

Wesbanco has held a Women’s Symposium for over 6 years and in past years, added a Diversity and Inclusion Forum. In 2023, the first, combined and in-person, Wesbanco Diversity, Equity and Inclusion Symposium event was held. This event focused on women, multi-cultural, and LGBTQ+ leadership initiatives as well as allies and sponsors involved in the formation of Employee Resource Groups ("ERGs"). The two-day event included educational information and activities geared toward diversity in leadership and participating in future ERGs. Mentoring, allyship and sponsorship were important focuses in these learning sessions.

In addition, we have engaged in leadership training for senior and middle management supervisors. We annually assess talent through a specific Talent Development Program to identify, promote and build development plans among multiple levels of management. These efforts have resulted in Wesbanco being designated as one of the best workplaces in several markets, including Columbus and Western Pennsylvania.

Our hope is that this not only helps us evolve and grow as a company but that it also spreads to all of our other community efforts. In 2023, Wesbanco provided philanthropic donations totaling $0.9 million in support of worthwhile organizations serving communities across our footprint. Further, our employees provided technical assistance services and financial education to non-profit organizations and area schools that resulted in 11,500 volunteer hours in 2023.

COMPETITION

Competition in the form of price and service from other banks, including local, regional and national banks and financial companies such as savings and loan companies, internet banks, payday lenders, money services businesses, credit unions, finance companies, brokerage firms and other non-banking companies providing various regulated and non-regulated financial services and products, is intense in most of the markets served by Wesbanco and its subsidiaries. Wesbanco’s trust and investment services segment receives competition from commercial banks, trust companies, mutual fund companies, investment advisory firms, law firms, brokerage firms, and other financial services companies. As a result of consolidation within the financial services industry, mergers between, and the expansion of, financial institutions both within and outside of Wesbanco’s major markets have provided significant competitive pressure in those markets. Many of Wesbanco’s competitors have greater resources and, as such, may have higher lending limits and may offer other products and services that are not provided by Wesbanco. Wesbanco generally competes on the basis of superior customer service and responsiveness to customer needs, available loan and deposit products, rates of interest charged on loans, rates of interest paid for deposits, and the availability and pricing of trust, brokerage and insurance services. As a result of Wesbanco’s expansion into certain larger metropolitan markets, it has faced entrenched larger bank competitors with an already existing customer base that may far exceed Wesbanco’s initial entry position into those markets. As a result, Wesbanco may be forced to compete more aggressively for loans, deposits, trust and insurance products to grow its market share, potentially reducing its current and future profit potential from such markets.

4


 

SUPERVISION AND REGULATION

As a bank holding company and a financial holding company under federal law, Wesbanco is subject to supervision and examination by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (“Federal Reserve Board”) under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the “BHCA”), and is required to file with the Federal Reserve Board reports and other information regarding its business operations and the business operations of its subsidiaries. Since Wesbanco is both a bank holding company and a financial holding company, Wesbanco can offer customers virtually any type of service that is financial in nature or incidental thereto, including banking and activities closely related to banking, securities underwriting, insurance (both underwriting and agency) and merchant banking. Wesbanco is subject to additional supervision from the Federal Reserve Board and its primary banking regulators due to its exceeding the $10 billion asset threshold and seeks to ensure that sufficient resources are allocated to safety and soundness compliance with applicable laws, such as the Bank Secrecy Act, anti-money laundering regulations, and the Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”), among others, and risk management and internal audit, among other functions, so that the enhanced requirements of the Federal Reserve Board and its primary banking regulators are met.

As indicated above, Wesbanco presently operates one bank subsidiary, Wesbanco Bank, which is a West Virginia-chartered banking corporation which is not a member bank of the Federal Reserve System. It is subject to examination and supervision by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”), the West Virginia Division of Financial Institutions (“WVDFI”), and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (“CFPB”) because its assets exceed $10 billion. The deposits of Wesbanco Bank are insured by the Deposit Insurance Fund of the FDIC. Wesbanco’s non-bank subsidiaries are subject to examination and supervision by the Federal Reserve Board and specifically, the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, Ohio (“Federal Reserve”) and examination by other federal and state agencies, including, in the case of certain securities activities, regulation by the SEC, the Financial Institution Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”), the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board and the Securities Investors Protection Corporation (“SIPC”). Wesbanco Bank maintains one designated financial subsidiary, Wesbanco Insurance, which, as indicated above, is a multi-line insurance agency specializing in property, casualty, life and title insurance, with benefit plan sales and administration for personal and commercial clients. As a result of exceeding the $10 billion asset threshold, Wesbanco Bank is subject to enhanced prudential supervision from both the FDIC and WVDFI as part of their large bank supervision program.

Wesbanco is also under the jurisdiction of the SEC and certain state securities commissions for matters relating to the offering and sale of its securities. Wesbanco is subject to the disclosure and regulatory requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, as administered by the SEC. Wesbanco is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market (the “Nasdaq”) under the trading symbol “WSBC” and is subject to the rules of the Nasdaq for listed companies.

Under the Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994, as amended (the “Riegle-Neal Act”), a bank holding company may acquire banks in states other than its home state, subject to certain limitations. The Riegle-Neal Act also authorizes banks to merge across state lines, thereby creating interstate banking. Under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), banks are also permitted to establish de novo branches across state lines to the same extent that a state-chartered bank in each host state would be permitted to open branches.

Under the BHCA, prior Federal Reserve Board approval is required for Wesbanco to acquire more than 5% of the voting stock of any bank. In determining whether to approve a proposed bank acquisition, federal banking regulators will consider, among other factors, the effect of the acquisition on competition, the public benefits expected to be received from the acquisition, the projected capital ratios and levels on a post-acquisition basis, and the acquiring institution’s record of addressing the credit needs of the communities it serves, including the needs of low- and moderate-income neighborhoods, consistent with safe and sound operation of the bank under the CRA.

HOLDING COMPANY REGULATIONS

As indicated in “Item 1. Business-General”, Wesbanco has one state-chartered bank subsidiary, Wesbanco Bank, as well as four non-bank subsidiaries (excluding capital trusts). The subsidiary bank is subject to affiliate transaction restrictions under federal law, which limit “covered transactions” by the subsidiary bank with the parent and any non-bank subsidiaries of the parent, which are referred to in the aggregate in this paragraph as “affiliates” of the subsidiary bank. “Covered transactions” include loans or extensions of credit to an affiliate (including repurchase agreements), purchases of or investments in securities issued by an affiliate, purchases of assets from an affiliate, the acceptance of securities issued by an affiliate as collateral for a loan or extension of credit, the issuance of a guarantee, acceptance or letter of credit on behalf of an affiliate, certain transactions that involve borrowing or lending securities, and certain derivative transactions with an affiliate. Such covered transactions between the subsidiary bank and any single affiliate are limited in amount to 10% of the subsidiary bank’s capital and surplus, and, with respect to covered transactions with all affiliates in the aggregate, are limited in amount to 20% of the subsidiary bank’s capital and surplus. Furthermore, such loans or extensions of credit, guarantees, acceptances and letters of credit, and any credit exposure resulting from securities borrowing or lending transactions or derivatives transactions, are required to be secured by collateral at all times in amounts specified by law. In addition, all covered transactions must be conducted on terms and conditions that are consistent with safe and sound banking practices.

The Dodd-Frank Act requires a bank holding company to act as a source of financial strength to its subsidiary bank. Under this source of strength requirement, the Federal Reserve Board may require a bank holding company to make capital infusions into a troubled subsidiary bank, and may charge the bank holding company with engaging in unsafe and unsound practices for failure to commit resources to such a subsidiary bank. A capital infusion conceivably could be required at a time when Wesbanco may not have the resources to provide it.

5


 

PAYMENT OF DIVIDENDS

Dividends from the subsidiary bank are a significant source of funds for payment of dividends to Wesbanco’s shareholders. For the year ended December 31, 2023, Wesbanco declared cash dividends to its preferred and common shareholders of approximately $10.1 million and $82.9 million, respectively.

As of December 31, 2023, Wesbanco Bank was “well capitalized” under the definition in Section 324.403 of the FDIC Regulations. Therefore, as long as the Bank remains “well capitalized” or even becomes “adequately capitalized,” there would be no basis under Section 324.403 to limit the ability of the Bank to pay dividends because it had not become undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized or critically undercapitalized. Effective January 1, 2016, Wesbanco Bank and Wesbanco became subject to “capital conservation buffer” rules, phased in over a four year period which ended in 2019, which requires Wesbanco and Wesbanco Bank to have capital levels above the regulatory minimums to pay dividends (discussed below in connection with the Basel III initiative under “Item 1. Business—Capital Requirements”).

All financial institutions are subject to the prompt corrective action provisions set forth in Section 38 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (the “FDI Act”) and the provisions set forth in Section 308.201 of the FDIC Regulations. Immediately upon a state non-member bank receiving notice, or being deemed to have notice, that the bank is undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized, or critically undercapitalized, as defined in Section 324.403 of the FDIC Regulations, the bank is precluded from being able to pay dividends to its shareholders based upon the requirements in Section 38(d) of the FDI Act, 12 U.S.C. § 1831o(d).

In addition, with respect to possible dividends by the Bank, under Section 31A-4-25 of the West Virginia Code, the prior approval of the West Virginia Commissioner of Financial Institutions would be required if the total of all dividends declared by the Bank in any calendar year would exceed the total of the Bank’s net profits for that year combined with its retained net profits of the preceding two years. Further, Section 31A-4-25 limits the ability of a West Virginia banking institution to pay dividends until the surplus fund of the banking institution equals the common stock of the banking institution and if certain specified amounts of recent profits of the banking institution have not been carried to the surplus fund.

If, in the opinion of the applicable regulatory authority, a bank under its jurisdiction is engaged in or is about to engage in an unsafe or unsound practice which, depending on the financial condition of the bank, could include the payment of dividends, such authority may require, after notice and hearing, that such bank cease and desist from such practice. The Federal Reserve Board has issued policy statements, which provide that insured banks and bank holding companies should generally only pay dividends out of current operating earnings. Under applicable law, bank regulatory agency approval is required if the total of all dividends declared by a bank in any calendar year exceeds the available retained earnings or exceeds the aggregate of the bank’s net profits (as defined by regulatory agencies) for that year and its retained net profits for the preceding two years. As of December 31, 2023, under West Virginia and FDIC regulations, Wesbanco could receive, without prior regulatory approval, a dividend of up to $135.5 million from Wesbanco Bank. Additional information regarding dividend restrictions is set forth in Note 21, “Regulatory Matters,” in the Consolidated Financial Statements.

On February 24, 2009, the Federal Reserve Division of Banking Supervision and Regulation issued Supervisory Letter SR 09-4, “Applying Supervisory Guidance and Regulations on the Payment of Dividends, Stock Redemptions, and Stock Repurchases at Bank Holding Companies,” providing direction to bank holding companies on the payment of dividends, capital repurchases and capital redemptions. Although the letter largely reiterates longstanding Federal Reserve supervisory policies, it emphasizes the need for a bank holding company to review various factors when considering the declaration of a dividend or taking action that would reduce regulatory capital provided by outstanding financial instruments. These factors include the potential need to increase loan loss reserves, write down assets and reflect declines in asset values in equity. In addition, the bank holding company should consider its past and anticipated future earnings, the dividend payout ratio in relation to earnings, and adequacy of regulatory capital before any action is taken. The consideration of capital adequacy should include a review of all known factors that may affect capital in the future. On July 24, 2020, Attachment C was added to SR 09-4 to provide greater clarity regarding the situations in which holding companies may expect an expedited consultation under the process described in SR 09-4. Generally, a holding company considering paying a dividend in excess of earnings for the period (1) must have net income available over the past year sufficient to fully fund dividends, (2) is not considering stock repurchases or redemptions in the current quarter, (3) does not have any concentrations in commercial real estate lending that exceed supervisory thresholds, and (4) is in good supervisory condition, to receive this expedited consultation.

In certain circumstances, defined by regulation relating to levels of earnings and capital, advance notification to, and in some circumstances, approval by the regulator could be required to declare a dividend or repurchase or redeem capital instruments.

FDIC INSURANCE

FDIC insurance premiums are assessed by the FDIC using a risk-based approach that places insured institutions into categories based on capital and risk profiles. Beginning in 2019, Wesbanco Bank is considered to be a large bank for the purposes of the premium calculation because its total assets exceed $10 billion, and it is therefore subject to more continuous oversight by the FDIC. Large banks are subject to a more complex insurance premium calculation with additional loan-related and other risk factors involved which leads to an overall higher rate as compared to that of smaller banks. In 2023, Wesbanco Bank paid deposit insurance premiums of $11.2 million, compared to $7.2 million and $4.5 million in 2022 and 2021, respectively. The increase in 2023's premiums was due primarily to an increase in initial base deposit insurance assessment rate schedules uniformly by two basis points, beginning in the first quarterly

6


 

assessment period of 2023. The increase in assessment rate schedules was intended to increase the likelihood that the reserve ratio of the Deposit Insurance Fund reaches the statutory minimum of 1.35% by the statutory deadline of September 30, 2028.

CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS

The Federal Reserve Board had historically issued risk-based capital ratio and leverage ratio guidelines for bank holding companies. The risk-based capital ratio guidelines establish a systematic analytical framework that makes regulatory capital requirements more sensitive to differences in risk profiles among banking organizations, takes off-balance sheet exposures into explicit account in assessing capital adequacy, and minimizes disincentives to holding liquid, low-risk assets. Under the guidelines and related policies, bank holding companies must maintain capital sufficient to meet both a risk-based asset ratio test and a leverage ratio test on a consolidated basis. The risk-based ratio is determined by allocating assets and specified off-balance sheet commitments into several weighted categories, with higher weightings being assigned to categories perceived as representing greater risk. A bank holding company’s capital is then divided by total risk-weighted assets to yield the risk-based ratio. The leverage ratio is determined by relating core capital to total assets adjusted as specified in the guidelines. The Bank is subject to substantially similar capital requirements.

The federal regulatory authorities’ risk-based capital guidelines are currently based upon agreements reached by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (the “Basel Committee”). The Basel Committee is a committee of central banks and bank supervisors and regulators from the major industrialized countries that develops broad policy guidelines for use by each country’s supervisors in determining the supervisory policies they apply. In December 2010, the Basel Committee issued a strengthened set of international capital and liquidity standards for banks and bank holding companies, known as “Basel III.” In July 2013, the U.S. federal banking agencies issued a joint final rule that implements the Basel III capital standards and establishes the minimum capital levels required under the Dodd-Frank Act. The rule was effective January 1, 2015, subject to a transition period providing for full implementation on January 1, 2019. The Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (the "EGRRCPA"), enacted into law in May 2018, exempts banks with total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion that exceed the community bank leverage ratio from the capital requirements under Basel III. Wesbanco Bank’s assets are in excess of $10 billion, however, so the exemption is not applicable.

Generally, under the applicable guidelines, a financial institution’s capital is divided into common equity Tier 1 (“CET1”), total Tier 1 and Tier 2. CET1 includes common shares and retained earnings less goodwill, intangible assets subject to limitation and certain deferred tax assets subject to limitation. In addition, under the final capital rule, an institution may make a one-time, permanent election to continue to exclude accumulated other comprehensive income from capital. If an institution does not make this election, unrealized gains and losses will be included in the calculation of its CET1. Total Tier 1 is comprised of CET1 and certain restricted capital instruments, including qualifying cumulative perpetual preferred stock and qualifying trust preferred securities, in their Tier 1 capital, up to a limit of 25% of Tier 1 capital. (See below within this section for more information regarding the capital treatment of trust preferred securities.)

Tier 2, or supplementary capital, includes, among other things, portions of trust preferred securities and cumulative perpetual preferred stock not otherwise counted in Tier 1 capital, as well as perpetual preferred stock, intermediate-term preferred stock, hybrid capital instruments, perpetual debt, mandatory convertible debt securities, term subordinated debt, unrealized holding gains on equity securities, and the allowance for loan and lease losses, all subject to certain limitations. “Total capital” is the sum of Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital.

The Federal Reserve Board has established the following minimum capital levels banks and bank holding companies are required to maintain as a percentage of risk-weighted assets (including various off-balance sheet items): (i) CET1 of at least 4.5%, (ii) Tier 1 capital ratio of at least 6%, (iii) total capital ratio (Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital) of at least 8%; and (iv) a non-risk-based leverage ratio (Tier 1 capital to average consolidated assets) of 4%. The risk-based capital standards are designed to make regulatory capital requirements more sensitive to differences in credit and market risk profiles among banks and financial holding companies, to account for off-balance sheet exposure, and to minimize disincentives for holding liquid assets. Balance sheet and off-balance sheet exposures are assigned to one of several risk-weights primarily based on relative credit risk. The capital amounts and classifications are also subject to qualitative judgments by the regulators about components, risk-weightings, and other factors. Additionally, with the final capital rule fully implemented as of January 1, 2019, an institution is required to maintain a 2.5% common equity Tier 1 capital conservation buffer over the minimum risk-based capital requirements to avoid restrictions on the ability to pay dividends, discretionary bonuses to executive officers, and engage in share repurchases.

Failure to meet applicable capital guidelines could subject a financial institution to a variety of enforcement remedies available to the federal regulatory authorities, including limitations on the ability to pay dividends, the issuance by the regulatory authority of a capital directive to increase capital, and the termination of deposit insurance by the FDIC, as well as to the measures described below under “Prompt Corrective Action” as applicable to undercapitalized institutions.

As of December 31, 2023, Wesbanco’s CET1, Tier 1 and total capital to risk-adjusted assets ratios were 10.99%, 12.05% and 14.91%, respectively. Wesbanco made a timely permanent election to exclude accumulated other comprehensive income from regulatory capital. As of December 31, 2023, Wesbanco Bank’s CET1, Tier 1 and total capital to risk-adjusted assets ratios were 12.13%, 12.13% and 12.97%, respectively, all in excess of the minimum requirements. Neither Wesbanco nor the Bank had been advised by the

7


 

appropriate federal banking regulator of any specific leverage ratio applicable to it. As of December 31, 2023, Wesbanco’s leverage ratio was 9.87% and the Bank’s leverage ratio was 9.93%.

As of December 31, 2023, Wesbanco had $131.0 million in junior subordinated debt on its Consolidated Balance Sheets. For regulatory purposes, Trust Preferred Securities totaling $126.9 million underlying such junior subordinated debt were included in Tier 2 capital as of December 31, 2023, in accordance with regulatory reporting requirements. In 2013, the federal banking agencies amended capital requirements to generally exclude trust preferred securities from Tier 1 capital. A grandfather provision, however, permits bank holding companies with consolidated assets of less than $15 billion, which Wesbanco was through September 30, 2019, to continue counting existing trust preferred securities as Tier 1 capital until they mature. The final Basel III capital rule permanently grandfathers trust preferred securities issued before May 19, 2010 for institutions of less than $15 billion in size, subject to a 25% limit of Tier 1 capital. The amount of trust preferred securities and certain other elements in excess of the 25% limit may be included in Tier 2 capital, subject to restrictions. As of December 31, 2023, Wesbanco’s total assets were above $15 billion; therefore, all such securities are no longer counted as Tier 1 capital but instead are counted as Tier 2 capital subject to limits. For more information regarding trust preferred securities, please refer to Note 10, “Subordinated and Junior Subordinated Debt” in the Consolidated Financial Statements.

The risk-based capital standards of the Federal Reserve and the FDIC specify that evaluations by the banking agencies of a bank’s capital adequacy will include an assessment of the exposure to declines in the economic value of the bank’s capital due to changes in interest rates. These banking agencies have issued a joint policy statement on interest rate risk describing prudent methods for monitoring such risk that rely principally on internal measures of exposure and active oversight of risk management activities by senior management.

PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 (“FDICIA”) requires federal banking regulatory authorities to take “prompt corrective action” with respect to depository institutions that do not meet minimum capital requirements. For these purposes, FDICIA establishes five capital tiers: well-capitalized, adequately capitalized, undercapitalized, significantly undercapitalized, and critically undercapitalized.

An institution is deemed to be “well-capitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of 10% or greater, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 8% or greater, a Tier 1 leverage ratio of 5% or greater, and a common equity Tier 1 ratio of 6.5% or greater, and is not subject to a regulatory order, agreement, or directive to meet and maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure. An institution is deemed to be “adequately capitalized” if it has a total risk-based capital ratio of 8% or greater, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6% or greater, generally a Tier 1 leverage ratio of 4% or greater, and a common equity Tier 1 ratio of 4.5% or greater, and the institution does not meet the definition of a “well-capitalized” institution. An institution that does not meet one or more of the “adequately capitalized” tests is deemed to be “undercapitalized.” If the institution has a total risk-based capital ratio that is less than 6%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio that is less than 4%, or a Tier 1 leverage ratio or common equity Tier 1 ratio that is less than 3%, it is deemed to be “significantly undercapitalized.” Finally, an institution is deemed to be “critically undercapitalized” if it has a ratio of tangible equity (as defined in the regulations) to total assets that is equal to or less than 2%. As of December 31, 2023, as noted above in “Capital Requirements,” Wesbanco Bank had capital levels that met the “well-capitalized” standards under FDICIA and its implementing regulations.

FDICIA generally prohibits a depository institution from making any capital distribution, including payment of a cash dividend, or paying any management fee to its holding company, if the depository institution would thereafter be undercapitalized. Undercapitalized institutions are subject to growth limitations and are required to submit a capital restoration plan. If any depository institution subsidiary of a holding company is required to submit a capital restoration plan, the holding company would be required to provide a limited guarantee regarding compliance with the plan as a condition of approval of such plan by the appropriate federal banking agency. If an undercapitalized institution fails to submit an acceptable plan, it is treated as if it is significantly undercapitalized. Significantly undercapitalized institutions may be subject to a number of requirements and restrictions, including orders to sell sufficient voting stock to become adequately capitalized, requirements to reduce total assets, and cessation of receipt of deposits from correspondent banks. Critically undercapitalized institutions may not, beginning 60 days after becoming critically undercapitalized, make any payment of principal or interest on their subordinated debt and/or trust preferred securities. In addition, critically undercapitalized institutions are subject to appointment of a receiver or conservator within 90 days of becoming critically undercapitalized.

GRAMM-LEACH-BLILEY ACT

Under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (the “GLB Act”), banks are no longer prohibited from associating with, or having management interlocks with, a business organization engaged principally in securities activities. By qualifying as a “financial holding company,” as authorized under the GLB Act, a bank holding company acquires new powers not otherwise available to it. Wesbanco has elected to become a financial holding company under the GLB Act. It also has qualified a subsidiary of the Bank as a financial subsidiary under the GLB Act.

8


 

Financial holding company powers relate to “financial activities” that are determined by the Federal Reserve Board, in coordination with the Secretary of the Treasury, to be financial in nature, incidental to an activity that is financial in nature, or complementary to a financial activity, provided that the complementary activity does not pose a safety and soundness risk. The GLB Act itself defines certain activities as financial in nature, including but not limited to: underwriting insurance or annuities; providing financial or investment advice; underwriting, dealing in, or making markets in securities; merchant banking, subject to significant limitations; insurance company portfolio investing, subject to significant limitations; and any activities previously found by the Federal Reserve Board to be closely related to banking.

National and state banks are permitted under the GLB Act, subject to capital, management, size, debt rating, and CRA qualification factors, to have “financial subsidiaries” that are permitted to engage in financial activities not otherwise permissible. However, unlike financial holding companies, financial subsidiaries may not engage in insurance or annuity underwriting; developing or investing in real estate; merchant banking (for at least five years); or insurance company portfolio investing.

DODD-FRANK ACT

The Dodd-Frank Act, enacted on July 21, 2010, and the rules implementing its provisions have resulted in numerous and wide-ranging reforms to the structure of the U.S. financial system. This includes, among other things, rules to promote financial stability and prevent or mitigate the risks that may arise from the material distress or failure of a large bank holding company; enhance consumer protections; prohibit proprietary trading; and implement enhanced prudential requirements for large bank holding companies regarding risk-based capital and leverage, risk and liquidity management, stress testing, and recovery and resolution planning. The Dodd-Frank Act, including current and future rules implementing its provisions and the interpretation of those rules, have affected, and management expects will continue to affect, most of Wesbanco’s businesses in some way, either directly through regulation of specific activities or indirectly through regulation of concentration risks, capital or liquidity.

Certain bank holding companies are subjected to increased capital requirements (discussed above under “Item 1. Business—Capital Requirements”).

The Volcker Rule and the final rules jointly issued by federal banking agencies implementing the rule’s provisions limit Wesbanco’s ability to engage in proprietary trading, as well as its ability to sponsor or invest in hedge funds or private equity funds. The Volcker Rule also includes certain compliance program requirements that apply to banking entities that engage in permissible proprietary trading or permitted covered fund activities. The federal banking agencies recently revised the Volcker Rule compliance requirements, effective January 1, 2020. Under the new rule, banking entities that, together with their affiliates and subsidiaries, have an average gross sum of trading assets and liabilities (excluding obligations of or guaranteed by the United States or an agency of the United States) of less than $1 billion for four (4) consecutive quarters are presumed to be in compliance with the Volcker Rule’s restrictions on proprietary trading and acquisition or retention of ownership interests in covered funds. Consequently such banking entities do not have an affirmative obligation to demonstrate compliance with such restrictions (“limited trading compliance presumption”). Wesbanco meets the limited trading compliance presumption because its gross consolidated trading assets and liabilities have been below $1 billion for four consecutive quarters.

An interim final rule was issued in January 2014 that exempts investments in certain collateralized debt obligations backed primarily by trust preferred securities from the provisions of the Volcker Rule. This interim final rule was effective April 1, 2014 and did not have a material impact on Wesbanco for the year ended December 31, 2023.

The Federal Reserve Board revised the Volcker Rule, issuing a final rule in November 2019. Under the new rule, banking entities with gross consolidated trading assets and liabilities between $1 billion and $20 billion are subject to a simplified compliance program because they are considered to have “moderate” trading assets. The new rule was effective January 1, 2020; however, Wesbanco is not subject to the moderate trading compliance program because Wesbanco has gross consolidated trading assets and liabilities below $1 billion.

Passed in 2011, the Durbin Amendment requires the Federal Reserve to limit fee charges to retailers for debit card processing. The Federal Reserve Board promulgated Regulation II (Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing) that limits the interchange fees paid by merchants to issuers when their debit cards are used as payment. An issuer is defined as “any person that authorizes the use of the debit card to perform an electronic debit transaction.” The application of the Durbin Amendment is determined by whether the issuer, together with its affiliates, has $10 billion in assets as of the end of the calendar year preceding the date of the electronic debit transaction. An affiliate is defined as “any company that controls, or is controlled by, or is under common control with another company.” Therefore, if an insured institution issues a debit card and it, together with its affiliates, has assets exceeding $10 billion, it is subject to this rule. The rule caps debit card interchange fees (also known as swipe fees) at $0.21 plus an additional 0.05% of the value of the transaction. Previously, the average interchange fee was approximately $0.44 per transaction for an insured institution. Financial institutions with more than $10 billion in assets by the year-end assessment deadline are subject to the cap on interchange income in July of the following year. Wesbanco and the Bank were subject to the requirements imposed by the Durbin Amendment because, for purposes of determining whether an issuer has $10 billion in assets, the assets of the institution and its affiliates are combined, effective for transactions beginning in July 2019.

9


 

Additionally, section 165(i)(2) of the Dodd-Frank Act, as amended by the EGRRCPA, requires annual company-run stress tests for bank holding companies with total consolidated assets greater than $100 billion.

The Federal Reserve Board regulates bank holding companies, and therefore, if a bank holding company has total consolidated assets of $100 billion or more, it will be required to conduct the Federal Reserve Board stress-tests. Wesbanco Bank, a subsidiary state nonmember bank, is governed by the FDIC. Under the FDIC rule, a covered bank includes “any state nonmember bank . . . with average total consolidated assets . . . that are greater than $10 billion but less than $50 billion.” However, the FDIC proposed a rule in December 2018 to conform this definition to Section 165 of the Dodd-Frank Act, as amended by the EGRRCPA, to state that a “covered bank” is a nonmember bank or state savings association with average total consolidated assets that are greater than $250 billion. Wesbanco Bank has less than $100 billion in average total consolidated assets, and therefore, is not subject to the Federal Reserve Board’s or the FDIC’s stress-test rules.

If the Dodd-Frank Act stress test rules were to apply at some point in the future, Wesbanco would have to assess the potential impact of a minimum of three macroeconomic scenarios—baseline, adverse, and severely adverse—on its consolidated losses, revenues, balance sheets (including risk-weighted assets) and capital. Each scenario includes economic variables, including macroeconomic activity, unemployment, exchange rates, prices, incomes and interest rates. The adverse and severely adverse scenarios are not forecasts, but rather hypothetical scenarios designed to assess the strength and resilience of financial institutions. Additionally, Wesbanco would have to publicly disclose these test results on an annual basis. The required summary of results could be published on Wesbanco’s web site or in any other forum that is reasonably accessible to the public.

As required by Section 165 of the Dodd-Frank Act, the Federal Reserve issued a rule that strengthens the supervision and regulation of large U.S. bank holding companies and foreign banking organizations by establishing a number of enhanced prudential standards. These standards include liquidity, risk management, and capital. Under the rule, a publicly traded bank holding company with $10 billion or more in consolidated assets is required to establish an enterprise-wide risk committee. However, the EGRRCPA raised the threshold to $50 billion. To conform the rule to the EGRRCPA, the Federal Reserve Board proposed a rule in November 2018 to increase the threshold to $50 billion. Wesbanco is therefore, currently not subject to the Federal Reserve Enhanced Prudential Standards.

The Dodd-Frank Act made several changes affecting the securitization markets, which may affect a bank’s ability or desire to use those markets to meet funding or liquidity needs. One of these changes calls for federal regulators to adopt regulations requiring the sponsor of a securitization to retain at least 5% of the credit risk, with exceptions for “qualified residential mortgages.”

Publicly traded companies are required by the Dodd-Frank Act to give shareholders an advisory vote on executive compensation, and, in some cases, golden parachute arrangements. Further, SEC and Nasdaq rulemaking under the Dodd-Frank Act requires Nasdaq-listed companies to have a compensation committee composed entirely of independent directors. Wesbanco’s Compensation Committee members currently satisfy the independence criteria. The Dodd-Frank Act also called for regulators to issue new rules relating to incentive-based compensation arrangements deemed excessive, and authorized the SEC to adopt rules related to proxy access by shareholders. The SEC has issued proposed rules relating to excessive compensation arrangements that have not been finalized.

All banks and other insured depository institutions now have increased authority to open new branches across state lines (discussed above under “Item 1. Business—Supervision and Regulation”). A provision authorizing insured depository institutions to pay interest on certain business checking accounts may increase Wesbanco’s interest expense. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, a federal agency created by the Dodd-Frank Act, has the authority to write rules implementing numerous consumer protection laws applicable to all banks (discussed below under “Item 1. Business—Consumer Protection Laws”).

CONSUMER PROTECTION LAWS

In connection with its lending and leasing activities, all banks are subject to a number of federal and state laws designed to protect consumers and promote lending and other financial services to various sectors of the economy and population. These laws include the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Truth in Lending Act (“TILA”), the Truth in Savings Act, the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (“RESPA”), the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, and, in some cases, their respective state law counterparts. The CFPB has consolidated the authority to write regulations implementing these and other laws. Wesbanco’s other subsidiaries that provide services relating to consumer financial products and services are subject to the CFPB’s regulations. As an institution formerly with assets of less than $10 billion, Wesbanco Bank historically had been examined by the FDIC for compliance with these rules. Through its acquisitions, the Bank’s assets exceeded $10 billion for four consecutive quarters, and in 2019 it came under CFPB supervision and examination. Relating to mortgage lending, the Dodd-Frank Act authorized the CFPB to issue new regulations governing the ability to repay, qualified mortgages, mortgage servicing, appraisals and compensation of mortgage lenders, all of which have been issued and have taken effect. They limit the mortgage products offered by the Bank and have an impact on timely enforcement of delinquent mortgage loans.

The Dodd-Frank Act also directed the CFPB to integrate the mortgage loan disclosures under TILA and RESPA. The CFPB issued new integrated disclosures rules (“TRID”), which became effective October 3, 2015 and have combined the prior good faith estimate and truth in lending disclosure form into a new form, the loan estimate. They have also combined the HUD-1 and final truth in lending disclosure forms into a new form, the closing disclosure. The rule is extremely complex, contains significant uncertainties as to penalties, some of which can be quite material, contains prohibitions against correcting even technical mistakes, creates uncertainty regarding last

10


 

minute changes in the transaction and has triggered significant ambiguity in compliance. Thus for covered transactions and most closed-end consumer credit transactions secured by real property, the TRID rules have presented significant and ongoing challenges to real estate lenders. The CFPB issued an interpretive rule in August 2021 providing greater flexibility under the TRID rules, which helped ease some of the challenges that real estate lenders like the Bank face. The rule, however, relates only to the on-going COVID pandemic.

Federal law currently contains extensive customer privacy protection provisions. Under these provisions, a financial institution must provide to its customers, at the inception of the customer relationship and annually thereafter, the institution’s policies and procedures regarding the handling of customers’ nonpublic personal financial information. These provisions also provide that, except for certain limited exceptions, an institution may not provide such personal information to unaffiliated third parties unless the institution discloses to the customer that such information may be so provided and the customer is given the opportunity to opt out of such disclosure. Federal law makes it a criminal offense, except in limited circumstances, to obtain or attempt to obtain customer information of a financial nature by fraudulent or deceptive means.

COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

Wesbanco strives to be a leader in community development by positively impacting the communities it serves. We have developed responsible strategies to provide targeted investment, deployment of capital, financial education, technical assistance, and innovative products and solutions that will achieve financial inclusion for all. Our vision is to create greater economic opportunities that provide the dignity of affordable housing, the empowerment of financial inclusion, the strength of successful businesses, and the sustainability of vibrant communities.

Wesbanco has proven to be a leader in its communities by providing loans, deposits and other banking services that are responsive to financial needs. The CRA requires Wesbanco Bank’s primary federal bank regulatory agency, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), to assess the Bank’s record in meeting the credit needs of the communities served by the Bank, including low and moderate-income neighborhoods and persons. Institutions are assigned one of four ratings: “Outstanding,” “Satisfactory,” “Needs to Improve” or “Substantial Noncompliance.” This assessment is reviewed when a bank applies to merge or consolidate with or acquire the assets or assume the liabilities of an insured depository institution, or to open or relocate a branch office. On November 14, 2022, the FDIC assigned a rating of “Outstanding” for Wesbanco Bank’s community development performance for the period of July 2019 through November 2022. The 2022 exam represented the Bank’s eighth consecutive “Outstanding” CRA rating, spanning a period of more than twenty years.

Wesbanco Bank received the “America Saves Designation of Savings Excellence for Banks,” a designation from the national America Saves initiative that recognizes banks that went above and beyond to encourage people to save money during America Saves Week 2023. Wesbanco has been an active participant in America Saves Week since its inception in 2007 and this was Wesbanco’s eighth consecutive designation for savings excellence. The Wesbanco Bank Community Development Corporation (“Wesbanco CDC”), an affiliate of Wesbanco Inc., was nationally recognized by the American Bankers Association Foundation ("ABA Foundation") with a Community Commitment Award for its New Markets Loan Program, an innovative revolving loan fund for small businesses. The Wesbanco CDC has received four allocations of New Markets Tax Credits to fund the New Markets Loan Program, and has leveraged those funds to make over 231 loans totaling over $178 million for the benefit of businesses located in low-income, economically distressed communities, and creating over 6,800 jobs.

To achieve this level of success, in addition to providing a wide variety of conventional loan and deposit products, the Bank partners with a number of governmental and non-profit agencies to provide special programs to assist customers, especially low- and moderate-income consumers and small businesses, achieve their financial goals. For example, Wesbanco Bank leverages its membership in the Federal Home Loan Bank to sponsor Affordable Housing Program grant applications for non-profit organizations and housing developers, to provide down payment assistance for home mortgage borrowers through the First Front Door program, and to provide flexible financing options for small businesses, including women- and minority-owned businesses, through the Banking on Business and Banking on Business Inclusion and Equity loan programs. Additionally, Wesbanco has developed its own loan and deposit products to provide financing and savings options with innovative and flexible terms to meet identified needs for underserved persons and in underserved communities. Wesbanco has also been recognized as a leader in community development lending. In the past five years, Wesbanco originated over $2 billion in community development loans, returning credit and capital to communities throughout its footprint. At the heart of the Bank’s successful community development program is its commitment of time and resources to the communities it serves. Employees provide thousands of hours of technical assistance and financial education to organizations and agencies that promote community development and Wesbanco has deployed hundreds of thousands of dollars in philanthropic donations to worthy organizations serving local communities in Wesbanco’s service area.

In October 2023, the federal banking agencies, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the Federal Reserve Board, and the FDIC, released an interagency final rule amending the Community Reinvestment Act. The new rule seeks to adapt to changes in the banking industry, such as the digital delivery of financial products and services, and to enhance economic opportunities for low- and moderate-income persons and communities. The amendments have tiered implementation dates, with the majority of the changes effective January 1, 2026. Wesbanco Bank continues to be categorized as a “large bank” under the amended CRA rules.

11


 

SECURITIES REGULATION

Wesbanco’s full service broker-dealer subsidiary, Wesbanco Securities, is registered as a broker-dealer with the SEC and in the states in which it does business. Wesbanco Securities also is a member of FINRA. Wesbanco Securities is subject to regulation by the SEC, FINRA and the securities administrators of the states in which it is registered. Wesbanco Securities is a member of the SIPC, which in the event of the liquidation of a broker-dealer, provides protection for customers’ securities accounts held by Wesbanco Securities of up to $500,000 for each eligible customer, subject to a limitation of $250,000 for claims for cash balances.

In addition, Wesbanco Bank’s Investment Department serves as an investment adviser to a family of mutual funds and is registered as an investment adviser with the SEC and in some states.

On September 10, 2019, the SEC adopted a new rule, Regulation Best Interest, which establishes a standard of conduct for broker-dealers when they make a recommendation to a retail customer of any securities transaction or investment strategy involving securities. Regulation Best Interest enhances the broker-dealer standard of conduct beyond existing suitability obligations, and aligns the standard of conduct with retail customers’ reasonable expectations by requiring broker-dealers, among other things, to: act in the best interest of the retail customer at the time the recommendation is made, without placing the financial or other interest of the broker-dealer ahead of the interests of the retail customer; and address conflicts of interest by establishing, maintaining, and enforcing policies and procedures reasonably designed to identify and fully and fairly disclose material facts about conflicts of interest, and in instances where we have determined that disclosure is insufficient to reasonably address the conflict, to mitigate or, in certain instances, eliminate the conflict. The effective date for implementation of the new rule was June 30, 2020.

On December 22, 2020, the SEC adopted a new rule to govern investment adviser advertisements and payments to solicitors. The rule replaces the current advertising rule’s broadly drawn limitations with principles-based provisions designed to accommodate the continual evolution and interplay of technology and advice, and includes tailored requirements for certain types of advertisements. For example, the rule requires advisers to standardize certain parts of a performance presentation in order to help investors evaluate and compare investment opportunities, and includes tailored requirements for certain types of performance presentations. Advertisements that include third-party ratings are required to include specific disclosures to prevent them from being misleading. The rule also permits the use of testimonials and endorsements, which include traditional referral and solicitation activity, subject to certain conditions.

THE USA PATRIOT AND BANK SECRECY ACT

The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 (the “USA Patriot Act”) imposes significant compliance and due diligence obligations, material penalties, and provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction of the United States. The U.S. Treasury Department has issued various implementing regulations, which apply certain requirements of the USA Patriot Act to financial institutions, such as Wesbanco Bank and Wesbanco’s broker-dealer subsidiary. These regulations impose obligations on financial institutions to maintain appropriate policies, procedures and controls to detect, prevent and report money laundering and terrorist financing, to verify the identity of their customers, including beneficial owners, and to report suspicious activities and currency transactions of a certain size. Failure of Wesbanco and its subsidiaries to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing, or to comply with all of the relevant laws or regulations, could have serious legal and reputational consequences for Wesbanco and its subsidiaries.

12


 

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

The risks described below are not the only ones we face in our business. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial may also impair our business operations. If any of the following risks occur, our business, financial condition or operating results could be materially harmed.

RISKS RELATED TO THE ECONOMY AND OTHER EXTERNAL FACTORS, INCLUDING REGULATION

 

Climate change manifesting as physical or transition risks could adversely affect our operations, businesses and customers.

There is an increasing concern over the risks of climate change and related environmental sustainability matters. The physical risks of climate change include discrete events, such as flooding and wildfires, and longer-term shifts in climate patterns, such as extreme heat, sea level rise, and more frequent and prolonged drought. Such events could disrupt our operations or those of our customers or third parties on which we rely, including through direct damage to assets and indirect impacts from supply chain disruption and market volatility. Additionally, transitioning to a low-carbon economy may entail extensive policy, legal, technology and market initiatives. Transition risks, including changes in consumer preferences and additional regulatory requirements or taxes, could increase our expenses and undermine our strategies. In addition, our reputation and client relationships may be damaged as a result of our practices related to climate change, including our involvement, or our clients’ involvement, in certain industries or projects associated with causing or exacerbating climate change, as well as any decisions we make to continue to conduct or change our activities in response to considerations relating to climate change. As climate risk is interconnected with many key risk types, we have developed and continue to enhance processes to embed climate risk considerations into our risk management strategies established for risks such as market, credit and operational risks; however, because the timing and severity of climate change may not be predictable, our risk management strategies may not be effective in mitigating climate risk exposure.

We are in the process of enhancing our climate and environmental, social and corporate governance ("ESG") risk considerations into our risk framework and risk management programs established for strategic, credit, market, compliance, operational and reputational risks. The potential of climate risk is monitored through our risk identification process. Once identified, climate risks are assessed for potential impacts on us and our customers. These future enhancements to our risk framework are in development and will continue to be refined as new climate trends and risks arise.

GLOBAL pandemics COULD adversely affect THE OPERATIONS OF us and our customers.

The spread of global pandemics could create a global public-health crisis, as previously seen with that of the COVID-19 pandemic, that can result in widespread volatility and deteriorations in household, business, economic, and market conditions. Pandemics can cause many state governments to enact social distancing requirements, which could adversely impact the economy due to the vast restrictions and forced closures of non-essential businesses during the quarantine periods. As a result, many of our customers would be adversely affected by business closures, staffing issues and/or other business restrictions. Accordingly, global pandemics may result in a significant decrease in our customers’ business and/or cause our customers to be unable to meet existing payment or other obligations to us. These adverse impacts on the businesses of our customers could cause a material adverse effect to our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN WESBANCO’S MARKET AREAS COULD NEGATIVELY IMPACT EARNINGS.

Wesbanco Bank serves both individuals and business customers primarily throughout West Virginia, Ohio, western Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Indiana, Maryland, northern Virginia and Tennessee. The substantial majority of Wesbanco’s loan portfolio is to individuals and businesses in these markets. As a result, the financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of Wesbanco are affected by local and regional economic conditions, as well as national economic conditions. A downturn in these economies could have a negative impact on Wesbanco and the ability of the Bank’s customers to repay their loans. The value of the collateral securing loans to borrowers may also decline as the economy declines. As a result, deteriorating economic conditions in these markets could cause a decline in the overall quality of Wesbanco’s loan portfolio requiring Wesbanco to charge-off a higher percentage of loans and/or increase its allowance for credit losses. A decline in economic conditions in these markets may also force customers to utilize deposits held by Wesbanco Bank in order to pay current expenses causing the Bank’s deposit base to shrink. As a result, the Bank may have to borrow funds at higher rates in order to meet liquidity needs. Volatility in oil and gas prices may impact shale gas activity in West Virginia, Ohio and Pennsylvania, which may somewhat negatively impact local and regional economic conditions, affecting both commercial and retail customers, resulting in potentially lower oil and gas related royalty deposits and potential credit deterioration in the loan portfolio.

WESBANCO COULD BE ADVERSELY AFFECTED BY CHANGES TO THE FISCAL, POLITICAL AND OTHER FEDERAL POLICIES.

Changes in general economic or political policies in the United States or other regions could adversely impact Wesbanco’s business as well as the Bank’s customers. The current United States administration has indicated that it may propose significant changes with respect to a variety of issues, including international trade agreements, import and export regulations, tariffs and customs duties,

13


 

foreign relations, tax laws, corporate governance laws and corporate fuel economy standards, that could have a positive or negative impact on Wesbanco’s business and the Bank’s customers including those in the wholesale and distribution, manufacturing and retail industries.

WESBANCO IS SUBJECT TO EXTENSIVE GOVERNMENT REGULATION AND SUPERVISION.

Wesbanco is subject to extensive federal and state regulation, supervision and examination. Banking regulations are primarily intended to protect depositors’ funds, federal deposit insurance funds and the banking system as a whole, rather than corporate shareholders. These regulations affect Wesbanco’s lending practices, capital structure, investment practices, dividend policy, operations and growth, among other things. These regulations also impose obligations to maintain appropriate policies, procedure and controls. Congress and federal regulatory agencies continually review banking laws, regulations and policies for possible changes. Changes to statutes, regulations or regulatory policies, including changes in interpretation or implementation of statutes, regulations or policies, could affect Wesbanco in substantial and unpredictable ways. Such changes could subject Wesbanco to additional costs, limit the types of financial services and products that could be offered, and/or increase the ability of non-banks to offer competing financial services and products, among other things. Failure to comply with laws, regulations or policies could result in sanctions by regulatory agencies, civil penalties and/or reputation damage, which could have a material adverse effect on Wesbanco’s business, financial condition and result of operations.

As of December 31, 2023, Wesbanco had $131.0 million in junior subordinated debt presented as a separate category of long-term debt on its Consolidated Balance Sheets. For regulatory purposes, Trust Preferred Securities totaling $126.9 million underlying such junior subordinated debt were previously included in Tier 1 capital in accordance with regulatory reporting requirements prior to December 31, 2019. Rules issued in 2013 generally exclude trust preferred securities from Tier 1 capital beginning in 2015. A grandfather provision permitted bank holding companies with consolidated assets of less than $15 billion to continue counting existing trust preferred securities as Tier 1 capital until maturity. As of December 31, 2019, Wesbanco’s assets were greater than $15 billion; therefore, all such securities are no longer counted as Tier 1 capital but instead are counted as Tier 2 capital subject to limits.

In addition, international capital standards known as Basel III, which were implemented by a U.S. federal banking agencies’ joint final rule issued in July 2013, and effective January 1, 2015, further increase the minimum capital requirements applicable to Wesbanco and the Bank, which may negatively impact both entities. Additional information about these changes in capital requirements are described above in “Item 1. Business—Capital Requirements.”

Regulation of Wesbanco and its subsidiaries is expected to continue to expand in scope and complexity in the future. These laws are expected to have the effect of increasing Wesbanco’s costs of operating and reducing its revenues, and may limit its ability to pursue business opportunities or otherwise adversely affect its business and financial condition. The Dodd-Frank Act and other laws, as well as rules implementing or related to them, may adversely affect Wesbanco. Specifically, any governmental or regulatory action having the effect of requiring Wesbanco to obtain additional capital or increase short-term liquidity could reduce earnings and have a material dilutive effect on current shareholders, including the Dodd-Frank Act source of strength requirement that bank holding companies make capital infusions into a troubled subsidiary bank. Legislation and regulation of overdraft fees and charges, debit card fees, credit cards and other bank services, as well as changes in Wesbanco’s practices relating to those and other bank services, may affect Wesbanco’s revenue and other financial results. Additional information about increased regulation is provided in “Item 1. Business” under the headings “Supervision and Regulation,” “Holding Company Regulations,” “Capital Requirements,” “Dodd-Frank Act,” and “Consumer Protection Laws.”

SEVERE WEATHER, NATURAL DISASTERS, DISEASE PANDEMICS, ACTS OF WAR OR TERRORISM, INTERNATIONAL HOSTILITIES, DOMESTIC CIVIL UNREST AND OTHER EXTERNAL EVENTS COULD SIGNIFICANTLY ADVERSELY IMPACT WESBANCO’S BUSINESS.

The unpredictable nature of events such as severe weather, natural disasters, disease pandemics, acts of war or terrorism, international hostilities, domestic civil unrest and other adverse external events could have a significant impact on Wesbanco’s ability to conduct business. If any of our financial, accounting, network or other information processing systems fail or have other significant shortcomings due to external events, Wesbanco could be materially adversely affected. Third parties with which Wesbanco does business could also be sources of operational risk to Wesbanco, including the risk that the third parties’ own network and information processing systems could fail. Any of these occurrences could materially diminish Wesbanco’s ability to operate or result in potential liability to customers, reputational damage, and regulatory intervention, any of which could materially adversely affect Wesbanco. Such events could affect the stability of Wesbanco’s deposit base, impair the ability of borrowers to repay outstanding loans, impair the value of collateral securing loans, impair Wesbanco’s liquidity, result in loss of revenue, and/or cause Wesbanco to incur additional expenses.

14


 

THE SOUNDNESS OF OTHER FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS COULD ADVERSELY IMPACT WESBANCO.

Financial service institutions are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty, or other relationships. Wesbanco has exposure to various industries and counterparties, and Wesbanco routinely executes transactions with counterparties in the financial industry, including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, mutual and hedge funds and other institutions. As a result, a default by, or potential default by, a financial institution could result in market-wide liquidity problems, losses or other financial institution defaults. Many of these transactions could expose Wesbanco to credit risk in the event of default of our counterparty or client. These losses or defaults could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

CURRENT MARKET INTEREST RATES AND COST OF FUNDS MAY NEGATIVELY IMPACT WESBANCO’S BANKING BUSINESS.

Fluctuations in interest rates may negatively impact the business of the Bank. The Bank’s main source of income from operations is net interest income, which is equal to the difference between the interest income received on interest-bearing assets (usually loans and investment securities) and the interest expense incurred in connection with interest-bearing liabilities (usually deposits and borrowings). These rates are highly sensitive to many factors beyond Wesbanco’s control, including general economic conditions, both domestic and foreign, and the monetary and fiscal policies of various governmental and regulatory authorities. Wesbanco Bank’s net interest income can be affected significantly by changes in market interest rates and the shape of the yield curve. Changes in relative interest rates may reduce the Bank’s net interest income as the difference between interest income and interest expense decreases. As a result, the Bank has adopted asset and liability management policies to minimize the potential adverse effects of changes in interest rates on net interest income, primarily by altering the mix and maturity of loans, investments and funding sources. However, even with these policies in place and with an asset-sensitive balance sheet at year-end that should benefit net interest income as interest rates increase, Wesbanco cannot be certain that changes in interest rates or the shape of the interest rate yield curve will not negatively impact its results of operations or financial position. The increase in interest rates in 2023 caused a decrease in the fair value of securities within our investment portfolio of which the unrealized losses were recorded in other comprehensive income.

In a period of rising rates with a relatively flat or inverted yield curve environment, Wesbanco’s cost of funds for banking operations may increase at a faster pace than loan and investment yields. The cost of funds may also increase as a result of future general economic conditions, interest rates and competitive pressures. The Bank has traditionally obtained funds principally through deposits and borrowings from the Federal Home Loan Bank (FHLB), correspondent banks, and other wholesale borrowing sources. As a general matter, deposits are a cheaper source of funds than borrowings because interest rates paid for deposits are typically less than interest rates charged for borrowings. If, as a result of general economic conditions, market interest rates, competitive pressures or higher deposit betas in relation to increases in federal funds rate increases, the value of deposits at the Bank decreases relative to its overall banking operations, the Bank may have to rely more heavily on borrowings as a source of funds in the future.

SIGNIFICANT DECLINES IN U.S. AND GLOBAL MARKETS COULD HAVE A NEGATIVE IMPACT ON WESBANCO’S EARNINGS.

The capital and credit markets could experience extreme disruption. These conditions result in less liquidity, greater volatility, widening of credit spreads and a lack of price transparency in certain asset types. In many cases, markets could exert downward pressure on stock prices, security prices and credit capacity for certain issuers without regard to those issuers’ underlying financial strength. Sustained weakness in business and economic conditions in any or all of the domestic or foreign financial markets could result in credit deterioration in investment securities held by us, rating agency downgrades for such securities or other market factors that (such as lack of liquidity for re-sales, absence of reliable pricing information or unanticipated changes in the competitive market) could result in us having to recognize other-than-temporary impairment in the value of such investment securities, with a corresponding charge against earnings. Furthermore, our pension assets are primarily invested in equity and debt securities, and weakness in capital and credit markets could result in deterioration of these assets, and changes in certain key pension assumptions based on current interest rates, long-term rates of return and other economic or actuarial assumptions may increase minimum funding contributions and future pension expense. If these markets were to deteriorate further, these conditions may be material to Wesbanco’s ability to access capital and may adversely impact results of operations.

Further, Wesbanco’s trust and investment services income could be impacted by fluctuations in the securities market. A portion of this revenue is based on the value of the underlying investment portfolios. If the values of those investment portfolios decline, the Bank’s revenue could be negatively impacted.

Inflation can also have a significant effect upon interest rates and ultimately upon financial performance. Wesbanco’s ability to cope with inflation and to respond to changing market interest rates, as well as its ability to manage the various elements of non-interest income and expense during periods of increasing or decreasing inflation could have a significant impact on profitability. Wesbanco monitors the level and mix of interest-rate sensitive assets and liabilities through its Asset/Liability Committee ("ALCO") in order to reduce the impact of inflation on net interest income. Management may not be able to control the effects of inflation as needed and the results may adversely impact results of operations.

15


 

A HIGH PERCENTAGE OF WESBANCO’S LOAN PORTFOLIO IS IN WEST VIRGINIA, OHIO, PENNSYLVANIA, KENTUCKY, INDIANA, MARYLAND, VIRGINIA AND TENNESSEE AND IN COMMERCIAL AND RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE. DETERIORATIONS IN ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN THIS AREA OR IN THE REAL ESTATE MARKET GENERALLY COULD BE MORE HARMFUL TO THE COMPANY COMPARED TO MORE DIVERSIFIED INSTITUTIONS.

As of December 31, 2023, approximately 21% of Wesbanco’s loan portfolio was comprised of residential real estate loans, and 56% was comprised of commercial real estate loans.

Inherent risks of commercial real estate (“CRE”) lending include the cyclical nature of the real estate market, construction risk and interest rate risk. The cyclical nature of real estate markets can cause CRE loans to suffer considerable distress. During these times of distress, a property’s performance can be negatively affected by tenants’ deteriorating credit strength and lease expirations in times of softening demand caused by economic deterioration or over-supply conditions. Even if borrowers are able to meet their payment obligations, they may find it difficult to refinance their full loan amounts at maturity due to declines in property value. Other risks associated with CRE lending include regulatory changes and environmental liability. Regulatory changes in tax legislation, zoning or similar external conditions including environmental liability may affect property values and the economic feasibility of existing and proposed real estate projects.

The Company’s CRE loan portfolio is concentrated predominantly in West Virginia, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Indiana, Maryland, northern Virginia and Tennessee. There are a wide variety of economic conditions within the local markets of the eight states in which most of the company’s CRE loan portfolio is situated. Rates of employment, consumer loan demand, household formation, and the level of economic activity can vary widely from state to state and among metropolitan areas, cities and towns. Metropolitan markets comprise various submarkets where property values and demand can be affected by many factors, such as demographic makeup, geographic features, transportation, recreation, local government, school systems, utility infrastructure, tax burden, building-stock age, zoning and building codes, and available land for development. As a result of the high concentration of the company’s loan portfolio, it may be more sensitive, as compared to more diversified institutions, to future disruptions in and deterioration of this market, which could lead to losses, which could have a material adverse effect on the business, financial condition and results of operations of the company.

RISKS INHERENT IN MUNICIPAL BONDS COULD HAVE A NEGATIVE IMPACT ON WESBANCO’S EARNINGS.

As of December 31, 2023, approximately 36% of Wesbanco’s total securities portfolio was invested in municipal bonds. Although Wesbanco’s municipal portfolio is broadly spread across the U.S., any downturn in the economy of a state or municipality in which Wesbanco holds municipal obligations could increase the default risk of the respective debt. In addition, a portion of Wesbanco’s municipal portfolio is comprised of Build America bonds. Due to the government sequester reducing the interest subsidy that the government provides to the issuing municipalities, extraordinary redemption provisions ("ERP") may be executed by the municipality if it is in their favor to do so. There is a risk that when an ERP is executed, Wesbanco may not recover its amortized cost in the bond if it was purchased at a premium. Credit risks are also prevalent when downgrades of credit ratings are issued by major credit rating agencies, which are caused by creditworthiness issues of both bond insurers and the municipality itself. Credit rating downgrades to a non-investment grade level may force Wesbanco to sell a municipal bond at a price where amortized cost may not be recovered. Rising interest rates could also cause the current market values of our municipal bond portfolio to decline as they all have a fixed interest component. Any of the above default risks, early redemption risks and credit risks could cause Wesbanco to take impairment charges, which could be significant, that would negatively impact earnings.

RISKS RELATED TO THE BUSINESS OF BANKING

CUSTOMERS MAY DEFAULT ON THE REPAYMENT OF LOANS, WHICH COULD SIGNIFICANTLY IMPACT RESULTS OF OPERATIONS THROUGH INCREASES IN THE PROVISION AND ALLOWANCE FOR CREDIT LOSSES.

The Bank’s customers may default on the repayment of loans, which may negatively impact Wesbanco’s earnings due to loss of principal and interest income. Increased operating expenses may result from the allocation of management time and resources to the collection and work-out of the loan. Collection efforts may or may not be successful causing Wesbanco to write off the loan or repossess the collateral securing the loan, which may or may not exceed the balance of the loan.

HIGHER FDIC DEPOSIT INSURANCE PREMIUMS AND ASSESSMENTS COULD ADVERSELY AFFECT WESBANCO’S FINANCIAL CONDITION.

The insurance premium is based on an assessment rate that utilizes a complex calculation that includes Wesbanco Bank’s CAMELS ratings, its ability to withstand asset-related and funding-related stress and potential loss severity of its assets. The FDIC periodically raises the base rate to ensure the Deposit Insurance Fund ("DIF") is at an appropriate level. If premium assessment rates were to further increase, it would negatively impact Wesbanco’s earnings.

16


 

RISKS RELATED TO ESTIMATES AND ASSUMPTIONS

THE CURRENT EXPECTED CREDIT LOSSES ACCOUNTING STANDARD ("CECL") COULD RESULT IN SIGNIFICANT VOLATILITY OF THE ESTIMATION OF CREDIT LOSSES AND MAY HAVE A MATERIAL IMPACT ON OUR FINANCIAL CONDITION OR RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.

In September 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued an accounting standard update, ASU 2016-13 (Topic 326), “Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments,” which was adopted by Wesbanco as of January 1, 2020 and replaced the former “incurred loss” model for recognizing credit losses with an “expected loss” model referred to as the CECL model. Under the CECL model, we are required to present certain financial assets carried at amortized cost, such as loans held for investment and held-to-maturity debt securities, at the net amount expected to be collected. The allowance for credit losses under CECL is calculated utilizing the PD / LGD, which is then discounted to net present value. PD is the probability the asset will default within a given time frame and LGD is the percentage of the asset not expected to be collected due to default. The primary macroeconomic drivers of the quantitative model include forecasts of national unemployment and interest rates, as well as modeling adjustments for changes in prepayment speeds, loan risk grades, portfolio mix, concentrations and loan growth. Any changes in the model inputs may create more volatility in the level of our allowance for credit losses. Any material increase in our level of allowance for credit losses or expenses incurred to determine the appropriate level of the allowance for credit losses could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Wesbanco’s regulatory agencies (FDIC and WVDFI for the Bank and the Federal Reserve for Wesbanco) periodically review the allowance for credit losses. The regulatory agencies’ interpretations may differ from Wesbanco’s interpretations. These differences could negatively impact Wesbanco’s results of operations or financial position.

WESBANCO MAY BE REQUIRED TO WRITE DOWN GOODWILL AND OTHER INTANGIBLE ASSETS, CAUSING ITS FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS TO BE NEGATIVELY AFFECTED.

When Wesbanco acquires a business, a portion of the purchase price of the acquisition is allocated to goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets. The amount of the purchase price which is allocated to goodwill and other intangible assets is determined by the excess of the purchase price over the net identifiable assets acquired. Wesbanco’s goodwill was approximately $1.1 billion or 43% and $1.1 billion or 45% of stockholders’ equity as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Under current accounting standards, if Wesbanco determines that goodwill or intangible assets are impaired, it is required to write down the carrying value of these assets. Wesbanco conducts an annual review to determine whether goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets are impaired. Wesbanco completed such an impairment analysis in late 2023 and concluded that no impairment charge was necessary for the year ended December 31, 2023. Wesbanco cannot provide assurance that it will not be required to take an impairment charge in the future. Any impairment charge would have a negative effect on its shareholders’ equity and financial results and may cause a decline in our stock price.

OPERATIONAL RISKS

DUE TO INCREASED COMPETITION, WESBANCO MAY NOT BE ABLE TO ATTRACT AND RETAIN BANKING CUSTOMERS AT CURRENT LEVELS.

Wesbanco operates in a highly competitive banking and financial industry that could become even more competitive as a result of legislative, regulatory and technological changes. Wesbanco faces banking competition in all the markets it serves from the following:

local, regional and national banks;
savings and loans;
internet banks;
credit unions;
payday lenders and money services businesses;
finance companies;
online trading and robo-advisors;
financial technology companies and other non-bank lenders; and
brokerage firms serving Wesbanco’s market areas.

In particular, Wesbanco’s competitors include several major national financial companies whose greater resources may afford them a marketplace advantage by enabling them to maintain numerous banking locations and mount extensive promotional and advertising campaigns. Additionally, banks and other financial institutions may have products and services not offered by Wesbanco such as new payment system technologies and cryptocurrency, which may cause current and potential customers to choose those institutions. Areas of competition include interest rates for loans and deposits, efforts to obtain deposits and range and quality of services

17


 

provided. Competitively priced deposits from other banks may cause a loss of deposits to be replaced by more expensive wholesale funding. Wesbanco also faces competition from financial technology (“FinTech”) companies, who may more efficiently underwrite and close small business and consumer loans as well as more quickly and efficiently open deposit accounts. In addition to providing products and services traditionally offered by banks, some FinTech companies allow customers to complete financial transactions without the need for bank intermediaries. This could result in the loss of revenue from transaction fees and fewer customer accounts. If Wesbanco is unable to attract new and retain current customers, loan and deposit growth could decrease, causing Wesbanco’s results of operations and financial condition to be negatively impacted.

WESBANCO MAY NOT BE ABLE TO EXPAND ITS TRUST AND INVESTMENT SERVICES SEGMENT AND RETAIN ITS CURRENT CUSTOMERS.

Wesbanco may not be able to attract new and retain current investment management clients due to competition from the following:

commercial banks and trust companies;
mutual fund companies;
investment advisory firms;
law firms;
brokerage firms; and
other financial services companies.

Its ability to successfully attract and retain investment management clients is dependent upon its ability to compete with competitors’ investment products, level of investment performance, client services and marketing and distribution capabilities. Due to changes in economic conditions, the performance of the trust and investment services segment may be negatively impacted by the financial markets in which investment clients’ assets are invested, causing clients to seek other alternative investment options. If Wesbanco is not successful, its results from operations and financial position may be negatively impacted.

FUTURE EXPANSION BY WESBANCO MAY ADVERSELY AFFECT OUR FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS AS WELL AS DILUTE THE INTERESTS OF OUR SHAREHOLDERS AND NEGATIVELY AFFECT THE PRICE OF OUR COMMON STOCK.

Wesbanco may acquire other financial institutions, or branches or assets of other financial institutions, in the future. Wesbanco may also open new branches and enter into new lines of business or offer new products or services. Any such expansion of our business will involve a number of expenses and risks, which may include:

the time and expense associated with identifying and evaluating potential expansions;
the potential inaccuracy of estimates and judgments used to evaluate credit, operations, management and market risk with respect to target institutions;
the time and costs of evaluating new markets, hiring local management and opening new offices, and the delay between commencing these activities and the generation of profits from the expansion;
the risk we could discover undisclosed liabilities resulting from any acquisitions for which we may become responsible;
our financing of the expansion;
the diversion of management’s attention to the negotiation of a transaction and the integration of the operations and personnel of the combining businesses;
entry into unfamiliar markets;
the introduction of new products and services into our existing business;
the incurrence and possible impairment of goodwill associated with an acquisition and possible adverse short-term effects on our results of operations;
the risk that benefits such as enhanced earnings that we anticipate from any new acquisitions may not develop and future results of the combined companies may be materially lower from those estimated; and
the risk of loss of key employees and customers.

We can give no assurance that integration efforts for any future acquisitions will be successful. Our inability to successfully integrate future acquisitions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. In addition,

18


 

we may issue equity securities in connection with acquisitions, which could dilute the economic and voting interests of our existing shareholders.

No assurance can be given that Wesbanco will be successful overcoming the risks as disclosed above. The risks associated with entering into a new market and any inability to overcome these risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

SUITABLE ACQUISITION OPPORTUNITIES MAY NOT BE AVAILABLE TO WESBANCO IN THE FUTURE.

Wesbanco continually evaluates opportunities to acquire other businesses. However, Wesbanco may not have the opportunity to make suitable acquisitions on favorable terms in the future, which could negatively impact the growth of its business. Wesbanco expects that other banking and financial companies, many of which have significantly greater resources, will compete to acquire compatible businesses. This competition could increase prices for acquisitions that Wesbanco would likely pursue, and its competitors may have greater resources than it does. Also, acquisitions of regulated businesses such as banks are subject to various regulatory approvals. If Wesbanco fails to receive the appropriate regulatory approvals, it will not be able to consummate an acquisition that it believes is in its best interests.

WESBANCO IS EXPOSED TO OPERATIONAL RISK THAT COULD ADVERSELY IMPACT THE COMPANY.

Wesbanco is exposed to multiple types of operational risk, including reputational risk, legal and compliance risk, the risk of fraud or theft by employees or outsiders, clerical or record-keeping errors and computer or telecommunications systems malfunctions. Wesbanco’s business is dependent on the ability to process a large number of increasingly complex transactions. Wesbanco could be materially and adversely affected if employees, clients, counterparties or other third parties caused an operational breakdown or failure, as a result of either human error, fraudulent manipulation or purposeful damage to any of our operations or systems.

LOSS OF KEY EMPLOYEES COULD IMPACT GROWTH AND EARNINGS AND MAY HAVE AN ADVERSE IMPACT ON BUSINESS.

Our operating results and ability to adequately manage our growth are highly dependent on the services, managerial abilities and performance of our key employees, including executive officers and senior management. Our success depends upon our ability to attract and retain highly skilled and qualified management, loan origination, finance, administrative, marketing and technical personnel and upon the continued contributions of management personnel. The loss of services, or the inability to successfully complete planned or unplanned transitions of key personnel approaching normal retirement age, could have an adverse impact on Wesbanco’s business, operating results and financial condition because of their skills, knowledge of the local markets, years of industry experience and the difficulty of promptly finding qualified replacement personnel. In addition, the transition to increased work-from-home (remote or hybrid work environments) may exacerbate the challenges of attracting and retaining talented and diverse employees as job markets may be less constrained by physical geography. Filling open positions is also challenging in this environment and may adversely impact our business segments.

LIMITED AVAILABILITY OF BORROWINGS AND LIQUIDITY FROM THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK SYSTEM AND OTHER SOURCES COULD NEGATIVELY IMPACT EARNINGS.

Wesbanco Bank is currently a member bank of the Federal Home Loan Bank (“FHLB”) of Pittsburgh. Membership in this system of quasi-governmental, regional home-loan oriented agency banks allows us to participate in various programs offered by the FHLB. We borrow funds from the FHLB, which are secured by a blanket lien on certain residential and commercial mortgage loans, and if applicable, investment securities with collateral values in excess of the outstanding balances. Future earnings shortfalls and minimum capital requirements of the FHLB may impact the collateral necessary to secure borrowings and limit the borrowings extended to their member banks, as well as require additional capital contributions by member banks. The FHLB’s rating assigned to Wesbanco Bank may also negatively impact the amount of term collateral and other conditions imposed by the FHLB upon Wesbanco Bank. Should these situations occur, Wesbanco’s short-term liquidity needs could be negatively impacted. If Wesbanco was restricted from using FHLB advances due to weakness in the system or with the FHLB of Pittsburgh, Wesbanco may be forced to find alternative funding sources. If Wesbanco is required to rely more heavily on higher cost funding sources, revenues may not increase proportionately to cover these costs, which would adversely affect Wesbanco’s results of operations and financial position.

WESBANCO’S FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS DEPEND ON THE SUCCESSFUL GROWTH OF ITS SUBSIDIARIES.

Wesbanco’s primary business activity for the foreseeable future will be to act as the holding company of its banking and other subsidiaries. Therefore, Wesbanco’s future profitability will depend on the success and growth of these subsidiaries. In the future, part of Wesbanco’s growth may come from buying other banks and buying or establishing other companies. Such entities may not be profitable after they are purchased or established, and they may lose money or be dilutive to earnings per share, particularly for the first few years. A new bank or company may bring with it unexpected liabilities, bad loans, or poor employee relations, or the new bank or

19


 

company may lose customers and the associated revenue. Dilution of book and tangible book value may occur as a result of an acquisition that may not be earned back for several years, if at all.

WESBANCO MAY NEED TO RAISE CAPITAL IN THE FUTURE, BUT CAPITAL MAY NOT BE AVAILABLE WHEN NEEDED OR AT ACCEPTABLE TERMS.

Federal and state banking regulators require Wesbanco and its banking subsidiary, Wesbanco Bank, to maintain adequate levels of capital to support its operations. In addition, in the future Wesbanco may need to raise additional capital to support its business or to finance acquisitions, if any, or Wesbanco may otherwise elect to raise additional capital in anticipation of future growth opportunities. Since Wesbanco’s total assets increased above $15 billion due to recent acquisitions, certain trust preferred securities are no longer included in the Tier 1 capital of the risk-based capital guidelines; however, they are counted as Tier 2 capital.

Although Wesbanco successfully raised $150 million of Series A preferred stock in 2020 and also issued $150 million of fixed-to-floating subordinated debentures in 2022, Wesbanco’s ability to raise additional Tier 1 or Tier 2 capital for parent company or banking subsidiary needs will depend on conditions and interest rates at that time in the capital markets, overall economic conditions, Wesbanco’s financial performance and condition, and other factors, many of which are outside our control. There is no assurance that, if needed, Wesbanco will be able to raise additional equity or secured /unsecured debt that may count as Tier 1 or Tier 2 capital on favorable terms or at all. An inability to raise additional capital may have a material adverse effect on our ability to expand operations, and on our financial condition, results of operations and future prospects.

WESBANCO’S ABILITY TO MITIGATE RISK DEPENDS ON OUR ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK.

Wesbanco has implemented a risk appetite statement and an enterprise risk management framework to identify and manage our risk exposures while maintaining a safe and sound banking organization. This framework is comprised of various processes, systems and strategies, and is designed to manage the types of risk to which we are subject, including, among others, credit, legal and compliance, liquidity, market, operational, reputational and strategic risks. Included in this framework are three independent lines of defense, which allows Wesbanco to effectively govern and manage risk. If our risk management framework is not effective, Wesbanco could be exposed to unexpected losses and become subject to regulatory consequences, as a result of which our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects could be materially adversely affected.

RISKS RELATED TO THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY

INTERRUPTION TO OUR INFORMATION SYSTEMS OR BREACHES IN SECURITY COULD ADVERSELY AFFECT WESBANCO’S OPERATIONS.

Wesbanco relies on information systems and communications for operating and monitoring all major aspects of business, as well as internal management functions. Any failure, interruption, intrusion or breach in security of these systems could result in failures or disruptions in the Wesbanco customer relationship, management, general ledger, deposit, loan and other systems. While Wesbanco has policies, procedures and technical safeguards designed to prevent or limit the effect of any failure, interruption, intrusion or security breach of its information systems, and also performs testing of business continuity and disaster recovery plans, there can be no absolute assurance that the above-noted issues will not occur or, if they do occur, that they will be adequately addressed.

There have been efforts on the part of third parties to breach data security at various financial institutions. The ability of our customers to bank remotely, including online and through mobile devices, requires secure transmission of confidential information and increases the risk of data security breaches. Because the techniques used to attack financial services company communications and information systems change frequently (and generally increase in sophistication), often attacks are not recognized until launched against a target, may be supported by foreign governments or other well-financed entities, and may originate from less regulated and remote areas around the world, we may be unable to address these techniques in advance of attacks, including by implementing adequate preventative measures. Certain financial institutions in the United States have also experienced attacks from technically sophisticated and well-resourced third parties that were intended to disrupt normal business activities by making internet banking systems inaccessible to customers for extended periods. These “denial-of-service” attacks, if attempted, would require substantial resources to defend, and may affect customer satisfaction and behavior. Moreover, the development and maintenance of preventative and detective measures is costly and requires ongoing monitoring and updating as technologies change and efforts to overcome security measures become more sophisticated. Despite our efforts, the possibility of these events occurring cannot be eliminated.

Cyber-attacks on third party retailers or other business establishments that widely accept debit card or check payments could compromise sensitive bank customer information, such as debit card and account numbers. Such an attack could result in significant costs to the bank, such as costs to reimburse customers, reissue debit cards and open new customer accounts.

20


 

The occurrence of any such failure, disruption or security breach of Wesbanco’s information systems, particularly if widespread or resulting in financial losses to our customers, could damage Wesbanco’s reputation, result in a loss of customer business, subject Wesbanco to additional regulatory scrutiny, and expose Wesbanco to civil litigation and possible financial liability. In addition, the prevalence of cyber-attacks and other efforts to breach or disrupt our systems has led, and will continue to lead, to costs to Wesbanco with respect to prevention and mitigation of these risks, as well as costs reimbursing customers for losses suffered as a result of these actions. Successful attacks or systems failures at other large financial institutions, whether or not Wesbanco is included, could lead to a general loss of customer confidence in financial institutions with a potential negative impact on Wesbanco’s business, additional demands on the part of our regulators, and increased costs to deal with risks identified as a result of the problems affecting others. The risks described above could have a material effect on Wesbanco’s business, results of operations and financial condition.

WESBANCO DEPENDS ON THIRD PARTIES FOR PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF COMPANY RECORDS AND DATA.

Wesbanco relies on software developed by third party vendors to process various transactions. These transactions include, but are not limited to, general ledger, payroll, employee benefits, trust record keeping, loan and deposit processing, merchant processing, and securities portfolio management. While Wesbanco performs a review of controls instituted by the vendors over these programs in accordance with industry standards and performs its own testing of user controls, Wesbanco must rely on the continued maintenance and improvement of these controls by the third party, including safeguards over the security of customer data. In addition, Wesbanco maintains backups of key processing output daily in the event of a failure on the part of any of these systems. Nonetheless, Wesbanco may incur a temporary disruption in its ability to conduct its business or process its transactions or incur damage to its reputation if the third party vendor, or the third party vendor’s subcontractor, fails to adequately maintain internal controls or institute necessary changes to systems. Such disruption or breach of security may have a material adverse effect on Wesbanco’s business, financial condition, and results of operations.

FAILURE TO KEEP PACE WITH TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE COULD ADVERSELY AFFECT WESBANCO’S RESULTS OF OPERATIONS AND FINANCIAL CONDITION.

The financial services industry is continually undergoing rapid technological change with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. The effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to better serve customers and to reduce costs. Wesbanco’s future success depends, in part, upon its ability to address customer needs by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands, as well as to create additional efficiencies in Wesbanco’s operations, which was done in 2021 as Wesbanco completed its core banking software conversion. The adoption of new technologies by competitors, including internet banking services, mobile applications, advanced ATM functionality and cryptocurrencies could require Wesbanco to make additional substantial investments to modify or adapt the existing products and services or even radically alter the way Wesbanco conducts business. These and other capital investments in the Company's business may not produce expected growth in earnings anticipated at the time of the expenditure. Wesbanco also may not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing these products and services to its customers. Failure to successfully keep pace with technological change affecting the financial services industry could negatively affect Wesbanco’s growth, revenue, and profit.

 

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RISKS

WESBANCO HAS OUTSTANDING SECURITIES SENIOR TO OUR COMMON STOCK WHICH COULD LIMIT OUR ABILITY TO PAY DIVIDENDS ON THE COMMON STOCK.

Wesbanco has outstanding Series A Preferred Stock that is senior to our common stock and could adversely affect our ability to declare or pay dividends or distributions on our common stock. The terms of the preferred stock offering prohibits us from declaring or paying dividends or making distributions on our common stock unless the full dividends for the most recently completed dividend period have been declared and paid, or set aside for payment, on all outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock. Whenever dividends on any shares of Series A Preferred Stock have not been declared and paid for the equivalent of six or more dividend payments, whether or not for consecutive dividend periods (a “Nonpayment Event”), the holders of Series A Preferred Stock, voting together as a class with holders of any and all other series of voting preferred stock then outstanding would be entitled to vote for the election of a total of two additional members of our board of directors (the “Preferred Stock Directors”), provided that our board of directors shall at no time include more than two Preferred Stock Directors and that the election of any Preferred Stock Directors shall not cause us to violate the corporate governance requirements of the Nasdaq Stock Market (or any other exchange on which our securities may be listed) including the requirements that listed companies must have a majority of independent directors. In the event that the holders of the Series A Preferred Stock and other holders of voting preferred stock are entitled to vote for the election of the Preferred Stock Directors following a Nonpayment Event, the number of directors on our board of directors shall automatically increase by two, and the new directors shall be elected at a special meeting called at the request of the holders of record of at least 20% of the Series A Preferred Stock or of any other series of voting preferred stock (unless such request is received less than 90 days before the date fixed for the next annual or special meeting of the shareholders, in which event such election shall be held only at such next annual or special meeting of shareholders), and at each subsequent annual meeting. These voting rights will continue until dividends on the shares of Series A Preferred Stock and any

21


 

such series of voting preferred stock for at least four consecutive dividend periods following the Nonpayment Event shall have been fully paid (or declared and a sum sufficient for the payment of such dividends shall have been set aside for payment).

WESBANCO’S ABILITY TO PAY DIVIDENDS IS LIMITED, AND COMMON STOCK DIVIDENDS MAY HAVE TO BE REDUCED OR ELIMINATED.

Subject to restrictions described in the previous risk factor, holders of shares of Wesbanco’s common stock are entitled to dividends if, when, and as declared by Wesbanco’s Board of Directors out of funds legally available for that purpose. Although the Board of Directors has declared and increased shareholder dividends in the past, the current ability to pay such dividends is largely dependent upon the receipt of dividends from the Bank. Federal and state laws impose restrictions on the ability of the Bank to pay dividends, which restrictions are more fully described in “Item 1. Business—Payment of Dividends.” In general, future dividend policy is subject to the discretion of the Board of Directors and will depend upon a number of factors, including Wesbanco’s and the Bank’s future earnings, liquidity and capital requirements, regulatory constraints and financial condition.

Volatility in the price and volume of our stock may be unfavorable.

The market price of our common stock can be volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in price in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. Some of these factors include, without limitation:

prevailing market conditions;
our financial and operating results;
estimates of our business potential and earnings prospects;
an overall assessment of our management;
changes in interest rates;
business interruptions, such as may result from natural disasters, health concerns such as the coronavirus or other events;
our performance relative to our peers;
market demand for our shares;
perceptions of the banking industry in general;
political influences on investor sentiment; and
consumer confidence.

At times, the stock markets, including the Nasdaq Stock Market, on which our common stock is listed, may experience significant price and volume fluctuations. As a result, the market price of our common stock is likely to be similarly volatile and investors in our common stock may experience a decrease in the value of their shares, including decreases unrelated to our operating performance or prospects.

In addition, following periods of volatility in the overall market and the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has often been instituted against companies. This litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and a diversion of our management’s attention and resources.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

 

ITEM 1C. CYBERSECURITY

Wesbanco maintains an Information Security and Cybersecurity program that is responsive to statutory and regulatory requirements, which includes policies, standards, rigorous testing by internal and external parties pursuant to those standards and policies and operating procedures. Wesbanco generally approaches cybersecurity threats through a cross-functional, multi-layered approach, with the specific goals of: (i) identifying, preventing and mitigating cybersecurity threats to Wesbanco; (ii) maintaining the confidence of its customers and business partners; and (iii) preserving the confidentiality of its customers’ and employees’ information. Wesbanco’s Information Security and Cybersecurity program is integrated into its overall enterprise risk management program and shares common methodologies, reporting channels and governance processes that apply across the enterprise risk management program to other legal, compliance, strategic, operational and financial risk areas. The bank also partners with trusted security vendors to help ensure that the security control infrastructure adequately addresses current and emerging technical threats with appropriate countermeasures. This oftentimes includes the engagement of consultative assistance for each of the three lines of defense to ensure appropriate technical expertise exists in the control area that is being evaluated and to maintain best practices.

22


 

As detailed in the risks related to the use of technology, third-party technology relationships pose a risk to the organization. As such, third-party risk management processes are aligned with regulatory requirements and are another key focus area within the bank's enterprise risk management framework. Wesbanco employs a third-party risk management program that includes a systematic evaluation of potential risks associated with engaging third-party vendors, suppliers or partners that may have access to Wesbanco’s sensitive information, systems or networks. This process is also intended to provide for the security and integrity of Wesbanco’s data that may be stored on third-party systems. The process identifies and addresses potential security vulnerabilities, safeguarding Wesbanco’s information assets and reducing the overall risk of cyber threats. Third-party providers are evaluated during onboarding and throughout the ongoing relationship based on the level of risk that the service being provided presents to the organization. The evaluation process includes a thorough review of operational practices related to cybersecurity and considers factors that impact the protection of bank and customer data.

Cybersecurity risks continue to evolve with certain risks leading the way. Risks experienced in the last year involved third party service providers, with no material impact to Wesbanco related to these incidents. Wesbanco continues to foster a risk averse focus and leverages various threat intelligence sources to continually evaluate current and future risks to the organization. The bank's cybersecurity strategy and roadmap is frequently evaluated and updated according to multiple inputs including any tangible cybersecurity incidents.

Cybersecurity threats, a security strategy roadmap, and key risk indicators are shared with management and the board of directors through both committee reporting structures and periodic reports of the Chief Security Officer. In addition, management updates our Enterprise Risk Management Committee, as necessary, regarding significant cybersecurity incidents. Our Enterprise Risk Management Committee regularly reports to the full Board of Directors regarding its activities, including those related to cybersecurity. As part of the Enterprise Risk Management Framework, cybersecurity oversight also utilizes the concept of three lines of defense which allows for multiple challenge response processes to continually mature the cybersecurity program. Cybersecurity best practices from the National Institute of Standards and Technology ("NIST") and the Center for Internet Security ("CIS") are used to establish, operate, and validate security controls.

The Enterprise Risk Management Committee is a board-level committee that focuses on enterprise risk which is inclusive of cybersecurity risks. Multiple directors have decades of experience, not only in the banking sector, but also have been responsible for cybersecurity and technology departments at larger organizations. The Chief Security Officer is responsible for providing the Information Security strategy and operational planning for the overall Information Security program. The Chief Security Officer has multiple decades of experience in the industry, advanced education degrees, and holds industry standard technical and security certifications. Several members of the Information Security leadership team also hold multiple security certifications that tie directly to their job responsibilities.

While Wesbanco and its third-party providers have in the past experienced cybersecurity incidents, Wesbanco is not aware of any current incidents or new types of threats which have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect Wesbanco, including its business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition. We face ongoing risks from certain cybersecurity threats that, if realized, are reasonably likely to materially affect us, including our operations, business strategy, results of operations, or financial condition. See Item 1A, “Risk Factors – Interruption to Our Information Systems or Breaches in Security Could Adversely Affect Wesbanco’s Operations.”

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

Wesbanco’s subsidiaries generally own their respective offices, related facilities and any unimproved real property held for future expansion. At December 31, 2023, Wesbanco operated 192 banking offices in West Virginia, Ohio, western Pennsylvania, Kentucky, southern Indiana and Maryland, of which 141 were owned and 51 were leased. Wesbanco also operated ten loan production offices leased in West Virginia, Ohio, western Pennsylvania, Maryland, Indiana, Tennessee and northern Virginia. These leases expire at various dates through January 2062 and generally include options to renew. The Bank also owns several regional headquarters buildings in various markets, most of which also house a banking office and/or certain back office functions.

The main office of Wesbanco is located at 1 Bank Plaza, Wheeling, West Virginia, in a building owned by the Bank. The building contains approximately 100,000 square feet and serves as the main office for both Wesbanco’s community banking segment and its trust and investment services segment, as well as its executive offices. The Bank’s major back office operations currently occupy approximately 90% of the space available in an office building connected via sky-bridge to the main office. This adjacent back office building is owned by Wesbanco Properties, Inc., a subsidiary of Wesbanco, with the remainder of the building leased to unrelated businesses.

At various building locations, Wesbanco rents or makes available commercial office space to unrelated businesses. Rental income totaled $1.6 million, $1.7 million and $1.8 million in 2023, 2022 and 2021, respectively. For additional disclosures related to Wesbanco’s properties, other fixed assets and leases, please refer to Note 5, “Premises and Equipment” in the Consolidated Financial Statements.

23


 

Wesbanco is also involved in lawsuits, claims, investigations and proceedings, which arise in the ordinary course of business. While any litigation contains an element of uncertainty, Wesbanco does not believe that a material loss related to such proceedings or claims pending or known to be threatened is reasonably possible.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not Applicable.

24


 

PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Wesbanco’s common stock is quoted on the Nasdaq Global Select Stock Market under the symbol WSBC. The approximate number of record holders of Wesbanco’s $2.0833 par value common stock as of February 14, 2024 was 6,887. The number of holders does not include Wesbanco employees who have purchased stock or had stock allocated to them through Wesbanco’s Employee Stock Ownership and 401(k) plan (the “401(k)”). All Wesbanco employees who meet the eligibility requirements of the 401(k) are included in this retirement plan.

As of December 31, 2023, Wesbanco had one active stock repurchase plan which was approved by the Board of Directors on February 24, 2022 for 3.2 million shares. This plan provides for shares to be repurchased for general corporate purposes, which may include a subsequent resource for potential acquisitions, shareholder dividend reinvestment and/or employee benefit plans. The timing, price and quantity of purchases are at the discretion of Wesbanco, and the plan may be discontinued or suspended at any time. The plan has 1,021,901 shares remaining for repurchase.

Repurchases in the fourth quarter included open market purchases and those for the 401(k) and dividend reinvestment plans.

Certain information relating to securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans is set forth under the heading “Equity Compensation Plan Information” in Part III, “Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters.”

The following table shows the activity in Wesbanco's stock repurchase plan and other purchases for the quarter ended December 31, 2023:

 

Period

 

Total Number
of Shares
Purchased (1)

 

 

Average Price
Paid per Share

 

 

Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as Part of Publicly
Announced Plans (2)

 

 

Maximum Number
of Shares that May
Yet Be Purchased
Under the Plans

 

Balance at September 30, 2023

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,021,901

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

October 1, 2023 to October 31, 2023

 

 

37,129

 

 

$

24.49

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,021,901

 

November 1, 2023 to November 30, 2023

 

 

1,239

 

 

 

26.88

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,021,901

 

December 1, 2023 to December 31, 2023

 

 

1,308

 

 

 

29.76

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,021,901

 

Total

 

 

39,676

 

 

$

24.74

 

 

 

 

 

 

1,021,901

 

______

(1) Total shares purchased consist of open market purchases transacted in the 401(k) for employee benefit and dividend reinvestment plans.

(2) Consists of open market purchases and shares purchased from employees for the payment of withholding taxes to facilitate a stock compensation transaction.

25


 

The following graph shows a comparison of cumulative total shareholder returns for Wesbanco, the Russell 2000 Index and the S&P Regional Banks Select Industry Index. The total shareholder return assumes a $100 investment in the common stock of Wesbanco and each index since December 31, 2018 with reinvestment of dividends.

img151905646_0.jpg 

 

 

 

 

Period Ending

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

Index

 

2018

 

 

2019

 

 

2020

 

 

2021

 

 

2022

 

 

2023

 

Wesbanco, Inc.

 

 

100.00

 

 

 

106.54

 

 

 

89.01

 

 

 

107.95

 

 

 

118.62

 

 

 

105.70

 

Russell 2000

 

 

100.00

 

 

 

125.53

 

 

 

150.58

 

 

 

172.90

 

 

 

137.56

 

 

 

160.85

 

S&P Regional Banks Select Industry Index

 

 

100.00

 

 

 

127.64

 

 

 

118.58

 

 

 

165.90

 

 

 

141.42

 

 

 

130.91

 

 

 

ITEM 6. [RESERVED]

26


 

ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Management’s Discussion and Analysis ("MD&A") represents an overview of the results of operations and financial condition of Wesbanco. This discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes thereto. This section generally discusses 2023 and 2022 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2023 and 2022. Discussions of 2021 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2022 and 2021 that are not included in this Form 10-K can be found in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 of Wesbanco’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, as filed with the SEC on February 27, 2023.

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Forward-looking statements in this report relating to Wesbanco’s plans, strategies, objectives, expectations, intentions and adequacy of resources, are made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. The information contained in this report should be read in conjunction with Wesbanco’s Form 10-Qs for the prior quarters ended March 31, June 30 and September 30, 2023, respectively, and documents subsequently filed by Wesbanco which are available at the SEC’s website, www.sec.gov or at Wesbanco’s website, www.wesbanco.com. Investors are cautioned that forward-looking statements, which are not historical fact, involve risks and uncertainties, including those detailed under “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Such statements are subject to important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contemplated by such statements, including, without limitation, the effects of changing regional and national economic conditions, changes in interest rates, spreads on earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, and associated interest rate sensitivity; sources of liquidity available to Wesbanco and its related subsidiary operations; potential future credit losses and the credit risk of commercial, real estate, and consumer loan customers and their borrowing activities; actions of the Federal Reserve, the FDIC, the SEC, FINRA, the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board, the SIPC, and other regulatory bodies; potential legislative and federal and state regulatory actions and reform, including, without limitation, the impact of the implementation of the Dodd-Frank Act; adverse decisions of federal and state courts; fraud, scams and schemes of third parties; cyber security breaches; competitive conditions in the financial services industry; rapidly changing technology affecting financial services; marketability of debt instruments and corresponding impact on fair value adjustments; and/or other external developments materially impacting Wesbanco’s operational and financial performance. Wesbanco does not assume any duty to update forward-looking statements.

APPLICATION OF CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES

Wesbanco’s Consolidated Financial Statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and follow general practices within the industries in which it operates. Application of these principles requires management to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. These estimates, assumptions and judgments are based on information available as of the date of the financial statements; accordingly, as this information changes, the financial statements could reflect different estimates, assumptions and judgments. Certain policies inherently have a greater reliance on the use of estimates, assumptions and judgments and as such have a greater possibility of producing results that could be materially different than originally reported.

The most significant accounting policies followed by Wesbanco are included in Note 1, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” of the Consolidated Financial Statements. These policies, along with other Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements and this MD&A, provide information on how significant assets and liabilities are valued in the financial statements and how those values are determined. Management has identified the allowance for credit losses, the evaluation of goodwill and other intangible assets for impairment and business combinations to be the accounting estimates that require the most subjective or complex judgments, and as such could be most subject to revision as new information becomes available.

Allowance for Credit Losses— Under CECL, acquired loans or pools of loans that have experienced more-than-insignificant credit deterioration are deemed to be purchased credit-deteriorated (“PCD”) loans, and are grossed-up on day 1 by the initial credit estimate through the allowance as opposed to a reduction in the loan’s amortized cost. The credit mark on acquired loans deemed not to be PCD loans are reflected as a reduction in the loan’s amortized cost, with an allowance and corresponding provision for credit losses recorded in the first reporting period after acquisition through current period earnings, while the loan mark will accrete through interest income over the life of such loans. At acquisition, Wesbanco will consider several factors as indicators that an acquired loan or pool of loans has experienced more-than-insignificant credit deterioration. These factors may include, but are not limited to, loans 30 days or more past due, loans with an internal risk grade of below average or lower, loans classified as non-accrual by the acquired institution, materiality of the credit and loans that have been previously modified. Upon adoption of this standard, acquired loans from prior acquisitions that met the guidelines under ASC 310-30 (formerly known as “purchased credit-impaired”) were reclassified as PCD loans. The accretable portion of the loan mark as of adoption date continues to accrete into interest income. However, the non-accretable portion of the loan mark was added to the allowance upon adoption, and any reversals of such mark will flow through the allowance in future periods. The loan mark on ASC 310-20 loans (“non-purchased credit-impaired”) from prior acquisitions continues to accrete through interest income over the life of such loans.

27


 

After the forecast period, Wesbanco reverts back to historical loss rates for a period of up to three years, adjusting for prepayments and curtailments, to estimate losses over the remaining life of loans. The most sensitive assumptions include the length of the forecast and reversion periods, forecast of unemployment and interest rate spreads and prepayment speeds. See Note 4, “Loans and Allowance for Credit Losses” for further detail.

The allowance for credit losses specific to loans reduces the loan portfolio to the net amount expected to be collected, representing the lifetime expected credit losses at the initial origination date. Similarly, an allowance for unfunded loan commitments, which is recorded in other liabilities, represents expected losses on unfunded commitments. Fluctuations in the allowance for credit losses specific to loans, the allowance for unfunded loan commitments, and the allowance for held-to-maturity debt securities are recognized in the provision for credit losses on the consolidated statement of operations. The allowance incorporates forward-looking information and applies a reversion methodology beyond the reasonable and supportable forecast. The allowance is increased by a provision charged to operating expense and reduced by charge-offs, net of recoveries. Management evaluates the appropriateness of the allowance at least quarterly. This evaluation is inherently subjective as it requires material estimates that may be susceptible to significant change from period to period.

The allowance for credit loss calculation specific to loans is based on the loan’s amortized cost basis, which is comprised of the unpaid principal balance of the loan, deferred loan fees (costs) and acquired premium (discount) minus any write-downs. Wesbanco made an accounting policy election to exclude accrued interest from the measurement of the allowance for credit losses, because the Company has a robust policy in place to reverse or write-off accrued interest when the loan is placed on non-accrual, and also made an accounting policy election to reverse accrued interest deemed uncollectible as a reversal of interest income. However, Wesbanco is reserving, as part of the allowance for credit losses, for accrued interest on loan modifications under the CARES Act due to the nature and timing of these deferrals.

The allowance for credit losses specific to loans reflects the risk of loss in the loan portfolio. To appropriately measure expected credit losses, management disaggregates the loan portfolio into pools of similar risk characteristics. The Company utilizes the PD / LGD approach to calculate the expected loss for each segment, which is then discounted to net present value. PD is the probability the asset will default within a given timeframe and LGD is the percentage of the assets not expected to be collected due to default. The primary macroeconomic drivers of the quantitative model include forecasts of national unemployment and interest rate spreads. Management relies on macroeconomic forecasts obtained from various reputable sources, which may include the Federal Open Market Committee forecast and other third party forecasts from well recognized, leading economists. These forecasts can range from one to two years, depending upon the facts and circumstances of the current state of the economy, portfolio segment and management’s judgment of what can be reasonably supported. The model reversion period can range from immediate to up to three years.

The allowance for credit losses specific to loans is calculated over the loan’s contractual life. For term loans, the contractual life is calculated based on the maturity date. For commercial and industrial (“C&I”) revolving loans with no stated maturity date, the contractual life is calculated based on the internal review date. For all other revolving loans, the contractual life is based on either the estimated maturity date or a default date. The contractual term does not include expected extensions, renewals or modifications.

Contractual terms are adjusted for estimated prepayments to arrive at expected cash flows. Wesbanco models term loans with an annualized “prepayment” rate. When Wesbanco has a specific expectation of differing payment behavior for a given loan, the loan may be evaluated individually. For revolving loans that do not have a principal payment schedule, a curtailment rate is factored into the cash flow.

The evaluation also considers qualitative factors such as economic trends and conditions, which includes levels of regional unemployment, real estate values and the impact on specific industries and geographical markets, changes in lending policies and underwriting standards, delinquency and other credit quality trends, concentrations of credit risk, if any, volume of activity, changes in lending staff, type of collateral and the results of internal loan reviews and examinations by bank regulatory agencies. Management relies on observable data from internal and external sources to the extent it is available to evaluate each of these factors and adjusts the actual historical loss rates to reflect the impact these factors may have on probable losses in the portfolio.

Commercial loans, including CRE and C&I that have unique characteristics, are tested individually for estimated credit losses. Specific reserves are established when appropriate for such loans based on the net present value of expected future cash flows of the loan or the estimated realizable value of the collateral, if any. The present value of expected future cash flows are discounted at the loan’s effective interest rate. The effective interest rate on a loan is the rate of return implicit in the loan, the loan’s observable market price, or the fair value of the collateral discounted by the estimated selling expenses, if the loan is collateral dependent. Wesbanco chooses the appropriate measurement method on a loan by loan basis for an individually evaluated loan, except for collateral dependent loans for which foreclosure of the collateral is probable. A loan is collateral dependent if repayment of the loan is to be provided solely by the underlying collateral. If the Bank determines that foreclosure of the collateral is probable, ASC 326-20 requires that the expected credit loss be based on the difference between the current fair value of the collateral discounted by the estimated selling expenses and the amortized cost basis of the financial asset. At this point, the loan would either be charged down or adequately reserved.

28


 

Determining the appropriateness of the allowance for credit losses is complex and requires significant management judgment about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. Due to those significant management judgments and the factors included in the calculation, significant changes to the allowance for credit losses could occur in future periods.

Goodwill — Wesbanco accounts for business combinations using the acquisition method of accounting. Accordingly, the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed, and any non-controlling interest of an acquired business are recorded at their estimated fair values as of the date of acquisition with any excess of the cost of the acquisition over the fair value recorded as goodwill. Goodwill is not amortized but is evaluated for impairment annually, or more often if events or circumstances indicate it may be impaired.

Wesbanco evaluates goodwill for impairment by determining if the fair value is greater than the carrying value of its reporting units. Wesbanco uses market capitalization, multiples of tangible book value, a discounted cash flow model, and various other market-based methods to estimate the current fair value of its reporting units. In particular, the discounted cash flow model includes various assumptions regarding an investor’s required rate of return on Wesbanco common stock, future loan loss provisions, future market spreads and net interest margins, along with various growth and economic recovery and stabilization assumptions of the economy as a whole. The resulting fair values of each method are then weighted based on the relevance and reliability of each respective method in light of the current economic environment to arrive at a weighted average fair value. The evaluation also considered macroeconomic conditions such as the general economic outlook, regional and national unemployment rates, and recent trends in equity and credit markets. Additionally, industry and market considerations, such as market-dependent multiples and metrics relative to peers, were evaluated. Wesbanco also considered recent trends in credit quality, overall financial performance, stock price appreciation, internal forecasts and various other market-based methods to estimate the current fair value of its reporting units. Since adopting ASU 2017-04, “Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350)”, the impairment charge is based on the excess of a reporting unit’s carrying amount over its fair value. Wesbanco completed its annual goodwill impairment evaluation as of November 30, 2023. There were no indications of impairment as of November 30, 2023 nor December 31, 2023 as there were no significant change in market conditions, consolidated operating results or forecasted future results from November 30, 2023.

Wesbanco considered the sensitivity of significant assumptions in the impairment analysis including consideration of changes in estimated future cash flows and changes in the discount rate of the reporting units. The hypothetical sensitivity of the estimated fair value of the reporting units to an immediate and isolated increase of 100 basis points in the discount rate assumption at November 30, 2023, without consideration of any offsetting or simultaneous effects of other key assumptions, would not result in impairment, but could reduce the excess fair value over the carrying value to approximately 9%. The purpose of this sensitivity is to provide an indication of the isolated impacts of hypothetical alternative assumptions on modeled fair value estimates and is not considered probable.

Business Combinations— Business combinations are accounted for by applying the acquisition method. As of acquisition date, the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed are measured at fair value and recognized separately from goodwill. Results of operations of the acquired entities are included in the consolidated statement of income from the date of acquisition. The calculation of intangible assets including core deposits and the fair value of loans are based on significant judgments. Core deposits intangibles are calculated using a discounted cash flow model based on various factors including discount rate, attrition rate, interest rate, cost of alternative funds and net maintenance costs.

Loans acquired in connection with acquisitions are recorded at their acquisition-date fair value with no carryover of related allowance for credit losses. Acquired loans are classified into two categories; PCD loans and non-PCD loans. PCD loans are defined as a loan or group of loans that have experienced more than insignificant credit deterioration since origination. Non-PCD loans will have an allowance established on acquisition date, which is recognized in the current period provision for credit losses. For PCD loans, an allowance is recognized on day 1 by adding it to the fair value of the loan, which is the “Day 1 amortized cost”. There is no credit loss expense recognized on PCD loans because the initial allowance is established by grossing-up the amortized cost of the PCD loan. Determining the fair value of the acquired loans involves estimating the principal and interest cash flows expected to be collected on the loans and discounting those cash flows at a market rate of interest. Management considers a number of factors in evaluating the acquisition-date fair value including the remaining life of the acquired loans, delinquency status, estimated prepayments, payment options and other loan features, internal risk grade, estimated value of the underlying collateral and interest rate environment.

29


 

EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW

Through successful operational execution, Wesbanco generated solid annual net income, while remaining a well-capitalized institution with sound liquidity and credit quality metrics. For the twelve months ended December 31, 2023, net income available to common shareholders was $148.9 million, or $2.51 per diluted share, as compared to $182.0 million, or $3.02 per diluted share, for the twelve months ended December 31, 2022. Net income available to common shareholders excluding after-tax restructuring and merger-related expenses (non-GAAP measure) was $151.9 million, or 2.56 per diluted share for the year ended December 31, 2023. These decreases were due in large part to the higher funding costs for both deposits and borrowings, inflationary cost pressures, and the recording of provision expense as compared to the benefit of a release of provision for credit losses in the prior year. Interest income increased $197.9 million or 38.5% to $711.5 million in 2023 compared to 2022. Net interest income increased $7.0 million or 1.5% from 2022, primarily due to loan growth and a rising rate environment. Non-interest income increased $3.1 million or 2.6% in 2023 compared to 2022, driven by a $2.7 million increase in net securities gains, and a $1.0 million increase in net gains on other real estate owned and other assets. Excluding restructuring and merger-related expenses, non-interest expense increased $30.9 million or 8.7%, driven by increases in FDIC insurance, salaries and wages, employee benefits and marketing expense.

Total assets as of December 31, 2023 were $17.7 billion, an increase of 4.6% as compared to December 31, 2022. As of December 31, 2023, total portfolio loans were $11.6 billion compared to $10.7 billion at December 31, 2022, reflecting an 8.7% increase year-over year. The loan growth funding is reflected within the increase in total borrowings of $615.8 million or 73.3% at December 31, 2023 compared to December 31, 2022. Criticized and classified loan balances decreased to 2.22% of total portfolio loans, as compared to 2.34% at December 31, 2022. Annualized net loan charge-offs to average loans for the full year period increased to four basis points compared to two basis points in 2022. Deposits remained steady in 2023, increasing by 0.3% from December 31, 2022.

Wesbanco continues to maintain what we believe are strong regulatory capital ratios, as both consolidated and bank-level regulatory capital ratios are well above the applicable “well-capitalized” standards promulgated by bank regulators and the BASEL III capital standards. At December 31, 2023, Tier I leverage was 9.87%, Tier I risk-based capital was 12.05%, total risk-based capital was 14.91%, and the common equity Tier 1 capital ratio was 10.99%.

Strong earnings enabled Wesbanco to increase the quarterly dividend to $0.36 per share in the fourth quarter of 2023, the seventeenth increase over the last thirteen years, cumulatively representing a 157% increase over that period.

30


 

Selected financial ratios for the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021 are presented in the table below:

 

 

 

For the years ended December 31,

 

(dollars in thousands, except shares and per share amounts)

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

PER COMMON SHARE INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earnings per common share—basic

 

$

2.51

 

 

$

3.03

 

 

$

3.54

 

Earnings per common share—diluted

 

 

2.51

 

 

 

3.02

 

 

 

3.53

 

Earnings per common share—diluted, excluding certain items (1)(2)

 

 

2.56

 

 

 

3.04

 

 

 

3.62

 

Dividends declared per common share

 

 

1.41

 

 

 

1.37

 

 

 

1.32

 

Book value at year end

 

 

40.23

 

 

 

38.55

 

 

 

40.91

 

Tangible book value at year end (1)

 

 

21.28

 

 

 

19.43

 

 

 

22.61

 

Average common shares outstanding—basic

 

 

59,303,210

 

 

 

60,047,177

 

 

 

65,520,527

 

Average common shares outstanding—diluted

 

 

59,427,989

 

 

 

60,215,374

 

 

 

65,669,970

 

Period end common shares outstanding

 

 

59,376,435

 

 

 

59,198,963

 

 

 

62,307,245

 

Period end preferred shares outstanding

 

 

150,000

 

 

 

150,000

 

 

 

150,000

 

SELECTED RATIOS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Return on average assets

 

 

0.86

%

 

 

1.08

%

 

 

1.37

%

Return on average assets, excluding certain items (1)(2)

 

 

0.88

 

 

 

1.09

 

 

 

1.40

 

Return on average tangible assets (1)

 

 

0.97

 

 

 

1.21

 

 

 

1.53

 

Return on average tangible assets, excluding certain items (1)(2)

 

 

0.99

 

 

 

1.22

 

 

 

1.56

 

Return on average equity

 

 

6.02

 

 

 

7.23

 

 

 

8.40

 

Return on average equity, excluding certain items (1)(2)

 

 

6.14

 

 

 

7.29

 

 

 

8.59

 

Return on average tangible equity (1)

 

 

11.59

 

 

 

13.78

 

 

 

14.89

 

Return on average tangible equity, excluding certain items (1)(2)

 

 

11.82

 

 

 

13.88

 

 

 

15.22

 

Return on average tangible common equity (1)

 

 

12.99

 

 

 

15.39

 

 

 

16.35

 

Return on average tangible common equity, excluding certain items (1)(2)

 

 

13.24

 

 

 

15.50

 

 

 

16.71

 

Net interest margin (3)

 

 

3.14

 

 

 

3.20

 

 

 

3.11

 

Efficiency ratio (1)

 

 

63.64

 

 

 

59.53

 

 

 

58.22

 

Average loans to average deposits

 

 

85.71

 

 

 

74.21

 

 

 

78.11

 

Allowance for credit losses - loans to total loans

 

 

1.12

 

 

 

1.10

 

 

 

1.25

 

Allowance for credit losses - loans to total non-performing loans

 

 

487.45

 

 

 

284.41

 

 

 

308.00

 

Non-performing assets to total assets

 

 

0.16

 

 

 

0.25

 

 

 

0.23

 

Net loan charge-offs to average loans

 

 

0.04

 

 

 

0.02

 

 

 

0.02

 

Average shareholders’ equity to average assets

 

 

14.34

 

 

 

14.90

 

 

 

16.33

 

Tangible equity to tangible assets (1)

 

 

8.49

 

 

 

8.19

 

 

 

9.84

 

Tangible common equity to tangible assets (1)

 

 

7.62

 

 

 

7.28

 

 

 

8.92

 

Tier 1 leverage ratio

 

 

9.87

 

 

 

9.90

 

 

 

10.02

 

Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets

 

 

12.05

 

 

 

12.33

 

 

 

14.05

 

Total capital to risk-weighted assets

 

 

14.91

 

 

 

15.11

 

 

 

15.91

 

Common equity tier 1 capital ratio (CET 1)

 

 

10.99

 

 

 

11.20

 

 

 

12.77

 

Dividend payout ratio

 

 

56.18

 

 

 

45.36

 

 

 

37.39

 

Trust assets at market value (4)

 

$

5,360,657

 

 

$

4,878,479

 

 

$

5,644,975

 

_______

(1)
See "Non-GAAP Measures" for additional information relating to the calculation of this item.
(2)
Certain items excluded from the calculation consist of after-tax restructuring and merger-related expenses.
(3)
Presented on a fully taxable-equivalent (FTE) and annualized basis. The FTE basis adjusts for the tax benefit of income on certain tax-exempt loans and investments using the federal statutory tax rate of 21% for all periods presented. Wesbanco believes this measure to be the preferred industry measurement of net interest income and provides relevant comparison between taxable and non-taxable amounts.
(4)
Trust assets are held by the Bank, in fiduciary or agency capacities for its customers and therefore are not included as assets on Wesbanco’s Consolidated Balance Sheets.

31


 

Non-GAAP Measures

The following non-GAAP financial measures used by Wesbanco provide information that Wesbanco believes is useful to investors in understanding Wesbanco’s operating performance and trends, and facilitates comparisons with the performance of Wesbanco’s peers. The following tables summarize the non-GAAP financial measures derived from amounts reported in Wesbanco’s financial statements.

 

 

 

For the years ended December 31,

 

(dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)

 

2023

 

 

2022

 

 

2021

 

Tangible common equity to tangible assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total shareholders’ equity

 

$

2,533,062

 

 

$

2,426,662

 

 

$

2,693,166

 

Less: goodwill and other intangible assets, net of deferred tax liability

 

 

(1,124,811

)

 

 

(1,131,990

)

 

 

(1,140,111

)

Tangible equity

 

 

1,408,251

 

 

 

1,294,672

 

 

 

1,553,055

 

Less: preferred shareholders' equity

 

 

(144,484

)

 

 

(144,484

)

 

 

(144,484

)

Tangible common equity

 

 

1,263,767

 

 

 

1,150,188

 

 

 

1,408,571

 

Total assets

 

 

17,712,374

 

 

 

16,931,905

 

 

 

16,927,125

 

Less: goodwill and other intangible assets, net of deferred tax liability

 

 

(1,124,811

)

 

 

(1,131,990

)

 

 

(1,140,111

)

Tangible assets

 

$

16,587,563

 

 

$

15,799,915

 

 

$

15,787,014

 

Tangible equity to tangible assets

 

 

8.49

%

 

 

8.19

%

 

 

9.84

%

Tangible common equity to tangible assets

 

 

7.62

%

 

 

7.28

%

 

 

8.92

%

Tangible book value per share:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total shareholders’ equity

 

$

2,533,062

 

 

$

2,426,662

 

 

$

2,693,166

 

Less: goodwill and other intangible assets, net of deferred tax liability

 

 

(1,124,811

)

 

 

(1,131,990

)

 

 

(1,140,111

)

Less: preferred shareholders' equity

 

 

(144,484

)

 

 

(144,484

)

 

 

(144,484

)

Tangible common equity

 

 

1,263,767

 

 

 

1,150,188

 

 

 

1,408,571

 

Common shares outstanding

 

 

59,376,435

 

 

 

59,198,963

 

 

 

62,307,245

 

Tangible book value per share at year end

 

$

21.28

 

 

$

19.43

 

 

$

22.61

 

Return on average tangible equity: