Company Quick10K Filing
Exela Technologies
Price1.19 EPS-2
Shares151 P/E-1
MCap179 P/FCF-5
Net Debt1,390 EBIT-217
TTM 2019-09-30, in MM, except price, ratios
10-K 2019-12-31 Filed 2020-06-09
10-Q 2019-09-30 Filed 2019-11-12
10-Q 2019-06-30 Filed 2019-08-08
10-Q 2019-03-31 Filed 2019-05-10
10-K 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-03-20
10-Q 2018-09-30 Filed 2018-11-08
10-Q 2018-06-30 Filed 2018-08-09
10-Q 2018-03-31 Filed 2018-05-10
10-K 2017-12-31 Filed 2018-03-16
10-Q 2017-09-30 Filed 2017-11-09
10-Q 2017-06-30 Filed 2017-08-09
10-Q 2017-03-31 Filed 2017-05-10
10-K 2016-12-31 Filed 2017-03-06
10-Q 2016-09-30 Filed 2016-11-14
10-Q 2016-06-30 Filed 2016-08-15
10-Q 2016-03-31 Filed 2016-05-16
10-K 2015-12-31 Filed 2016-03-28
10-Q 2015-09-30 Filed 2015-11-16
10-Q 2015-06-30 Filed 2015-08-10
10-Q 2015-03-31 Filed 2015-05-14
10-K 2014-12-31 Filed 2015-04-13
8-K 2020-06-09
8-K 2020-05-21
8-K 2020-05-15
8-K 2020-05-11
8-K 2020-04-23
8-K 2020-04-14
8-K 2020-03-31
8-K 2020-03-17
8-K 2020-03-11
8-K 2020-01-10
8-K 2019-12-02
8-K 2019-11-27
8-K 2019-11-12
8-K 2019-10-25
8-K 2019-08-08
8-K 2019-07-25
8-K 2019-05-31
8-K 2019-05-09
8-K 2019-04-16
8-K 2019-03-18
8-K 2019-02-21
8-K 2018-12-18
8-K 2018-11-08
8-K 2018-08-09
8-K 2018-07-13
8-K 2018-06-06

XELA 10K Annual Report

Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5. Market for Registrant’S Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management’S Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risk
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers, and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services
Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
EX-4.6 xela-20191231ex46267ac16.htm
EX-21.1 xela-20191231ex2119f2163.htm
EX-23.1 xela-20191231ex231a2b2ea.htm
EX-31.1 xela-20191231ex311758400.htm
EX-31.2 xela-20191231ex3124086c8.htm
EX-32.1 xela-20191231ex321f45340.htm
EX-32.2 xela-20191231ex322d0e5b3.htm

Exela Technologies Earnings 2019-12-31

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow
Assets, Equity
Rev, G Profit, Net Income
Ops, Inv, Fin

10-K 1 xela-20191231x10k.htm 10-K xela_Current_Folio_10K







(Mark One)


For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019



For the transition period from                   to                   

Commission File Number: 001‑36788


(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)




(State of or other Jurisdiction

Incorporation or Organization)


(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)




2701 E. Grauwyler Rd.

Irving, TX



(Address of Principal Executive Offices)


(Zip Code)


Registrant's Telephone Number, Including Area Code: (844) 935-2832

Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of Each Class


Trading Symbol


Name of Each Exchange On Which Registered

Common Stock, Par Value $0.0001 per share




The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC



Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.   Yes ☒   No

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. ☐  Yes ☒  No

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. ☐ Yes ☒ No

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). ☐ Yes ☒ No

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b‑2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

Smaller reporting company 




Emerging growth company 


Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).   Yes  ☒  No

The aggregate market value of the Registrant’s voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, computed by reference to the price at which such voting common equity was last sold as of June 30, 2019, was approximately $92,130,068 (based on a closing price of $2.18).

As of June 5, 2020, the Registrant had 147,511,430 shares of common stock outstanding.




The information required by Part III of this Report, to the extent not set forth herein, is incorporated herein by reference from the registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held in 2020, which definitive proxy statement shall be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission no later than June 12, 2020.








Overview of Restatement 


Part I 


Item 1. Business 


Item 1A. Risk Factors 


Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments 


Item 2. Properties 


Item 3. Legal Proceedings 


Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures 


Part II 


Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities 


Item 6. Selected Financial Data 


Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations 


Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risk 


Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data 


Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure 


Item 9A. Controls and Procedures 


Item 9B. Other Information 


Part III 


Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers, and Corporate Governance 


Item 11. Executive Compensation 


Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters 


Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence 


Item 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services 


Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules 






Certain statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10‑K (“Annual Report”) are not historical facts but are forward‑looking statements for purposes of the safe harbor provisions under The Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward‑looking statements generally are accompanied by words such as “may”, “should”, “would”, “plan”, “intend”, “anticipate”, “believe”, “estimate”, “predict”, “potential”, “seem”, “seek”, “continue”, “future”, “will”, “expect”, “outlook” or other similar words, phrases or expressions. These forward‑looking statements include statements regarding our industry, future events, the estimated or anticipated future results and benefits of the Novitex Business Combination, future opportunities for the combined company, and other statements that are not historical facts. These statements are based on the current expectations of Exela management and are not predictions of actual performance. These statements are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties regarding Exela’s businesses, and actual results may differ materially. The factors that may affect our results include, among others: the impact of political and economic conditions on the demand for our services; the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic; the impact of a data or security breach; the impact of competition or alternatives to our services on our business pricing and other actions by competitors; our ability to address technological development and change in order to keep pace with our industry and the industries of our customers; the impact of terrorism, natural disasters or similar events on our business; the effect of legislative and regulatory actions in the United States and internationally; the impact of operational failure due to the unavailability or failure of third‑party services on which we rely; the effect of intellectual property infringement; and other factors discussed in this report under the headings “Risk Factors”, “Legal Proceedings”, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and otherwise identified or discussed in this Annual Report. You should consider these factors carefully in evaluating forward‑looking statements and are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such statements, which speak only as of the date of this report. It is impossible for us to predict new events or circumstances that may arise in the future or how they may affect us. We undertake no obligation to update forward‑looking statements to reflect events or circumstances occurring after the date of this report. We are not including the information provided on the websites referenced herein as part of, or incorporating such information by reference into, this Annual Report. In addition, forward‑looking statements provide Exela’s expectations, plans or forecasts of future events and views as of the date of this report. Exela anticipates that subsequent events and developments will cause Exela’s assessments to change. These forward‑looking statements should not be relied upon as representing Exela’s assessments as of any date subsequent to the date of this report.


In this Annual Report, we use the terms “Company”, “we”, “us”, or “our” to refer to Exela Technologies, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, and where applicable, our predecessors SourceHOV and Novitex prior to the closing of the Novitex Business Combination. “Following is a glossary of other abbreviations and acronyms that are found in this Annual Report.”

“Appraisal Action” means the petition for appraisal pursuant to 8 Del. C. § 262 in the Delaware Court of Chancery, captioned Manichaean Capital, LLC, et al. v. SourceHOV Holdings, Inc., C.A. No. 2017 0673 JRS.

BPA” means business process automation.

BPO” means business process outsourcing

 Code” means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended.

Common Stock” means the common stock of the Company, par value $0.0001.

Consent, Waiver and Amendment” means the Consent, Waiver and Amendment dated June 15, 2017, by and among the Company, Quinpario Merger Sub I, Inc.,  Quinpario Merger Sub II, Inc., SourceHOV, Novitex, Novitex Parent, L.P., Ex Sigma LLC, HOVS LLC and HandsOn Fund 4 I, LLC, amending the Novitex Business Combination Agreement.

EIM” means enterprise information management.

ERP” means enterprise resource planning system.


Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

“Ex-Sigma 2” means Ex-Sigma 2 LLC, our principal stockholder at the Closing of the Novitex Business Combination.

Ex-Sigma” means Ex-Sigma LLC, the sole equity holder of Ex-Sigma 2.

GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles in the United States.

 “HGM Group” means, collectively, HOVS LLC and HandsOn Fund 4 I, LLC and certain of their respective affiliates.

HITECH Act of 2009” means the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, enacted under Title XIII of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.

“HIPAA” means the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996.

“IT” mean information technology.

JOBS Act” means the Jumpstart our Business Startups Act.

Margin Loan” means the additional PIPE financing in the form of a $55.8 million loan obtained by Ex-Sigma 2 as borrower (and secured by shares of the Company held by Ex-Sigma 2) that was used by Ex-Sigma 2 to purchase additional common and preferred shares from the Company to help meet the minimum cash requirements needed to close the Novitex Business Combination.

MegaCenter” means the Company’s Tier‑III document processing and outsourcing centers in Windsor, Connecticut, and Austin, Texas.

Nasdaq” means The Nasdaq Stock Market.

Novitex” means Novitex Holdings, Inc., a Delaware corporation.

Novitex Business Combination” means the transactions contemplated by the Novitex Business Combination Agreement, which closed on July 12, 2017 and resulted in SourceHOV and Novitex becoming our wholly‑owned subsidiaries and the financing transactions entered into in connection therewith.

Novitex Business Combination Agreement” means the Business Combination Agreement, dated February 21, 2017, among the Company, Quinpario Merger Sub I, Inc.,  Quinpario Merger Sub II, Inc., SourceHOV, Novitex, HOVS LLC, HandsOn Fund 4 I, LLC and Novitex Parent, L.P., as amended by the Consent, Waiver and Amendment.

 “PCIDSS” means the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard.

 “Quinpario” means Quinpario Acquisition Corp. 2, a Delaware corporation, the former name of Exela Technologies, Inc.

SEC” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission.

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

SourceHOV” means SourceHOV Holdings, Inc., a Delaware corporation.

TCJA” means the Tax Cut and Jobs Act.

TPS” means transaction processing solutions.



Overview of Restatement

In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, the Company:


restates its Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2018 and the related Consolidated Statements of Operations, Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss, Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Deficit, and Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017;


amends its Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) as it relates to the fiscal years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017;


restates its “Selected Financial Data” in Item 6 for fiscal years 2018 and 2017; and


restates its Unaudited Quarterly Financial Data for the first three fiscal quarters in the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 and each fiscal quarter in the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018.

Background on the Restatement

As previously disclosed in the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on March 17, 2020, the board of directors of the Company, based on the recommendation of the audit committee and in consultation with management, concluded that, because of errors identified in the Company’s previously issued financial statements for the fiscal years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 and the first three quarters of fiscal 2019, the Company would restate its previously issued financial statements, including the quarterly data for fiscal years 2019 and 2018 and its selected financial data for the relevant periods.

These errors were discovered during the course of preparing this Annual Report and the audit of the financial results for fiscal 2019. We have determined that these errors were the result of material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting that are reported in management’s report on internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019 in Part II—Item 9A – Controls and Procedures of this Annual Report.

The restated financial statements correct the following errors:

Appraisal Action Liability Adjustments:


$43.1 million, $40.6 million and $37.8 million understatement of accrued liabilities and total stockholders’ deficit, as at September 30, 2019, December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, due to applying an incorrect accounting treatment for the obligation to pay the fair market value of the former stockholders’ shares under the Appraisal Action.


$2.4 million, $2.9 million and $1.2 million understatement of loss for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, due to the unrecorded interest expense accrual associated with the Company’s obligation related to the Appraisal Action.  Interest should have been accrued in the relevant periods at the rate set by the Delaware Court of Chancery.

Outsourced Contract Cost Adjustments:


A $5.3 million understatement of loss for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and a $3.2 million overstatement of loss for the year ended December 31, 2018, due to the incorrect capitalization of employee training related costs during the set-up phase as costs of fulfilling contracts which should have been expensed under ASC 340-40. Additionally, an adjustment of $15.4 million was recorded to increase accumulated deficit as of January 1, 2018 to correct the previously-recorded transition adjustment for costs of fulfilling contracts upon the adoption of ASC 606 and ASC 340-40. These errors resulted in $17.3 million and $12.0 million overstatement of intangible assets, net as of September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively.


Expense Reimbursement Adjustments:


A $2.1 million understatement of loss and related party payables for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, due to non-accrual of the obligation to reimburse Ex-Sigma 2 for the discount to the market price on shares sold by Ex-Sigma 2 in a secondary offering in June 2019 and required to be reimbursed pursuant to the terms of the Consent, Waiver and Amendment.


A $2.4 million understatement of loss and related party payables for the year ended December 31, 2018, due to non-accrual of the obligation to reimburse Ex-Sigma 2 for the underwriting discount and commission expenses of $2.1 million and an advisory fee of $0.3 million incurred by Ex-Sigma 2 in a secondary offering in April 2018 and required to be reimbursed pursuant to the terms of the Consent, Waiver and Amendment.


A  $1.5 million overstatement of loss for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, due to an amount paid to Ex-Sigma 2 in July 2019 for the fees incurred in connection with the secondary offering, out of a  total reimbursable amount of $4.5 million as discussed in the two bullet points above, was erroneously recorded as selling, general and administrative expenses.


$1.7 million and $5.2 million understatement of loss for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and for the year ended December 31, 2018, respectively, due to the unrecorded related party expense accrual associated with the Company’s obligation to reimburse Ex-Sigma 2 in connection with premium payments made by Ex-Sigma 2 under the Margin Loan and required to be reimbursed pursuant to the terms of the Consent, Waiver and Amendment. This error resulted in $6.9 million and $5.2 million understatement of related party payables as of September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018, respectively.


$0.5 million and $0.4 million overstatement of selling, general and administrative expenses and understatement of related party expense by the same amount for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and year ended December 31, 2018, respectively, due to incorrect classification of related party expense as selling, general and administrative expenses. This error had no impact on net loss.

Revenue Recognition Adjustments:


A $4.8 million understatement of loss, for the year ended December 31, 2017, due to incorrect recognition of revenue of $6.4 million and related cost of revenue of $1.6 million in 2017 related to a multiple element arrangement that included a software license where vendor specific objective evidence (VSOE) of fair value was not established for the undelivered elements of the arrangement under the previous revenue recognition guidance in ASC 985-605. This error resulted in a $6.4 million understatement of deferred revenue and a $1.6 million understatement of prepaid expenses and other current assets as at December 31, 2017.


A $1.9 million understatement of revenues and understatement of cost of revenue by the same amount for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, due to incorrect application of the gross vs. net presentation guidance under ASC 606. The Company incorrectly netted the costs of rendering service from the revenue under a contract with one customer. This error had no impact on net loss.

Cash Flows Classification Adjustments:


$0.1 million and $34.5 million understatement of operating cash flows and overstatement of financing cash flows, for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, due to the incorrect interpretation of ASU 2016-15 (Classification of Certain Receipts and Cash Payments) and application on a retrospective basis upon adoption of ASU 2016-15 in 2018.


$14.3 million, $7.5 million and $11.0 million overstatement of operating cash flows and understatement of investing cash flows, for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, due to misclassification of cash flows associated with outsourced contract costs.


Other Adjustments:


In addition to the errors described above, the restated financial statements also include adjustments to correct certain other immaterial errors, including previously unrecorded immaterial adjustments identified in audits of prior years’ financial statements.

Cumulatively through September 30, 2019, the restatement had the following effects on net loss (in thousands):














































Appraisal Action




















Contract Cost








Tax Effect of


Total Increase















in Net Loss

Year Ended December 31, 2017






















Year Ended December 31, 2018






















Nine Months Ended September 30, 2019













































Effects of Restatement

The following table sets forth the effects of the restatement on affected items within our previously reported Consolidated Statements of Operations.


























Nine Months Ended


Year Ended


Year Ended

(in thousands, except per




September 30,


December 31,


December 31,

share data)











As Originally Reported
























As Restated










Operating loss


As Originally Reported
























As Restated










Net loss


As Originally Reported
























As Restated










Basic and diluted loss per share


As Originally Reported
























As Restated











The following table sets forth the effects of the restatement on affected items within our previously reported Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.

















Nine Months Ended


Year Ended


Year Ended





September 30,


December 31,


December 31,

(in thousands)









Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities


As Originally Reported
























As Restated










Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities


As Originally Reported
























As Restated










Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities


As Originally Reported
























As Restated











The adjustments made as a result of the restatement are more fully discussed in Note 3, Restatement of Previously Issued Financial Statements, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in this Annual Report. To further review the effects of the accounting errors identified and the restatement adjustments, see Part II—Item 6—Selected


Financial Data and Part II—Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included in this Annual Report. For a description of the control deficiencies identified by management as a result of the investigation and our internal reviews, and management’s plan to remediate those deficiencies, see Part II—Item 9A—Controls and Procedures.

Previously filed annual reports on Form 10-K and quarterly reports on Form 10-Q for the periods affected by the restatement have not been amended. Accordingly, investors should no longer rely upon the Company’s previously released financial statements for these periods and any earnings releases or other communications relating to these periods, and, for these periods, investors should rely solely on the financial statements and other financial data for the relevant periods included in this Annual Report. See Note 20, Unaudited Quarterly Financial Data, of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report for the impact of these adjustments on each of the quarterly periods in fiscal 2018 and for the first three quarters of fiscal 2019. Quarterly reports for fiscal 2020 will include restated results for the corresponding interim periods of fiscal 2019. All amounts in this Annual Report on Form10-K affected by the restatement adjustments reflect such amounts as restated.





Exela is a business process automation leader leveraging a global footprint and proprietary technology to help turn the complex into the simple through user friendly software platforms and solutions that enable our customers’ digital transformation. We have decades of expertise earned from serving many of the world’s largest enterprises, including over 60% of the Fortune® 100 and in many mission critical environments across multiple industries, including banking, healthcare, insurance and manufacturing. For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, we generated $1.56 billion of revenue from over 4,000 customers throughout the world.

Our solutions and services touch multiple elements within a customer’s organization. We use a global delivery model and primarily host solutions in our data centers, on the cloud or directly from our customers’ premises. Our approximately 22,700 employees as of December 31, 2019 operate from business facilities in 23 countries, with some of our employees co-located at our customers’ facilities. Our solutions are location agnostic, and we believe the combination of our hybrid hosted solutions and global work force in the Americas, EMEA and Asia offers a meaningful differentiation in the industries we serve and services we provide.

Picture 4

Exela’s portals provide on-demand multi industry and departmental solutions and services alongside industry specific solutions.


We will continue to further expand our solutions and services for the industries we serve, with a focus on connecting the front, middle and the back office. We believe this positions us as one of the few companies that can offer solutions and services that span from multi-industry departmental solutions to industry specific solutions.

Picture 1

Our Solutions and Services

Our suite of offerings combines platform modules for finance and accounting services, enterprise information management, robotic process automation, digital mailroom, business process management and workflow automation, visualization and analytics, contract management and legal management solutions, and integrated communication services which contribute to revenues across our organization and accounting segments and also complement our core industry solutions for banking, insurance, healthcare and the public sector.

Finance and Accounting Solutions (F&A)

Exela offers a suite of finance and accounting (“F&A”) solutions addressing the payments lifecycle from procure to pay (“P2P”) to order to cash (“O2C”). We use our own technology and our global operations to deliver these solutions.

Our P2P services can be integrated with our digital mail room technology, which expands our ability to support existing data types and formats. In effect, both digital and analog items can enter this information stream. The process kicks off by opening a requisition, once approved it moves to procurement to solicit bids from an approved supplier network. We believe that supporting our customers by making available our supplier network can be a key differentiator in enabling a complete P2P solution. Our P2P platform also records receipt of goods and invoices and performs three way matching digitally. Exceptions are processed by our employees, and once approved, we record the purchase in a customer’s ERP system, so it can be paid. We then use our system to generate and deliver a payment file in the format the bank needs so that a payment can be processed. Some of our customers also authorize us to process the payment on their behalf.


Picture 2

Our O2C solutions enable consolidation of inbound payment channels and data continuity to drive digital adoption and enhance treasury management, including integrated receivables dashboards, multi-channel bill presentment and payment, reconciliation, exception and dispute management, aging analytics, collections management and targeted engagements. The full process includes fulfillment of a customer order, raising an invoice in accordance with customer contracts, accounts receivable management and collections.

Our F&A services include spend analytics and data mining tools for financial planning and analysis to support reporting and audit functions, interchanges and robotics providing automation of ERP entries and regulatory reporting and fixed asset management. 

Enterprise Information Management (EIM)

Exela’s enterprise information management solutions ingest and organize large amounts of data across many data types and formats and store the information in cloud enabled proprietary platforms. We also gather transactional data from enterprise systems for similar hosting. The collected, extracted data is used to complete a process, and is then made available to our customers and their end-consumers for an agreed upon period. We derive revenue for such services, hosting and access.

Our EIM systems host billions of often mission critical records for our customers and the total number continues to rise. As an example of a large deployment of our EIM platform, we helped enable online records access to over 48 million end-customers of a group of European savings banks for deposits, statements, and car and personal loans and mortgages. Another example of EIM deployment is in the hosting of images of healthcare records, checks and payroll taxes for many years for retrieval, compliance and internal information purposes.

We often store both digital and paper records for our customers and offer release of information services according to guidelines set by our customers. For example, we will release documents in litigation upon receipt of a valid subpoena served on our customer or in the healthcare context when a patient switches hospitals and requests access to healthcare records from their previous hospital. We provide these records in the form requested, including chain of custody information. Increasingly, these records are accessed electronically or are delivered in line with green initiatives.


Our platforms can be integrated with customers’ existing EIM systems, and our customers can benefit from being able to conduct federated searches across connected datasets, manage records in accordance with their needs and regulatory requirements, build live customer and employee profiles, and facilitate release of information and routing with control over security and permissions.  We also provide business intelligence add-ons, offering summarization of data sets, dashboards and trend monitoring, relationship visualization, macro and micro drill-downs, escalation triggers and notifications.

Exela Robotic Process Automation

Exela has been at the forefront of using robotic process automation since 2009. Our deployment model is to use desktop automation first, and if the usage is very high, we usually migrate to server level automation. We have built up a large library of rules by industry and by customer. While we have been using robotic solutions as part of our internal processes for years, only recently have we made them available to our customers.  Our domain experts and analysts can either use an existing bot, modify one or create new ones using our design studio.  Our robotic solutions are available as programmable robots with a rules library for a specific industry or feature, or as an enterprise license or on a per user per month basis. 

Digital Mailroom Solutions

Exela is one of the leading global providers of digital mailroom solutions. Our digital mailroom solutions rely on proprietary technology, use our own or a client’s facilities and process a significant number of transactions daily. We use proprietary high-speed scanners as well as support most major scanners. Our end-to-end digital mail room features ingestion from many sources – paper, fax, electronic, emails and other digital data. We recently added recorded voice, image and video ingestion channels. This solution additionally offers shipping and receiving packages with digital receipt, delivery and routing to our intelligent lockers.

We own several classification engines that we deploy for information processing, including unattended digital repositories, for example unattended email boxes to identify content and route it to the appropriate member of an organization.  Exela offers its digital mail room for enterprise wide deployment to captive mailrooms of our customers, mail rooms outsourced to both Exela and others, and for business locations where there is no dedicated mail room, such as a front desk. Our customers can see their information across the enterprise from a single platform. Our digital mail solutions are available as SaaS, BpaaS or enterprise licenses and we often handle the entire mail operation for a client.

Business process management and workflow automation

Exela has built extensive proprietary workflow automation platforms for business process management across several industries and regions.  Our platforms are designed to have intuitive user interfaces with drag & drop configuration enabling analysts a certain amount of customization. Our platforms use our EIM engines by default, are designed to integrate with popular database and enterprise systems and are offered across three user categories:


Enterprise class, hosted on premises. Suitable for 10,000 or more users and 10,000 or more tasks or process automations. Over 10,000 of our employees use this every day to perform mission critical work for our customers in the Americas, EMEA and Asia.


Interdepartmental class workflow automation is ideal to bring structure and collaboration across departments. Over 2,500 of our employees globally use this platform to collaborate with each other and their individual work management. The platform is designed to integrate with other industry leading platforms to create a comprehensive collaborative experience. We intend to offer this to our customers in the future.


Case-management workflow automation platform available as a shrink wrap version for building custom workflows. One can use our library of workflows, customize them or build one from scratch for purposes of case management only. Customers can buy enterprise licenses of this platform, or on a SaaS basis and build their own workflows.


Exela provides visualization and analytics capabilities within its platforms to provide actionable intelligence tied to collaboration and task management.  Configurable dashboards enable users to quickly consolidate and organize disparate data sources through intuitive interfaces. Users can also build their own dashboards with dynamic drilldown options and alerts, link data to managers, and launch action items in pursuit of optimization and issue resolution.  By providing analytics tied to actionable tasks, we can help drive optimization to enhance profitability and connectivity.  For example, users can create visualization of volume trends and set triggers upon statistical thresholds, sending SMS alerts to managers to adjust their downstream capacity planning, if trends are not in line with set thresholds.

While we offer reporting and analytics on the scope of work processed through operations, we also provide our customers the capability to consolidate various data streams into comprehensive dashboards to enhance the business intelligence functions of an organization, including providing real-time visibility to revenue, cost, profitability and cash flow as well as process monitoring, KPI tracking, and actionable alerts.

We believe providing analytics modules complement our services and solutions, creating a superior user experience, and reducing the need for other third-party tools by centralizing business management within Exela’s platforms.  By enabling users to share dashboards across their organization, we believe additional users will adopt Exela platforms and increase our penetration into the front-end applications across an enterprise.

Enterprise Legal Management

Exela provides a contract management system to streamline execution, organization, and data management of large volumes of contracts.  We utilize natural language processing and machine learning to extract key terms within unstructured formats and complex content, providing variance analysis, summary tables, and automated organization.   Users can easily find important data points in contracts, and quickly analyze large volumes of language variations across format types. The extracted data can then be used to connect to existing systems and ERPs and serve as inputs to business operations, such as accounting and billing processes, financial planning and analysis, and regulatory reporting, enabling real-time audit and automated alerts for deviations from contract parameters.  By automating key term extraction, our contract management system enables large volumes of contracts to be analyzed quickly and enables processes such as billing or automatic reminders for significant dates. We believe that Exela’s ability to cost effectively provide high accuracy transactional operations with automated validations creates a competitive advantage against those relying on manual processes and discrete sampling.

Exela can also provide a digital signature system to streamline collaboration, approvals and execution of contracts.  We deploy a secure, hosted environment to request and execute signatures and exchange contracts and documents across individuals or groups. Our platforms enable multiple signature execution with routing through approval hierarchies, while providing transparency to the status and tracking of comments and edits.  Upon execution, documents are stored electronically for secure archiving and retrieval. 

Furthermore, Exela offers a suite of enterprise legal management solutions and services that streamline and automate legal department processes to rationalize costs and drive productivity.  Solutions and services range from preventative remediation, identifying risks such as overcharges, discrimination, and data breaches and proactively providing restitution, eDiscovery, word processing and contract management using automated summarization and metadata extraction along with cognitive search enabled by natural language processing; and records management.

Integrated Communications

Exela’s comprehensive multi-channel integrated communications solutions help customers communicate with other businesses or customers. This suite of solutions links through many channels, for example, email, print and mail, SMS, web, voice, and chat.  Exela solutions and services can also include design and marketing and selection of optimal engagement and least cost routing for mission critical communications for example, bills, statements, enrollments, customer support, targeted marketing, mass notifications, reprographics, and regulatory notices. 

We also work with our customers as a digital migration partner to improve user experience while helping to reduce and even eliminate inefficient, wasteful communications.  We use proprietary discovery techniques and analytics


in addition to service specific technology to propose optimal channel and content. Our employees can also generate personalized messages, customized promotions, incentives, escalations, and resolutions. 

Exela Smart Office

In the second half of 2019, we launched a group of solutions that complement our existing offerings, labeled Exela Smart Officeە℠ (“Smart Office”). Smart Office seeks to improve employee and visitor experiences while optimizing facility management efficiency thereby contributing towards corporate sustainability standards. Smart Office is our enterprise IoT, which helps transform the front-office, energy and facilities management, logistics and fulfillment for our customers, and provides on-demand services with connected devices to facilitate green initiatives, reduce waste, and ultimately enhance the employee and visitor experience.  For example, our space management software uses sensors to detect facility utilization, which enables optimized space and energy usage and provides mobile workers directions to available work spaces, while our Visitor Management System and lobby kiosk can be deployed to regulate facility access.  Our Intelligent Lockers are available for visitor day storage of luggage and to provide a secure chain of custody for parcels and mail for employees using our hosted shipping and receiving tools. There is also a Digital Mailroom offering part of Smart Office, which segregates white mail and aggregates, classifies and routes searchable multi-media mail to the appropriate recipient.

Recruit-to-Retire (HR)

During 2019, we moved the majority of our employees to our proprietary human capital management platform. This platform integrates with our existing offerings and is designed to help an enterprise and its employees manage the data and processes relevant to the entire employment lifecycle from recruitment to retirement.  By providing digital management and data tracking for human capital, we enable reduction in administrative overhead and enhanced management of human capital productivity while improving the overall experience. Our human capital management platform is now available for sale.

Industry Specific Services and Solutions

While the above described solutions and services can be leveraged across industries, over the years we have also developed services and solutions for specific industries which help our customers around the world better manage their liquidity. The most significant are summarized below. 

Banking and Financial Industry Solutions and Services

Our banking and financial solutions consist of payment, mortgage, enrollment, lending and loan management, governance and information management solutions and accounted for approximately 25% of 2019 revenue. Exela’s payment operations and treasury management solutions are designed to improve digital engagement and transaction speed and compliance.  We also provide mobile and remote deposit technologies to our banking and financial services customers. 

We are one of the largest processors of payments. We handle many payment channels in addition to checks and credit cards including, automated clearing house (ACH), Faster Payments in UK and Ireland, Single European Payment Area (SEPA), Bank Giro in the Nordics and other payment networks. We perform these services on behalf of banks or their customers. We believe the regulatory environment in many geographies is beginning to allow non-bank payment processors to connect to the payment networks directly such that one can verify funds, confirm payee and settlement of payments and are actively pursuing a PSP license in the European Union to further expand our payment offerings.

We have extensive experience and technology that we have built over decades and that are in use to serve many banks and companies to process the payments related to both business to business (“B2B”) and business to consumer (“B2C”) transactions.  We develop, use, and sell proprietary integrated receivables processing technology, providing our customers with a solution that consolidates B2B and B2C transactions across many payment channels into a single platform. We plan to offer this as a branded or as a private label solution to our banking customers giving them the


ability to offer advanced treasury solutions with insights from accounts receivable, customer credit worthiness, payment habits, soft collections and delinquent collections.

We add value by automating manual, repetitive processes to improve speed and provide cost efficiencies within a compliant mortgage and lending completion process.  Our proprietary mortgage and loan management solutions enable lenders to originate loans and service them with greater efficiency. Our platforms also enable invoice discounting, factoring, payables financing and leverage automation and integration such that traditional lenders and alternate lenders, including peer to peer lenders can provide liquidity to underserved borrowers.

Our key focus is user experience, enabling faster decisions, and facilitating optimal allocation of capital and risk management for our customers.  By using our solutions and services, we believe our banking and financial services customers can better manage their lending book and at a lower cost of ownership.

Our banking solutions help organizations transform compliance, know your customer, anti-money laundering and confirmation of payee checks into a competitive advantage, including accelerated digital on-boarding, complex process automation, screening and monitoring and predictive analytics.  Exela can provide these services as an end-to-end solution or as an augmentation of existing banking processes, as a technology license or through our employees to manage a component or an entire process.

Healthcare Industry Solutions and Services for Insurance Companies and Healthcare Providers

Exela’s healthcare industry customers include commercial and government sponsored healthcare plans, hospital networks and university hospital systems and large medical distribution systems and pharmacy networks, and accounted for approximately 23% of total revenues in 2019.  We serve our customers using our proprietary technology and for some customers combined with their systems.  

We bundle our core solutions and services with a suite of healthcare payer specific services such as end-to-end processing of complex transactions, enrollments and credentialing, claims processing, adjudication and payment operations. We specialize in transactions that require multiple layers of validation, supporting documentation processing, reconciliation, and management of exceptions. 

We host a proprietary platform that connects providers and payers for claims submissions, acknowledgements or denials of payments and many other interactions covering the complete lifecycle of a claim, which enables a more satisfactory engagement between payers and providers and contributes to improved access to health care and lower administrative costs. Our payer customers often encourage their contracted providers to adopt our digital platforms for overall reduction of claim processing time and cost.  We also provide our healthcare provider customers with many services including computer assisted coding, audit and recovery of underpayments, denial and grievances, release of information, and electronic health records. We plan to offer our mobile and web enrollment solutions, appointment scheduling and locating providers with ratings, also include insurance verification, cost of visit estimates and visit pre-approval. We provide some of these services and features on a stand-alone basis and in the future, we plan to offer a more integrated solution.

Insurance Industry Solutions and Services

Exela offers a suite of insurance industry solutions aimed at providing digital engagements and rapid integration of disparate systems and silos.  Our insurance industry solutions accounted for approximately 11% of total revenues in 2019. We provide applications and services to facilitate automation and digital transformation for underwriting and enrollments, premium payments, claims submission, first notification of loss, fraud, waste & abuse monitoring and integrated communications. Our solutions are aimed at improving the customer experience by providing digital pathways and transparency with web portals and integrated communications, while helping to improve quality and risk management.


Public Sector

We provide technology and solutions to public sector customers. Our public sector solutions accounted for approximately 8% of total revenues in 2019.  Our mission is to help our public sector customers with their digital journey and meet their objectives of better serving the public.  Exela solutions are primarily deployed across pension benefits and administration, tax return processing, payment operations, inter-agency information management and communications with citizens and employees of government institutions.

Our solutions have evolved over time to include digital capabilities and are designed to reduce taxpayer refund waiting time, decrease the potential for tax fraud, and provide reports and data to  the relevant stakeholders. Exela also has the infrastructure in place to process payments, perform collection services, handle overflow taxpayer calls, provide e-filing for individual income tax, generate outbound taxpayer notification (traditional and/or electronic notifications), and host other developed solutions. 

Commercial, Tech, Manufacturing, and Legal Industries Solutions and Services

For the commercial, technology, manufacturing and legal industries, we primarily provide multi-industry solutions described earlier.  For 2019, our commercial industry revenue accounted for approximately 21% of total revenues, our revenues from the technology and manufacturing industry accounted for approximately 7%, while our revenue from the legal industry accounted for approximately 5%.    

Historically, the majority of revenue for the above-mentioned industries was generated in the Americas, though we believe there is significant expansion opportunity throughout EMEA and the Asian markets.  As we have made investments in our global scale, technology platforms, and business strategy, some of our multi-national customers have expanded our services to other geographies to leverage our international footprint.  We believe our value proposition as a single source provider with global platforms and location agnostic operations, positions us as a differentiated partner to our multi-national customers.

With the launch of Smart Office, we have been  targeting technology companies in our initial go-to-market approach.  We believe technology companies have a heavy focus on employee experience to attract top tier talent, and they often serve as early adopters for new offerings setting trends across other industries, and we believe they will serve as strong references as we expand our Smart Office growth strategy.

Overview of Revenues

Our business consists of three reportable segments:


Information and Transaction Processing Solutions ("ITPS"). The ITPS segment is our largest segment, with $1,230.7 million of revenues for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, representing 79.0% of our revenues. We generate ITPS revenues primarily from a transaction-based pricing model for the various types of volumes processed, licensing and maintenance fees for technology sales, and a mix of fixed management fee and transactional revenue for document logistics and location services.


Healthcare Solutions ("HS"). The HS segment generated $256.8 million of revenues for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, representing 16.5% of our revenues. We generate HS revenues primarily from a transaction-based pricing model for the various types of volumes processed for healthcare payers and providers.


Legal & Loss Prevention Services ("LLPS"). The LLPS segment generated $71.3 million of revenues for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, representing 4.5% of our revenues. We generate LLPS revenues primarily based on time and materials pricing as well as through transactional services priced on a per item basis. 

Additional financial information for our three business segments is included in Note 19 within our consolidated financial statements.


We provide services to our customers on a global basis. In 2019, our revenues by geography were as follows: $1,285.6 million in the United States (82.3% of total revenues), $248.5 million in EMEA  (16.0% of total revenues), and $27.2 million from the rest of the world (1.7% of total revenues). We present additional geographical financial information in Note 19 within our consolidated financial statements.

Our revenues can be affected by various factors such as our customers' demand pattern for our services. These factors have historically resulted in lower revenues in the third quarter and higher revenues in the fourth quarter. Backlog is not a metric that we use to measure our business.

History and Development of Our Company

Exela is a Delaware corporation that was formed through the strategic combination of SourceHOV Holdings, Inc. ("SourceHOV") a leading global transaction processing company, and Novitex Holding, Inc. ("Novitex"), a cloud-based document outsourcing company, pursuant to a business combination agreement dated February 21, 2017. Formerly known as Quinpario Acquisition Corp. 2 ("Quinpario"), Exela was originally formed as a blank check company on July 15, 2014 and completed its initial public offering on January 22, 2015. In conjunction with the completion of the Novitex Business Combination in July 2017, Quinpario was renamed "Exela Technologies, Inc." Exela began trading under the ticker "XELA" on the Nasdaq Stock Market on July 13, 2017.

The Novitex Business Combination was accounted for as a reverse merger for which SourceHOV was determined to be the accounting acquirer. The acquisition of Novitex was accounted for using the acquisition method. As a result, the financial information for 2017 presented in this Annual Report is not pro forma (unless labeled as such); it includes the financial information and activities for SourceHOV for the entire year ending December 31, 2017, but only reflects the financial information and activities of Novitex for the period following the Novitex Business Combination from July 13, 2017 to December 31, 2017. 

On April 10, 2018, Exela completed the acquisition of Asterion International Group, a well-established provider of technology driven business process outsourcing, document management and business process automation across Europe. The acquisition was strategic to expanding Exela’s European business.

On November 12, 2019 we announced that our Board of Directors had adopted a debt reduction and liquidity improvement initiative (“Initiative”). This new Initiative is part of the Company’s strategic priority to position the Company for long-term success and increased stockholder value.  As part of the Initiative, on January 10, 2020, certain subsidiaries of the Company entered into a $160.0 million accounts receivable securitization facility with a five year term and consummated the sale of its tax benefits consulting group on March 16, 2020.  To fund the debt reduction, the Company is also pursuing the sale of certain non-core assets that are not central to the Company’s long-term strategic vision, and any potential action with respect to these operations would be intended to allow the Company to better focus on its core businesses. The Company has retained financial advisors to assist with the sale of select assets. The Company expects to use the net proceeds from the Initiative for the repayment of debt, with a target reduction of $150.0 to $200.0 million. Exela has set a two-year timetable for completion of the Initiative. There can be no assurance that the Initiative or any particular element of the Initiative will be consummated or will achieve its desired result.

Key Business Strategies

Exela business strategy is to use its Digital NowSM model, which aims to accelerate our customers’ digital transformation through deployment of our software automation techniques, hosted within a single, cloud hosted platform. Our overarching goal is to provide highest value and lowest cost of ownership. We accomplish this by building scalable systems that are used by our employees to deliver business process automation services globally.  The key elements of our growth strategy are described below:


Expand Penetration of Solution Stack Across Customer Base. We seek to move up what we call “the seven layers of technology enabled solutions and services stack,” climbing the value chain from discrete services to end-to-end processes through use of front-end enterprise software. We believe continued deployment of our


single sign on portals with on-demand applications will drive expansion of our front-end software (B2B/B2C/SaaS) and integrated offerings.


Layer 1 - Data Aggregation - Host, gather, extract all types of structured and unstructured data, digital and analog


Layer 2 - Information Management - Digital classifications, data enhancement and normalization driving downstream processes improvement


Layer 3 - Workflow Automation - Digital connectivity and automated decisioning driving productivity and quality 


Layer 4 - Process Component - Operations partner for component(s) of larger process, handing off output file for downstream execution


Layer 5 - Platform Interface Integrations - Exela platforms directly connected to customers’ core systems, accessed through SSO and common interfaces


Layer 6 - Digital Now End-to-End Process - Full cycle operations and technology for multi-channel process through execution of business outcomes


Layer 7 - Front-End Software (B2B/B2C/SaaS) - Exela front end applications (branded or private label) directly interfacing with end user experience

See diagram of 7 layers of solutions below:

Picture 9



Expand relationships with existing customers. We intend to continue aggressively pursuing cross-selling and up-selling opportunities within our existing customer base. With an existing base of over 4,000 customers, we believe we have meaningful opportunities to offer a bundled suite of services and be a "one-stop-shop" for our customers' information and transaction processing needs. Our sales force is organized on an industry basis and utilizes solutions and relationships to better serve our customers across all levels of their organizations. As an example, we now offer a full suite of healthcare-focused solutions by bundling enrollments, policy and plan management, claims processing, audit and recovery services, payment solutions, integrated accounts payable and receivable, medical records management, and unified communication services for payers and providers. 


Leverage BPA suite across on-site services.   Approximately 5,000 of our employees currently work at customers in an on-site capacity. We believe this on-site presence is a competitive differentiator and a valuable asset as we pursue future growth opportunities. We have been deploying our BPA software across these customer locations, and we believe that by offering our customers enhanced productivity and quality through our onsite employees, we will continue to create additional opportunities to expand our footprint and wallet share across their organization. For example, in customers where we provide underwriting support and claims processing, we can enable our onsite employees to accelerate the aggregation and analysis of datasets while also increasing accuracy and automatically flagging deficiencies using our software. By enhancing the productivity and quality of our onsite employees, we believe we will increase the demand from our customers to replicate our processes across their organization, bolstering our cross-sell/up-sell initiatives. By having our BPA suite already approved and deployed within existing onsite engagements, we believe our ability to expand into new lines of business will be streamlined and accelerated. 


Pursue new customer opportunities. We plan to continue to develop new long-term, strategic customer relationships, especially where we have an opportunity to deliver a wide range of our capabilities and can have a meaningful impact on our customers' business outcomes. For example, we plan to dedicate resources within the legal industry in order to pursue opportunities in e-discovery and contract management services. 


Develop additional process capabilities and industry expertise. We will focus on developing additional process capabilities and market expertise for our core industries. We will continue to invest in technology and innovation that will accelerate the build-out of our portfolio of next-generation solutions, such as platform-based descriptive and predictive analytics services for processing flows of "Big Data" to help customers gain better insight into their processes and businesses. As an example, on behalf of our customers, we are deploying Big Data automation platforms to analyze individual consumer behavior and interaction patterns to identify opportunities for revenue enhancement and loss prevention, and configure optimal outreach campaigns to drive sales, loyalty, and profitability.


Pursue meaningful cost synergy opportunities and accelerate long-term profitability. Due to similar operating infrastructures between SourceHOV and Novitex, we continue to deliver and believe we have additional opportunities across information technology, operations, facilities, and corporate functions to achieve cost savings executable as we approach three years from the closing of the Novitex Business Combination.


Capitalize on our enhanced scale and operating capacity. We intend to utilize our increased global scale and brand recognition to strengthen our ability to bid on new opportunities. We plan to dedicate more resources to pursue whitespace coverage to expand our range of service offerings and pursue additional cross-selling opportunities. We will also look to use our increased scale and operations expertise to improve utilization of our assets. As an example, we have pursued a strategy of consolidating smaller regional document processing centers to our two Tier-III document processing and outsourcing centers in Windsor, Connecticut, and Austin, Texas that we call "MegaCenters," which are increasing efficiency through economies of scale. By driving utilization up from the current levels of the MegaCenters, we will benefit from high flow through margins from increased revenues with minimal incremental investment.



We serve over 4,000 customers across a variety of industries, including over 60% of the Fortune® 100. Our customers are among the leading companies in their respective industries, and many of them are recurring customers that have maintained long-term relationships with us and our predecessor companies.

We have successfully leveraged our relationships with customers to offer extended value chain services, creating stickier customer relationships and increasing overall margins. Customers are increasingly turning to us due to a demonstrated ability to work on large-scale projects, past performance and record of delivery, and deep domain expertise accumulated from years of experience in key verticals. We believe, our stable base of customers and sticky, long-term relationships lead to predictable revenues.

Industry Highlights

Picture 32

We maintain a strong mix of diversified customers with low customer concentration. No customer accounts for more than 10% of 2019 revenue. The diversity of our customer base has contributed to the stability and predictability of our revenue streams and cash flows. We have been able to effectively balance our customer mix and reduce dependency on any single customer or vertical by penetrating a diverse set of end markets.

Research and Development

Our ability to continue to compete successfully depends heavily upon our ability to ensure a timely flow of competitive products, services and technologies to the marketplace while also leveraging our domain expertise to demonstrate our understanding in implementing solutions across the industries we serve. Through regular and sustained investment, licensing of intellectual property and acquisition of third-party businesses and technology, we continue to develop new knowledge platforms, applications and supporting service bundles that enhance and expand our existing suite of services.

Our seven-layer technology model requires us to continue to harness our capabilities in each layer and the ultimate measure of success will be how many customers are in each layer. We believe that a greater customer concentration in the top layers will reflect the success of our R&D strategy. Additional financial information regarding our R&D expense is included in Note 2 within our consolidated financial statements.

Intellectual Property

We deploy a combination of internally developed proprietary knowledge platforms, applications and generally available third-party licensed software as part of our scalable and flexible solutions and services. We believe our intellectual property is our competitive strength.

Our platforms aim to enhance information management and workflow processes through automation and process optimization to minimize labor requirements or to improve labor performance. Our decisioning engines have


been built with years of deep domain expertise, incorporating hundreds of thousands of customer and industry specific rules which enable efficiency and lowers cost preparation and decisioning of transactions. Our business processes and implementation methodologies are confidential and proprietary and include trade secrets that are important to our business. We own a variety of trademarks and patents, which are registered or pending. 

We regularly enter into nondisclosure agreements with customers, business partners, employees, and contractors that require confidential treatment of our information to establish, maintain and enforce our intellectual property rights. Our licensed intellectual properties are generally governed by written agreements of varying durations, including some with fixed terms that are subject to renewal based on mutual agreement. Generally, each agreement may be further extended, and we have historically been able to renew most existing agreements before they expire. We expect these and other similar agreements to be extended so long as it is mutually advantageous to both parties at the time of renewal.


We believe that the principal competitive factors in providing our solutions include proprietary platforms, industry specific knowledge, quality, reliability and security of service, and price. We are differentiated competitively given our scale of operations, reputation as a trusted partner with deep domain expertise, innovative solutions, and highly integrated technology platforms that provide customers with end-to-end services addressing many aspects of their mission-critical operational processes. We continue to integrate best practice delivery processes into our service-delivery capabilities to improve its quality and service levels and to increase operational efficiencies. The markets in which we serve are competitive with both large and small businesses, as well as global companies:


Multi-national companies that provide data aggregation, information management and workflow automation services, such as IBM, EMC, OpenText, Hyland, Iron Mountain, Canon, and Ricoh;


Consulting, discrete process and platform integration service providers such as Fiserv, Jack Henry, FIS, Black Knight Financial, Optum, Broadridge Financial Solutions, Computershare, Cognizant, and Accenture; 


Platform and front-end software providers, such as Workday, Salesforce, Blackline and Pega;


Multi-shore BPO companies, such as Genpact, Cognizant, Exl service, Conduent, Wipro, and WNS; and 


Smaller, niche service providers in specific verticals or geographic markets.

Regulation and Compliance

We handle, directly or indirectly through customer contracts and business associate agreements, a significant amount of information, including personal and health-related information, which results in our being subject to federal, state and local privacy laws, including the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, HIPAA and the HITECH Act of 2009. Further, we are subject to the local rules and regulations, including those relating to the handling of information, in the other countries in which we operate. In addition, services in our LLPS segment, though not directly regulated, must be provided in a manner consistent with the relevant legal framework. For example, our bankruptcy claims administration services must be provided in accordance with the requirements and deadlines of the United States Bankruptcy Code and Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. In addition, some of our customers are subject to regulatory oversight, which may result in our being reviewed from time to time by such oversight bodies. Further, as a government contractor, we are subject to associated regulations and requirements.

Changes to existing laws, introduction of new laws, or failure to comply with existing laws that are applicable to us may subject us to, among other things, additional costs or changes to our business practices, liability for monetary damages, fines and/or criminal prosecution, unfavorable publicity, restrictions on our ability to obtain and process


information and allegations by our customers and customers that we have not performed our contractual obligations, any of which may have a material adverse effect on profitability and cash flow.

Privacy and Information Security Regulations

Data privacy laws and regulations in the U.S. and foreign countries apply to the access, collection, transfer, use, storage, and destruction of personal information in connection with our services. In the U.S., our financial institution customers are required to comply with privacy regulations imposed under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, in addition to other regulations. As a processor of personal information in our role as a provider of services to financial institutions, we are bound by similar limitations on disclosure of the information received from our customers as apply to the financial institutions themselves. We also perform services for healthcare companies and are, therefore, subject to compliance with laws and regulations regarding healthcare information, including HIPAA in the U.S. We also perform credit-related services and agree to comply with payment card standards, including the PCIDSS. In addition, federal and state privacy and information security laws, and consumer protection laws, which apply to businesses that collect or process personal information, also apply to our businesses.

Privacy laws and regulations may require notification to affected individuals, federal and state regulators, and consumer reporting agencies in the event of a security breach that results in unauthorized access to, or disclosure of, certain personal information. Privacy laws outside the U.S. may be more restrictive and may require different compliance requirements than U.S. laws and regulations and may impose additional duties on us in the performance of our services.

There has been increased public attention regarding the use of personal information and data transfer, accompanied by legislation and regulations intended to strengthen data protection, information security and consumer and personal privacy. The law in these areas continues to develop and the changing nature of privacy laws in the U.S., the European Union (“E.U”) and elsewhere could impact our processing of personal information of our employees and on behalf of our customers. In the E.U. the comprehensive General Data Privacy Regulation (the "GDPR") went into effect in May 2018. The GDPR has introduced significant privacy-related changes for companies operating both in and outside the EU.  In the U.S., California has adopted the California Consumer Privacy Act, which went into effect on January 1, 2020, and several states are considering adopting similar laws imposing obligations regarding the handling of personal information. While we believe that we are compliant with our regulatory responsibilities, information security threats continue to evolve resulting in increased risk and exposure. In addition, legislation, regulation, litigation, court rulings, or other events could expose us to increased costs, liability, and possible damage to our reputation.


The continued success of our business is driven by our people. Our senior leadership team has extensive experience within the larger BPO as well as the BPA industries. As we were formed through a series of acquisitions, we have retained an experienced and cohesive leadership team. The combination of our employees with our technology is the backbone of our ability to provide holistic solutions designed to meet the rapidly evolving needs of our customers.

As of December 31, 2019, we had approximately 22,700 total employees, of which approximately 1,000 are part-time employees. We have a global workforce with a majority of our employees located in Americas and EMEA, and the remainder located in India, the Philippines and China. Our employee count fluctuates from time to time based upon the timing and duration of our engagements. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good.

We locate our operation centers in areas where the value proposition it offers is attractive relative to other local opportunities, resulting in an engaged educated multi-lingual workforce that is able to make a meaningful global contribution from their local marketplace. We offer our employees a focused set of training programs to increase their skills and leadership capabilities with the goal of creating a long-term funnel of talent to support the Company's continued growth. Additionally, our proprietary platforms enable rapid learning and facilitate knowledge transfer among employees, reducing training time.


Executive Officers

The following table sets forth information concerning our executive officers as of June 8, 2020:











Par Chadha




Executive Chairman

Ronald Cogburn




Chief Executive Officer

Shrikant Sortur




Chief Financial Officer

Suresh Yannamani





Mark Fairchild




President, Exela Smart Office

Srini Murali




President, Americas and APAC

Vitalie Robu




President, EMEA


Par Chadha is our Executive Chairman and is the founder, Chief Executive Officer and Chief Investment Officer of HGM, a family office, formed in 2001, and was the principal stockholder of SourceHOV immediately prior to the Novitex Business Combination. Mr. Chadha also served as Chairman of SourceHOV from 2011 until the closing of the Novitex Business Combination and as Chairman of our Board of Directors from the closing of the Business Combination until March 27, 2020 when he became our Executive Chairman. Mr. Chadha brings over 40 years of experience in building businesses in the Americas, EMEA and Asia, including execution of mergers and acquisitions, integration of businesses and public offerings. Mr. Chadha is a  co-founder of Rule 14, LLC, a leading big data mining and automation company formed in 2011, and during his career, Mr. Chadha has founded or co-founded other technology companies in the fields of metro optical networks, systems-on-silicon and communications. Through HGM, Mr. Chadha previously participated in director and executive roles in joint ventures with major financial and investment institutions, including Apollo Global Management, Inc., as well as other portfolio companies of HGM, and currently holds and manages investments in evolving financial technology, health technology and communications industries. Since 2005, Mr. Chadha has served as a Director of HOV Services Limited, a company listed on the National Stock Exchange of India, acting as its Chairman from 2009 to 2011.  Mr. Chadha holds a B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering from Punjab Engineering College, India, and completed graduate-level coursework in computer science at the Illinois Institute of Technology.

Ronald Cogburn is our Chief Executive Officer and served as Chief Executive Officer of SourceHOV from 2013 until the closing of the Novitex Business Combination. Mr. Cogburn also serves on our Board of Directors.  Mr. Cogburn has been part of companies that were predecessors to SourceHOV since 1993, bringing over 30 years of diversified experience in executive management, construction claims consulting, litigation support, program management project management, cost estimating, damages assessment and general building construction. Mr. Cogburn has also been a principal of HGM since 2003. Prior to his role as Chief Executive Officer of SourceHOV, Mr. Cogburn was SourceHOV's President, KPO from March 2011 to July 2013. Prior to this role, Mr. Cogburn was the President of HOV Services, LLC from January 2005 to September 2007, providing executive leadership during the company's growth to its IPO on the India Stock Exchange in September 2006. Mr. Cogburn has a BSCE in Structural Design/Construction Management from Texas A&M University and is a registered Professional Engineer.

Shrikant Sortur is our Chief Financial Officer and served as Executive Vice President, Global Finance from the Novitex Business Combination in 2017 until May 15, 2020. Mr. Sortur served as Senior Vice President, Global Finance of SourceHOV from 2016 until the closing of the Novitex Business Combination. He was responsible for SourceHOV's finance and accounting groups and led financial operations, activities, plans and budgets. Mr. Sortur's career spans more than 19 years of varied experience in financial management, accounting, reporting, and lean operations. Mr. Sortur served in other management roles in predecessor companies to SourceHOV from 2002 until the closing of the Novitex Business Combination. Mr. Sortur also acted as Vice President of Finance of SourceHOV from June 2015 to May 2016. Mr. Sortur acted as Director of Financial Planning and Analysis, TPS from January 2014 to June 2015. Prior to this role, Mr. Sortur was the Director of Financial Planning and Analysis, North America Operations from January 2012 to December 2013. Mr. Sortur acted as Controller for HOV Global from January 2009 to December 2011. Mr. Sortur was a Senior Accounting Manager for HOV Services, LLC / Lason, Inc. from May 2004 to December 2008 and worked for the SourceHOV group as a Manager, Finance & Accounts for Lason India Ltd. from December 2002 to May 2014. From March 1999 to December 2002, Mr. Sortur served as General Manager, Finance at SRM Technologies, a business


solutions and technology provider specializing in software design and development, systems integration, web services, enterprise mobilization, and embedded solutions development. From June 1997 to February 1999, Mr. Sortur served as Junior Manager, Finance and Accounting for Steel Authority of India, a large state-owned steel making company based in New Delhi, India. Mr. Sortur graduated from Osmania University with a bachelor's degree in accounting and is a Certified Public Accountant (CPA), Chartered Accountant (CA), and Certified Management Accountant (CMA).

Suresh Yannamani is our President and served as President, Americas of SourceHOV from 2011 until the closing of the Novitex Business Combination, and has been a part of companies that were predecessors to SourceHOV from 1997 until the closing of the Novitex Business Combination. Mr. Yannamani oversees the sales and operations and plays a large part in scaling the transaction processing solutions practice and enterprise solution strategy for healthcare, financial services and commercial industries. Mr. Yannamani was also President of HOV Services, LLC from 2007 to 2011, serving customers in the healthcare, financial services, insurance and commercial industries. Mr. Yannamani was the Executive Vice President of BPO services for Lason from 1997 to 2007 prior to its acquisition by HOV Services, LLC. Mr. Yannamani also served in management roles at IBM from 1995 to 1997, managing the design, development, and implementation of financial management information systems for the public sector and worked for Coopers & Lybrand as a consultant in public audits from 1992 to 1994. Mr. Yannamani has a bachelor's degree in Chemistry from the University of London and holds an MBA from Eastern Michigan University.

Mark Fairchild is our President, Exela SmartOffice and served as President of Exela Enterprise Solutions from the Novitex Business Combination until January 2019 and prior to that served as President, Europe, of SourceHOV from the merger of BancTec and SourceHOV in 2014, having served in management roles at BancTec since 1985. With more than 30 years of executive experience in the financial services industry, Mr. Fairchild specializes in global account management, transaction processing services, software solutions and hardware technology products. In 2005, Mr. Fairchild was appointed Chief Technology Officer of BancTec and was responsible for the company's software and hardware products, manufacturing and internal IT services until 2014. Prior to this role, Mr. Fairchild acted as Vice President for International Operations of BancTec from 2001 to 2005 and VP of European Operations from 1998 to 2001. In his role as International Systems Director from 1991 to 1998, Mr. Fairchild led the European software teams, implementing payment platforms throughout the region. As Director of Engineering of BancTec from 1989 to 1991, Mr. Fairchild led the research and development team that introduced a new high-speed digital image processing system that formed the base of BancTec's ImageFIRST product portfolio. Mr. Fairchild joined BancTec as a Project Manager, a position he held from 1985 to 1986. He began his career as a software developer at British Aerospace, where he worked from 1981 to 1985. Mr. Fairchild graduated with honors from Manchester University with a bachelor's degree in aeronautical engineering and holds an MBA from London Business School.

Srini Murali is our President, Americas and APAC and served as Chief Operating Officer Americas and APAC from the Novitex Business Combination until January 2019.  He is responsible for all sales, operations and business strategy functions across the Americas and Asia Pacific. Prior to the Novitex Business Combination, Mr. Murali served as Senior Vice President, Operations for the Americas and APAC regions for SourceHOV, creating global operating strategies, developing client relationships, and overseeing compliance. Mr. Murali has been a part of predecessor companies to SourceHOV since 1993. During his tenure, Mr. Murali has held analysis, product development, IT, and operational roles. In 2010, Mr. Murali took on a broader scope of responsibility as SourceHOV's Senior Vice President of Global Operations and IT. Mr. Murali has served in executive-level leadership roles at companies that preceded SourceHOV since 2007, when he was appointed Vice President of IT and Technology. Prior to these management roles, Mr. Murali served as Director of Information Technology for Lason from 2002 to 2007, and as an Application Development Manager for Lason from 1998 to 2002. Before joining Lason, Mr. Murali worked as a Systems Engineer for Vetri Systems from 1996 to 1998. Mr. Murali graduated with a bachelor's degree in mathematics and statistics from Loyola College, Chennai, and earned an MBA from Davenport University, Michigan.

Vitalie Robu is our President, EMEA and served as Chief Operating Officer, EMEA from the Novitex Business Combination until January 2019.  Mr. Robu is responsible for all sales, operations and business strategy functions across Europe, the Middle East and Africa.  Mr. Robu specializes in transaction processing services, technology products, and software solutions, and has over 20 years of international management experience in the private and public sectors.  Prior to the Novitex Business Combination, he served as Senior Vice President, Operations for the European region of SourceHOV from 2014. From 2010 to 2014, Mr. Robu held the position of President and Executive Director of


DataForce UK, a business process outsourcing and software provider that was part of SourceHOV. Prior to joining the SourceHOV group, Mr. Robu served as Manager of Investment and Insurance Products for Citibank EMEA in London from 2007 to 2010.  Mr. Robu has degrees in International Relations from the National School for Political Studies, Bucharest and Physics from the State University of Moloves, and earned an MBA from IMD - International Institute for Management Development, Lausanne.

Available Information

Our website address is We are not including the information provided on our website as a part of, or incorporating it by reference into, this Annual Report. We make available free of charge (other than an investor's own internet access charges) through our website our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to these reports, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish such material to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). Previously filed annual reports on Form 10-K and quarterly reports on Form 10-Q for the periods affected by the restatement have not been amended. Accordingly, investors should no longer rely upon the Company’s previously released financial statements for these periods and any earnings releases or other communications relating to these periods. In addition, we make available our code of ethics entitled "Global Code of Ethics and Business Conduct" free of charge through our website. We intend to post on our website all disclosures that are required by law or Nasdaq listing standards concerning any amendments to, or waivers from, any provision of our code of ethics.

The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at The information contained on the websites referenced in this Annual Report is not incorporated by reference into this filing.


In addition to the other information contained in this Annual Report, the following risks impact our business and operations. These risk factors are not exhaustive and all investors are encouraged to perform their own investigation with respect to our business, financial condition and prospects.

Risks Related to our Business

We have substantial indebtedness and other obligations and any failure to meet our debt service obligations or restrictive covenants would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operation and could cause the market value of our Common Stock to decline.

As of December 31, 2019, we had approximately $1.4 billion of long-term debt, excluding current maturities. In the fourth quarter of 2019, we announced a debt reduction and liquidity improvement initiative, which is part of the Company’s strategic priority to position the Company to long-term success and increased stockholder value.  As the first step of this initiative, the Company entered into a five year, $160.0 million accounts receivable securitization facility in January 2020, which has a lower cost of debt than the Company revolving credit facility.  The Company is also pursuing the sale of certain non-core assets.  While the Company seeks to repay and/or refinance a material portion of its indebtedness through this initiative, there can be no assurance that such plan will be successful in whole or in part and, even if the plan is successful, we will still have a substantial amount of indebtedness outstanding. On March 26, 2020, the Delaware Court of Chancery entered a judgment against one of our subsidiaries in the amount of $57,698,426 inclusive of costs and interest arising out of the Appraisal Action, which judgment will continue to accrue interest, until paid, at the legal rate, compounded quarterly.  On May 7, 2020, we filed a motion for new trial in relation to share count.  Following the Court’s decision on the motion for new trial, SourceHOV has the right to appeal the judgment. However, at present the judgment has not been stayed, and we expect the petitioners to seek to enforce the judgment. If we are forced to pay the judgment (or bond the judgment pending an appeal, which will likely require cash collateral), such action could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and/or cause our lenders to take action adverse to us. Our indebtedness and other obligations could: require a substantial portion of cash flow from operations to be dedicated to servicing our indebtedness, thereby reducing our ability to use cash flow from operations to fund operations, capital expenditures, and future business opportunities; increase the risks of adverse consequences resulting from a breach of


any indebtedness agreement, including, for example, a failure to make required payments of principal or interest due to failure of our business to perform as expected; decrease our ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, general corporate or other purposes; limit our flexibility to make acquisitions; require non-strategic divestitures; increase our cash requirements to support the payment of interest; limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and our industry; and increase our vulnerability to adverse changes in general economic and industry conditions. Our ability to make payments of principal and interest on our indebtedness and our ability to comply with financial covenants in our various debt agreements depends upon our future performance, which will be subject to general economic conditions and financial, business and other factors affecting our consolidated operations, many of which are beyond our control. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow from operations in the future to service our debt and meet our other cash requirements, we may be required, among other things: to seek additional financing in the debt or equity markets; to refinance or restructure all or a portion of our indebtedness; to sell certain of our assets, to the extent permitted under our indebtedness agreements; or to reduce or delay planned capital or operating expenditures. Our ability to restructure or refinance our debt will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. Any refinancing of our debt could be at higher interest rates and may require us to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict our business operations. In addition, any such financing, refinancing or sale of assets might not be available at all or on economically favorable terms.  Our inability to generate sufficient cash flow to satisfy our debt service obligations or to refinance our obligations on commercially reasonable terms could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations and could cause the market value of our Common Stock to decline.

Our future profitability and ability to sustain positive cash flow is uncertain.

Our future profitability depends on, among other things, our ability to generate revenue in excess of our expenses.  However, we have significant and continuing fixed costs relating to the maintenance of our assets and business, including debt service requirements, which we may not be able to reduce adequately to sustain our profitability if our revenue decreases. Our profitability also may be impacted by non-cash charges such as stock-based compensation charges and potential impairment of goodwill, which will negatively affect our reported financial results. Even if we achieve profitability on an annual basis, we may not be able to achieve profitability on a quarterly basis. You should not consider prior revenue growth as indicative of our future performance. In fact, in future quarters, we may not have any revenue growth or our revenue could decline. We may incur significant losses in the future for a number of reasons and risks described elsewhere herein and we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other unknown events.

Our ability to continue to generate positive cash flow depends on our ability to generate collections from sales in excess of our cash expenditures. Our ability to generate and collect on sales can be negatively affected by many factors, including but not limited to our inability to convince new customers to use our services or existing customers to renew their contracts or use additional services; the lengthening of our sales cycles and implementation periods; changes in our customer mix; a decision by any of our existing customers to cease or reduce using our services; failure of customers to pay our invoices on a timely basis or at all; a failure in the performance of our solutions or internal controls that adversely affects our reputation or results in loss of business; the loss of market share to existing or new competitors; the failure to enter or succeed in new markets; regional or global economic conditions or regulations affecting perceived need for or value of our services; or our inability to develop new offerings, expand our offerings or drive adoption of our new offerings on a timely basis and thus potentially not meeting evolving market needs.

We anticipate that we will incur increased sales and marketing and general and administrative expenses as we continue to diversify our business into new industries and geographic markets. Our business will also require significant amounts of working capital to support our growth. We may not achieve collections from sales to offset these anticipated expenditures sufficient to maintain positive future cash flow. In addition, we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other unknown events that cause our costs to exceed our expectations. An inability to generate positive cash flow may decrease our long-term viability.

Our results of operations could in the future be materially adversely impacted by the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19).



Our results of operations could in the future be materially adversely impacted by the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). We currently have two priorities: the safety and wellbeing of our employees and their families, and continuing to provide services to our customers in these unprecedented times. The global spread of the coronavirus (COVID-19) has created significant volatility and uncertainty and economic disruption. The extent to which the coronavirus pandemic impacts our business, operations and financial results will depend on numerous evolving factors that we may not be able to accurately predict, including: the duration and scope of the pandemic; governmental, business and individuals’ actions that have been and continue to be taken in response to the pandemic; the impact of the pandemic on economic activity and actions taken in response; the effect on our customers and customer demand for our services and solutions; our ability to sell and provide our services and solutions, including as a result of travel restrictions and people working from home; the ability of our customers to pay for our services and solutions; and any closures of our and our customers' offices and facilities. The spread of the coronavirus has caused us to modify our business practices (including employee travel, employee work locations, and cancellation of physical participation in meetings, events and conferences), and we may take further actions as may be required by government authorities or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers and business partners. 


We provide essential services including payment processing, bills and related exceptions for the financial sector, healthcare industry, and state, federal and local governments, and have accordingly been permitted to continue operating across most of our locations in the United States and across EMEA. The majority of our employees are located in the Americas and EMEA, representing 62% of our total headcount. Our locations in China are operating at full capacity and adding more volume and headcount. Close to two thirds of our India operations, totaling 4,900 employees, have transitioned to work from home and the remainder of volume is transitioning to work from home or is being routed to our other global sites, including China, Mexico and Poland. The closure of facilities, or restrictions inhibiting our employees’ ability to access facilities, has disrupted, and could in the future disrupt our ability to provide our services and solutions and result in, among other things, terminations of customer contracts and losses of revenue. Customers may also slow down decision making, delay planned work or seek to modify existing agreements. Further, key personnel could contract the coronavirus hindering their ability to perform for us. One or more of our physical locations could become a cluster for the coronavirus, causing a large concentration of our employees to be adversely impacted and causing a significant disruption to our operations. Any of these events could cause or contribute to the risks and uncertainties enumerated in our filings with the SEC and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and/or stock price.

Our results of operations could be adversely affected by economic and political conditions, creating complex risks, many of which are beyond our control.

Our business depends on the continued demand for our services, and if current global economic conditions worsen, our business could be adversely affected by our customers’ financial condition and level of business activity. Along with our customers we are subject to global political, economic and market conditions, including inflation, interest rates, energy costs, the impact of natural disasters, disease, military action and the threat of terrorism. In particular, we currently derive, and are likely to continue to derive, a significant portion of revenues from customers located in North America and EMEA. Any future decreases in the general level of economic activity in these markets, such as decreases in business and consumer spending and increases in unemployment rates as have begun to be experienced as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, could result in a decrease in demand for our services, thus reducing our revenue. For example, certain customers may decide to reduce or postpone their spending on the services we provide, and we may be forced to lower our prices. Other developments in response to economic events, such as consolidations, restructurings or reorganizations, particularly involving our customers, could also cause the demand for our services to decline, negatively affecting the amount of business that we are able to obtain or retain. We may not be able to predict the impact such conditions will have on the industries we serve and may be unable to plan effectively for or respond to such impact. In response to economic and market conditions, from time to time we have undertaken or may undertake initiatives to reduce our cost structure where appropriate, such as consolidation of resources to provide functional region-wide support to our international subsidiaries in a centralized fashion. These initiatives, as well as any future workforce and facilities reductions we may implement, may not be sufficient to meet current and future changes in economic and market conditions and allow us to continue to achieve the growth rates expected. In addition, costs actually incurred in connection with certain restructuring actions may be higher than our estimates of such costs and/or may not lead to the anticipated cost savings.


Additionally, major political events, including the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union on January 31, 2020 (“Brexit”), continue to create uncertainty on topics that are relevant to our operations in the United Kingdom, such as immigration laws and employment laws, trade agreements and privacy laws.  While the United Kingdom has agreed to follow all EU rules until December 31, 2020, and their trading relationship will remain the same during this period, the United Kingdom and the EU are currently in negotiations on the final terms of the United Kingdom’s withdrawal.  We are currently examining the various possible impacts Brexit may have on our business and operating model in an effort to develop solutions to address any of the potential outcomes. In addition, it is possible that Brexit may adversely affect global economic conditions and financial markets, to a greater extent than we have currently anticipated.

In addition, any future disruptions or turbulence in the global credit markets may adversely affect our liquidity and financial condition, and the liquidity and financial condition of our customers. Such disruptions may limit our ability to access financing, increase the cost of financing needed to meet liquidity needs and affect the ability of our customers to use credit to purchase our services or to make timely payments to us, adversely affecting our financial condition and results of operations.

We have recorded significant goodwill impairment charges and may be required to record additional charges to future earnings if our goodwill or intangible assets become impaired.

As of December 31, 2019, our goodwill balance was $358.5 million which represented 28.0% of total consolidated assets. We are required under generally accepted accounting principles to review our intangible assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. Goodwill is required to be tested for impairment at least annually. Factors that may be considered a change in circumstances indicating that the carrying value of our intangible assets and/or goodwill may not be recoverable include a decline in stock price and market capitalization, slower growth rates in our industry or our own operations, and/or other materially adverse events that have implications on the profitability of our business or business segments. We may be required to record additional charges to earnings during the period in which any impairment of our goodwill or other intangible assets is determined which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations. Even though these charges may be non-cash items and may not have an immediate impact on our liquidity, the fact that we report charges of this nature could contribute to negative market perceptions about us or our securities, including, without limitation, our Common Stock.

Cybersecurity issues, vulnerabilities, and criminal activity resulting in a data or security breach could result in risks to our systems, networks, products, solutions and services resulting in liability or reputational damage.

We collect and retain large volumes of internal and customer data, including personally identifiable information and other sensitive data both physically and electronically, for business purposes, and our various information technology systems enter, process, summarize and report such data. We also maintain personally identifiable information about our employees. Safeguarding customer, employee and our own data is a key priority for us, and our customers and employees have come to rely on us for the protection of their personal information. Augmented vulnerabilities, threats and more sophisticated and targeted cyber-related attacks pose a risk to our security and the security of our customers, partners, suppliers and third-party service providers, and to the confidentiality, availability and integrity of data owned by us or our customers. Despite our efforts to protect sensitive, confidential or personal data or information, we may be vulnerable to material security breaches, theft, misplaced or lost data, programming errors, employee errors and/or malfeasance that could potentially lead to the compromise of sensitive, confidential or personal data or information, improper use of our systems, software solutions or networks, unauthorized access, use, disclosure, modification or destruction of information, defective products, production downtimes and operational disruptions. Despite protective measures, we may not be successful in preventing security breaches which compromise the confidentiality and integrity of this data. While an attempt is made to mitigate these risks by employing a number of measures, including employee training, monitoring and testing, and maintenance of protective systems and contingency plans, we remain vulnerable to such threats. The risk of such threats may be heightened as a result of an extended period of remote work arrangements due to the COVID-19 pandemic.


The sensitive, confidential or personal data or information that we have access to is also subject to privacy and security laws, regulations or customer-imposed controls. The regulatory environment, as well as the requirements imposed on us by the industries we serve governing information, security and privacy laws is increasingly demanding. Maintaining compliance with applicable security and privacy regulations may increase our operating costs and/or adversely impact our ability to provide services to our customers. Furthermore, a compromised data system or the intentional, inadvertent or negligent release or disclosure of data could result in theft, loss, fraudulent or unlawful use of customer, employee or our data which could harm our reputation or result in remedial and other costs, fines or lawsuits. In addition, a cyber-related attack could result in other negative consequences, including damage to our reputation or competitiveness, remediation or increased protection costs, litigation or regulatory action. Fraud, employee negligence, and unauthorized access, including, without limitation, malfunctions, viruses and other events beyond our control, may lead to the misappropriation or unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential information we process, store and transmit, including personal information, for our customers, failure to prevent or mitigate data loss or other security breaches, including breaches of our vendors’ technology and systems, could expose us or our customers to a risk of loss or misuse of such information, adversely affect our operating results, result in litigation or potential liability for us and otherwise harm our business. As a result, we may be subject to monetary damages, regulatory enforcement actions or fines under federal legislation, such as, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and HIPAA, as well as various states’ laws, such as the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”), which became effective on January 1, 2020 or under the GDPR in Europe. Similarly, regulations such as the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 expand the obligations of “covered entities” and their business associates, including certain mandatory breach notification requirements. In addition to any legal liability, data or security breaches may lead to negative publicity, reputational damage and otherwise adversely affect the results of our operations.

Our industry may be adversely impacted by a negative public reaction in the U.S. and elsewhere to providing certain of our services from outside the U.S. and related legislation.

We have based our strategy of future growth on certain assumptions regarding our industry and future demand in the market for the provision of business process solutions in part using offshore resources. However, providing services from offshore locations is a politically sensitive topic in the U.S. and elsewhere, and many organizations and public figures have publicly expressed concern about a perceived association between offshore service providers and the loss of jobs in their home countries. In addition, there has been some publicity about the negative experience of certain companies that provide their services offshore, particularly in India. The trend of providing business process solutions offshore may not continue and could reverse if companies elect to develop and perform their business processes internally or are discouraged from transferring these services to offshore service providers. Any slowdown or reversal of existing industry trends could negatively affect the amount of business that we are able to obtain or retain.

A variety of U.S. federal and state legislation has been proposed that, if enacted, could restrict or discourage U.S. companies from providing their services from outside the U.S., including proposals for providing tax and other economic incentives for companies that create jobs in the U.S. by reducing their reliance on offshore locations. Other state bills have proposed requiring offshore service providers to disclose their geographic locations, requiring notice to individuals whose personal information is disclosed to non-U.S. affiliates or subcontractors, requiring disclosures of companies’ foreign outsourcing practices or restricting U.S. private sector companies that have government contracts, grants or guaranteed loan programs from providing their services. Because most of our customers are located in the U.S., any expansion of existing laws or the enactment of new legislation that constrains our ability to provide our solutions from offshore or otherwise makes using our services unappealing or impractical for our customers could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

The HGM Group has significant influence over us and our corporate governance.

The HGM Group has voting control of approximately 50% of our Common Stock. As long as the HGM Group owns or controls a significant percentage of outstanding voting power, it will have the ability to strongly influence all corporate actions requiring stockholder approval, including the election and removal of directors and the size of our board of directors, any amendment of our certificate of incorporation or bylaws, or the approval of any merger or other significant corporate transaction, including a sale of substantially all of our assets. In addition, pursuant to the terms of


the Director Nomination Agreement, the HGM Group has certain nomination rights with respect to our board of directors and consent rights over certain of our corporate actions.

Additionally, the HGM Group’s interests may not align with the interests of our other stockholders. The HGM Group is in the business of making investments in companies and may acquire and hold interests in businesses that compete directly or indirectly with us. The HGM Group may also pursue acquisition opportunities that may be complementary to our business, and, as a result, those acquisition opportunities may not be available to us. In addition, our certificate of incorporation provides that we renounce any interest or expectancy in the business opportunities of the HGM Group and that it shall not have any obligation to offer to us those opportunities unless presented to one of our directors or officers in his or her capacity as a director or officer of Exela.

Certain services we provide to customers in our public sector vertical may be subject to additional restrictions or limitations.

Our engagements with entities in the public sector, may be subject to compliance with additional legislative or regulatory requirements. Certain state and local governments and agencies have adopted, or may in the future adopt, legislation or rules imposing additional requirements on services provided to the public sector, including restrictions as to where certain services can be performed or where certain data can be stored, even within the U.S. Additionally, our employees who are staffed on certain public sector engagements may be subject to strict background checks or other certifications. These additional requirements may make it more difficult to staff large public sector engagements, require us to turn down new engagements, affect our ability to meet customer expectations, deadlines or other specifications and otherwise increase our costs or decrease our revenues. Further, there can be no assurances that a public sector entity will not face funding shortages or reallocate funding for our services to other priorities, either prior to or after we have begun to perform our services, which could impact whether we are fully compensated for our services and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. In addition, the results of the 2020 U.S. presidential election could have further impacts on our work in the public sector if new policies or funding priorities are enacted.

Certain of our contracts are subject to termination rights, audits and/or investigations, which, if exercised, could negatively impact our reputation and reduce our ability to compete for new contracts and have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Many of our customer contracts may be terminated by our customers without cause and without any fee or penalty, with only limited notice. Any failure to meet a customer’s expectations, as well as factors beyond our control, including a customer’s financial condition, strategic priorities, or mergers and acquisitions, could result in a cancellation or non-renewal of such a contract or a decrease in business provided to us and cause our actual results to differ from our forecasts. We may not be able to replace any customer that elects to terminate or not renew its contract with us, which would reduce our revenues.

In addition, a portion of our revenues is derived from contracts with the U.S. federal and state governments and their agencies and from contracts with foreign governments and their agencies. Government entities typically finance projects through appropriated funds. While these projects are often planned and executed as multi-year projects, government entities usually reserve the right to change the scope of or terminate these projects for lack of approved funding and/or at their convenience. Changes in government or political developments, including budget deficits, shortfalls or uncertainties, government spending reductions (e.g., during a government shutdown) or other debt or funding constraints could result in lower governmental sales and in our projects being reduced in price or scope or terminated altogether, which also could limit our recovery of incurred costs, reimbursable expenses and profits on work completed prior to the termination. The public procurement environment is unpredictable and this could adversely affect our ability to perform work under new and existing contracts. Also, our government business is subject to the risk that one or more of our potential contracts or contract extensions may be diverted by the contracting agency to a small or disadvantaged or minority-owned business pursuant to set-aside programs administered by the Small Business Administration, or may be bundled into large multiple award contracts for very large businesses. These risks can potentially have an adverse effect on our revenue growth and profit margins.


If the government finds that it inappropriately charged any costs to a contract, the costs are not reimbursable or, if already reimbursed, the cost must be refunded to the government. Additionally, if the government discovers improper or illegal activities or contractual non-compliance (including improper billing), we may be subject to various civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, which may include termination of contracts, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines and suspensions or debarment from doing business with the government. Any resulting penalties or sanctions could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. Moreover, government contracts are generally subject to audits and investigations by government agencies. Further, the negative publicity that could arise from any such penalties, sanctions or findings in such audits or investigations could have an adverse effect on our reputation in the industry and reduce our ability to compete for new contracts and could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Our services and facilities may be impacted by terrorism, natural disasters and other disruptions, resulting in an adverse effect on our profitability and financial condition.

Our ability to provide services may be impacted or disrupted as a result of natural disasters, technical disruptions (including power outage and telecommunications failure), man-made events (including cyber-attacks, war and terrorist attacks), and global health risks or pandemics, including the coronavirus, as well as the threat or perceived threat of any of these events in the U.S. or any of the locations in which we operate. A significant portion of our employees and key operations centers are located in India and the Philippines, with, particularly in India, limited diversification or redundancy. India and the Philippines are particularly susceptible to natural disasters, including typhoons, tsunamis, floods and earthquakes, and the Philippines is additionally susceptible to volcanic eruptions. Our operations in these locations, as well as certain other countries outside of the U.S., are also at greater risk of disruptions in electricity, other public utilities or network services due to substandard infrastructure. Although all of our operations centers have disaster management plans, certain disaster management facilities, particularly in India, may not be adequate to protect against potential disruptions due to natural or other disasters. Damage, destruction or disruptions, including to our MegaCenters, could make it difficult or impossible for employees to reach our business locations or otherwise interrupt our ability to provide our services. Sustained periods of interruption in our services could adversely affect our reputation and relationships with our customers, cause us to incur substantial expenses and expose us to liability. Our insurance coverage may not be sufficient to cover all of our potential losses and our business, results of operation and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Any disruption related to our U.S. data centers or MegaCenters due to any of the foregoing events may cause significant disruptions in our ability to provide our services to our customers and result in a material adverse effect on our reputation, results of operations and financial condition and our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Although we believe that our insurance coverage with respect to disruptive events is reasonable, significant events such as acts of war and terrorism, economic conditions, judicial decisions, legislation, natural disasters and large losses could materially affect our insurance obligations and future expense.

Our executives, senior management team and other key personnel are critical to our continued success and the loss of such personnel, or an inability to attract, engage, retain and integrate our executives and other key employees could harm our business.

Our future success substantially depends on the continued service and performance of our executives, senior management team, as well as other key individuals in senior leadership positions. These personnel possess business and technical capabilities that are difficult to replace. The loss of any of our key personnel, particularly to competitors, may adversely affect our ability to effectively manage our current operations or meet ongoing and future business challenges. Further, identifying, developing internally or hiring externally, training and retraining highly-skilled managerial, technical, sales and services, finance and marketing personnel are critical to our future. Failure to successfully hire executives and key employees or the loss of any executives and key employees could have a significant impact on our operations.


Our business, financial position, and results of operations could be harmed by adverse rating actions by credit rating agencies.

If the credit ratings of our outstanding indebtedness are downgraded, or if rating agencies indicate that a downgrade may occur, our business, financial position, and results of operations could be adversely affected and perceptions of our financial strength could be damaged. A downgrade would have the effect of increasing our borrowing costs, and could decrease the availability of funds we are able to borrow, adversely affecting our business, financial position, and results of operations. In addition, a downgrade could adversely affect our relationships with our customers.

Our current failure to meet the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq could result in a delisting of our Common Stock.


Our Common Stock is currently listed for trading on The Nasdaq Capital Market, and the continued listing of our Common Stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market is subject to our compliance with a number of listing standards. In November 2019, we received a notice from Nasdaq that because the closing bid price for our Common Stock had fallen below $1.00 per share for 30 consecutive business days, we no longer complied with the $1.00 minimum bid price requirement for continued listing on The Nasdaq Capital Market under Rule 5550(a)(2) of the Nasdaq Listing Rules. Pursuant to Nasdaq Listing Rules, as tolled for the current COVID-19 pandemic, we have until August 10, 2020 to regain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement. To regain compliance, the closing bid price of the Company’s Common Stock must meet or exceed $1.00 per share for a minimum of 10 consecutive business days prior to August 10, 2020. In addition, in April 2020 we received an additional notice specifying that we are not in compliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5550(b)(2) because for 30 consecutive business days our Market Value of Listed Securities (“MVLS”) was below the minimum requirement of $35 million. While we have since regained compliance with the MVLS requirement by having our MVLS close at or above $35 million for a minimum of ten consecutive business days, there can be no assurance that our MVLS will not again fall below $35 million for a period of 30 consecutive business days. 


If we do not regain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement by August 10, 2020, we may be eligible for an additional grace period. To qualify, we would be required to meet the continued listing requirements for MVLS and all other initial listing standards for The Nasdaq Capital Market, with the exception of the minimum bid price requirement, and provide written notice of our intention to cure the minimum bid price deficiency during the second compliance period. If we meet these requirements, the Nasdaq staff will grant an additional 180 calendar days for us to regain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement. If the Nasdaq staff determines that we will not be able to cure the deficiency, or if we are otherwise not eligible for such additional compliance period, Nasdaq will provide notice that our Common Stock will be subject to delisting. We would have the right to appeal a determination to delist our Common Stock, and the Common Stock would remain listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market until the completion of the appeal process. Separate from the bid price and MVLS issues, on April 2, 2020, the Company received a notice from Nasdaq notifying the Company that, as a result of its failure to timely file this Annual Report, it is not in compliance with Nasdaq Listing Rule 5250(c)(1), which requires timely filing of periodic reports with the SEC.  In the notice, Nasdaq indicated that the Company had 60 calendar days from the date of the notice (or until June 2, 2020) to submit a plan to regain compliance with Nasdaq’s continued listing requirements.  The Company submitted its plan on June 1, 2020 requesting that the Nasdaq staff grant the Company until September 28, 2020, to regain compliance by filing this Form 10-K.  If our Common Stock were no longer listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market, investors might only be able to trade on one of the over-the-counter markets. This would impair the liquidity of our Common Stock not only in the number of shares that could be bought and sold at a given price, which might be depressed by the relative illiquidity, but also through delays in the timing of transactions and reduction in media coverage. In addition, we could face significant material adverse consequences, including:



a limited availability of market quotations for our securities;


a limited amount of news and analyst coverage for us; and


a decreased ability to issue additional securities or obtain additional financing in the future.



We may take actions to restore our compliance with Nasdaq's listing requirements, but we can provide no assurance that any such action taken by us would allow our Common Stock to become listed again, stabilize the market price or improve the liquidity of our Common Stock or prevent future non-compliance with Nasdaq's listing requirements.

The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources, divert management’s attention and affect our ability to attract and retain qualified board members.

As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the listing requirements of the Nasdaq and other applicable securities rules and regulations. Compliance with these rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming or costly, and increase demand on our systems and resources, particularly as we are no longer an emerging growth company. Among other things, the Exchange Act requires that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and operating results and maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. In order to maintain and, if required, improve our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting to meet this standard, significant resources and management oversight may be required. As a result, management’s attention may be diverted from other business concerns, which could harm our business and operating results. Although we have already hired additional employees to comply with these requirements, we may need to hire even more employees in the future, which will increase our costs and expenses.

In addition, changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure are creating uncertainty for public companies, increasing legal and financial compliance costs and making some activities more time consuming. These laws, regulations, and standards are subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices. We intend to invest resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards, and this investment may result in increased general and administrative expense and a diversion of management’s time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities. If our efforts to comply with new laws, regulations and standards differ from the activities intended by regulatory or governing bodies, regulatory authorities may initiate legal proceedings against us and our business may be harmed.

As a result of being a public company and these new rules and regulations, it is more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and in the future we may be required to accept reduced coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain coverage. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our board of directors, particularly to serve on our audit committee and compensation committee, and qualified executive officers.

If we fail to maintain an effective system of disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting, our ability to produce timely and accurate financial statements or comply with applicable regulations could be impaired.

As a public company, we are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended (the "Sarbanes-Oxley Act"), and the listing standards of the Nasdaq Stock Market. We expect that the requirements of these rules and regulations will continue to increase our legal, accounting and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time consuming and costly, and place significant strain on our personnel, systems and resources.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting. We are continuing to develop and refine our disclosure controls and other procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we will file with the SEC is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in SEC rules and forms, and that information required to be disclosed in reports under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to our principal executive and financial officers. We are also continuing to improve our internal control over financial reporting. In order to maintain and improve the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures


and internal control over financial reporting, we have expended, and anticipate that we will continue to expend, significant resources, including accounting-related costs and significant management oversight.

Our current controls and any new controls that we develop may become inadequate because of changes in conditions in our business. Further, weaknesses in our disclosure controls or our internal control over financial reporting may be discovered in the future. Any failure to develop or maintain effective controls, or any difficulties encountered in their implementation or improvement, could harm our operating results or cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations and may result in a restatement of our financial statements for prior periods. Any failure to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting also could adversely affect the results of management evaluations of our internal control over financial reporting that we are required to include in our periodic reports that we file with the SEC. Ineffective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial and other information, which would likely have a negative effect on the trading price of our Common Stock. In addition, if we are unable to meet these requirements, we may not be able to remain listed on the Nasdaq Stock Market.

Management assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2019 and based on its assessment, our management, including our CEO and CFO, has concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was not effective as of December 31, 2019 due to material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting.

Any failure to maintain effective disclosure controls and internal control over financial reporting could have a material and adverse effect on our business and operating results and cause a decline in the price of our Common Stock.

Internal control matters are more fully discussed in Part II—Item 9A—Controls and Procedures of this Annual Report.

Downgrades in our credit ratings could impact our ability to access capital and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Credit rating agencies continually review their ratings for the companies that they follow, including us. Credit rating agencies also evaluate the industries in which we and our affiliates operate as a whole and may change their credit rating for us based on their overall view of such industries. Both Moody’s and Standard and Poor’s downgraded our ratings during 2019. There can be no assurance that any rating assigned to our currently outstanding public debt securities will remain in effect for any given period of time or that any such ratings will not be further lowered, suspended or withdrawn entirely by a rating agency if, in that rating agency’s judgment, circumstances so warrant.

A further downgrade of our credit ratings could, among other things:


limit our ability to access capital or otherwise adversely affect the availability of other new financing on favorable terms, if at all;


result in more restrictive covenants in agreements governing the terms of any future indebtedness that we may incur;


cause us to refinance indebtedness with less favorable terms and conditions, which debt may require collateral and restrict, among other things, our ability to pay distributions or repurchase shares;


increase our cost of borrowing;


adversely affect the market price of our outstanding debt securities; and


impair our business, financial condition and results of operation.


If we are unable to attract, train and retain skilled professionals, including highly skilled technical personnel to satisfy customer demand and senior management to lead our business globally, our business and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.

Our success is dependent, in large part, on our ability to keep our supply of skilled professionals, including project managers, IT engineers and senior technical personnel, in balance with customer demand around the world and on our ability to attract and retain senior management with the knowledge and skills to lead our business globally. Each year, we must hire several hundred new professionals and retrain, retain, and motivate our workforce across the globe. Competition for skilled labor is intense and, in some jurisdictions in which we operate, there are more jobs for certain professionals than qualified persons to fill these jobs. Costs associated with recruiting and training professionals can be significant. If we are unable to hire or deploy employees with the needed skillsets or if we are unable to adequately equip our employees with the skills needed, this could materially adversely affect our business. Additionally, if we are unable to maintain an employee environment that is competitive and contemporary, it could have an adverse effect on engagement and retention, which may materially adversely affect our business. If more stringent labor laws become applicable to us or if a significant number of our employees unionize, our profitability may be adversely affected.

Increased labor costs due to competition, increased minimum wage or employee benefits costs (including various federal, state and local actions to increase minimum wages), unionization activity or other factors would adversely impact our cost of sales and operating expenses. For example, the State of California has passed regulations which increased minimum wage rates from $10.50 per hour to $15.00 per hour by 2022. In addition, the federal government and a number of other states are evaluating various proposals to increase their respective minimum wage. As minimum wage rates increase, we may need to increase not only the wages of our minimum wage employees but also the wages paid to employees at wage rates that are above minimum wage. As a result, we anticipate that our labor costs will continue to increase.

We are also subject to applicable rules and regulations relating to our relationship with our employees, including minimum wage and break requirements, health benefits, unemployment and sales taxes, overtime, and working conditions and immigration status. Legislated increases in the minimum wage and increases in additional labor cost components, such as employee benefit costs, workers’ compensation insurance rates, compliance costs and fines, as well as the cost of litigation in connection with these regulations, would increase our labor costs. Unionizing and collective bargaining efforts have received increased attention nationwide in recent periods. While a small number of our employees belong to unions, should our employees become represented by unions, we would be obligated to bargain with those unions with respect to wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment, which is likely to increase our labor costs. Moreover, as part of the process of union organizing and collective bargaining, strikes and other work stoppages may occur, which would cause disruption to our business. Similarly, many employers nationally in similar environments have been subject to actions brought by governmental agencies and private individuals under wage-hour laws on a variety of claims, such as improper classification of workers as exempt from overtime pay requirements and failure to pay overtime wages properly, with such actions sometimes brought as class actions. These actions can result in material liabilities and expenses. Should we be subject to employment litigation, such as actions involving wage-hour, overtime, break, and working time, we may distract our management from business matters and result in increased labor costs. If costs of labor increase significantly, our business, results of operations, and financial condition may be adversely affected.

We may not always offset increased costs with increased fees under long-term contracts.

The pricing and other terms of our customer contracts, particularly our long-term contact center agreements, are based on estimates and assumptions we make at the time we enter into these contracts. These estimates reflect our best judgments regarding the nature of the engagement and our expected costs to provide the contracted services and could differ from actual results. Not all our larger long-term contracts allow for escalation of fees as our cost of operations increase and those that allow for such escalations do not always allow increases at rates comparable to increases that we experience. If and where we cannot negotiate long-term contract terms that provide for fee adjustments to reflect increases in our cost of service delivery, our business, financial conditions, and results of operation would be materially impacted.


Our business process automation solutions often require long selling cycles and long implementation periods that may result in significant upfront expenses that may not be recovered.

We often face long selling cycles to secure new contracts for our business process automation solutions. If we are successful in obtaining an engagement, the selling cycle can be followed by a long implementation period during which we plan our services in detail and demonstrate to the customer our ability to successfully integrate our solutions with the customer’s internal operations. Our customers may experience delays in obtaining internal approvals or delays associated with technology or system implementations which can further lengthen the selling cycle or implementation period, and certain engagements may also require a ramping up period after implementation before we can commence providing our services. Even if we succeed in developing a relationship with a potential customer and begin to discuss the services in detail, the potential customer may choose a competitor or decide to retain the work in-house prior to the time a contract is signed. In addition, once a contract is signed, we sometimes do not begin to receive revenue until completion of the implementation period and our solution is fully operational. The extended lengths of our selling cycles and implementation periods can result in the incurrence of significant upfront expenses that may never result in profits or may result in profits only after a significant period of time has elapsed, which may negatively impact our financial performance. For example, we generally hire new employees to provide services in connection with certain large engagements once a new contract is signed. Accordingly, we may incur significant costs associated with these hires before we collect corresponding revenues. Our inability to obtain contractual commitments after a selling cycle, maintain contractual commitments after the implementation period or limit expenses prior to the receipt of corresponding revenue may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We face significant competition from U.S.-based and non-U.S.-based companies and from our customers who may elect to perform their business processes in-house.

Our industry is highly competitive, fragmented and subject to rapid change. We compete primarily against large multi-national information technology companies, focused BPO companies based in offshore locations, BPO divisions of information technology companies located in India, other BPO and consulting providers that focus on the legal sector and the in-house capabilities of our customers and potential customers. These competitors may include entrants from adjacent industries or entrants in geographic locations with lower costs than those in which we operate.

We believe that the principal competitive factors in our markets are breadth and depth of process expertise, knowledge of industries served, service quality, scalability of solutions, the ability to attract, train and retain qualified people, compliance rigor, global delivery capabilities, outcome-based pricing and sales and customer management capabilities. Some of our competitors have greater financial, marketing, technological or other resources, larger customer bases and more established reputations or brand awareness than we do. In addition, some of our competitors who do not have, or have limited, global delivery capabilities may expand their delivery centers to the countries in which we operate or increase their capacity in lower cost geographies, which could result in increased competition. Some of our competitors may also enter into strategic or commercial relationships among themselves or with larger, more established companies in order to benefit from increased scale and enhanced scope capabilities or enter into similar arrangements with potential customers. Further, we expect competition to intensify in the future as more companies enter our markets and customers consolidate the services they require among fewer vendors. Increased competition, our inability to compete successfully against competitors, pricing pressures or loss of market share could result in reduced operating margins, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Our industry is characterized by rapid technological change and failure to compete successfully within the industry and address rapid technological change could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

The process of developing new services and solutions is inherently complex and uncertain. It requires accurate anticipation of customers’ changing needs and emerging technological trends. We must make long-term investments and commit significant resources before knowing whether these investments will eventually result in services that achieve customer acceptance and generate the revenues required to provide desired returns. If we fail to accurately anticipate and meet our customers’ needs through the development of new technologies and service offerings or if our new services are not widely accepted, we could lose market share and customers to our competitors and that could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.


More specifically, the business process solutions industry is characterized by rapid technological change, evolving industry standards and changing customer preferences. The success of our business depends, in part, upon our ability to develop technology and solutions that keep pace with changes in our industry and the industries of our customers. Although we have made, and will continue to make, significant investments in the research, design and development of new technology and platforms-driven solutions, we may not be successful in addressing these changes on a timely basis or in marketing the changes we implement. In addition, products or technologies developed by others may render our services uncompetitive or obsolete. Failure to address these developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

In addition, existing and potential customers are actively shifting their businesses away from paper-based environments to electronic environments with reduced needs for physical document management and processing. This shift may result in decreased demand for the physical document management services we provide such that our business and revenues may become more reliant on technology-based services in electronic environments, which are typically provided at lower prices compared to physical document management services. Though we have solutions for customers seeking to make these types of transitions, a significant shift by our customers away from physical documents to non-paper based technologies, whether now existing or developed in the future, could adversely affect our business, results of operation and financial condition.

Also, some of the large international companies in the industry have significant financial resources and compete with us to provide document processing services and/or business process services. We compete primarily on the basis of technology, performance, price, quality, reliability, brand, distribution and customer service and support. Our success in future performance is largely dependent upon our ability to compete successfully, to promptly and effectively react to changing technologies and customer expectations and to expand into additional market segments. To remain competitive, we must develop services and applications; periodically enhance our existing offerings; remain cost efficient; and attract and retain key personnel and management. If we are unable to compete successfully, we could lose market share and important customers to our competitors and that could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

We rely, in some cases, on third-party hardware and software, which could cause errors or failures of our services and could also result in adverse effects for our business and reputation if these third-party services fail to perform properly or are no longer available.

Although we developed our platform-driven solutions internally, we rely, in some cases, on third-party hardware and software in connection with our service offerings which we either purchase or lease from third-party vendors. We are generally able to select from a number of competing hardware and software applications, but the complexity and unique specifications of the hardware or software makes design defects and software errors difficult to detect. Any errors or defects in third-party hardware or software incorporated into our service offerings, may result in a delay or loss of revenue, diversion of resources, damage to our reputation, the loss of the affected customer, loss of future business, increased service costs or potential litigation claims against us.

Further, this hardware and software may not continue to be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Any loss of the right to use any of this hardware or software could result in delays in the provisioning of our services, which could negatively affect our business until equivalent technology is either developed by us or, if available, is identified, obtained and integrated. In addition, it is possible that our hardware vendors or the licensors of third-party software could increase the prices they charge, which could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations. Further, changing hardware vendors or software licensors could detract from management’s ability to focus on the ongoing operations of our business or could cause delays in the operations of our business.


Some of the work we do involves greater risks than other types of claims processing or document management engagements.

We provide certain business process solutions for customers that, for financial, legal or other reasons, may present higher risks compared to other types of claims processing or document management engagements. Examples of higher risk engagements include, but are not limited to:


class action and other legal distributions involving significant sums of money;


economic analysis and expert testimony in high stakes legal matters; and


engagements where we receive or process sensitive data, including personal consumer or private health information.

While we attempt to identify higher risk engagements and customers and mitigate our exposure by taking certain preventive measures and, where necessary, turning down certain engagements, these efforts may be ineffective and an actual or alleged error or omission on our part, the part of our customer or other third parties or possible fraudulent activity in one or more of these higher-risk engagements could result in the diversion of management resources, damage to our reputation, increased service costs or impaired market acceptance of our services, any of which could negatively impact our business and our financial condition.

We encounter professional conflicts of interest.

We encounter professional conflicts of interest, particularly in our provision of expert witness testimony in certain of our legal engagement services. Although we have systems and procedures to identify potential conflicts of interest prior to accepting a new engagement, there is no guarantee that all potential conflicts of interest will be identified, and undetected conflicts may result in damage to our reputation and result in professional liability, which may adversely impact our business and results of operations. If we are unable to accept new engagements for any reason, including business and legal conflicts, our professionals may become underutilized or discontented, which may adversely affect our future revenues and results of operations, as well as our ability to retain these professionals.

New, more stringent privacy and data security regulations may have a negative impact on our business.

Any inability to adequately address privacy and security concerns could result in expenses and liability, and adverse impact on us. Moreover, international privacy and data security regulations may become more complex and have greater consequences. For instance, as of May 25, 2018, the General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, has replaced the Data Protection Directive with respect to the collection and use of personal data of data subjects in the EU. The GDPR applies extra territorially and imposes several stringent requirements for controllers and processors of personal data, including, for example, higher standards for obtaining consent from individuals to process their personal data, more robust disclosures to individuals and a strengthened individual data rights regime, shortened timelines for data breach notifications, limitations on retention of information, increased requirements pertaining to health data, other special categories of personal data and pseudonymised (i.e., key-coded) data and additional obligations when we contract third-party processors in connection with the processing of the personal data. The GDPR provides that EU member states may make their own further laws and regulations limiting the processing of personal data, including genetic, biometric or health data, which could limit our ability to use and share personal data or could cause our costs could increase, and harm our business and financial condition. Failure to comply with the requirements of GDPR and the applicable national data protection laws of the EU Member States may result in fines of up to €20,000,000 or up to 4% of the total worldwide annual turnover of the preceding financial year, whichever is higher, and other administrative penalties.

Similar to the GDPR, the CCPA, which became effective January 1, 2020, grants California residents with several new rights relating to their personal information. The CCPA applies to businesses that conduct business in California and satisfies one of three financial conditions, including a business that has a gross revenue greater than $25 million. The CCPA sets forth several data protection obligations for applicable businesses, including, but not limited to


the obligations to inform a consumer, at or before collection, of the purpose and intended use of the collection; and to delete a consumer’s personal information upon request. As for penalties and fines, the CCPA establishes a private right of action for serious data breaches, which allows consumers the right to seek damages. The CCPA also allows the California Attorney General to bring actions against non-compliant businesses with fines of $2,500 per violation or, if intentional, up to $7,500 per violation.

Any future failure by us to comply with the GDPR and/or CCPA could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition. Further, as the GDPR and CCPA have recently come into effect, enforcement priorities and interpretation of certain provisions are still unclear. Industry groups also impose self-regulatory standards that bind us by their incorporation into the contracts we execute. For example, should we fail to be compliant with the PCIDSS we may be subject to fines and other penalties.

Our business could be materially and adversely affected if we do not protect our intellectual property or if our services are found to infringe on the intellectual property of others.

Our success depends in part on certain methodologies and practices we utilize in developing and implementing applications and other proprietary intellectual property rights. In order to protect such rights, we rely upon a combination of nondisclosure and other contractual arrangements, as well as trade secret, copyright, trademark and patent laws. We also generally enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees, customers and potential customers and limit access to and distribution of our proprietary information. There can be no assurance that the laws, rules, regulations and treaties in effect in the U.S., India and the other jurisdictions in which we operate and the contractual and other protective measures we take are adequate to protect us from misappropriation or unauthorized use of our intellectual property, or that such laws will not change. There can be no assurance that the resources invested by us to protect our intellectual property will be sufficient or that our intellectual property portfolio will adequately deter misappropriation or improper use of our technology, and our intellectual property rights may not prevent competitors from independently developing or selling products and services similar to or duplicative of ours. We may not be able to detect unauthorized use and take appropriate steps to enforce our rights, and any such steps may be costly and unsuccessful. Infringement by others of our intellectual property, including the costs of enforcing our intellectual property rights, may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition. We could also face competition in some countries where we have not invested in an intellectual property portfolio. If we are not able to protect our intellectual property, the value of our brand and other intangible assets may be diminished, and our business may be adversely affected. Further, although we believe that we are not infringing on the intellectual property rights of others, claims may nonetheless be successfully asserted against us in the future, and we may be the target of enforcement of patents or other intellectual property by third parties, including aggressive and opportunistic enforcement claims by non-practicing entities. Regardless of the merit of such claims, responding to infringement claims can be expensive and time-consuming. If we are found to infringe any third-party rights, we could be required to pay substantial damages or we could be enjoined from offering some of our products and services. The costs of defending any such claims could be significant, and any successful claim may require us to modify our services. The value of, or our ability to use, our intellectual property may also be negatively impacted by dependencies on third parties, such as our ability to obtain or renew on reasonable terms licenses that we need in the future, or our ability to secure or retain ownership or rights to use data in certain software analytics or services offerings. Any such circumstances may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We generate a significant portion of our revenues from a small number of customers, and any loss of business from these customers could materially reduce our revenues.

We have derived, and believe that in the foreseeable future we will continue to derive, a significant portion of our revenues from a small number of customers. While we have no one customer that accounts for more than 10% of our revenue, for each of the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, our ten largest customers accounted for approximately 26% of our revenues. 

Our ability to maintain close relationships with these and other major customers is essential to the growth and profitability of our business. However, the volume of work performed for a specific customer is likely to vary from year to year. A major customer in one year may not provide the same level of revenues for us in any subsequent year and


there can be no assurance that any customer will extend or renew its contract with us. The business process solutions we provide to our customers, and the revenues and net income from those services, may decline or vary as the type and quantity of services we provide change over time. Furthermore, our reliance on any individual customer for a significant portion of our revenues may give that customer a certain degree of pricing leverage against us when negotiating contracts and terms of service.

In addition, a number of factors other than our performance could cause the loss of or reduction in business or revenues from a customer, and these factors are not predictable. For example, a customer may decide to reduce spending on business process solutions from us due to a challenging economic environment or other factors, both internal and external, relating to our business. These factors may include corporate restructuring, pricing pressure, changes to our outsourcing strategy, switching to another BPO provider or returning work in-house or other changes in a customer’s prospects or profitability. The risk of customer loss may be heightened as a result of recent economic volatility due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The loss of any of our major customers, or a significant decrease in the volume of work they give to us or the price at which we are able to provide our services to them, could materially adversely affect our revenues and thus our results of operations.

Our revenues are highly dependent on a limited number of industries, and any decrease in demand for business process solutions in these industries could reduce our revenues and adversely affect the results of operations.

A substantial portion of our revenues are derived from three specific industry‑based segments: ITPS, HS, and LLPS. Customers in ITPS accounted for 79.0% and 80.3% of our revenues in 2019 and 2018, respectively. Customers in HS accounted for 16.4% and 14.4% of our revenues in 2019 and 2018, respectively. Customers in LLPS accounted for 4.6% and 5.3% of our revenues in 2019 and 2018, respectively.

Our success largely depends on continued demand for our services from customers in these segments, and a downturn or reversal of the demand for business process solutions in any of these segments, or the introduction of regulations that restrict or discourage companies from engaging our services, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, consolidation in any of these industries or combinations or mergers, particularly involving our customers, may decrease the potential number of customers for our services. We have been affected by the worsening of economic conditions and significant consolidation in the financial services industry and continuation of this trend may negatively affect our revenues and profitability. The COVID-19 pandemic, may lead to further increased consolidation in the financial services industry as larger, better capitalized competitors will be in a stronger position to withstand prolonged periods of economic downturn and sustain their business through the financial volatility.

We derive significant revenue and profit from commercial and government contracts awarded through competitive bidding processes, including renewals, which can impose substantial costs on us, and we will not achieve revenue and profit objectives if we fail to accurately and effectively bid on such projects.

Many of these contracts are extremely complex and require the investment of significant resources in order to prepare accurate bids and proposals. Competitive bidding imposes substantial costs and presents a number of risks, including: (i) the substantial cost and managerial time and effort that we spend to prepare bids and proposals for contracts that may or may not be awarded to us; (ii) the need to estimate accurately the resources and costs that will be required to implement and service any contracts we are awarded, sometimes in advance of the final determination of their full scope and design; (iii) the expense and delay that may arise if our competitors protest or challenge awards made to us pursuant to competitive bidding and the risk that such protests or challenges could result in the requirement to resubmit bids and in the termination, reduction or modification of the awarded contracts; and (iv) the opportunity cost of not bidding on and winning other contracts we might otherwise pursue. If our competitors protest or challenge an award made to us on a government contract, the costs to defend such an award may be significant and could involve subsequent litigation that could take years to resolve.


Our profitability is dependent upon our ability to obtain adequate pricing for our services and to improve our cost structure.

Our success depends on our ability to obtain adequate pricing for our services. Depending on competitive market factors, future prices we obtain for our services may decline from previous levels. If we are unable to obtain adequate pricing for our services, it could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, our contracts are increasingly requiring tighter timelines for implementation as well as more stringent service level metrics. This makes the bidding process for new contracts much more difficult and requires us to adequately consider these requirements in the pricing of our services.

We regularly review our operations with a view towards reducing our cost structure, including, without limitation, reducing our employee base, exiting certain businesses, improving process and system efficiencies and outsourcing some internal functions. We, from time to time, engage in restructuring actions to reduce our cost structure. If we are unable to continue to maintain our cost base at or below the current level and maintain process and systems changes resulting from prior restructuring actions or to realize the expected cost reductions in the ongoing strategic transformation program, it could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

In addition, in order to meet the service requirements of our customers, which often includes 24/7 service, and to optimize our employee cost base, including our back-office support, we often locate our delivery service and back-office support centers in lower-cost locations, including several developing countries. Concentrating our centers in these locations presents a number of operational risks, many of which are beyond our control, including the risks of political instability, natural disasters, safety and security risks, labor disruptions, excessive employee turnover and rising labor rates. Additionally, a change in the political environment in the U.S. or the adoption and enforcement of legislation and regulations curbing the use of such centers outside of the U.S. could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. These risks could impair our ability to effectively provide services to our customers and keep our costs aligned to our associated revenues and market requirements.

Our ability to sustain and improve profit margins is dependent on a number of factors, including our ability to continue to improve the cost efficiency of our operations through such programs as robotic process automation, to absorb the level of pricing pressures on our services through cost improvements and to successfully complete information technology initiatives. If any of these factors adversely materialize or if we are unable to achieve and maintain productivity improvements through restructuring actions or information technology initiatives, our ability to offset labor cost inflation and competitive price pressures would be impaired, each of which could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

We are subject to regular customer and third-party security reviews and failure to pass these may have an adverse impact on our operations.

Many of our customer contracts require that we maintain certain physical and/or information security standards, and, in certain cases, we permit a customer to audit our compliance with these contractual standards. Any failure to meet such standards or pass such audits may have a material adverse impact on our business. Further, customers from time to time may require stricter physical and/or information security than they negotiated in their contracts, and may condition continued volumes and business on the satisfaction of such additional requirements. Some of these requirements may be expensive to implement or maintain, and may not be factored into our contract pricing. Further, on an annual basis we obtain third-party audits of certain of our locations in accordance with Statement on Standards for Attestation Engagements No. 16 (SSAE 16) put forth by the Auditing Standards Board (ASB) of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). SSAE 16 is the current standard for reporting on controls at service organizations, and many of our customers expect that we will perform an annual SSAE 16 audit, and report to them the results. Negative findings in such an audit and/or the failure to adequately remediate in a timely fashion such negative findings may cause customers to terminate their contracts or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our reputation, results of operation and financial condition.


Failure to adhere to the regulations that govern our business could have an adverse impact on our operations.

Our customers are often subject to regulations that may require that we comply with certain rules and regulations in performing services for them that would not otherwise apply to us. U.S. federal laws and regulations that apply to certain portions of our business include the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, HIPAA, and the HITECH Act of 2009. We must also comply with applicable regulations relating to healthcare and other personal information that we process as part of our services. Due to our global delivery model, we are also subject to the burden and expense of complying with the laws and regulations of various jurisdictions and changes thereto which are beyond our control. In addition, our contracts with some of our customers require us to remain knowledgeable about and comply with a number of additional relevant consumer protection laws and other regulatory requirements. Failure to perform our services in a manner that complies with any such requirement could result in breaches of contracts with our customers. Our failure to comply with any applicable laws and regulations could subject us to civil fines and criminal penalties.

A significant portion of our assets and operations are located in India, the Philippines, China and Mexico, and we are subject to regulatory, economic and political uncertainties in those locations.

A significant number of our operations centers are located in India, the Philippines and China and a majority of our assets and our professionals are located in those locations. We intend to continue to develop and expand our facilities in these areas. Our financial performance may be adversely affected by general economic conditions and economic and fiscal policy in these countries, including changes in exchange rates and controls, interest rates and taxation policies, as well as social stability and political, economic or diplomatic developments affecting those countries in the future. These countries have experienced significant economic growth over the last several years, but face major challenges in sustaining that growth in the years ahead. These challenges include the need for substantial infrastructure development and improving access to healthcare and education. Our ability to recruit, train and retain qualified employees, develop and operate our operations centers, and attract and retain customers could be adversely affected if these countries do not successfully meet these challenges.

In the early 1990s, India experienced significant inflation, low growth in gross domestic product and shortages of foreign currency reserves. The Indian government, however, has exercised and continues to exercise significant influence over many aspects of the Indian economy. India’s government has provided significant tax incentives and relaxed certain regulatory restrictions in order to encourage foreign investment in specified sectors of the economy, including the BPO industry. Certain of those programs that have benefited us include tax holidays, liberalized import and export duties and preferential rules on foreign investment and repatriation. We cannot assure you that liberalization policies will continue. Various factors, such as changes in the current federal government, could trigger significant changes in India’s economic liberalization and deregulation policies and disrupt business and economic conditions in India generally and our business in particular.

The Philippines has experienced significant inflation, currency declines and shortages of foreign exchange. In addition, the Philippines has experienced and may continue to experience civil unrest, terrorism and political turmoil, resulting in temporary work stoppages and technology outages. These instabilities and any adverse changes in the political environment in the Philippines could increase our operational costs, increase our exposure to legal and business risks and make it more difficult for us to operate our business in the Philippines.

Our business operations in China may be adversely affected by our current and future political environment and the outbreak of the coronavirus. The Chinese government can exert substantial influence and control over the manner in which companies in China conduct business. Under the current government leadership, the government of China has been pursuing economic reform policies that encourage private economic activity and greater economic decentralization. There is no assurance, however, that the government of China will continue to pursue these policies, or that it will not significantly alter these policies from time to time without notice.

Our ability to efficiently conduct our business activities in Mexico is subject to changes in government policy or shifts in political attitudes that are beyond our control. Government policy may change to discourage foreign investment, nationalization of industries may occur or other government limitations, restrictions or requirements not currently foreseen may be implemented. In addition, Mexico may experience political instability, which may result in


outbreaks of civil unrest, drug-related violence, terrorist attacks or threats or acts of war in the affected areas, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

Introduction of tax legislation and disputes with tax authorities may have an adverse effect on our operations and our overall tax rate.

Governments in countries in which we operate or provide services could enact new tax legislation that could have a material adverse effect on our overall effective tax rate. In addition, our ability to repatriate surplus earnings, if any, from our operations centers in a tax-efficient manner is dependent upon interpretations of local laws, possible changes in such laws and the renegotiation of existing double tax avoidance treaties. Changes to any of these may adversely affect our overall tax rate, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

In addition, the transfer pricing regulations of the U.S. and certain foreign jurisdictions, including India, require that any cross-border transaction involving related parties be at an arm’s-length price. Accordingly, we base our pricing between our foreign subsidiaries and related parties on a functional and economic analysis involving benchmarking against transactions among entities that are not related. However, the tax authorities have jurisdiction to review our transfer-pricing policy. If they conclude the policy was not applied appropriately, we may incur additional tax liability, including accrued interest and penalties.

Sales tax laws in the U.S. may change resulting in service providers having to collect sales taxes in states where the current laws do not require us to do so. This could result in substantial tax liabilities.

Our U.S. subsidiaries collect and remit sales tax in states in which the subsidiaries have physical presence or in which we believe sufficient nexus exists which obligates us to collect sales tax. Other states may, from time to time, claim that we have state-related activities constituting physical nexus to require such collection. Additionally, many other states seek to impose sales tax collection or reporting obligations on companies that sell goods to customers in their state, or directly to the state and its political subdivisions, regardless of physical presence. Such efforts by states have increased recently, as states seek to raise revenues without increasing the income tax burden on residents. We rely on U.S. Supreme Court decisions which hold that, without Congressional authority, a state may not enforce a sales tax collection obligation on a company that has no physical presence in the state. We cannot predict whether the nature or level of contacts we have with a particular state will be deemed enough to require us to collect sales tax in that state nor can we be assured that Congress or individual states will not approve legislation authorizing states to impose tax collection or reporting obligations on our activities. A successful assertion by one or more states that we should collect sales tax could result in substantial tax liabilities related to past sales and would result in considerable administrative burdens and costs for us.

Restrictions on entry visas may affect our ability to compete for and provide services to customers in the U.S., which could have a material adverse effect on future revenues.

A significant number of our employees are foreign nationals, including from India, the Philippines and China. Certain members of our development team based in India travel to the U.S. on a regular basis to facilitate new project development, including the implementation of new contracts and to meet our U.S. customers. The ability of these employees to travel to the U.S. and other countries in which we do business depends on the ability to obtain the necessary visas and entry permits.

In response to political forces, terrorist attacks, the global economic downturn, global disease, public sentiments of high unemployment rates in certain parts of the U.S. and other events, U.S. immigration authorities have increased the level of scrutiny in granting visas and applicable immigration laws may be subject to legislative change and varying standards of application and enforcement. We cannot predict the political or economic events that could affect immigration laws or any restrictive impact those events could have on obtaining or monitoring entry visas for our professionals.


Investors may have difficulty effecting service of process or enforcing judgments obtained in the U.S. against our non-U.S. subsidiaries.

We have significant operating subsidiaries that are organized outside the U.S. A portion of our assets are located in India, the Philippines, China, Mexico, and Canada. As a result, you may be unable to effect service of process upon our affiliates who reside in these jurisdictions. In addition, you may be unable to enforce against these persons outside the jurisdiction of their residence judgments obtained in U.S. courts, including judgments predicated solely upon U.S. federal securities laws.

Currency fluctuations among the Euro, British Pound, Indian rupee, the Philippine Peso, the Mexican Peso, the Canadian Dollar, the Chinese Yuan and the U.S. Dollar could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

We operate internationally and as a result, are subject to risks associated with doing business globally, such as risks related to the differing legal, political and regulatory requirements and economic conditions of many jurisdictions. Risks inherent to operating internationally include changes in a country’s economic or political conditions, in foreign currency exchange rates, regulatory requirements and enforcement of intellectual property rights.

The functional currencies of our businesses outside of the U.S. are the local currencies. Changes in exchange rates between these foreign currencies and the U.S. Dollar will affect the recorded levels of our assets, liabilities, net sales, cost of goods sold and operating margins and could result in exchange gains or losses. The primary foreign currencies to which we have exposure are the European Union Euro, Swedish Krona, British Pound Sterling, Canadian Dollar and Indian rupees . Exchange rates between these currencies and the U.S. Dollar in recent years have fluctuated significantly and may do so in the future. Our operating results and profitability may be affected by any volatility in currency exchange rates and our ability to manage effectively currency transaction and translation risks. To the extent the U.S. Dollar strengthens against foreign currencies, our foreign revenues and profits will be reduced when translated into U.S. Dollars.

Although the vast majority of our revenues are denominated in U.S. dollars, a significant portion of our expenses are incurred and paid in Euros, British Pound Sterling, Swedish Krona, Indian rupees, and to a lesser extent in other currencies, including the Philippine Peso, the Mexican Peso, the Canadian dollar and the Chinese Yuan . We report our financial results in U.S. Dollars. The exchange rate between the Indian rupee and the U.S. Dollar has changed substantially in recent years and may fluctuate substantially in the future. Our results of operations may be adversely affected if such fluctuations continue, or increase, or other currencies fluctuate significantly against the U.S. Dollar.

Although we do not currently take steps to hedge our foreign currency exposures, should we choose in the future to implement a hedging strategy, there can be no assurance that our hedging strategy will be successful or that the hedging markets would have sufficient liquidity or depth to allow us to implement such a hedging strategy in a cost-effective manner. Further, the success of any potential hedging strategy could be impacted by any failure by the hedging counterparties to meet their contractual obligations.

We are subject to laws of the United States and foreign jurisdictions relating to processing certain financial transactions, including payment card transactions and debit or credit card transactions, and failure to comply with those laws could subject us to legal actions and materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.


We process, support and execute financial transactions, and disburse funds, on behalf of both government and commercial customers, often in partnership with financial institutions. This activity includes receiving debit and credit card information, processing payments for and due to our customers and disbursing funds on payment or debit cards to payees of our customers. As a result, the transactions we process may be subject to numerous United States (both federal and state) and foreign jurisdiction laws and regulations, including the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, as amended, the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970 (commonly known as the Bank Secrecy Act), as amended, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (including the so-called Durbin Amendment), as amended, the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (also known as the Financial Modernization Act of 1999), as amended, and the


Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT ACT) Act of 2001, as amended. Other United States (both federal and state) and foreign jurisdiction laws apply to our processing of certain financial transactions and related support services. These laws are subject to frequent changes, and new statutes and regulations in this area may be enacted at any time. Changes to existing laws, the introduction of new laws in this area or failure to comply with existing laws that are applicable to us may subject us to, among other things, additional costs or changes to our business practices, liability for monetary damages, fines and/or criminal prosecution, unfavorable publicity, restrictions on our ability to process and support financial transactions and allegations by our customers, partners and clients that we have not performed our contractual obligations. Any of these could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

Failure to comply with the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or the FCPA, economic and trade sanctions, regulations, and similar laws could subject us to penalties and other adverse consequences.

We operate our business in several foreign countries with developing economies and have contracts with foreign governments, where companies often engage in business practices that are prohibited by U.S. and other regulations applicable to us. We are subject to anti-corruption laws and regulations, including the FCPA, the U.K. Bribery Act and other laws that prohibit the making or offering of improper payments to foreign government officials and political figures, including anti-bribery provisions enforced by the Department of Justice and accounting provisions enforced by the SEC. These laws prohibit improper payments or offers of payments to foreign governments and their officials and political parties by the U.S. and other business entities for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. We have implemented policies to identify and address potentially impermissible transactions under such laws and regulations; however, there can be no assurance that all of our and our subsidiaries’ employees, consultants, and agents, including those that may be based in or from countries where practices that violate U.S. or other laws may be customary, will not take actions in violation of our policies, for which we may be ultimately responsible.

We are also subject to certain economic and trade sanctions programs that are administered by the Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, or OFAC, which prohibit or restrict transactions to or from or dealings with specified countries, their governments, and in certain circumstances, their nationals, and with individuals and entities that are specially-designated nationals of those countries, narcotics traffickers, and terrorists or terrorist organizations. Our subsidiaries may be subject to additional foreign or local sanctions requirements in other relevant jurisdictions.

Fluctuations in the costs of paper, ink, energy, by-products and other raw materials may adversely impact the results of our operations.

Purchases of paper, ink, energy and other raw materials represent a large portion of our costs. Increases in the costs of these inputs may increase our costs and we may not be able to pass these costs on to customers through higher prices. In addition, we may not be able to resell waste paper and other print-related by-products or may be adversely impacted by decreases in the prices for these by-products. Increases in the cost of materials may adversely impact customers’ demand for our printing and printing-related services.

The market for our securities remains volatile and may not continue, which would adversely affect the liquidity and price of our securities.

The price of our securities, including, without limitation, our Common Stock, may continue to fluctuate significantly. An active trading market for our securities may not further develop or be sustained. In addition, the price of our securities can fluctuate due to general economic conditions and forecasts, our general business condition and the release of our financial reports.

Changes in laws or regulations, or a failure to comply with any laws and regulations, may adversely affect our business, investments and results of operations.

We are subject to laws, regulations and rules enacted by national, regional and local governments and Nasdaq. In particular, we are required to comply with certain SEC, Nasdaq and other legal or regulatory requirements.


Compliance with, and monitoring of, applicable laws, regulations and rules may be difficult, time consuming and costly. Those laws, regulations and rules and their interpretation and application may also change from time to time and those changes could have a material adverse effect on our business, investments and results of operations. In addition, a failure to comply with applicable laws, regulations and rules, as interpreted and applied, could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

If we are unable to successfully consummate acquisitions or experience delays in integrating acquisitions, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

One of our strategies to grow our business is to opportunistically acquire complementary businesses, technologies and services. This strategy depends in large part on our ability to find suitable acquisitions and finance them on acceptable terms. We may require additional debt or equity financing for future acquisitions, and doing so will be made more difficult by our indebtedness. Raising additional capital for acquisitions through debt financing could result in increased interest expense and may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take certain actions, such as incurring additional debt, making capital expenditures or declaring dividends. .

If we are unable to identify and acquire suitable acquisition candidates, we may experience slower growth. Further, we may face challenges in integrating any acquired business. These challenges include eliminating redundant operations, facilities and systems, coordinating management and personnel, retaining key employees, managing different corporate cultures and achieving cost reductions and cross-selling opportunities. Additionally, the acquisition and integration processes may disrupt our business and divert management attention and our resources. If we fail to successfully integrate acquired businesses, products, technologies and personnel, it could impair relationships with employees, clients and strategic partners, distract management attention from our core businesses, result in control failures and otherwise disrupt our ongoing business, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We also may not be able to retain key management and other critical employees after an acquisition. In addition, we may be required to record future charges for impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets resulting from such acquisitions.





We lease and own numerous facilities worldwide with larger concentrations of space in Texas, Michigan, Connecticut, California, India, Mexico, the Philippines, and China. The size of our active property portfolio as of December 31, 2019 was approximately 4.2 million square feet (square feet) and comprised of 157 leased properties and 7 owned properties including offices, sales offices, service locations, and production facilities. Many of our operating facilities are equipped with fiber connectivity and have access to other power sources. Substantially all of our operations facilities are leased under long term leases with varying expiration dates, except for the following owned locations: (i) three operations facilities in India with a combined building area of approximately 91,500 sq. ft., respectively, (ii) an operating facility in Georgiana, Alabama with an approximate building area of 20,000 sq. ft., (iii) an operating facility in Tallahassee, Florida consisting of four buildings with a combined building area of approximately 21,000 sq. ft., (iv) an operating facility in Troy, Michigan that will serve as the Company’s primary data center with an approximate building area of 66,000 sq. ft. (v) an operating facility in Egham, England with an approximate building area of 11,000 sq. ft., and (vi) an innovation center in New York, NY with an approximate building area of 2,200 sq. ft. We also maintain an operating presence at approximately 900 customer sites.

Our properties are suitable to deliver services to our customers for each of our business segments. Our management believes that all of our properties and facilities are well maintained.



Appraisal Demand

On September 21, 2017, former stockholders of SourceHOV, who owned 10,304 shares of SourceHOV common stock, filed an Appraisal Action. The Appraisal Action arose out of the Novitex Business Combination, and the petitioners sought, among other things, a determination of the fair value of their shares at the time of the Novitex Business Combination; an order that SourceHOV pay that value to the petitioners, together with interest at the statutory rate; and an award of costs, attorneys’ fees, and other expenses.  During the trial the parties and their experts offered competing valuations of the SourceHOV shares as of the date of the Novitex Business Combination.  SourceHOV argued the value was no more than $1,633.85 per share and the petitioners argued the value was at least $5,079.28 per share.  On January 30, 2020, the Court issued its post-trial Memorandum Opinion in the Appraisal Action, in which it found that the fair value of SourceHOV as of the Closing Date was $4,591 per share, and on March 26, 2020, the Court issued its final order and judgment awarding the petitioners $57,698,426 inclusive of costs and interest. On May 7, 2020, SourceHOV filed a motion for new trial in relation to share count.  Following the Court’s decision on the motion for new trial, SourceHOV has the right to appeal the judgment. At this time, we cannot determine whether such motion or an appeal would be successful. Per the Court’s opinion, the legal rate of interest, compounded quarterly, accrues on the per share value from the Closing Date until the date of payment to petitioners.

As a result of the Appraisal Action, 4,570,734 shares of our Common Stock issued to Ex-Sigma 2 have been returned to the Company during the first quarter of 2020.

Class Action

On March 23, 2020. Plaintiff, Bo Shen, filed a putative class action against the Company, Ronald Cogburn, the Company’s Chief Executive Officer, and James Reynolds, the Company’s former Chief Financial Officer.  Plaintiff claims to be a current holder of 4,000 shares of Company stock, purchased on October 4, 2019 at $1.34/share.  Plaintiff asserts two claims covering the purported class period of March 16, 2018 to March 16, 2020: (1) a violation of Section 10(b) and Rule 10b-5 of the Exchange Act against all defendants; and (2) a violation of Section 20(a) of the Exchange Act against Mr. Cogburn and Mr. Reynolds. The allegations stem from the Company’s press release, dated March 16, 2020 (announcing the postponement of the earnings call and delay in filing of this Annual Report), and press release and related SEC filings, dated March 17, 2020 (announcing its intent to restate its financial statements for 2017, 2018 and interim periods through September 30, 2019).  As of the date of this Annual Report, the Company has not been served with the complaint.  At this early stage in the litigation, it is not practicable to render an opinion about whether an unfavorable outcome is probable or remote with respect to this matter; however, the Company believes it has meritorious defenses and will vigorously defend them.


We are, from time to time, involved in other legal proceedings, inquiries, claims and disputes, which arise in the ordinary course of business. Although our management cannot predict the outcomes of these matters, our management believes these actions will not have a material, adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.


Not applicable




Market Information

Our Common Stock is traded on the Nasdaq under the symbol “XELA.” Set forth below is the high and low sales price of our Common Stock during the periods presented.










Sales Price






Year Ended December 31, 2019







Fourth Quarter







Third Quarter







Second Quarter







First Quarter







Year Ended December 31, 2018







Fourth Quarter







Third Quarter







Second Quarter







First Quarter









As of June 5, 2020 we had 70 record holders of our Common Stock.


We have not paid any cash dividends on shares of our Common Stock. The payment of cash dividends in the future will be dependent upon our revenues and earnings, capital requirements, general financial condition, and is within the discretion of our board of directors.

Equity Compensation Plan Information

The following table provides information as of December 31, 2019, with respect to the shares of our Common Stock that may be issued under our existing equity compensation plans.




























Number of Securities



Number of Securities to




Remaining Available



be Issued Upon


Weighted Average


for Future Issuance



Exercise of Outstanding


Exercise Price of


Under Equity



Options and RSUs


Outstanding Options


Compensation Plans(1)

Plan Category







Equity compensation plans approved by stockholders







Equity compensation plans not approved by stockholders















The Company currently maintains the 2018 Stock Incentive Plan, which was approved by our board of directors on December 19, 2017 and subsequently approved by a majority of our stockholders by written consent on December 20, 2017. The 2018 Stock Incentive Plan became effective on January 17, 2018 and there were originally 8,323,764 shares of our Common Stock reserved for issuance under our 2018 Stock Incentive Plan.


Sale of Unregistered Securities

There were no unregistered sales of equity securities in 2019 that have not been previously reported in a Quarterly Report on Form 10‑Q or Current Report on Form 8‑K.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

The table below sets forth information with respect to purchases made by or on behalf of us or any “affiliated purchaser” (as defined in Rule 10b‑18(a)(3) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) of shares of our Common Stock during the period of November 8, 2017 through the year ended December 31, 2019:


















Total Number










of Shares


Number of








Purchased as


Shares that








Part of


May Yet Be


















Under the



of Shares


Paid per


Plans or


Plans or










Year Ended December 31, 2017










Fourth Quarter










Year Ended December 31, 2018










First Quarter










Second Quarter










Third Quarter










Fourth Quarter










Year Ended December 31, 2019










First Quarter










Second Quarter










Third Quarter





















On November 8, 2017, the Company’s board of directors authorized a share buyback program (the “Share Buyback Program”), pursuant to which the Company was authorized to purchase up to 5,000,000 shares of its Common Stock through various means, including, open market transactions, privately negotiated transactions or otherwise. The Share Buyback Program has expired. As of December 31, 2019,  2,787,147 shares had been repurchased under the Share Buyback Program. The Company records treasury stock using the cost method.



The selected financial data set forth below as of and for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, have been restated to reflect adjustments to our previously issued financial statements as more fully discussed in Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”, in Note 3, “Restatement of Previously Issued Financial Statements” and in Note 20, “Unaudited Quarterly Financial Data” of the Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 8 of this Annual Report. Th