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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

       ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 or 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

OR

      TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM                      TO

Commission File Number: 001-39801

XOMA CORPORATION

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

52-2154066

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

2200 Powell Street, Suite 310, Emeryville, California

94608

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (510204-7200

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

 

Trading Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, par value $0.0075

 

XOMA

 

The Nasdaq Global Market

8.625% Series A Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, par value $0.05

XOMAP

The Nasdaq Global Market

Depositary Shares (each representing 1/1000th interest in a share of 8.375% Series B Cumulative Perpetual Preferred Stock, par value $0.05)

XOMAO

The Nasdaq Global Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark if the Registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). YES  NO 

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the Registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the Registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the Registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to § 240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). YES  NO 

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant, based on the closing price of the shares of common stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on June 30, 2023, was $123,749,750.

The number of shares of Registrant’s Common Stock outstanding as of March 4, 2024 was 11,625,826.

XOMA Corporation

2023 FORM 10-K ANNUAL REPORT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations

    

1

PART I

Item 1.

Business

9

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

19

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

54

Item 1C.

Cybersecurity

54

Item 2.

Properties

55

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

55

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

56

PART II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

56

Item 6.

Reserved

56

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

57

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

66

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

66

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

66

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

66

Item 9B.

Other Information

67

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

67

PART III

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers, and Corporate Governance

67

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

70

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

78

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

81

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

82

PART IV

Item 15.

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

83

Item 16.

Form 10K Summary

91

SIGNATURES

92

i

GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

Abbreviations

    

Definition

2010 Plan

the Company's 2010 Long Term Incentive and Stock Award Plan, as amended

2018 Common Stock ATM Agreement

At The Market Issuance Sales Agreement with HCW dated December 18, 2018

2021 Series B Preferred Stock ATM Agreement

At The Market Issuance Sales Agreement with B. Riley dated August 5, 2021

‘40 Act

Investment Company Act of 1940

AAA

Assignment and Assumption Agreement

ACA

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010

Affimed

Affimed N.V.

Affitech

Affitech Research AS

Affitech CPPA

the Company's Commercial Payment Purchase Agreement with Affitech dated October 6, 2021

Agenus

Agenus, Inc. and certain affiliates

Agenus RPA

the Company's Royalty Purchase Agreement with Agenus dated September 20, 2018

Alora

Alora Pharmaceuticals

Anti-TGFβ Antibody License Agreement

the Company's License Agreement with Novartis dated September 30, 2015

April 2022 Letter Agreement

the Letter Agreement to Officer Employment Agreement dated August 7, 2017, between XOMA Corporation and Thomas Burns dated April 1, 2022

Aptevo

Aptevo Therapeutics Inc.

Aptevo CPPA

the Company’s Payment Interest Purchase Agreement with Aptevo dated March 29, 2023, referred to herein as “Aptevo Commercial Payment Purchase Agreement” or “Aptevo CPPA”

Aronora

Aronora, Inc.

Aronora RPA

the Company's Royalty Purchase Agreement with Aronora dated April 7, 2019

AstraZeneca

AstraZeneca plc

ASC

Accounting Standards Codification

ASC 310

ASC Topic 310, Receivables

ASC 326

ASC Topic 326, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses

ASC 450

ASC Topic 450, Contingencies

ASC 606

ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers

ASC 805

ASC Topic 805, Business Combinations

ASC 815

ASC Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging

ASC 842

ASC Topic 842, Leases

ASU

Accounting Standards Update

Bayer

Bayer Pharma AG

Bioasis

Bioasis Technologies, Inc. and certain affiliates

Bioasis RPA

the Company's Royalty Purchase Agreement with Bioasis dated February 25, 2019

BLA

Biologic License Application

Black-Scholes Model

Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model

Blue Owl

Blue Owl Capital Corporation

Blue Owl Loan

Loan pursuant to the Blue Owl Loan Agreement

Blue Owl Loan Agreement

Loan agreement dated as of December 15, 2023, between XRL, the lenders from time to time party thereto and Blue Owl, as administrative agent

Board

the Company’s Board of Directors

1

B. Riley

B. Riley Securities, Inc.

BVF

Biotechnology Value Fund, L.P.

CCPA

California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, collectively the Act and its regulations

CARES

Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security

cGMP

current Good Manufacturing Practice

Chiesi

Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A.

Company

XOMA Corporation, including its subsidiaries

CPPA

Commercial Payment Purchase Agreement

CPRA

California Privacy Rights Act

Dsuvia®

sufentanil sublingual tablet

DoD

U.S. Department of Defense

EC

European Commission

EMA

European Medicines Agency

ESPP

2015 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, as amended

EU

European Union

FCPA

U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended

FDA

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

FDCA

The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act

FDIC

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

GAAP

Generally accepted accounting principles

G&A

General and administrative

GDPR

General Data Protection Regulation

Gevokizumab License Agreement

the Company's License Agreement with Novartis dated August 24, 2017

HCRP

Healthcare Royalty Partners II, L.P.

HCW

H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC

HIPAA

Federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996

ICE®

Innate cell engager

ImmunityBio

ImmunityBio, Inc. (formerly NantCell, Inc.)

ImmunityBio License Agreement

Out-license agreement to ImmunityBio from LadRx dated July 27, 2017, related to the development and commercialization of Aldoxorubicin, as amended on September 27, 2018

IP

Intellectual Property

Janssen

Janssen Biotech, Inc.

Kinnate

Kinnate Biopharma Inc.

Kuros

Kuros Biosciences AG, Kuros US LLC and Kuros Royalty Fund (US) LLC, collectively

Kuros RPA

the Company's Royalty Purchase Agreement with Kuros dated July 14, 2021

LadRx

LadRx Corporation (formerly CytRx Corporation)

LadRx Agreements

LadRx AAA and LadRx RPA

LadRx AAA

the Company’s Assignment and Assumption Agreement with LadRx dated June 21, 2023

LadRx RPA

the Company’s Royalty Purchase Agreement with LadRx dated June 21, 2023

Medexus

Medexus Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Merck

Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp

Merck KGaA

Ares Trading SA

2

Merck KGaA License Agreement

In-license agreement from Merck KGaA to ObsEva related to ebopiprant dated June 10, 2015 and subsequently amended on July 8, 2016 (assumed by the Company as part of the ObsEva IP Acquisition Agreement)

NDA

New Drug Application

NIH

National Institutes of Health

NOL

net operating loss

Novartis

Novartis Pharma AG, Novartis International Pharmaceutical Ltd., Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc. and/or Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Inc.

November 2022 Letter Agreement

November 1, 2022 amendment to the April 2022 Letter Agreement

ObsEva

ObsEva SA

ObsEva IP Acquisition Agreement

Company's IP Acquisition Agreement with ObsEva dated November 21, 2022

Ology Bioservices

Ology Bioservices Inc. (formerly Nanotherapeutics Inc., now a wholly owned subsidiary of National Resilience, Inc.)

Organon

Organon International GmbH

Organon License Agreement

Out-license agreement to Organon from ObsEva dated July 26, 2021, related to the development and commercialization of ebopiprant (assumed by the Company as part of the ObsEva IP Acquisition Agreement)

Palo

Palobiofarma, S.L.

Palo RPA

the Company's Royalty Purchase Agreement with Palo dated September 26, 2019

Pfizer

Pfizer, Inc.

PSU

Performance stock unit

R&D

Research and development

Regeneron

Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Amended Retention Plan

October 25, 2022 amendment to the Retention Plan

Retention Plan

Retention and Severance Plan dated March 31, 2022

Rezolute

Rezolute, Inc., formerly Antria Bio, Inc.

Rezolute License Agreement

the Company's License Agreement with Rezolute dated December 6, 2017, as amended in March 2018, January 2019 and March 2020

RPA

Royalty Purchase Agreement

Roche

F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG

SEC

U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission

Second Bioasis RPA

the Company's Royalty Purchase Agreement with Bioasis dated November 2, 2020

Series A Preferred Stock

the 8.625% Series A cumulative, perpetual preferred stock issued in December 2020

Series B Preferred Stock

the 8.375% Series B cumulative, perpetual preferred stock issued in April 2021

Series A and Series B Preferred Stock

Series A Preferred Stock and Series B Preferred Stock, collectively

Series B Depositary Shares

the depositary shares, each representing 1/1000th interest in a share of Series B Preferred Stock

Sonnet

Sonnet BioTherapeutics, Inc., formerly Oncobiologics, Inc.

Sonnet Collaboration Agreement

the Company's Collaboration Agreement with Sonnet dated July 23, 2012, as amended in May 2019

SOX

Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

SVB

Silicon Valley Bank

Takeda

Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited

Takeda Collaboration Agreement

the Company's Collaboration Agreement with Takeda dated November 1, 2006, as amended in February 2007 and February 2009

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Talphera

Talphera, Inc.

TGFβ

transforming growth factor beta

U.S.

United States

VABYSMO®

faricimab-svoa

Viracta

Viracta Therapeutics, Inc.

Viracta RPA

the Company's Royalty Purchase Agreement with Viracta dated March 22, 2021, as amended March 4, 2024

XOMA

XOMA Corporation, a Delaware corporation, including subsidiaries

XRL

XRL 1 LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of XOMA

Zevra

Zevra Therapeutics, Inc. (formerly KemPharm Denmark A/S)

Zevra APA

Asset Purchase Agreement dated May 13, 2011 between LadRx and Orphazyme ApS, and assigned to Zevra as of June 1, 2022, related to the sale of arimoclomol from LadRx to Zevra (assumed by the Company as part of LadRx AAA)

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PART I

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, (the “Securities Act”), Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, (the “Exchange Act”), and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, which are subject to the “safe harbor” created by those sections. Forward-looking statements are based on current expectations, estimates and forecasts, as well as our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to them, and are subject to risks and uncertainties that are difficult to predict. In some cases you can identify forward-looking statements by words such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “might,” “could,” “would,” “expects,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “projects,” “predicts,” “potential,” “intend” “goal,” “strategy,” “continue,” “design” and similar words, expressions or the negative of such terms intended to identify forward-looking statements. Examples of these statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding: trend analyses and statements regarding future events, future financial performance, anticipated growth, and industry prospects, our future operating expenses, our future losses, the success of our strategy as a royalty aggregator, the assumptions underlying our business model, the extent to which issued and pending patents may protect the products and processes in which we have an ownership or royalty interest and prevent the use of the covered subject matter by third parties, the potential of our existing product candidates to lead to the development of commercial products, our ability to receive potential milestone or royalty payments under license and collaboration agreements and the amount and timing of receipt of those payments, our ability to locate suitable assets to acquire, our ability to complete (on a timely basis or at all) and realize the benefits from acquisitions, uncertainties related to the acquisition of interest in development-stage and clinical-stage product candidates, fluctuations in, our ability to predict our operating results and cash flows, and the sufficiency of our capital resources. Forward-looking statements are based on assumptions that may not prove accurate. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated due to certain risks inherent in the biotechnology industry and for our licensees engaged in the development of new products in a regulated market. Among other things: there can be no assurance that our revenues or expenses will meet any expectations or follow any trend(s); we may be unable to retain our key employees; litigation, arbitration or other disputes with third parties may have a material adverse effect on us; our product candidates subject to our out-license agreements are still being developed, and our licensees’ may require substantial funds to continue development which may not be available; we may not be successful in entering into out-license agreements for our product candidates; if our therapeutic product candidates do not receive regulatory approval, our third-party licensees will not be able to manufacture and market them; products or technologies of other companies may render some or all of our product candidates noncompetitive or obsolete; we do not know whether there will be, or will continue to be, a viable market for the products in which we have an ownership or royalty interest; even once approved, a product may be subject to additional testing or significant marketing restrictions, its approval may be withdrawn or it may be voluntarily taken off the market; and we and our licensees are subject to various state and federal healthcare related laws and regulations that may impact the commercialization of our product candidates and could subject us to significant fines and penalties. These and other risks, and uncertainties that may cause our actual results or outcomes to differ materially and adversely from those expressed in our forward-looking statements, including those related to current economic and financial market conditions, are identified below in Item 1, Business; Item 1A, Risk Factors; Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations; and other sections of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Forward-looking statements are inherently uncertain and you should not place undue reliance on these statements, which speak only as of the date that they were made. These cautionary statements should be considered in connection with any written or oral forward-looking statements that we may issue in the future. Except as required by law, we do not undertake any obligation to revise or update publicly any forward-looking statements after completion of the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to reflect later events or circumstances or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, or otherwise.

In addition, statements that “we believe” and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. While we believe that information provides a reasonable basis for these statements, that information may be limited or incomplete. Our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all relevant information. These statements are inherently uncertain, and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely on these statements.

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All references to “portfolio” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K are to milestone and/or royalty rights associated with a basket of product candidates in development.

We use our trademarks, trade names and services marks in this Annual Report on Form 10-K as well as trademarks, trade names and service marks that are the property of other organizations. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this report appear without the ® and ™ symbols, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or that the applicable owner will not assert its rights, to these trademarks and trade names.

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Risk Factors Summary

Below is a summary of material factors that make an investment in our securities speculative or risky. Importantly, this summary does not address all of the risks and uncertainties that we face. Additional discussion of the risks and uncertainties summarized in this risk factor summary, as well as other risks and uncertainties that we face, can be found under “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The below summary is qualified in its entirety by that more complete discussion of such risks and uncertainties. You should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described under “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K as part of your evaluation of the risks associated with an investment in our securities.

Our acquisitions of potential future royalty or milestone payments may not produce anticipated revenues.
We may not successfully complete or realize the expected business or financial benefits of our acquisitions or investments in companies that hold royalty assets.
Many of our potential royalty acquisitions may be associated with product candidates that are in clinical development and have not yet been commercialized. If our potential royalty providers’ therapeutic product candidates do not receive regulatory approval, our potential royalty providers will be unable to market them.
Actual or threatened epidemics, pandemics, outbreaks of disease, or other public health crises, natural disasters, public health crises, political crises and other catastrophic events, and unstable market and macroeconomic conditions have and may in the future, adversely affect us, our licensees or royalty-agreement counterparties or their licensees.
Biopharmaceutical products are subject to sales risks and substantial competition and the volatility of the biotechnology industry may affect us indirectly as well as directly.
We depend on our third parties for the determination of royalty and milestone payments.
The lack of liquidity of our acquisitions of future potential milestones and royalties may adversely affect us.
Our royalty aggregator strategy may require that we register with the SEC as an “investment company” in accordance with the Investment Company Act of 1940.
We have sustained losses in the past, and we expect to sustain losses in the foreseeable future.
Our royalty aggregator strategy may require us to raise additional funds.
We have an obligation to pay quarterly dividends to holders of our Series A Preferred Stock and Series B Preferred Stock, and these stockholders have rights senior to those of our common stockholders.
Information available to us about the intellectual property or biopharmaceutical products underlying the potential royalties we buy may be limited and our future income is dependent on numerous potential milestone and royalty-specific assumptions that may prove not to be accurate.
A large percentage of the calculated net present value of our portfolio is represented by a limited number of products, and the royalties that we acquire may fall outside the biopharmaceutical industry.
We may not be able to successfully identify and acquire potential milestone and royalty streams, and we may not be able to successfully manage the risks associated with integration.
Biological products and product candidates of our potential milestone and royalty providers may face more intense competition or competition sooner than anticipated.

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Our potential royalty providers may be unable to price our products effectively or obtain coverage and adequate reimbursement for sales of our products.
We do not know whether there will be, or will continue to be, a viable market for the product candidates in which we have an ownership, milestone, or royalty interest.
Product liability claims may diminish the returns on biopharmaceutical products.
We and our potential royalty providers may be unable to protect our or their intellectual property, and litigation regarding intellectual property can be costly.
We and our partners rely heavily on license and collaboration relationships and our potential milestone and royalty providers may rely on other third parties to provide services.
The marketers of biopharmaceutical products are substantially responsible for the ongoing regulatory approval, commercialization, manufacturing and marketing of products.
Certain of our technologies are in-licensed from third parties, so our and our licensees’ use of them may be restricted and subject to additional risks.
We may not be able to attract and retain qualified personnel, and our employees may engage in misconduct or other improper activities.
Our information technology systems or data or those of our partners or contractors could be compromised, and our actual or perceived failure to comply with any data privacy or security obligations could lead to regulatory investigations or actions; litigation; fines and penalties; a disruption of our business operations; reputational harm; loss of revenue or profits; and other adverse consequences.
Even after FDA approval, a product may be subject to additional testing or significant marketing restrictions, its approval may be withdrawn, or it may be removed voluntarily from the market.
Healthcare reform measures and other statutory or regulatory changes could adversely affect our business.
We are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption laws, and as we or our potential milestone and royalty providers do more business internationally, we expect to become subject to additional political, economic and regulatory uncertainties.
Our share price may be volatile, which may subject us to litigation.
Our results of operations and liquidity needs could be materially negatively affected by market fluctuations or an economic downturn.
We may issue additional equity securities from time to time, and we may sell additional debt securities.
Our organizational documents contain provisions that may prevent transactions that could be beneficial to our stockholders and may insulate our management from removal.
We can provide no assurance that we will, at all times, in the future be able to report that our disclosure controls and internal controls over financial reporting are effective.
Stockholder and private lawsuits, and potential similar or related lawsuits, could result in substantial damages, divert management’s time and attention from our business, and have an adverse effect on us.

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Item 1. BUSINESS

Overview and Strategy

XOMA is a biotech royalty aggregator. We have a sizable portfolio of economic rights to future potential milestone and royalty payments associated with partnered commercial and pre-commercial therapeutic candidates. Our portfolio was built through the acquisition of rights to future milestones, royalties and commercial payments since our royalty aggregator business model was implemented in 2017 combined with out-licensing our proprietary products and platforms from our legacy discovery and development business. Our royalty aggregator business is primarily focused on early to mid-stage clinical assets, primarily in Phase 1 and 2, with significant commercial sales potential that are licensed to larger pharmaceutical partners. We also acquire milestone and royalty revenue streams on late-stage clinical assets or commercial assets that are designed to address unmet markets or have a therapeutic advantage, have long duration of market exclusivity, and are expected to generate royalty or milestone payments to us in a short timeframe. We expect most of our future revenue to be based on payments we may receive for milestones and royalties associated with these programs.

Our strategy is to expand our portfolio by acquiring additional potential milestone and royalty revenue streams from product candidates from third parties. We believe that expanding our portfolio through these acquisitions allows for further diversification across therapeutic areas and development stages.

Royalty Portfolio

The following tables highlight key assets included in our portfolio of potential future milestone and royalty payment streams. These tables do not include all assets because certain assets are subject to confidentiality agreements.

Key Portfolio Assets

COMPANY

ASSET NAME

TARGET

ROYALTY RATE

Alora

DSUVIA® (sufentanil sublingual tablet)

mreceptors

15% (Commercial)

37.5-75% (DoD)

Day One

DAY101 (tovorafenib)

Pan-RAF

Mid-single-digit

Janssen Biotech

JNJ-63723283 (cetrelimab)

PD-1

0.75%

Medexus

IXINITY® [coagulation factor IX (recombinant)]

Factor IX

Mid-single-digit

Rezolute

RZ358

INSR

High single-digit to mid-teens

Roche

VABYSMO® (faricimab-svoa)

Angiopoietin-2 and VEGF-A

0.5%

Takeda

TAK-079 (mezagitamab)

CD-38

4%

Zevra

arimoclomol

Heat-shock protein 70

Mid-single-digit

Large pharma assets

COMPANY

ASSET NAME

TARGET

ROYALTY RATE

AstraZeneca

AZD2936

TIGIT/PD-1

Confidential

Bayer

BAY-1213790 (osocimab)

Factor XIa

Low single-digit

LG Chem (AVEO Oncology)

AV-299 (ficlatuzumab)

HGF

Low single-digit

Novartis

CFZ533 (iscalimab)

CD-40

Mid-single-digit to low-teens

Regeneron

CMP-001 (vidutolimod)

TLR9

High single-digit to double-digit

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Biotech assets

COMPANY

ASSET NAME

TARGET

ROYALTY RATE

Affimed

AFM13 (acimtamig)

CD30/CD16A

Confidential

Affimed

AFM24

EGRF/CD16A

Confidential

Aronora

AB023 (gruticibart)

Factor XI

Low single-digit

Aronora

AB002 (E-WE thrombin)

E-WE thrombin

Low single-digit

Aronora

AB054

Factor XII

Low single-digit

AVEO Oncology

AV-299 (ficlatuzumab)

HGF

Low single-digit

Compugen

COM902

TIGIT

Confidential

Denovo Biopharma

vosaroxin

topoisomerase II

High single-digit

ImmunityBio

aldoxorubicin

Albumin-linked formulation of doxorubicin

Mid-single-digits to mid-teens

Incyte

INCAGN2385

LAG-3

Low to mid-single-digit

Incyte

INCAGN02390

TIM-3

Low to mid-single-digit

Monopar Therapeutics

MNPR-101

uPAR

None

Palobiofarma

PBF-680

Adenosine A1 receptor

Low single-digit

Palobiofarma

PBF-677

Adenosine A3 receptor

Low single-digit

Palobiofarma

PBF-999

Adenosine A2a receptor/ Phosphodiesterase 10 (PDE-10)

Low single-digit

Palobiofarma

PBF-1129

Adenosine A2b receptor

Low single-digit

Palobiofarma

PBF-1650

Adenosine A3 receptor

Low single-digit

National Resilience

G03-52-01

Botulinum neurotoxins

15%

Rezolute

RZ402

Plasma kallikrein

Low single-digit

Acquisitions – Commercial Programs

Affitech Commercial Payment Purchase Agreement

In October 2021, we entered into the Affitech CPPA, pursuant to which we purchased a future stream of commercial payment rights to Roche’s VABYSMO® (faricimab-svoa) from Affitech for an upfront payment of $6.0 million. We are eligible to receive commercial payments from Roche consisting of 0.5% of future net sales of faricimab for a ten-year period following the first commercial sales in each applicable jurisdiction. In 2022, VABYSMO was approved by the FDA and the EMA for the treatment of wet, or neovascular, age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema. In 2022, pursuant to the Affitech CPPA, we paid Affitech $8.0 million in milestone payments tied to these marketing approvals. In October 2023, the FDA approved VABYSMO for the treatment of retinal vein occlusion.  

Pursuant to the Affitech CPPA, we received commercial payments totaling $7.3 million and $0.5 million in 2023 and 2022, respectively. Based on net sales of VABYSMO in 2023, we paid Affitech additional milestones totaling $6.0 million in March 2024, and we may pay up to an additional $6.0 million in milestones based on the achievement of certain sales thresholds in future periods.

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Aptevo Commercial Payment Purchase Agreement

In March 2023, we entered into the Aptevo CPPA, pursuant to which we acquired the full commercial payment stream and a portion of the milestone rights to IXINITY® [coagulation factor IX (recombinant)], which is marketed by Medexus for the control and prevention of bleeding episodes and postoperative management in people with Hemophilia B. We expect to receive a mid-single digit percentage payment stream on all IXINITY sales from January 1, 2023 until the first quarter of 2035, and also expect to be entitled to receive milestone payments. Under the terms of the Aptevo CPPA, in 2023 we paid Aptevo a $9.6 million upfront payment plus a $50,000 one-time payment when the first commercial payment exceeded $0.5 million.

Pursuant to the Aptevo CPPA, we received commercial payments totaling $1.7 million in 2023.

Talphera Commercial Payment Purchase Agreement

In January 2024, we acquired an economic interest in DSUVIA® (sufentanil sublingual tablet) from Talphera, for $8.0 million. DSUVIA was approved in 2018 by the FDA for use in adults in certified medically supervised healthcare settings. In April 2023, Talphera divested DSUVIA to Alora Pharmaceuticals for an upfront payment, a 15% royalty on commercial net sales, a 75% royalty on net sales to the DoD, and up to $116.5 million in milestone payments. Under the terms of the agreement, we are entitled to receive 100% of all royalties and milestones related to DSUVIA sales until we receive $20.0 million. Once we receive $20.0 million, the 75% royalties generated from DoD purchases and the remaining $116.5 million in potential milestone payments due from Alora will be shared equally between us and Talphera. We will fully retain the 15% royalty associated with DSUVIA commercial sales.

Acquisitions - Pre-Commercial Programs

LadRx Agreements

In June 2023, we entered into the LadRx AAA pursuant to the which we acquired from LadRx all of its rights, title and interests related to arimoclomol under the Zevra RPA. We also entered into the LadRx RPA, pursuant to which we acquired the right to receive all of the future royalties, regulatory and commercial milestone payments as well as other related payments due to LadRx from ImmunityBio related to aldoxorubicin under the ImmunityBio License Agreement. The purchased rights related to arimoclomol include potential regulatory and commercial milestone payments of up to $52.5 million (net of certain payment obligations of up to $9.5 million based on a portion of the regulatory and commercial milestone payments) and potential royalty payments in low single-digit percentages of aggregate net sales associated with arimoclomol. The purchased payments related to aldoxorubicin include potential regulatory and commercial milestone payments of up to $342.7 million and royalty payments on aggregate net sales of aldoxorubicin in the low to mid-teens for sales of orphan indications and mid to high single-digit percentages for sales of other licensed products.

Upon closing of the LadRx Agreements, we paid LadRx an upfront payment of $5.0 million.  In January 2024, Zevra announced the FDA accepted its NDA resubmission for arimoclomol, and pursuant to the LadRx RPA, we paid LadRx a $1.0 million milestone payment. We may pay up to an additional $1.0 million commercial milestone payment related to arimoclomol and an additional $4.0 million regulatory milestone payment related to aldoxorubicin.  

Kuros Royalty Purchase Agreement

In July 2021, we entered into the Kuros RPA, pursuant to which we acquired the rights to 100% of the potential future royalties from commercial sales, which are tiered from high single-digit to low double-digits, and up to $25.5 million in pre-commercial milestone payments associated with an existing license agreement related to Checkmate Pharmaceuticals’ vidutolimod (CMP-001), a Toll-like receptor 9 agonist, packaged in a virus-like particle, for an upfront payment of $7.0 million. We may pay additional sales-based milestone payments to Kuros of up to $142.5 million, representing a portion of the future royalties on commercial sales.

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In May 2022, Regeneron completed its acquisition of Checkmate Pharmaceuticals resulting in a $5.0 million milestone payment to Kuros. Pursuant to the Kuros RPA, we were entitled to 50% of the milestone payment, which we received in July 2022.

Viracta Royalty Purchase Agreement

In March 2021, we entered into the Viracta RPA, pursuant to which we acquired the right to receive future royalties, milestone payments, and other payments related to two clinical-stage drug candidates for an upfront payment of $13.5 million. The first candidate, DAY101 (a pan-RAF kinase inhibitor), is being developed by Day One Biopharmaceuticals, and the second candidate, vosaroxin (a topoisomerase II inhibitor), is being developed by Denovo Biopharma. We acquired the right to receive (i) up to $54.0 million in potential milestone payments, potential royalties on sales, if approved, and other payments related to DAY101, excluding up to $5.0 million retained by Viracta, and (ii) up to $57.0 million in potential regulatory and commercial milestone payments and high single-digit royalties on sales related to vosaroxin, if approved.

In October 2023, we earned a $5.0 million milestone payment related to the FDA’s acceptance of Day One Biopharmaceuticals’ NDA for tovorafenib as a monotherapy in relapsed or progressive pediatric low-grade glioma.

Agenus Royalty Purchase Agreement

In September 2018, we entered into the Agenus RPA, pursuant to which we acquired the right to receive 33% of the future royalties due to Agenus from Incyte (net of certain royalties payable by Agenus to a third party) and 10% of all future developmental, regulatory and sales milestone payments on sales of certain Incyte immuno-oncology assets. In addition, we acquired the right to receive 33% of the future royalties due to Agenus from Merck and 10% of all future developmental, regulatory and sales milestone payments on sales of MK-4830, an immuno-oncology product. Pursuant to the Agenus RPA, our share in future potential development, regulatory and commercial milestones is up to $59.5 million, and the royalties have no limit. Under the terms of the Agenus RPA, we paid Agenus an upfront payment of $15.0 million.

In November 2020, MK-4830 advanced into Phase 2 development. As a result of the advancement, Agenus earned a $10.0 million clinical development milestone payments pursuant to its license agreement with Merck, of which we received $1.0 million.

Aronora Royalty Purchase Agreement

In April 2019, we entered into the Aronora RPA, pursuant to which we acquired the rights to potential royalties and a portion of upfront, milestone, and option payments associated with five anti-thrombotic hematology product candidates in development: three candidates subject to Aronora’s collaboration with Bayer (the “Bayer Products”) and two additional early-stage candidates (the “non-Bayer Products”).

Under the terms of the Aronora RPA, we made a $6.0 million upfront payment to Aronora when the transaction closed in June 2019, and in September 2019 we made an additional $3.0 million payment for the three Bayer Products that were active as of September 2019. Pursuant to the Aronora RPA, if we receive at least $25.0 million in cumulative royalties on net sales per product, we will be required to pay associated tiered milestones payments to Aronora in an aggregate amount of up to $85.0 million per product. The tiered milestones will be paid based on various royalty tiers prior to reaching $250.0 million in cumulative royalties on net sales per product. We will retain royalties per product in excess of $250.0 million. We are also entitled to receive, on average, low single-digit royalties on future sales of the Bayer Products and 10% of all future developmental, regulatory and sales milestones related to the Bayer Products. In addition, we purchased from Aronora the right to receive a low single-digit percentage of net sales of the non-Bayer Products and 10% of all future payments, including upfront payments, option payments and developmental, regulatory and sales milestone payments on potential future sales of the non-Bayer Products. In July 2020, Bayer elected to not exercise its option on the third Bayer Product and that product is now subject to the same economic terms as the non-Bayer Products.

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Palobiofarma Royalty Purchase Agreement

In September 2019, we entered into the Palo RPA, pursuant to which we acquired the rights to potential royalty payments in low single-digit percentages of aggregate net sales associated with six product candidates in various clinical development stages, targeting the adenosine pathway with potential applications in solid tumors, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ulcerative colitis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, psoriasis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and other indications (the “Palo Licensed Products”) that are being developed by Palo. Under the terms of the Palo RPA, we paid Palo an upfront payment of $10.0 million for the rights to potential royalty payments on future potential sales of the Palo Licensed Products.

ObsEva Intellectual Property Acquisition Agreement

In November 2022, we entered into the ObsEva IP Acquisition Agreement pursuant to which we acquired all of ObsEva’s intellectual property (patents and know-how) and license agreement rights related to ebopiprant, an investigational compound previously licensed by ObsEva from Merck KGaA. We also assumed ObsEva’s ongoing obligations under the Organon License Agreement and the Merck KGaA License Agreement. Pursuant to the Organon License Agreement, we were eligible to receive up to $475.0 million in payments for ebopiprant development, commercialization and sales-based milestones, and royalties that range from low to mid-teens from Organon. If ebopiprant was successfully commercialized, we would have been required to make mid-single-digit royalty payments to Merck KGaA. We paid ObsEva a $15.0 million upfront payment at closing and would have paid potential earn-out payments of up to $97.5 million for development, regulatory and sales-based milestones, representing a portion of what we would have received pursuant to the Organon License Agreement.

On October 23, 2023, Organon notified us of its intent to terminate the Organon License Agreement, which we assumed pursuant to the ObsEva IP Acquisition Agreement. The termination was effective as of January 21, 2024, and we will not be entitled to any milestone payments with respect to any milestone achieved by Organon following the notice of termination. We evaluated the related intangible asset balance for impairment and recorded an impairment charge of $14.2 million as of December 31, 2023.

Bioasis Royalty Purchase Agreement

In February 2019, we entered into the Bioasis RPA, pursuant to which we acquired future milestone, royalty and option fee payment rights from Bioasis for product candidates that were being developed pursuant to a license agreement between Bioasis and Prothena Biosciences Limited. Under the terms of the Bioasis RPA, we paid Bioasis an upfront cash payment of $0.3 million and would have been required to make contingent future cash payments of up to $0.2 million to Bioasis if and when the licensed product candidates reached certain development milestones. In November 2020, we entered into the Second Bioasis RPA, pursuant to which we acquired potential future milestone and other payments, and royalty rights from Bioasis for product candidates that were being developed pursuant to a research collaboration and license agreement between Bioasis and Chiesi. We paid Bioasis $1.2 million upon the closing of the Second Bioasis RPA for the purchased rights. In June 2023, Bioasis announced the suspension of all of its operations and the termination of the research collaboration and license agreement between Bioasis and Chiesi. We do not expect to receive any milestone, royalty or other payments under the Biosis RPA or Second Bioasis RPA. In June 2023, we recorded an impairment charge of $1.6 million.

Selected Programs Underlying Our Portfolio

The following is a summary of significant licenses and collaboration agreements related to our legacy product candidates and technologies.

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Novartis – Anti-CD40 Antibody

In February 2004, we entered into an exclusive, worldwide, multi-product collaboration agreement with Chiron to research, develop and commercialize multiple antibody product candidates for the treatment of cancer, and such agreement was replaced with the Chiron Collaboration Agreement entered into in May 2005. The Chiron Collaboration Agreement was a risk-sharing arrangement whereby Chiron and we shared expenses and revenues on a 70-30 basis, with our share being 30%. It included a loan facility from Chiron to us, secured by our 30% ownership interest in the collaboration, of up to $50.0 million to fund up to 75% of our share of expenses beginning in 2005.

In October 2005, Chiron announced it had entered into a definitive merger agreement with Novartis under which Novartis acquired all of the remaining outstanding shares of Chiron. This transaction closed in 2006 at which time Novartis acquired Chiron’s interest in the Chiron Collaboration Agreement. In July 2008, Novartis and we restructured the Chiron Collaboration Agreement, which involved six development programs including iscalimab, a fully human anti-CD40 antagonist antibody intended as a treatment for B-cell mediated diseases, including malignancies and autoimmune diseases. As part of the restructuring, Novartis, as successor to Chiron, was granted, among other things, control over the product development collaborations remaining thereunder, including iscalimab. In September 2015, we and Novartis agreed to reduce the royalty-style payments that we were eligible to receive on sales of Novartis’ clinical-stage anti-CD40 antibodies (such as iscalimab). These royalty-style payments were previously tiered based on sales levels, and were amended to have percentage rates ranging from mid-single-digit to low teens.

In September 2021, Novartis announced its decision to discontinue its study of CFZ533 (iscalimab) in kidney transplant. In September 2022, after an interim analysis of data, Novartis also decided to discontinue its study of CFZ533 in liver transplant. Novartis is continuing iscalimab studies in other indications, such as Sjögren’s Syndrome.

Our right to royalty-style payments expires on the later of the expiration of any licensed patent covering each product or 10 years from the first commercial sale of each product in each country.

Takeda

In November 2006, we entered into the Takeda Collaboration Agreement with Takeda under which we agreed to discover and optimize therapeutic antibodies against multiple targets selected by Takeda.

Under the Takeda Collaboration Agreement, we may receive additional milestone payments of an aggregate of up to $19.0 million relating to TAK-079 (mezagitamab) and a 4% royalty on future sales of all products subject to this license. Our right to milestone payments expires on the later of the receipt of payment from Takeda of the last amount to be paid under the agreement or the cessation by Takeda of all research and development activities with respect to all program antibodies, collaboration targets or collaboration products. Our right to receive royalties expires on the later of 13.5 years from the first commercial sale of each royalty-bearing discovery product or the expiration of the last-to-expire licensed patent (or 12 years from first commercial sale if there is significant generic competition post patent-expiration).

In February 2009, we expanded our existing collaboration to provide Takeda with access to multiple antibody technologies, including a suite of research and development technologies and integrated information and data management systems. We may receive milestones of up to $3.3 million per discovery product candidate and low single-digit royalties on future sales of all antibody products subject to this license. Our right to milestone payments expires on the later of the receipt of payment from Takeda of the last amount to be paid under the agreement or the cessation by Takeda of all research and development activities with respect to all program antibodies, collaboration targets or collaboration products. Our right to royalties expires on the later of 10 years from the first commercial sale of such royalty-bearing discovery product or the expiration of the last-to-expire licensed patent.

In November 2020, the first patient was dosed in Takeda’s Phase 2 study of mezagitamab, and we earned a $2.0 million milestone payment from Takeda. We are eligible to receive remaining milestone payments of up to a total of $16.0 million under the Takeda Collaboration Agreement.

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In August 2021, Molecular Templates, Inc. assumed full rights to TAK-169 from Takeda, including full control of TAK-169 clinical development per the terms of its terminated collaboration agreement with Takeda.

In January 2022, we earned a development milestone of $0.8 million pursuant to the Takeda Collaboration Agreement.

Rezolute

In December 2017, we entered into a license agreement with Rezolute pursuant to which we granted an exclusive global license to Rezolute to develop and commercialize RZ358 (previously known as “X358”) products for all indications. In addition, we entered into a common stock purchase agreement with Rezolute pursuant to which Rezolute agreed to issue to us, as consideration for receiving the license for RZ358, a certain number of its common stock in connection with any future equity financing activities.

Under the terms of the license agreement, Rezolute is responsible for all development, regulatory, manufacturing and commercialization activities associated with RZ358 and is required to make certain development, regulatory and commercial milestone payments to us of up to an aggregate of $232.0 million based on the achievement of pre-specified criteria. Under the license agreement, we are also eligible to receive royalties ranging from the high single-digits to the mid-teens based upon annual net sales of any commercial product incorporating RZ358. Rezolute’s obligation to pay royalties with respect to a particular RZ358 product and country will continue for the later of the date of expiration of the last valid patent claim covering the product in each country, or 12 years from the date of the first commercial sale of the product in each country. Rezolute’s future royalty obligations in the U.S. will be reduced by 20% if the manufacture, use or sale of a licensed product is not covered by a valid patent claim, until such a claim is granted.

Pursuant to the license agreement, we are eligible to receive a low single-digit royalty on sales of Rezolute’s other non-RZ358 products from its current programs, including RZ402 which is in Phase 1 clinical study. Rezolute’s obligation to pay royalties with respect to a particular Rezolute product and country will continue for the longer of 12 years from the date of the first commercial sale of the product in each country or for so long as Rezolute or its licensee is selling such product in any country, provided that any such licensee royalty will terminate upon the termination of the licensee’s obligation to make payments to Rezolute based on sales of such product in each country.

The license agreement contains customary termination rights relating to material breach by either party. Rezolute also has a unilateral right to terminate the license agreement in its entirety on ninety days’ notice at any time. To the extent permitted by applicable laws, we have the right to terminate the license agreement if Rezolute challenges the licensed patents.

No consideration was exchanged upon execution of the arrangement. In consideration for receiving the license for RZ358, Rezolute agreed to issue shares of its common stock and pay cash to us upon the occurrence of any future equity financing activities.

The license agreement was subsequently amended in 2018, 2019 and 2020. Pursuant to the terms of the license agreement, as amended, we received a total of $6.0 million upon Rezolute’s equity financing activities and $8.5 million in installment payments through October 2020. We also received 161,861 shares of common stock of Rezolute (on an as-adjusted post reverse-split basis).

In January 2022, Rezolute dosed the last patient in its Phase 2b clinical trial for RZ358, which triggered a $2.0 million milestone payment due to us pursuant to the Rezolute License Agreement, as amended.

In December 2023, Rezolute announced it had initiated a Phase 3 clinical study for RZ358 in congenital hyperinsulinism.

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Janssen

In August 2019, we entered into an agreement with Janssen pursuant to which we granted a non-exclusive license to Janssen to develop and commercialize certain product candidates, including our patents and know-how. Under the agreement, Janssen made a one-time payment of $2.5 million to us. Additionally, for each product candidate, we are entitled to receive milestone payments of up to $3.0 million upon Janssen’s achievement of certain clinical development and regulatory approval milestones. Additional milestone payments may be due for product candidates which are the subject of multiple clinical trials. Upon commercialization, we are eligible to receive a 0.75% royalty on net sales of each product. Janssen’s obligation to pay royalties with respect to a particular product and country will continue until the eighth-year-and-sixth-month anniversary of the first commercial sale of the product in such country. The agreement will remain in effect unless terminated by mutual written agreement.

In 2023, we earned a total of $1.5 million in milestone payments from Janssen, which included five milestone payments for IND filings and one milestone payment upon dosing of the first patient in a Phase 3 clinical trial evaluating one of Janssen’s biologic assets.

Competition

The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are subject to significant technological change. Some of the drugs our licensees or milestone and royalty partners are developing may compete with existing therapies or other product candidates in development by other companies. Furthermore, academic institutions, government agencies and other public and private organizations conducting research may seek patent protection with respect to potentially competing products or technologies and may establish collaborative arrangements with our licensees’ or royalty partners’ competitors. There can be no assurance that developments by others, including, without limitation, the development of generics or biosimilars, will not render our licensees’ or royalty partners’ products or technologies obsolete or uncompetitive.

Additionally, our royalty aggregator model faces competition on at least two fronts. First, there are other companies, funds and other investment vehicles seeking to aggregate royalties or provide alternative financing to development-stage biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies. These competitor companies, funds and other investment vehicles may have a lower target rate of return, a lower cost of capital or access to greater amounts of capital and thereby may be able to successfully acquire assets that we are also targeting for acquisitions. Second, existing or potential competitors to our partners and licensees’ products, particularly large pharmaceutical companies, may have greater financial, technical and human resources than our licensees. Accordingly, these competitors may be better equipped to develop, manufacture and market products. Many of these companies also have extensive experience in preclinical studies and human clinical trials, obtaining FDA and other regulatory approvals and manufacturing and marketing pharmaceutical products.

For a discussion of the risks associated with our competitive environment, refer to Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”

Government Regulation and Environmental Matters

The research and development, manufacturing and marketing of pharmaceutical and biological products are subject to regulation by numerous governmental authorities in the U.S. and other countries. We and our partners and licensees, depending on specific activities performed, are subject to these regulations. In the U.S., pharmaceuticals and biological products are subject to regulation by both federal and various state authorities, including the FDA. The Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and, for biological products, the Public Health Service Act, govern the testing, manufacture, safety, efficacy, purity, potency, labeling, storage, recordkeeping, approval, reporting, tracking and tracing, importing and exporting, and advertising, marketing and promotion of pharmaceutical and biological products, and there are other comparable laws and regulations that apply at the state level. Further, various other state and federal healthcare laws and regulations, including the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, the federal False Claims Act and state and federal data privacy and security laws and regulations, may also apply. There are similar regulations in other countries as well. For both currently marketed products and product candidates in development, failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements can, among other things, result in delays, the suspension of regulatory approvals, as well as possible civil and criminal sanctions. Development-stage product candidates in our portfolio require approval by the FDA before we

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will recognize any royalties from sales. In addition, changes in existing regulations could have a material adverse effect on us or our partners.

In the U.S., the EU and other significant or potentially significant markets for our portfolio and product candidates, government authorities and third-party payors are increasingly attempting to limit or regulate the price of medical products and services. In the U.S., the volume of drug pricing-related legislation has dramatically increased in recent years. For example, Congress has enacted laws requiring manufacturers to refund the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, for certain discarded amounts of drugs from single-use vials beginning in 2023 and eliminating the existing cap on Medicaid rebate amounts beginning in 2024. Also, in August 2022 Congress enacted the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, which, among other things, requires the Department of Health and Human Services to negotiate Medicare prices for certain drugs, imposes an inflation-based rebate on Medicare Part B and D utilization, restructures the Medicare Part D benefit and increases manufacturer contributions in some or all of the Medicare Part D benefit phases. In addition, many state legislatures are considering, or have already passed into law, legislation that seeks to indirectly or directly regulate pharmaceutical drug pricing, such as requiring manufacturers to publicly report proprietary pricing information, creating review boards for prices to state agencies, and encouraging the use of generic drugs. In both the U.S. and elsewhere, sales of medical products and treatments are dependent, in part, on the availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors, such as government and private insurance plans. Further, many countries outside the U.S., including the EU member states, have established complex and lengthy procedures to obtain price approvals and coverage reimbursement and periodically review their pricing and reimbursement decisions. If any pricing-related regulation impacts products in our portfolio, it would result in lower royalties received by us.

We believe there are no significant compliance issues with laws and regulations that have been enacted or adopted regulating the discharge of materials into the environment, or otherwise relating to the protection of the environment, that have adversely affected, or are reasonably expected to adversely affect, our business, financial condition and results of operations, and we currently do not anticipate material capital expenditures arising from environmental regulation. We believe climate change could present risks to our business. Some of the potential impacts of climate change to our business include increased operating costs due to additional regulatory requirements and the risk of disruptions to our business. We do not believe these risks are material to our business at this time.

For a discussion of the risks associated with our compliance with government regulations, see Part 1, Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”

Intellectual Property

Intellectual property is important to our business and our future income streams will depend in part on our partners and licensees’ ability to obtain patents and to operate without infringing on the proprietary rights of others. We hold and have filed applications for a number of patents in the U.S. and internationally to protect our products and technology. We also have obtained or have the right to obtain licenses to, or income streams based on, certain patents and applications filed by others. However, the patent position of biotechnology companies generally is highly uncertain and consistent policy regarding the breadth of allowed claims has not emerged from the actions of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office with respect to biotechnology patents. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that our, or our partners or licensees’ patents will afford protection against competitors with similar products or that others will not obtain patents claiming aspects similar to those covered by our, or our partners’ or licensees’ patent applications. Some of our agreements, or those of our partners or licensees, contain “step-down” provisions where the royalty rate is reduced following patent expiration or revocation. Furthermore, there can be no assurance that our royalties will expire when expected. Any reductions in the duration of royalties relative to our estimates may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations. Below is a list of representative patents and patent applications related to our licensed programs:

Licensee

Program

Representative
Patents/Applications

Subject Matter

Expected Last Expiration in Patent Family

Rezolute

Anti-INSR

US 9,944,698
EP 2 480 254
JP 5849050

Insulin receptor-modulating antibodies having the functional properties of RZ358

2030

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Licensee

Program

Representative
Patents/Applications

Subject Matter

Expected Last Expiration in Patent Family

US 10,711,067

EP 3 265 491A1

WO2023225657A2*

Methods of treating or preventing post-prandial hypoglycemia after gastric bypass surgery using a negative modulator antibody to the insulin receptor

RZ358 formulations

2036

2043

Ology Bioservices

Anti-BoNT

US 8,821,879
EP 2 473 191

Coformulations of anti- botulinum neurotoxin antibodies

2030

Various

Phage display libraries

US 8,546,307
EP 2 344 686

XOMA phage display library components

2032

AVEO

Anti-HGF

US 7,649,083**

Human-Engineered anti-HGF antibodies and uses thereof

2028

Amolyt

Anti-PTH1R

US 10,519,250

EP 3 490 600A1

Parathyroid Hormone Receptor 1 Antibodies and Uses Thereof

2037

Seeking out-license

Ebopiprant

US 8,451,480***

EP1 487 442***

9,447,055***

9,834,528***

10,259,795***

EP 3 400 217***

10,555,934

11,524,003

EP 3 397 622

11,534,428

Generically covers ebopiprant  

  

  

Ebopiprant; prodrug valine ester; method of synthesizing ebopiprant, method of treating or preventing preterm labor by administering ebopiprant 

  

Treating pre-term labor or delaying onset of labor with Ebopiprant or prodrug valine ester plus an additional agent such as nifedipine or atosiban 

  

Delaying onset of delivery by administering ebopiprant and about 20mg of nifedipine

2024

  

2036 

  

  

  

  

  

2037 

  

  

  

  

  

2039 

* Jointly owned with Rezolute, Inc.

** Jointly owned with AVEO Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

***Owned by Merck Serono S.A. 

If certain patents issued to others are upheld or if certain patent applications filed by others are issued and upheld, our partners and licensees may require certain licenses from others to develop and commercialize certain potential product candidates incorporating our technology. There can be no assurance that such licenses, if required, will be available on acceptable terms, if at all. If such licenses are obtained, our partners and licensees may be able to deduct some or all of the costs from the royalties they owe to us.

We seek to protect our proprietary information, in part, by confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants and partners. These parties may breach these agreements, and we may not have adequate remedies for any breach. To the extent that we or our consultants or partners use intellectual property owned by others, we may have disputes with our consultants or partners or other third parties, as to the rights in related or resulting know-how and inventions.

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Concentration of Risk

Our business model is dependent on third parties achieving specified development milestones and product sales. Our portfolio currently includes partner funded programs from which we could potentially receive royalties or other payments if the programs achieve marketability. A large percentage of the calculated net present value of our portfolio is represented by a limited number of products. The failure of any one of these products to move forward in clinical development or commercialization may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated in Delaware in 1981 and redomiciled as a Bermuda-exempted company in December 1998. Effective December 31, 2011, we redomiciled from Bermuda to Delaware and changed our name from XOMA Ltd. to XOMA Corporation. References to the “Company” and “XOMA” before December 31, 1998 or after December 31, 2011, refer to XOMA Corporation, a Delaware corporation; references to the “Company” and “XOMA” between December 31, 1998 and December 31, 2011 refer to XOMA Ltd., a Bermuda company.

Our principal executive offices are located at 2200 Powell Street, Suite 310, Emeryville, California 94608. Our telephone number at our principal executive offices is (510) 204-7200. Our website address is www.xoma.com. The information found on our website is not part of this or any other report filed with or furnished to the SEC.

Employees

We rely on a small number of skilled, experienced, and innovative employees to conduct the operations of our Company. As of March 4, 2024, we employed 13 full-time employees who were primarily engaged in executive, business development, legal, finance and administrative positions. We also utilize independent contractors and consultants to supplement our workforce.  

Item 1A. RISK FACTORS

The following risk factors and other information included in this Annual Report should be carefully considered. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial, also may impair our business operations. If any of the following risks or uncertainties occur, our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.

Risks Related to our Royalty Aggregator Strategy

Our acquisitions of potential future royalty and/or milestone payments may not produce anticipated revenues and/or may be negatively affected by a default or bankruptcy of the licensor(s) or licensee(s) under the applicable license agreement(s) covering such potential royalties and/or milestones, and if such transactions are secured by collateral, we may be, or may become, under-secured by the collateral or such collateral may lose value and we will not be able to recuperate our capital expenditures associated with the acquisition.

We routinely review opportunities to acquire future royalties, milestone payments and other payments related to drug development and sales as part of our royalty aggregator strategy or to acquire companies that hold royalty assets. Generally, at any time, we seek to have acquisition opportunities in various stages of active review, including, for example, our engagement of consultants and advisors to analyze particular opportunities, technical, financial and other confidential information, submission of indications of interest and involvement as a bidder in competitive auctions. Many potential acquisition targets do not meet our criteria, and for those that do, we may face significant competition for these acquisitions from other royalty buyers and enterprises. These unsuccessful attempts to acquire new royalties could result in significant costs to us, could hurt our reputation and divert management and financial resources. Competition for future asset acquisition opportunities in our markets could increase the price we pay for such assets and could reduce the number of potential acquisition targets. The success of our acquisitions is based on our ability to make accurate assumptions regarding the valuation, probability, timing and amount of potential future royalty and milestone payments, as well as the viability

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of the underlying technology and intellectual property. The failure of any of these acquisitions to produce anticipated revenues may materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Some of these acquisitions may expose us to credit risk in the event of a default by or bankruptcy of the licensor(s) or licensee(s) that are parties to the applicable license agreement(s) covering the potential milestone and royalty streams being acquired. In addition, recent volatility in the capital markets, including financial institution instability, may limit our licensees or royalty-agreement counterparties’ (or their licensees’) ability to access additional funding. While we generally try to structure our receipt of potential milestone and royalty payments to minimize the risk associated with such a default or bankruptcy, there can be no assurance that any such default or bankruptcy will not adversely affect our ability to receive future potential royalty and/or milestone payments. To mitigate this risk, on occasion we may obtain a security interest as collateral in such royalty, milestone and other payments. Our credit risk in respect of such counterparty may be exacerbated when the collateral held by us cannot be realized upon or is liquidated at prices not sufficient to recover the full amount we are due pursuant to the terms of the agreements covering the particular assets. This could occur in circumstances where the original collateral was not sufficient to cover a complete loss (e.g., our interests were only partially secured) or may result from the deterioration in value of the collateral, so that, in either such case, we are unable to recuperate our full capital outlay. Any such losses resulting therefrom could materially and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

As we acquire and invest in companies that hold royalty assets, we may not realize the expected business or financial benefits and the acquisitions could prove difficult to integrate, disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value and adversely affect our operating results and the market value of our common stock.

Additionally, we may not be able to complete or realize the expected business or financial benefits from our potential acquisitions or investments in companies that hold royalty assets, including our planned acquisition of Kinnate.  Acquisitions and other similar transactions, arrangements and investments involve numerous risks and could create unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures, including:

the possibility that competing offers will be made;
potential failure to successfully complete the acquisition or transaction in a timely manner, or at all, which may in turn, adversely affect us or our target’s business and the price of us or their respective common stock;
potential failure to achieve the expected benefits on a timely basis or at all;
our ability to integrate the acquired assets into our business;
brand or reputational harm associated with our strategic investments or acquired companies;
challenges converting the acquired company’s revenue recognition policies and forecasting the related revenues;
division of financial and managerial resources from existing operations;
challenges entering into new markets in which we have little or no experience or where competitors may have stronger market positions;
difficulties and strain on resources in integrating acquired operations, technologies, assets and personnel;
regulatory challenges from antitrust or other regulatory authorities that may block, delay or impose conditions (such as divestitures, ownership or operational restrictions or other structural or behavioral remedies) on the completion of transactions or the integration of acquired operations;

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failure to fully assimilate, integrate or retrain acquired employees, which may lead to retention risk with respect to both key acquired employees and our existing key employees or disruption to existing teams;
inability to generate sufficient revenue to offset acquisition or investment costs;
challenges with the acquired company’s customers and partners, including the inability to maintain such relationships and changes to perception of the acquired business as a result of the acquisition;
potential for acquired products to impact the profitability of existing products;
unanticipated expenses related to acquired assets or its integration into our business;
known and potential unknown liabilities associated with the acquired businesses, including due to litigation;
difficulties in and financial costs of addressing acquired compensation structures inconsistent with our compensation structure;
additional stock-based compensation issued or assumed in connection with the acquisition, including the impact on stockholder dilution and our results of operations;
ineffective or inadequate controls, procedures and policies at the acquired company; and
the tax effects of any such acquisitions including related integration and business operation changes, and assessment of the impact on the realizability of our future tax assets or liabilities.

Any of these risks could harm our business or negatively impact our results of operations. In addition, to facilitate acquisitions or investments, we may seek additional equity or debt financing, which may not be available on terms favorable to us or at all, which may affect our ability to complete subsequent acquisitions or investments, and which may affect the risks of owning our common stock. For example, if we finance acquisitions by issuing equity or convertible or other debt securities or loans, our existing stockholders may be diluted, or we could face constraints related to the terms of, and repayment obligation related to, the incurrence of indebtedness that could affect the market price of our common stock.

Many of our potential royalty acquisitions may be associated with product candidates that are in clinical development and have not yet been commercialized. To the extent that such products are not successfully developed and commercialized, our financial condition and results of operations may be negatively impacted. Acquisitions of potential royalties associated with development stage biopharmaceutical product candidates are subject to a number of additional uncertainties.

As part of our royalty aggregator strategy, we may continue to purchase future potential milestone and royalty streams associated with product candidates which are in clinical development and have not yet received marketing approval by any regulatory authority or been commercialized. There can be no assurance that the FDA, the EMA or other regulatory authorities will approve such products or that such products can be brought to market on a timely basis or at all, or that the market will be receptive to such products. To the extent that any such product candidates are not successfully developed and subsequently commercialized, the value of our acquired potential milestone and royalty streams may be negatively affected. The ultimate success of our royalty aggregator strategy depends on our ability to properly identify and acquire high quality products and the ability of the applicable counterparty to innovate, develop and commercialize their products, in increasingly competitive and highly regulated markets. Their inability to do so may negatively affect potential royalty and/or milestone payments. In addition, we are dependent, to a large extent, on third parties to enforce certain rights for our benefit, such as prosecution, maintenance and protection of a patent estate, adequate reporting and other protections, and their failure to do so could negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations.

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If the FDA, the EMA or other regulatory authority approves a development-stage product candidate that generates our royalty, the labeling, packaging, adverse event reporting, storage, advertising, promotion and recordkeeping for the product will be subject to extensive and ongoing regulatory requirements. The subsequent discovery of previously unknown problems with the product, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, may result in restrictions on the marketing of the product, and could include withdrawal of the product from the market, which could negatively impact potential royalty and/or milestone payments.

In addition, the developers of these development-stage product candidates may not be able to raise additional capital to continue their discovery, development and commercialization activities, which may cause them to delay, reduce the scope of, or eliminate one or more of their clinical trials or research and development programs, if such programs are continued at all. If other product developers introduce and market products that are more effective, safer, less invasive or less expensive than the relevant products that generate our royalties, or if such developers introduce their products prior to the competing products underlying our royalties, such products may not achieve commercial success and thereby result in a loss for us.

Further, the developers of such products may not have sales, marketing or distribution capabilities. If no sales, marketing or distribution arrangements can be made on acceptable terms or at all, the affected product may not be able to be successfully commercialized, which may result in a loss for us. Losses from such assets could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We intend to continue to pursue, and may expand, this strategy of acquiring development-stage product candidates. While we believe that we can reasonably evaluate the likelihood of a development-stage product candidate’s achievement of regulatory approval and potential sales, there can be no assurance that our assumptions, estimates, forecasts and expectations will prove correct. We may have limited information concerning the intellectual property or products generating the royalties we are evaluating for acquisition and therefore, there may be material information that relates to such intellectual property products that we do not have. In addition, market data that we obtain may also prove to be incomplete or incorrect. In addition, there can be no assurance that regulatory authorities will approve such development-stage product candidates, that such development-stage product candidates will be brought to market on a timely basis or at all, or that such products will achieve commercial success. Any of these factors could have a material effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Actual or threatened epidemics, pandemics, outbreaks of disease, or other public health crises have and may in the future, adversely affect us and our licensees or royalty-agreement counterparties or their licensees, which could cause delays or elimination of our receipts of potential milestones and royalties under our licensing or royalty and milestone acquisition arrangements.

Actual or threatened epidemics, pandemics, outbreaks of disease, or other public health crises have in the past and may in the future adversely impact us, our licensees or royalty-agreement counterparties or their licensees, which have and could further cause delays, suspensions or cancellations of their drug development efforts including, without limitation, their clinical trials, which would correspondingly delay, suspend or negate the timing of our potential receipts of milestones and royalties under our out-licensing or royalty acquisition agreements. These disruptions to our licensees or RPA counterparties or their licensees could include, without limitation:

delays or difficulties in recruiting and enrolling new patients in their clinical trials;
delays or difficulties in clinical site initiation;
diversion of healthcare resources away from the conduct of clinical trials, including the diversion of hospitals serving as their clinical trial sites and hospital staff supporting the conduct of their clinical trials;
interruption of key clinical trial activities, such as clinical trial site monitoring patient dosing and data analysis;

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limitations in employee resources that would otherwise be focused on the conduct of their clinical trials, including because of sickness of employees or their families or the desire of employees to avoid contact with large groups of people;
interruption in global shipping that may affect the transport of clinical trial supplies and materials;
potential refusal by the FDA to accept data, including from clinical trials in affected geographies or failure to comply with updated FDA guidance and expectations related to the conduct of clinical trials during the COVID-19 pandemic;
other delays in development of product candidates underlying our biopharmaceutical assets;
delays in receiving approval from the FDA, the EMA and other U.S. and foreign federal, state and local regulatory authorities to initiate their planned clinical trials or to market their products; and
difficulty accessing capital or credit markets on favorable terms, if at all, which could affect our ability to fund our business operations.

Risks Related to our Industry

Biopharmaceutical products are subject to sales risks.

Biopharmaceutical product sales may be lower than expected due to a number of reasons, including pricing pressures, insufficient demand, product competition, failure of clinical trials, lack of market acceptance, including lack of acceptance by healthcare programs or insurance plans, changes in our licensees’ or royalty-agreement counterparties’ strategic priorities, obsolescence, loss of patent protection, government regulations or other factors, and development-stage product candidates may fail to reach the market. Unexpected side effects, safety or efficacy concerns can arise with respect to a product, leading to product recalls, withdrawals, declining sales or litigation. As a result, payments of our future potential milestones and/or royalties may be reduced or cease. In addition, these potential payments may be delayed, causing our near-term financial performance to be weaker than expected.

Biopharmaceutical products are subject to substantial competition.

The biopharmaceutical industry is a highly competitive and rapidly evolving industry. The length of any product’s commercial life cannot be predicted with certainty. There can be no assurance that one or more products on which we are entitled to a potential milestone or royalty will not be rendered obsolete or non-competitive by new products or improvements on which we are not entitled to a potential milestone or royalty, either by the current marketer of such products or by another marketer. Current marketers of products may undertake these development efforts in order to improve their products or to avoid paying our royalty. Adverse competition, obsolescence or governmental and regulatory action or healthcare policy changes could significantly affect the revenues, including royalty-related revenues, of the products which generate our potential milestones and royalties.

Competitive factors affecting the market position and success of each product include: 

effectiveness;
safety and side effect profile;
price, including third-party insurance reimbursement policies;
timing and introduction of the product;
effectiveness of marketing strategy and execution;

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market acceptance;
manufacturing, supply and distribution;
intellectual property protections;
governmental regulation;
availability of lower-cost generics and/or biosimilars;
treatment innovations that eliminate or minimize the need for a product; and
product liability claims.

Biopharmaceutical products that have the potential to generate future milestones and royalties for us may be rendered obsolete or non-competitive by new products, including generics and/or biosimilars, improvements on existing products, more effective commercialization, or governmental or regulatory action. In addition, as biopharmaceutical companies increasingly devote significant resources to innovate next-generation products and therapies using gene editing and new curative modalities, such as cell and gene therapy, products on which we have a milestone or royalty rights may become obsolete. These developments could have a material adverse effect on the sales of the biopharmaceutical products that have potential to generate our milestones and royalties, and consequently could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We depend on our licensees and royalty-agreement counterparties (and their licensees) for the determination of royalty and milestone payments. While we typically have primary or back-up rights to audit our licensees and royalty-agreement counterparties (and their licensees), our independent auditors may have difficulty determining the correct royalty calculation, we may not be able to detect errors and payment calculations may call for retroactive adjustments. We may have to exercise legal remedies, if available, to resolve any disputes resulting from any such audit.

The royalty, milestone and other payments we may receive are dependent on our licensees and royalty agreement counterparties and their licensees’ achievement of regulatory and developmental milestones and product sales. Each licensee’s calculation of the royalty payments is subject to and dependent upon the adequacy and accuracy of its sales and accounting functions, and errors may occur from time to time in the calculations made by a licensee and/or a licensee may fail to report the achievement of royalties or milestones in whole or in part. Our license and royalty agreements typically provide us the primary or back-up right to audit the calculations and sales data for the associated royalty payments; however, such audits may occur many months following our recognition of the royalty revenue, may require us to adjust our royalty revenues in later periods and may require expense on our part. Further, our licensees and royalty-agreement counterparties (and their licensees) may be uncooperative or have insufficient records, which may complicate and delay the audit process.

Although we intend to exercise our royalty audit rights as necessary and to the extent available, we rely in the first instance on our licensees and royalty-agreement counterparties (and their licensees) to accurately report the achievement of milestones and royalty sales and calculate and pay applicable milestones and royalties and, upon exercise of such royalty and other audit rights, we rely on licensees’ and royalty-agreement counterparties’ (and their licensees’) cooperation in performing such audits. In the absence of such cooperation, we may be forced to incur expenses to exercise legal remedies, if available, to enforce our agreements.

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The lack of liquidity of our acquisitions of future potential milestones and royalties may adversely affect our business and, if we need to sell any of our acquired assets, we may not be able to do so at a favorable price, if at all. As a result, we may suffer losses.

We generally acquire milestone and royalty rights that have limited secondary resale markets and may be subject to transfer restrictions. The illiquidity of most of our milestone and royalty receivable assets may make it difficult for us to dispose of them at a favorable price if at all and, as a result, we may suffer losses if we are required to dispose of any or all such assets in a forced liquidation or otherwise. In addition, if we liquidate all or a portion of our potential future milestone and/or purchased royalty stream interests more quickly than planned or in connection with a forced liquidation, we may realize significantly less than the value we anticipate or at which we had previously recorded these interests.

Our royalty aggregator strategy may require that we register with the SEC as an “investment company” in accordance with the Investment Company Act of 1940.

The rules and interpretations of the SEC and the courts, relating to the definition of “investment company” are very complex. While we currently intend to conduct our operations so as not to be considered an “investment company,” and we do not believe we are an “investment company” under applicable SEC rules, we can provide no assurance that the SEC will not take the position that the Company is required to register under the ‘40 Act and comply with the ‘40 Act’s registration and reporting requirements, capital structure requirements, affiliate transaction restrictions, conflict of interest rules, requirements for disinterested directors, and other substantive provisions. We monitor our assets and income for compliance under the ‘40 Act and seek to conduct our business activities in a manner such that we do not fall within its definitions of “investment company” or that we qualify under one of the exemptions or exclusions provided by the ‘40 Act and corresponding SEC regulations. However, if we were to be considered an “investment company” and become subject to the restrictions of the ‘40 Act, those restrictions likely would require significant changes in the way we do business and add significant administrative costs and burdens to our operations. Additionally, we may need to take various actions which we might otherwise not pursue in order to not come within scope of the ‘40 Act. These actions may include, among others, restructuring the Company and/or modifying our mixture of assets and income or a liquidation of certain of our assets.

Our licensees or royalty-agreement counterparties or their licensees could be subject to natural disasters, public health crises, political crises and other catastrophic events that could hinder or disrupt development efforts.

We depend on our licensees and royalty-agreement counterparties and their licensees to successfully develop and commercialize product candidates for which we may receive milestone, royalty and other payments in the future. Our licensees and royalty-agreement counterparties and their licensees operate research and development efforts in various locations in the U.S. and internationally. If any of their facilities is affected by natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, power shortages or outages, floods, monsoons or wild fires, public health crises, such as pandemics and epidemics, geopolitical instability, crises such as terrorism, war, political instability, labor disputes or strikes, other conflict, including the ongoing conflict in Ukraine, conflict in the Middle East and surrounding areas and rising tensions between China and Taiwan, or other events outside of their control, their research and development efforts could be disrupted, which could result in the delay or discontinuation of development of one or more of the product candidates in which we have rights to future milestone and/or royalty payments which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and prospects.

Because many of the companies with which we do business also are in the biotechnology industry, the volatility of that industry can affect us indirectly as well as directly.

The same factors that affect us directly also can adversely affect us indirectly by affecting the ability of our partners and others with whom we do business to meet their obligations to us and reduce our ability to realize the value of the consideration provided to us by these other companies in connection with their licensing of our products.

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Risks Related to our Financial Results and Capital Requirements

We have sustained losses in the past, and we expect to sustain losses in the foreseeable future.

We have incurred significant operating losses and negative cash flows from operations since our inception. We generated net losses of $40.8 million and negative cash flows from operations of $18.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, and we had an accumulated deficit of $1.2 billion as of December 31, 2023. We do not know whether we will ever achieve sustained profitability or whether cash flow from future operations will be sufficient to meet our needs.

To date, we have financed our operations primarily through the sale of equity securities and debt and royalty interests, and payments received under our collaboration and licensing arrangements. The size of our future net losses depends, in part, on the rate of our future expenditures and our and our partners’ ability to generate revenues. If our partners’ product candidates are not successfully developed or commercialized, or if revenues are insufficient following regulatory approval, we may not achieve profitability and our business may fail. Our ability to achieve profitability is dependent in large part on the success of our and our partners’ ability to license product candidates, and the success of our partners’ development programs, both of which are uncertain. Our success is also dependent on our partners’ obtaining regulatory approval to market product candidates which may not materialize or prove to be successful.

Unstable market and macroeconomic conditions, including adverse developments affecting the financial services industry, such as actual events or concerns involving liquidity, defaults or non-performance by financial institutions or transactional counterparties, may have adverse consequences on our business, financial condition and stock price.

The global credit and financial markets have experienced volatility, including as a result of trade and other international disputes, significant natural disasters (including as a result of climate change), new or increased tariffs and other barriers to trade, changes to fiscal and monetary policy or government budget dynamics (particularly in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries), tighter credit, high interest rates, and economic inflation, which has included diminished liquidity and credit availability, declines in consumer confidence, declines in economic growth or recession, high inflation, uncertainty about economic stability and changes in unemployment rates. The financial markets and the global economy may also be adversely affected by the current or anticipated impact of geopolitical instability, including military conflict, acts of terrorism or other geopolitical events. Sanctions imposed by the U.S. and other countries in response to such conflicts, including the one in Ukraine and the Middle East, may also continue to adversely impact the financial markets and the global economy, and any economic countermeasures by the affected countries or others could heighten market and economic instability. There can be no assurance that further deterioration in credit and financial markets and confidence in economic conditions will not occur. Our royalty aggregator strategy may be adversely affected by any such economic downturn, volatile business environment or continued unpredictable and unstable market conditions. Failure to secure any necessary financing in a timely manner could have a material adverse effect on our growth strategy, financial performance and stock price.

In addition, actual events involving limited liquidity, defaults, non-performance or other adverse developments that affect financial institutions, transactional counterparties or other companies in the financial services industry or the financial services industry generally, or concerns or rumors about any events of these kinds or other similar risks, have in the past and may in the future lead to market-wide liquidity problems. For example, in March 2023, Silicon Valley Bank, Signature Bank and Silvergate Capital Corp. were each swept into receivership.

Although we assess our banking relationships as we believe necessary or appropriate, our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance or capitalize our current and projected future business operations could be significantly impaired by factors that affect us, the financial institutions with which we have arrangements directly, or the financial services industry or economy in general. These factors could involve financial institutions or financial services industry companies with which we have financial or business relationships but could also include factors involving financial markets or the financial services industry generally.

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Our royalty aggregator strategy may require us to raise additional funds to acquire milestone and royalty interests; we cannot be certain that funds will be available or available at an acceptable cost of capital, and if they are not available, we may be unsuccessful in acquiring milestone and royalty interests to sustain the business in the future.

We may need to commit substantial additional funds to continue our business, and we may not be able to obtain sufficient funds on acceptable terms, if at all. If the current equity and credit markets deteriorate, it may make any additional debt or equity financing more difficult and more costly. Any additional debt financing or additional equity that we raise may contain terms that are not favorable to us and/or result in dilution to our stockholders, including pursuant to our 2018 Common Stock ATM Agreement, as amended and to our 2021 Series B Preferred Stock ATM Agreement. If we raise additional funds through licensing arrangements with third parties, we may be required to relinquish some rights to our technologies or our product candidates, grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us or enter into a license arrangement for a product candidate at an earlier stage of development or for a lesser amount than we might otherwise choose. If we raise additional funds through borrowings, we have in the past and may in the future repay the principal and interest of the loan from certain of our royalty payments and/or use our royalties as collateral for such borrowings. For example, on December 15, 2023, we, through XRL, a newly formed, wholly-owned subsidiary, entered into a non-dilutive, non-recourse, royalty-backed loan for up to $140.0 million of capital with certain funds managed by the credit platform of Blue Owl Capital Inc. In the event of a default under such secured borrowings, one or more of our creditors or their assignees could obtain control of certain of our royalties and, in the event of a distressed sale, these creditors could dispose of these royalties for significantly less value than we could realize for them.

If adequate funds are not available on a timely basis, we may:

reduce or eliminate royalty aggregation efforts;
further reduce our capital or operating expenditures;
curtail our spending on protecting our intellectual property; or
take other actions which may adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.

Changes in the potential royalty acquisition market, including its structure, participants, growth rate, level of competition or financing methods, or a reduction in the growth of the biopharmaceutical industry, could lead to diminished opportunities for us to acquire potential milestones and royalties, fewer potential milestones and royalties (or potential milestones or royalties of significant scale) being available, or increased competition for potential royalties. Even if we continue to acquire potential royalties and they become actual royalties, they may not generate a meaningful return for a period of several years, if at all, due to the price we pay for such royalties or other factors, such as the underlying products, or intellectual property, other competitive products, market conditions, or the structure of the transaction. As a result, we may not be able to continue to acquire potential milestones and royalties as we have in the past, or at all.

We have an obligation to pay quarterly dividends to holders of our Series A Preferred Stock and Series B Preferred Stock, which we expect to be an on-going expenditure for us and may limit our ability to borrow additional funds.

Holders of our Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to receive, when and as declared by our Board, out of funds legally available for the payment of dividends, cumulative cash dividends at the rate of 8.625% of the $25.00 liquidation preference per year (equivalent to $2.15625 per year). Dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock accumulate and are cumulative from, and including, the date of original issuance by us of the Series A Preferred Stock. Dividends are payable in arrears on or about the 15th day of January, April, July and October. In the event of any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, the holders of shares of Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to be paid out of our assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders a liquidation preference of $25.00 per share, plus an amount equal to any accumulated and unpaid dividends up to the date of payment (whether or not declared), before any distribution or payment may be made to holders of shares of common stock or any other class or series of our equity stock ranking, as to liquidation rights, junior to the Series A Preferred Stock. The shares of Series A Preferred Stock are redeemable at our option, in whole or in part, at redemption prices ranging from $26.00 per share to $25.00 per share, plus any accrued and unpaid dividends, depending on the date of redemption.

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Holders of depositary shares representing interests in our Series B Preferred Stock are entitled to receive, when and as declared by our Board, out of funds legally available for the payment of dividends, cumulative cash dividends at the rate of 8.375% of the $25,000 liquidation preference per share of Series B Preferred Stock ($25.00 per depositary share) per year (equivalent to $2,093.75 per year per share of Series B Preferred Stock or $2.09375 per year per depositary share). Dividends on the Series B Preferred Stock accumulate and are cumulative from, and including, the date of original issuance by us of the Series B Preferred Stock. Dividends are payable in arrears on or about the 15th day of January, April, July and October. The shares of Series B Preferred Stock are redeemable at our option, in whole or in part, at redemption prices ranging from $26,000.00 per share ($26.00 per depositary share) to $25,000.00 per share ($25.00 per depositary share), plus any accrued and unpaid dividends, depending on the date of redemption.

The payment of cash dividends and share repurchases is subject to limitations under applicable laws and the discretion of our Board after considering current conditions, including earnings, other operating results and capital requirements. Decreases in asset values or increases in liabilities can reduce net earnings and stockholders’ equity. A deficit in stockholders’ equity could limit our ability to pay dividends and make share repurchases under Delaware law. On the other hand, our continued obligation to pay dividends to the holders of our Series A Preferred Stock and depositary shares representing interests in Series B Preferred Stock could restrict us from additional borrowings or make them more costly.

The holders of preferred stock have rights that are senior to those of our common stockholders.

As of December 31, 2023, we had 984,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock issued and outstanding with a liquidation preference of $25.00 per share, plus an amount equal to any accumulated and unpaid dividends up to the date of payment (whether or not declared). Additionally, as of December 31, 2023, we had 1,600,000 depositary shares issued and outstanding, each representing a 1/1000th fractional interest in a share of our Series B Preferred Stock with a liquidation preference of $25,000 per share of Series B Preferred Stock ($25.00 per depositary share), plus an amount equal to any accumulated and unpaid dividends up to the date of payment (whether or not declared). Our preferred stock is senior to our shares of common stock in right of payment of dividends and other distributions. In the event of our bankruptcy, dissolution or liquidation, the holders of our preferred stock must be satisfied before any distributions can be made to our common stockholders.

Information available to us about the intellectual property or biopharmaceutical products underlying the potential royalties we buy may be limited and therefore our ability to analyze each product and its potential future cash flow may be similarly limited.

We may have limited information concerning the intellectual property or products generating the future potential milestones and royalties we are evaluating for acquisition. The information we have regarding intellectual property or products underlying a potential milestone or royalty may be limited to the information that is available in the public domain. Therefore, there may be material information that relates to such intellectual property or products that we would like to know but do not have and may not be able to obtain. For example, we do not always know the results of studies conducted by sponsors of the products or others or the nature or number of any complaints from doctors or users of such products or the nature or number of adverse effects of such products. In addition, the market data that we obtain independently may also prove to be incomplete or incorrect. Due to these and other factors, the actual cash flow from a potential royalty may be significantly lower than our estimates.

Our future income is dependent upon numerous potential milestone and royalty-specific assumptions and, if these assumptions prove not to be accurate, we may not achieve our expected rates of returns.

Our business model is based on multiple-year internal and external forecasts regarding potential product sales and numerous product-specific assumptions in connection with each potential milestone and royalty acquisition, including in circumstances where we have limited information regarding the product. There can be no assurance that the assumptions underlying our financial models, including those regarding potential product sales or competition, patent expirations or license terms or terminations for the products underlying our portfolio, are accurate. These assumptions involve a significant element of subjective judgment and may be and in the past have been adversely affected by post-acquisition changes in market conditions and other factors affecting the underlying product, such as uncertainties around the patent

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estate and the terms of the license agreement, as well as the development, labeling, regulatory approval, commercialization, manufacturing and supply of product candidates. Our assumptions regarding the financial stability or operational or marketing capabilities of the partner obligated to pay us potential royalties may also prove to be incorrect. Due to these and other factors, the assets in our current portfolio or future assets may not generate our projected returns or in the time periods we expect. This could negatively impact our results of operations for a given period.

Reductions or declines in income from potential milestones and royalties, or significant reductions in potential milestone or royalty payments compared to expectations, or impairments in the value of potential milestones and royalties acquired, could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

The amount and duration of a royalty varies on a country-by-country basis and depends on a number of factors, such as payments to third party licensors, whether the product is sold singly or in combination, patent expiration dates, regulatory exclusivity, years from first commercial sale of the applicable product candidate, the entry of competing generic or biosimilar products, or other terms set out in the contracts governing the royalty. It is common for royalty durations to expire earlier or later than anticipated due to unforeseen positive or negative developments over time, including with respect to the granting of patents and patent term extensions, the invalidation of patents, claims of patent misuse, litigation between the party controlling the patents and third party challengers of the patents, the ability of third parties to design around or circumvent valid patents, the granting of regulatory exclusivity periods or extensions, timing of the arrival of generic or biosimilar competitor products, changes to legal or regulatory regimes affecting intellectual property rights or the regulation of pharmaceutical products, product life cycles, and industry consolidations. If an unexpected reduction in a royalty amount or shortening of a potential royalty term were to occur, it could result in a reduction in potential income from milestones and royalties, a significant reduction in potential milestones and royalty payments compared to expectations, or a permanent impairment of such potential milestones and royalty payments.

A large percentage of the calculated net present value of our portfolio is represented by a limited number of products. The failure of any one of these products to move forward in clinical development or commercialization may have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Our asset portfolio is not fully diversified by product, therapeutic area, geographic region or other criteria. Any significant deterioration in the amount or likelihood of receipt of potential cash flows from the top products in our asset portfolio could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. For example, in September 2021, Novartis announced its decision to discontinue its study of CFZ533 (iscalimab) in kidney transplant. In September 2022, after an interim analysis of data, Novartis also decided to discontinue its study of CFZ533 in liver transplant, and in July 2023, Novartis announced that it is discontinuing its Phase 3 trial investigating NIS793 in first-line metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. In August 2023, Novartis communicated to us that it intends to discontinue development activities related to NIS793 and will cease enrolling patients in the remaining active clinical studies. This, and any future deterioration in cash flows from the top products in our asset portfolio, could adversely affect our business and financial conditions.

In addition, should the payor of any future potential milestones or royalties decline to pay such potential milestones and royalties for any reason, such failure may result in a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

The royalties that we acquire may fall outside the biopharmaceutical industry, and any such assets, and the cash flows therefrom, may not resemble the assets in our current portfolio.

We have discretion as to the types of assets that we may acquire. While we expect to acquire assets that primarily fall within the biopharmaceutical industry, we are not obligated to do so and may acquire other types of assets that are peripheral to or outside of the biopharmaceutical industry. Consequently, our asset acquisitions in the future, and the cash flows from such assets, may not resemble those of the assets in our current portfolio. There can be no assurance that assets acquired in the future will have returns similar to the returns expected of the assets in our current portfolio or be profitable at all.

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Risks Related to Our Milestone and Royalty Streams

We may not be able to successfully identify and acquire potential milestone and royalty streams on other products, product candidates, or programs, or other companies to grow and diversify our business, and, even if we are able to do so, we may not be able to successfully manage the risks associated with integrating any such products, product candidates, programs or companies into our business or we may otherwise fail to realize the anticipated benefits of these acquisitions.

To grow and diversify our business, we plan to continue our business development efforts to identify and seek to acquire potential milestone and royalty streams or companies and/or to in-license rights to potential products, product candidates, and programs.  Future growth through acquisition or in-licensing will depend upon the availability of suitable products, product candidates, programs or companies for acquisition or in-licensing on acceptable prices, terms and conditions. Even if appropriate opportunities are available, we may not be able to acquire rights to them on acceptable terms, or at all. The competition to acquire or in-license rights to promising products, product candidates, programs and companies is fierce, and many of our competitors are large, multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies with considerably more financial, development and commercialization resources, personnel, and experience than we have. In order to compete successfully in the current business climate, we may have to pay higher prices for assets than may have been paid historically, which may make it more difficult for us to realize an adequate return on any acquisition.

Even if we are able to successfully identify and acquire or in-license new products, product candidates, programs or companies, we may not be able to successfully manage the risks associated with integrating any products, product candidates, programs or companies into our business or the risks arising from anticipated and unanticipated problems in connection with an acquisition or in-licensing. Further, while we seek to mitigate risks and liabilities of potential acquisitions through, among other things, due diligence, indemnification and risk allocation, there may be risks and liabilities that such due diligence efforts fail to discover, that are not disclosed to us, or that we inadequately assess or are otherwise unable to mitigate or prevent. Any failure in identifying and managing these risks and uncertainties could have a material adverse effect on our business. In any event, we may not be able to realize the anticipated benefits of any acquisition or in-licensing for a variety of reasons, including the possibility that a product candidate fails to advance to clinical development, proves not to be safe or effective in clinical trials, or that a product fails to reach its forecasted commercial potential or that the integration of a product, product candidate, program or company gives rise to unforeseen difficulties and expenditures. Any failure in identifying and managing these risks and uncertainties could have a material adverse effect on our business.

If our potential royalty providers’ therapeutic product candidates do not receive regulatory approval, our potential royalty providers will be unable to market them.

Our potential royalty providers’ product candidates cannot be manufactured and marketed in the U.S. or any other countries without required regulatory approvals. The U.S. government and governments of other countries extensively regulate many aspects of our partners’ product candidates, including:

clinical development and testing;
manufacturing;
labeling;
storage;
record keeping;
promotion and marketing; and
importing and exporting.

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In the U.S., the FDA regulates pharmaceutical products under the FDCA and other laws, including, in the case of biologics, the Public Health Service Act.

Initiation of clinical trials requires approval by health authorities. Clinical trials involve the administration of the investigational new drug to healthy volunteers or to patients under the supervision of a qualified principal investigator. Clinical trials must be conducted in accordance with the requirements of the FDA and International Conference on Harmonization Good Clinical Practices and the European Clinical Trials Directive, as applicable, under protocols that detail the objectives of the study, the parameters to be used to monitor safety and the efficacy criteria to be evaluated. Other national, foreign and local regulations also may apply. The developer of the drug must provide information relating to the characterization and controls of the product before administration to the patients participating in the clinical trials. This may require developing authorized assays of the product to test before administration to the patient and during the conduct of the trial. In addition, developers of pharmaceutical products must provide periodic data regarding clinical trials to the FDA and other health authorities, and these health authorities may issue a clinical hold upon a trial if they do not believe, or cannot confirm, that the trial can be conducted without unreasonable risk to the trial participants.

The results of the preclinical studies and clinical testing, together with chemistry, manufacturing and controls information, are submitted to the FDA and other health authorities in the form of a NDA for a drug, and in the form of a BLA for a biological product, requesting approval to commence commercial sales. In responding to an NDA or BLA, the FDA or foreign health authorities may grant marketing approvals determining that the product is safe and effective, or in the case of a biologic, safe, pure, and potent, for its intended use, request additional information or further research, or deny the application if they determine the application does not satisfy regulatory approval criteria. Regulatory approval of an NDA, BLA, or supplement is never guaranteed. The approval process can take several years, is extremely expensive and can vary substantially based upon the type, complexity, and novelty of the products involved, as well as the target indications. Our potential royalty providers ultimately may not be able to obtain approval in a timely fashion or at all.

The FDA and foreign health authorities have substantial discretion in the drug and biologics approval processes. Despite the time and expense incurred, failure can occur at any stage, and our potential development partners could encounter problems that cause abandonment of clinical trials or cause them to repeat or perform additional preclinical, clinical or manufacturing-related studies.

Changes in the regulatory approval policy during the development period, changes in, or the enactment of additional regulations or statutes, or changes in regulatory review for a submitted product application may cause delays in the approval or rejection of an application.

The FDA and other regulatory agencies have substantial discretion in both the product approval process and manufacturing facility approval process, and as a result of this discretion and uncertainties about outcomes of testing, we cannot predict at what point, or whether, the FDA or other regulatory agencies will be satisfied with our licensees’ submissions or whether the FDA or other regulatory agencies will raise questions that may be material and delay or preclude product approval or manufacturing facility approval. In light of this discretion and the complexities of the scientific, medical and regulatory environment, our or our potential royalty providers’ interpretation or understanding of the FDA’s or other regulatory agencies’ requirements, guidelines or expectations may prove incorrect, which also could delay further or increase the cost of the approval process.

Our potential milestone and royalty providers face uncertain results of clinical trials of product candidates.

Drug development has inherent risk, and our potential milestone and royalty providers are required to demonstrate through adequate and well-controlled clinical trials that product candidates are effective, with a favorable benefit-risk profile for use in their target profiles before they can seek regulatory approvals for commercial use. It is possible our potential royalty providers may never receive regulatory approval for any licensed product candidates. Even if a product candidate receives regulatory approval, the resulting product may not gain market acceptance among physicians, patients, healthcare payors and the medical community.

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Our potential milestone and royalty providers’ product candidates require significant research and development, extensive preclinical studies and clinical trials and regulatory approval prior to any commercial sales. This process is lengthy and expensive, often taking a number of years. As clinical results frequently are susceptible to varying interpretations that may delay, limit or prevent regulatory approvals, the length of time necessary to complete clinical trials and to submit an application for marketing approval for a final decision by a regulatory authority varies significantly. As a result, it is uncertain whether:

our potential milestone and royalty providers’ future filings will be delayed;
our potential milestone and royalty providers’ preclinical studies will be successful;
our potential milestone and royalty providers will be successful in generating viable product candidates;
we will be successful in finding collaboration and licensing partners to advance our product candidates on our behalf;
our potential milestone and royalty providers will be able to provide necessary data;
results of future clinical trials by our potential milestone and royalty providers will justify further development; or
our potential milestone and royalty providers ultimately will achieve regulatory approval for product candidates in which we have an interest.

The timing of the commencement, continuation and completion of clinical trials by our potential milestone and royalty providers may be subject to significant delays relating to various causes, including failure to complete preclinical testing and earlier-stage clinical trials in a timely manner, inability to engage contract research organizations and other service providers, scheduling conflicts with participating clinicians and clinical institutions, changes in key personnel at clinical institutions, difficulties in identifying and enrolling patients who meet trial eligibility criteria and shortages of available drug supply. In addition, since we and our royalty agreement counterparties license our product candidates to others to fund and conduct clinical trials, we, and they, have limited control over how quickly and efficiently such licensees advance those trials. Patient enrollment is a function of many factors, including the size of the patient population, the proximity of patients to clinical sites, the concentration of patients in specialist centers, the eligibility criteria for the trial, the existence of competing clinical trials and the availability of alternative or new treatments. Regardless of the initial size or relative complexity of a clinical trial, the costs of such trial may be higher than expected due to increases in duration or size of the trial, changes in the protocol under which the trial is being conducted, additional or special requirements of one or more of the healthcare centers where the trial is being conducted, or changes in the regulatory requirements applicable to the trial or in the standards or guidelines for approval of the product candidate being tested or for other unforeseen reasons.

In addition, our potential milestone and royalty providers may conduct clinical trials in foreign countries, which may subject them to further delays and expenses as a result of increased drug shipment costs, additional regulatory requirements and the engagement of foreign clinical research organizations, and may expose our potential milestone and royalty providers to risks associated with foreign currency transactions to make contract payments denominated in the foreign currency where the trial is being conducted.

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Our potential milestone and royalty providers may seek to obtain orphan drug designation for certain future product candidates, but they may be unable to ultimately obtain such designations or to maintain the benefits associated with orphan drug designation, including market exclusivity, which may cause our milestone or royalty revenue, if any, to be reduced.

Some of our potential milestone or royalty providers may obtain orphan drug designation for their product candidates. Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may designate a drug or biological product as an orphan drug if it is intended to treat a rare disease or condition, defined as a patient population of fewer than 200,000 in the U.S., or a patient population greater than 200,000 in the U.S. where there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing the drug will be recovered from sales in the U.S. Orphan drug designation must be requested before submitting a BLA. In the European Union, the EMA’s Committee for Orphan Medicinal Products grants orphan drug designation to promote the development of products that are intended for the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of a life-threatening or chronically debilitating condition affecting not more than five in 10,000 persons in the European Union. Additionally, designation is granted for products intended for the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of a life-threatening, seriously debilitating or serious and chronic condition when, without incentives, it is unlikely that sales of the drug in the European Union would be sufficient to justify the necessary investment in developing the drug or biological product or where there is no satisfactory method of diagnosis, prevention, or treatment, or, if such a method exists, the medicine must be of significant benefit to those affected by the condition.

In the U.S., orphan drug designation entitles a party to financial incentives such as opportunities for grant funding towards clinical trial costs, tax advantages, and application fee waivers. After the FDA grants orphan drug designation, the generic identity of the drug and its potential orphan use are disclosed publicly by the FDA.

In addition, if a product receives the first FDA approval for the indication for which it has orphan designation, the product is entitled to orphan drug exclusivity, which means the FDA may not approve any other application to market the same drug for the same indication for a period of seven years, except in limited circumstances, such as a showing of clinical superiority over the product with orphan exclusivity or where the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient product quantity for the orphan patient population. Exclusive marketing rights in the U.S. may also be unavailable if our royalty providers seek approval for an indication broader than the orphan designated indication and may be lost if the FDA later determines that the request for designation was materially defective. In the European Union, orphan drug designation entitles a party to financial incentives such as reduction of fees or fee waivers and ten years of market exclusivity following drug or biological product approval. This period may be reduced to six years if the orphan drug designation criteria are no longer met, including where it is shown that the product is sufficiently profitable not to justify maintenance of market exclusivity.

Even with an orphan drug designation for its current and potential future product candidates, our royalty providers may not be the first to obtain marketing approval for any particular orphan indication due to the uncertainties associated with developing pharmaceutical products. Further, even if a royalty provider obtains orphan drug exclusivity for an existing or future product candidate, that exclusivity may not effectively protect the product from competition because different drugs with different active moieties still can be approved for the same condition even with an orphan drug designation. Even after an orphan drug is approved, the FDA can subsequently approve the same drug with the same active moiety for the same condition if the FDA concludes that the later drug is clinically superior in that it is safer, more effective, or makes a major contribution to patient care. Orphan drug designation neither shortens the development time or regulatory review time of a drug or biologic nor gives the drug or biologic any advantage in the regulatory review or approval process.

The FDA’s interpretation of the scope of orphan drug exclusivity may change. The FDA’s longstanding interpretation of the Orphan Drug Act is that exclusivity is specific to the orphan indication for which the drug was actually approved. As a result, the scope of exclusivity has been narrow and protected only against competition from the same “use or indication” rather than the broader “disease or condition.” In the September 2021 case Catalyst Pharmaceuticals, Inc. v. FDA, a federal circuit court set aside the FDA’s narrow interpretation and ruled that orphan drug exclusivity covers the full scope of the orphan-designated disease or condition regardless of whether the drug obtains approval only for a narrower use. The decision concerned amifampridine, a drug used to treat Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). Depending on how the FDA applies the decision beyond this case, it may limit the drugs that can receive exclusivity.

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The ability of our potential milestone and royalty providers to obtain and maintain orphan drug designation and the benefits thereof, including orphan drug exclusivity, may materially impact the potential milestones and royalties we receive.

Biological products and product candidates of our potential milestone and royalty providers may face competition sooner than anticipated, which may materially impact the potential milestones and royalties we receive.

The ACA includes a subtitle called the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 (“BPCIA”), which created an abbreviated approval pathway for biological products that are biosimilar to or interchangeable with an FDA-licensed reference biological product. Under the BPCIA, an application for a highly similar or “biosimilar” product may not be submitted to the FDA until four years following the date that the reference product was first approved by the FDA. In addition, the approval of a biosimilar product may not be made effective by the FDA until 12 years from the date on which the reference product was first approved. During this 12-year period of exclusivity, another company may still market a competing version of the reference product if the FDA approves a full BLA for the competing product containing the sponsor’s own preclinical data and data from adequate and well-controlled clinical trials to demonstrate the safety, purity and potency of its product.

The biological products and, if approved, product candidates of our royalty providers could be considered reference products entitled to 12-year exclusivity. However, there is a risk that this exclusivity could be shortened due to congressional action or otherwise, or that the FDA will not consider a product candidate to be a reference product for competing products, potentially creating the opportunity for competition sooner than anticipated. Other aspects of the BPCIA, some of which may impact the BPCIA exclusivity provisions, have also been the subject of recent litigation. Moreover, the extent to which a biosimilar, once approved, will be substituted for any reference products in a way that is similar to traditional generic substitution for non-biological products is not yet clear, and will depend on a number of marketplace and regulatory factors that are still developing. Any of these events may materially impact the potential milestones and royalties we receive.

If the FDA or comparable foreign regulatory authorities approve generic versions of any of the products or product candidates of our potential milestone or royalty providers that receive marketing approval under NDAs, or such authorities do not grant their product candidates appropriate periods of data or market exclusivity before approving generic versions of our product candidates, the sales of their product candidates could be adversely affected, which may materially affect the potential milestones and royalties we receive.

Once an NDA is approved, the drug covered thereby becomes a “reference-listed drug” in the FDA’s publication, “Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations.” Manufacturers may seek marketing approval of generic versions of reference-listed drugs through submission of abbreviated new drug applications (“ANDAs”) in the U.S. In support of an ANDA, a generic manufacturer need not conduct clinical trials demonstrating safety and efficacy. Rather, the applicant generally must show that its drug is pharmaceutically equivalent to the reference listed drug, in that it has the same active ingredient(s), dosage form, strength, route of administration and conditions of use or labeling as the reference-listed drug, and that the generic version is bioequivalent to the reference-listed drug, meaning it is absorbed in the body at the same rate and to the same extent. Generic drugs may be significantly less costly to bring to market than the reference-listed drug and companies that produce generic drugs are generally able to offer them at lower prices. Thus, following the introduction of a generic drug, a significant percentage of the sales of any branded product or reference-listed drug is typically lost to the generic drug.

The FDA may not approve an ANDA for a generic drug until any applicable period of non-patent exclusivity for the reference-listed drug has expired. The FDCA provides a period of five years of non-patent exclusivity for a new drug containing a new chemical entity, or NCE. During the exclusivity period, the FDA may not accept for review an ANDA or a 505(b)(2) NDA submitted by another company for another version of such product candidate where the applicant does not own or have a legal right of reference to all the data required for approval. However, an application may be submitted after four years if it contains a certification of patent invalidity or non-infringement. The FDCA also provides three years of marketing exclusivity for an NDA, 505(b)(2) NDA or supplement to an approved NDA if new clinical investigations, other than bioavailability studies, that were conducted or sponsored by the applicant are deemed by the FDA to be essential to the approval of the application, for example, for new indications, dosages or strengths of an existing product candidate.

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This three-year exclusivity covers only the conditions associated with the new clinical investigations and does not prohibit the FDA from approving ANDAs for product candidates containing the original active agent for other conditions of use. Five-year and three-year exclusivity will not delay the submission or approval of a full NDA. However, an applicant submitting a full NDA would be required to conduct or obtain a right of reference to all of the nonclinical studies and adequate and well-controlled clinical trials necessary to demonstrate safety and effectiveness. Manufacturers may seek to launch these generic drugs following the expiration of the marketing exclusivity period, even if our potential milestone or royalty providers still have patent protection for our drug competition, and their products may therefore face from generic versions of their products and, if approved, their product candidates. This could materially and adversely impact their future revenue, profitability and cash flows and substantially limit their ability to obtain a return on the investments we have made in those products and, if approved, product candidates. Their future revenues, profitability and cash flows could also be materially and adversely affected and our ability to obtain a return on their investments in those product candidates may be substantially limited if their products are not afforded the appropriate periods of non-patent exclusivity. Any of these events may materially impact the potential milestones and royalties we receive.

New products and technologies of other companies may render some or all of our potential milestone and royalty providers’ product candidates noncompetitive or obsolete.

New developments by others may render our potential milestone and royalty providers’ product candidates or technologies obsolete or uncompetitive. Technologies developed and utilized by the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are changing and evolving. Competition in antibody-based technologies is intense and is expected to increase in the future as a number of established biotechnology firms and large chemical and pharmaceutical companies advance in these fields. In addition, as biopharmaceutical companies increasingly devote significant resources to innovate next-generation products and therapies using gene editing and new curative modalities, such as cell and gene therapy, products on which we have a milestone or royalty rights may become obsolete. Many of these competitors may be able to develop products and processes competitive with or superior to our potential milestone and royalty providers for many reasons, including that they may have:

significantly greater financial resources;
larger research and development staffs;
entered into arrangements with, or acquired, biotechnology companies to enhance their capabilities; or
extensive experience in preclinical testing and human clinical trials.

These and other factors may enable others to develop products and processes competitive with or superior to our own or those of our potential milestone and royalty providers. In addition, a significant amount of research in biotechnology is being carried out in universities and other non-profit research organizations. These entities are becoming increasingly interested in the commercial value of their work and may become more aggressive in seeking patent protection and licensing arrangements. Furthermore, many companies and universities tend not to announce or disclose important discoveries or development programs until their patent position is secure or, for other reasons, later. As a result, we and our potential milestone and royalty providers may not be able to track development of competitive products, particularly at the early stages.

Positive developments in connection with a potentially competing product may have an adverse impact on our future potential for receiving revenue derived from development milestones and royalties. For example, if another product is perceived to have a competitive advantage, or another product’s failure is perceived to increase the likelihood that our licensed product will fail, our potential milestone and royalty providers may halt development of product candidates in which we have an interest.

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Our potential royalty providers may be unable to price our products effectively or obtain coverage and adequate reimbursement for sales of our products, which would prevent our potential royalty providers’ products from becoming profitable and negatively affect the royalties we may receive.

If our current or potential royalty providers succeed in bringing product candidates to the market, they may not be considered cost effective, and reimbursement to the patient may not be available or may not be sufficient to allow our potential royalty providers to sell the products on a competitive basis. In both the U.S. and elsewhere, sales of medical products and treatments are dependent, in part, on the availability of coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors, such as government and private insurance plans. Significant uncertainty exists as to the coverage and reimbursement status of any products for which our potential royalty providers may obtain regulatory approval. Even if coverage is available, the associated reimbursement rate may not be adequate for our potential royalty providers to cover related marketing costs. Additionally, coverage and reimbursement policies for pharmaceutical products can differ significantly from payor to payor as there is no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement for pharmaceutical products among third-party payors in the U.S. Therefore, the process of obtaining coverage and reimbursement is often time-consuming and costly. Thus, even if our partners’ product candidates are approved by the FDA, our royalty partners may not be able to price the products effectively or obtain coverage and adequate reimbursement for their products, which could adversely affect the royalties we receive.

Third-party payors are increasingly challenging the prices charged for pharmaceutical products and services. Our business is affected by the efforts of government and third-party payors to contain or reduce the cost of healthcare through various means. In the U.S., there have been, and we expect, will continue to be a number of federal and state proposals to implement government controls on pricing.

In addition, the emphasis on managed care in the U.S. has increased and, we expect to continue to increase the pressure on the pricing of pharmaceutical products. We cannot predict whether any legislative or regulatory proposals will be adopted or the effect these proposals or managed care efforts may have on our or our potential milestone and royalty providers’ businesses.

We do not know whether there will be, or will continue to be, a viable market for the product candidates in which we have an ownership or royalty interest.

Even if product candidates in which we have an interest receive approval in the future, they may not be accepted in the marketplace. In addition, our potential royalty providers may experience difficulties in launching new products, many of which are novel and based on technologies that are unfamiliar to the healthcare community. Our potential royalty providers may not have sales, marketing or distribution capabilities or may not be able to develop these capabilities in an effective manner, or at all. We have no assurance healthcare providers and patients will accept such products, if developed. Similarly, physicians may not accept a product if they believe other products to be more effective or more cost effective or are more comfortable prescribing other products.

Furthermore, government agencies, as well as private organizations involved in healthcare, from time to time publish guidelines or recommendations to healthcare providers and patients. Such guidelines or recommendations can be very influential and may adversely affect product usage directly (for example, by recommending a decreased dosage of a product in conjunction with a concomitant therapy) or indirectly (for example, by recommending a competitive product over a product in which we have an ownership or royalty interest). Consequently, we do not know if physicians or patients will adopt or use products in which we have an ownership or royalty interest for their approved indications.

Even approved and marketed products are subject to risks relating to changes in the market for such products. Introduction or increased availability of generic or biosimilar versions of products can alter the market acceptance of branded products. In addition, unforeseen safety issues may arise at any time, regardless of the length of time a product has been on the market which may lead to litigation, increased costs and delays or removal of the product from the market.

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Product liability claims may diminish the returns on biopharmaceutical products.

The developer, manufacturer or marketer of a product could become subject to product liability claims. A product liability claim, regardless of its merits, could adversely affect the sales of the product and the amount of any related royalty payments, and consequently, could adversely affect the ability of a payor to make payments with respect to a royalty.

Although we believe we should not bear responsibility in the event of a product liability claim against the developer, manufacturer, marketer or other seller of a product that generates our royalty, such claims could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations due to the lower than expected cash flows from the royalty.  

If we and our potential royalty providers are unable to protect our or their intellectual property, in particular patent protection for principal products, product candidates and processes in which we have an ownership or royalty interest, and prevent the use of the covered subject matter by third parties, our potential royalty providers’ ability to compete in the market will be harmed, and we may not realize our profit potential.

We and our potential royalty providers rely on patent protection, as well as a combination of copyright, trade secret, and trademark laws to protect our proprietary technology and deter others from duplicating our or their products or product candidates. However, these means may afford only limited protection and may not:

prevent our competitors from duplicating our products and those of our potential royalty providers;
prevent our competitors from using technologies or solutions similar to those incorporated into our products or product candidates, or those of our potential royalty providers in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection and, further, exporting infringing products to territories where we have patent protection but where our enforcement efforts may be inadequate and protection in general of patented technology may be less robust than it is in the U.S.;
prevent our competitors from gaining access to our proprietary information and technology and that of our potential royalty providers; or
permit us or our potential royalty providers to gain or maintain a competitive advantage.

Because of the length of time and the expense associated with bringing new products to the marketplace, we and our potential royalty providers hold and are in the process of applying for a number of patents in the U.S. and abroad to protect product candidates and important processes and also have obtained or have the right to obtain exclusive licenses to certain patents and applications filed by others. However, the mere issuance of a patent is not conclusive as to its validity or its enforceability.

The U.S. Federal Courts, the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office or equivalent national courts or patent offices elsewhere may invalidate our patents or the patents of our royalty providers or find them unenforceable. The America Invents Act introduced post-grant review procedures subjecting U.S. patents to post-grant review procedures similar to European oppositions. U.S. patents owned or licensed by us or our licensees may therefore be subject to post-grant review procedures, as well as other forms of review and re-examination. A decision in such proceedings adverse to our interests could result in the loss of valuable patent rights, which would have a material adverse effect on our business. In addition, the laws of foreign countries may not protect our intellectual property rights effectively or to the same extent as the laws of the U.S.

If our, and our potential royalty providers intellectual property rights are not protected adequately, our potential royalty providers or our licensees may not be able to commercialize technologies or products in which we have an ownership or royalty interest, and their competitors could commercialize such technologies or products, which could result in a decrease in our potential royalty providers’ or our licensees’ sales and market share that would harm our business and operating results. Specifically, the patent position of biotechnology companies generally is highly uncertain and involves complex legal and factual questions. The legal standards governing the validity of biotechnology patents are in transition,

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and current defenses as to issued biotechnology patents may not be adequate or available in the future. Accordingly, there is uncertainty as to:

whether any pending or future patent applications held by us or our potential royalty providers will result in an issued patent, or whether issued patents will provide meaningful protection against competitors or competitive technologies;
whether competitors will be able to design around our or our potential royalty providers’ patents or develop and obtain patent protection for technologies, designs or methods that are more effective than those covered by our or our potential royalty providers’ patents and patent applications; or
the extent to which our or our potential royalty providers product candidates could infringe on the intellectual property rights of others, which may lead to costly litigation, result in the payment of substantial damages or royalties, reduce the royalty rate due to us, and prevent our potential royalty providers from using our technology or product candidates.

If certain patents issued to others are upheld or if certain patent applications filed by others are issued and upheld, our potential royalty providers may require licenses from others to develop and commercialize certain potential products in which we have an ownership or royalty interest. These licenses, if required, may not be available on acceptable terms, or may trigger contractual royalty offset clauses in our license agreements, or those of our royalty-agreement counterparties. We may become involved in litigation to determine the proprietary rights of others, and any such litigation will presumably be costly, time consuming, may not be adequately covered by insurance and may have other adverse effects on our business, such as inhibiting our potential royalty providers’ ability to compete in the marketplace and absorbing significant management time.

Due to the uncertainties regarding biotechnology patents, we also have relied and will continue to rely upon trade secrets, know-how and continuing technological advancement to develop and maintain our competitive position. Our employees and contractors are typically required to sign confidentiality agreements under which they agree not to use or disclose any of our proprietary information. Research and development contracts and relationships between us and our scientific consultants and potential licensees provide access to aspects of our know-how that are protected generally under confidentiality agreements. These confidentiality agreements may be breached or may not be enforced by a court. To the extent proprietary information is divulged to competitors or to the public generally, such disclosure may adversely affect our licensees’ ability to develop or commercialize our products by giving others a competitive advantage or by undermining our patent position.

In addition, periodic maintenance fees, renewal fees, annuity fees and various other governmental fees on patents and or applications will be due to the U.S. and various foreign patent offices at various points over the lifetime of our and our licensees’ patents and/or applications. We have systems in place to remind us to pay these fees, and we rely on our outside patent annuity service to pay these fees when due. Additionally, the U.S. and various foreign patent offices require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payment and other similar provisions during the patent application process. We employ reputable law firms and other professionals to help us comply, and in many cases, an inadvertent lapse can be cured by payment of a late fee or by other means in accordance with rules applicable to the particular jurisdiction. However, there are situations in which noncompliance can result in abandonment or lapse of the patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. If such an event were to occur, it could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights in foreign jurisdictions. The legal systems of certain foreign countries do not favor the enforcement of patents and other intellectual property protection, which could make it difficult for us or our royalty providers to stop the infringement of our or their patents or the marketing of competing products in violation of our or their proprietary rights generally. Proceedings to enforce our patent rights in foreign jurisdictions could result in substantial costs and could divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business.

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Furthermore, in some instances, we have no ability to control the prosecution, maintenance, enforcement or defense of patent rights of our royalty providers. In such instances, there can be no assurance that they will vigorously prosecute, maintain, enforce or defend such rights, or that they will be successful in doing so. Any infringement of their intellectual property may adversely affect our royalty interest and consequently adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

No assurance can be given that our, or our partners or licensees’ patents will be extended upon expiration, which may have an effect on our financial condition and results of operation.

We hold and have filed applications for a number of patents in the U.S. and internationally to protect our products and technology and have the right to obtain licenses to, or income streams based on, certain patents and applications filed by others. However, the life of a patent, and thus the protection it affords, is limited. Patent terms may be inadequate to protect our competitive position for an adequate amount of time. Significant patents in our portfolio are expected to expire in the coming years and while various extensions may be available, on a jurisdiction-by-jurisdiction basis, continuous patent protection is not guaranteed. While we expect to seek, and expect our partners to seek, extensions of patent terms for issued patents where available and when necessary, failure to secure patent extensions may have an effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, there can be no assurance that our partners will seek extensions of their patent terms.

Litigation regarding intellectual property and/or the enforcement of our contractual rights against licensees and third parties can be costly and expose us to risks of counterclaims against us.

From time to time, we are required to engage in litigation, arbitration or other proceedings to protect our intellectual property and/or enforce our contractual rights against former or current licensees or third parties, including third-party collaborators of such licensees or royalty agreement counterparties. The cost to us of complex proceedings of this type, even if resolved in our favor, can be substantial, and the parties opposing us in such proceedings may be able to sustain the cost of such proceedings more effectively than we can if they have substantially greater resources than we have. Any such proceedings and any negotiations leading up to them also may be time-consuming and can divert management’s attention and resources. If a proceeding of this type is resolved against us, we may lose the value associated with contract rights contained in our arrangements with licensees and third parties, the patents that are the subject of such proceeding may be declared invalid, we could be exposed to counterclaims against us, and we could be held liable for significant damages, fees and/or costs. While it is our current plan to continue to review and pursue, on a selective basis, potential material contractual breaches against licensees and third parties (including third-party collaborators of licensees and royalty agreement counterparties) and/or infringement of our intellectual property rights or technology, there can be no assurance that any such enforcement actions will be successful, or if successful, the timing of such success or that we will have sufficient capital to prosecute any such actions to a successful conclusion.

For example, in June 2021, we initiated a binding arbitration proceeding with one of our licensees (the “Licensee”) at the American Arbitration Association/International Centre for Dispute Resolution, seeking milestone and royalty payments under our license agreement. A hearing before a panel of arbitrators was held in November 2022, and the parties submitted post-hearing briefs. On March 21, 2023, we received an adverse decision in this arbitration proceeding. The panel of arbitrators declined to award us damages and ruled that the license agreement has expired. The panel ruled that we were responsible for the Licensee’s costs as well as arbitrators’ and administrative fees previously incurred by the Licensee of $4.1 million, which we paid in April 2023.

In addition, we may be subject to claims that we, or our licensees or our royalty agreement counterparties’ licensees, are infringing other parties’ patents. If such claims are resolved against us, we or our licensees or our royalty agreement counterparties’ licensees may be enjoined from developing, manufacturing, selling or importing products, processes or services unless we or our licensees or our royalty agreement counterparties’ licensees obtain a license from the other party. Such a license may not be available on reasonable terms or at all, thus preventing us, or our licensees or our royalty agreement counterparties’ licensees, from using or licensing these products, processes or services and adversely affecting our potential future revenue.

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Uncertainties resulting from our participation in litigation, arbitration or other proceedings involving intellectual property and/or contractual rights could have a material adverse effect on our or our partners’ ability to compete in the marketplace. There could also be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or interim proceedings or developments. If securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, the perceived value of the product candidates as to which we hold potential milestone or royalty interests, or intellectual property or contractual rights could be diminished. Accordingly, the market price of our common stock may decline. Uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of litigation, arbitration or other proceedings involving intellectual property and/or contractual rights could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Reliance on Third Parties

We and our partners rely heavily on license and collaboration relationships, and any disputes or litigation with our partners or termination or breach of any of the related agreements could reduce the financial resources available to us, including our ability to receive milestone payments and future potential royalty and other revenues. License or collaboration agreements relating to products may, in some instances, be unilaterally terminated or disputes may arise which may affect our potential milestones, royalties and other payments.

License or collaboration agreements relating to the products generating our future potential milestones and royalties and other payment rights have in the past been and may in the future be terminated, which may adversely affect sales of such products and therefore the potential payments we may receive. For example, under certain license or collaboration agreements, marketers may retain the right to unilaterally terminate the agreements. When the last patent covering a product expires or is otherwise invalidated in a country, a marketer may be economically motivated to terminate the applicable license or collaboration agreement, either in whole or with respect to such country, in order to terminate its payment and other obligations. In the event of such a termination, a licensor (which may be us in the case of our out-licensed products) or collaborator may no longer receive all of the payments it expected to receive from the applicable licensee or collaborator and may also be unable to find another company to continue developing and commercializing the product on the same or similar terms as those under the license or collaboration agreement that has been terminated.

On October 23, 2023, Organon notified us of its intent to terminate the Organon License Agreement, which we assumed pursuant to the ObsEva IP Acquisition Agreement. The termination was effective as of January 21, 2024, and we will not be entitled to any milestone payments with respect to any milestone achieved by Organon following the notice of termination. We evaluated the related intangible asset balance for impairment and recorded an impairment charge of $14.2 million as of December 31, 2023.

In addition, license or collaboration agreements may fail to provide significant protection for the applicable licensor (which may be us in the case of our out-licensed products) or collaborator in case of the applicable licensee’s or collaborator’s failure to perform or in the event of disputes. License and collaboration agreements which relate to the products underlying our potential future milestones, royalties and other payment rights, are complex and certain provisions in such agreements may be susceptible to multiple interpretations. Disputes may arise regarding intellectual property, royalty terms, payment rights or other contractual terms subject to a license or collaboration agreement, including:

the scope or duration of rights granted under the license or collaboration agreement and other interpretative issues;
the amounts or timing of royalties, milestones or other payments due under the license or collaboration agreement;
the sublicensing of patent or other rights under our license or collaboration relationships;
the diligence obligations under the license or collaboration agreement and what activities satisfy such diligence obligations:
the inventorship and ownership of inventions and know-how resulting from the creation or use of intellectual property by us or our partners; and

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the priority of invention of patented technology.

The resolution of any contract interpretation disagreement that may arise could narrow what the licensor (which may be us in the case of our out-licensed products) or collaborator believes to be the scope of its rights to the relevant intellectual property or technology, or decrease the licensee’s or collaborator’s financial or other obligations under the relevant agreement, any of which could in turn impact the value of our potential royalties, milestone payments and other payments and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. If a marketer were to default on its obligations under a license or collaboration agreement, the licensor’s or collaborator’s remedy may be limited either to terminating certain licenses or collaborations related to certain countries or to generally terminate the license or collaboration agreement with respect to such country. In such cases, we may not have the right to seek to enforce the rights of the licensor or collaborator (if not us) and we may be required to rely on the resources and willingness of the licensor or collaborator (if not us) to enforce its rights against the applicable licensee or collaborator. In any of these situations, if the expected upfront, milestone, royalty or other payments under the license or collaboration agreements do not materialize, this could result in a significant loss to us and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. At any given time, the Company may be engaged in discussions with its licensees or collaborators regarding the interpretation of the payment and other provisions relating to products as to which we have milestones and potential royalty or other payment rights. Should any such discussions result in a disagreement regarding a particular product that cannot be resolved satisfactorily to us, we may end up being paid less than anticipated on such product should it successfully progress through clinical development and be approved for commercialization. Should our milestone and future potential royalty or other payment interests be reduced or eliminated as a result of any such disagreement, it could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Our existing collaborations may not continue or be successful, and we may be unable to enter into future arrangements to develop and commercialize our unpartnered assets. For example, in June 2023, Bioasis announced the suspension of all its operations and the termination of the research collaboration and license agreement between Bioasis and Chiesi. As a result, we do not expect to receive any milestone, royalty or other payments under the Biosis RPA or Second Bioasis RPA.

Generally, our current licensees have the right to terminate their collaborations at will or under specified circumstances. If any of our collaborative partners breach or terminate their agreements with us or otherwise fail to conduct their collaborative activities successfully (for example, by not making required payments when due, or at all or failing to engage in commercially reasonable efforts to develop products if required), our product development under these agreements will be delayed or terminated.

In addition, we could face significant competition in seeking appropriate collaborators and the negotiation process is time-consuming and complex. Our ability to reach a definitive collaborative agreement with any such new party will depend, among other factors, upon our assessment of the collaborator’s resources and expertise, the terms and conditions of the proposed collaboration and the proposed collaborator’s evaluation of a number of factors. We cannot be certain that, following a strategic transaction or license, we will achieve the revenue or specific net income that justifies such transaction.

Our potential milestone and royalty providers may rely on third parties to provide services in connection with their product candidate development and manufacturing programs. The inadequate performance by or loss of any of these service providers could affect our potential milestone and royalty providers’ product candidate development.

Third parties provide services in connection with preclinical and clinical development programs, including in vitro and in vivo studies, assay and reagent development, immunohistochemistry, toxicology, pharmacokinetics, clinical trial support, manufacturing and other outsourced activities. If these service providers do not adequately perform the services for which our potential milestone and royalty providers have contracted, or cease to continue operations, and our potential milestone and royalty partners are not able to find a replacement provider quickly or lose information or items associated with their product candidates, our potential milestone and royalty providers’ development programs and receipt of any potential resulting income may be delayed.

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The marketers of biopharmaceutical products are, in certain instances, substantially responsible for the ongoing regulatory approval, commercialization, manufacturing and marketing of products.

In certain instances, the holders of royalties on products have granted regulatory approval, commercialization, manufacturing and marketing rights to the licensees of such products. Such licensees have substantial control over those efforts and discretion to determine the extent and priority of the resources they will commit to their program for a product. Accordingly, the successful commercialization of a product depends on the licensee’s efforts and is beyond our control. If a licensee does not devote adequate resources to the ongoing regulatory approval, commercialization and manufacture of a product, or if a licensee engages in illegal or otherwise unauthorized practices, the product’s sales may not generate sufficient royalties, or the product’s sales may be suspended, and consequently, could adversely affect our business. In addition, if licensees of biopharmaceutical products decide to discontinue product programs or we believe the commercial prospects of assets have been reduced, we may recognize material non-cash impairment charges related to the financial royalty asset associated with those programs or assets.

Agreements with other third parties, many of which are material to our business, expose us to numerous risks and have caused us to incur additional liabilities.

Because our licensees, suppliers and contractors are independent third parties, they may be subject to different risks than we are and have significant discretion in, and different criteria for, determining the efforts and resources they apply related to activities relevant to their agreements with us. If these licensees, suppliers and contractors do not successfully perform the functions for which they are responsible, we may not have the capabilities, resources or rights to do so on our own or otherwise compel them to perform.

We do not know whether we or our licensees will be able to successfully develop and market any of the products that are or may become the subject of any of our licensing arrangements. In addition, third-party arrangements such as ours also increase uncertainties in the related decision-making processes and resulting progress under the arrangements, as we and our licensees may reach different conclusions, or support different paths forward, based on the same information, particularly when large amounts of technical data are involved.

In addition, under the contracts with HCRP, the amortization for the reporting period is calculated based on the payments expected to be made by the licensees to HCRP over the term of the arrangement. Any changes to the estimated payments by the licensees to HCRP can result in a material adjustment to revenue previously reported.

Failure of our potential milestone and royalty providers’ product candidates to meet current Good Manufacturing Practice standards may cause delays in regulatory approval and penalties for noncompliance.

Our potential milestone and royalty providers may rely on third party manufacturers and such contract manufacturers are required to produce clinical product candidates under cGMP to meet acceptable standards for use in clinical trials and for commercial sale, as applicable. If such standards change, the ability of contract manufacturers to produce our potential milestone and royalty providers’ product candidates on the schedule required for clinical trials or to meet commercial requirements may be affected. In addition, contract manufacturers may not perform their obligations under their agreements with our potential milestone and royalty providers or may discontinue their business before the time required by us to successfully produce clinical and commercial supplies of our potential milestone and royalty providers’ product candidates.

Contract manufacturers are subject to pre-approval inspections and periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA and corresponding state and foreign authorities for compliance with cGMP and other applicable government regulations and corresponding foreign standards. We do not have control over a third-party manufacturer’s compliance with these regulations and standards. Any difficulties or delays in contractors’ manufacturing and supply of our potential milestone and royalty providers’ product candidates or any failure of our potential milestone and royalty providers’ contractors to maintain compliance with the applicable regulations and standards could increase costs, reduce revenue, cause our licensees to postpone or cancel clinical trials, prevent or delay regulatory approval by the FDA and corresponding state and foreign authorities, prevent the import and/or export of our potential milestone and royalty providers’ product

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candidates, or cause any of our potential milestone and royalty providers’ products that may be approved for commercial sale to be recalled or withdrawn.

Certain of our technologies are in-licensed from third parties, so our and our licensees’ use of them may be restricted and subject to additional risks.

We have licensed technologies from third parties. These technologies include phage display technologies licensed to us in connection with our bacterial cell expression technology licensing program and antibody products. However, our and our licensees and collaborators’ use of these technologies is limited by certain contractual provisions in the licenses relating to them, and although we have obtained numerous licenses, intellectual property rights in the area of phage display are particularly complex. If we are unable to maintain our licenses, patents or other intellectual property, we could lose important protections that are material to continuing our operations and for future prospects. Our licensors also may seek to terminate our license(s), which could cause us and our licensees to lose the right to use the licensed intellectual property and adversely affect our and our licensees’ ability to commercialize our technologies, products or services.

Risks Related to Employees, Location, Data Integrity, and Litigation

The loss of or changes in any of our key personnel could delay or prevent achieving our objectives.

Our business efforts could be adversely affected by the loss of one or more key members of our staff. We currently do not have key person insurance on any of our employees. Changes in management, including due to potential acquisitions, may cause disruptions in our business, strategic and employee relationships, which may delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives. During the transition periods, there may be uncertainty among investors, employees and others concerning our future direction and performance.

Because we are a small biotech royalty aggregator with limited resources, we may not be able to attract and retain qualified personnel.

We had 13 full-time employees as of March 4, 2024. We may require additional experienced executive, accounting, legal, administrative and other personnel from time to time in the future. We are highly dependent on principal members of our executive team, the loss of whose services may adversely impact the achievement of our objectives. There is intense competition for the services of these personnel.

If we do not succeed in attracting new personnel and retaining and motivating existing personnel, our business may suffer, and we may be unable to implement our current initiatives or grow effectively.

We rely and will continue to rely on outsourcing arrangements for many of our activities, including financial reporting and accounting and human resources.

Due to our small number of employees, we rely, and expect to continue to rely, on outsourcing arrangements for a significant portion of our activities, including financial reporting and accounting and human resources, as well as for certain of our functions as a public company. We may have limited control over these third parties, and we cannot guarantee that they will perform their obligations in an effective and timely manner.

Our employees may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements and insider trading.

We are exposed to the risk of employee fraud or other misconduct. Misconduct by employees could include intentional failures to comply with applicable regulations, provide accurate information to regulatory authorities, comply with federal and state fraud and abuse laws and regulations, report financial information or data accurately or disclose unauthorized activities to us. In particular, the health care industry is subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, misconduct, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. It is not always possible to identify and deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in

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controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to be in compliance with these laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of significant fines or other sanctions.

If our information technology systems or data or those of our partners or contractors are compromised, our business could experience adverse consequences, including regulatory investigations or actions; litigation; fines and penalties; a disruption of our business operations; reputational harm; and loss of revenue or profits.

Our business is increasingly dependent on critical, complex and interdependent information technology systems, including cloud-based systems, to support business processes as well as internal and external communications. In the ordinary course of our business, we maintain sensitive data on our networks, including personal information of our employees, legacy clinical trial patients, vendors and others, our intellectual property and proprietary or confidential business information relating to our business and that of our business partners. The secure maintenance and protection of this information is critical to our business and reputation.

Cybersecurity threats have generally increased in sophistication, scale, and frequency in recent years. While we have implemented security measures that are intended to protect our data and information technology systems, our computer systems, and those of the third parties on which we rely, are still vulnerable to damage from data breaches, security incidents or other unauthorized intrusions or access, including cyberattacks or computer viruses, or from natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures. Moreover, the prevalence of remote work on mobile devices that access confidential and sensitive information increases the risk of such an event occurring. Threats to our systems and personal, confidential and proprietary information can come from a variety of sources, ranging in sophistication. Such threats also may be intentional or accidental. It is often difficult to anticipate or immediately identify these threats and the damage might cause.

Data breaches, security incidents and other unauthorized intrusions or access to our data or systems, or those of the third parties on which we rely, could result in system disruptions, downtime or the compromise of personal information, our intellectual property and sensitive business information, all of which may interrupt our normal business operations and require substantial expenditure of financial and administrative resources to remedy. Such events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Theft of proprietary information could be used to compete against us and could cause us to incur significant remediation costs, result in product development delays, disrupt key business operations and divert attention of management and key information technology resources. Furthermore, to the extent that any disruption, security breach, or other event were to result in a loss of, or damage to, our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of personal, confidential or proprietary information, we may be required to comply with notification requirements, be subject to litigation or regulatory action, or otherwise be subject to liability under applicable laws. These risks would expose us to significant expense and cause significant harm to our reputation and business.

While we have insurance coverage, we cannot be sure that our policy will be adequate or sufficient to protect us from or to mitigate liabilities arising out of our privacy and security practices, that such coverage will continue to be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all, or that such coverage will pay for future claims.

Compliance with the stringent and changing obligations related to data privacy and security is an onerous and resource-intensive process. Our actual or perceived failure to comply with any data privacy or security obligations could lead to regulatory investigations or actions; litigation; fines and penalties; a disruption of our business operations; reputational harm; loss of revenue or profits; loss of customers or sales; and other adverse business consequences.

Federal, state, local and foreign legislators and/or regulators are increasingly regulating data privacy and security and may impose significant penalties for failure to comply with these requirements. For example, in the U.S., the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (“CCPA”) establishes a privacy framework for covered businesses, which applies to a broad range of personal information and entities who conduct business in California. Further, the California Privacy Rights Act (“CPRA”), which amends the CCPA, became fully operative on January 1, 2023 and expands upon the CCPA, imposing additional data protection obligations on covered businesses. The CCPA/CPRA gives California residents certain

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rights related to their personal information, including the rights to request the correction of, access to and deletion of their personal information, the right to opt out of certain personal information sharing, and the right to receive detailed information about how their information is processed. If we, or the third parties on which we rely, fail to comply with the CCPA/CPRA, we may face significant fines, penalties and regulatory enforcement costs that could adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations. The CCPA/CPRA provides for civil penalties of up to $2,500 per violation, and $7,500 per intentional violation, following investigation by the state Attorney General and allows private litigants affected by certain data breaches to recover significant statutory damages. Similar comprehensive state privacy laws are now in effect in Virginia, Colorado, Connecticut, and Utah, and many have passed in other states.

Compliance with laws, regulations, rules, guidance, industry standards, and contractual obligations concerning data privacy, security, governance and protection is an onerous and resource-intensive process, that may require us to put in place additional mechanisms and incur substantial expenditure. Achieving compliance could also require us to change our business practices in a manner that does not align with our business objectives. Furthermore, the regulatory landscape continues to evolve, making it difficult to maintain compliance. Further, in the event that we, or one of the third parties on which we rely, is subject to a data breach, security incident, or other unauthorized intrusion or access that leads to the disclosure or modification of, or prevents access to, patient information, including personally identifiable information or protected health information, could result in fines, increased costs or loss of revenue as a result of: harm to our reputation; fines imposed on us by regulatory authorities; remediation measures taken to respond to the event and prevent similar events from occurring in the future; additional compliance obligations under federal, state or foreign laws (including notification obligations); requirements for mandatory corrective action to be taken by us; and requirements to verify the correctness of database contents and otherwise subject us to liability under laws and regulations that protect personal data.

In addition, cyber incidents can be difficult to detect, and any delay in identifying them may lead to increased harm as described above. While we have implemented security measures to protect our data and information technology systems, such measures may not prevent such events. We also cannot guarantee that we are in compliance with all applicable data privacy, security and protection laws and regulations as they are enforced now or as they evolve.

Our potential acquisitions of other companies could increase our exposure to litigation risk.

Our exposure to risks associated with various claims, including claims related to the use of intellectual property as well as securities and related stockholder derivative claims, may be increased as a result of our acquisitions of other companies, including our potential acquisition of Kinnate, and we may ultimately be subject to liability or settlement costs. Additionally, we may have a lower level of visibility into the development process with respect to intellectual property or the care taken to safeguard against infringement risks with respect to acquired companies or assets. In addition, third parties may make claims in connection with our acquisitions, and they may also make infringement and similar or related claims after we have acquired assets that had not been asserted prior to our acquisition.

Risks Related to Government Regulation

Even after FDA approval, a product may be subject to additional testing or significant marketing restrictions, its approval may be withdrawn, or it may be removed voluntarily from the market.

Even if our potential royalty providers receive regulatory approval for our product candidates, they will be subject to ongoing regulatory oversight and review by the FDA and other regulatory entities. The FDA, the EMA, or another regulatory agency may impose, as a condition of the approval, ongoing requirements for post-approval studies or post-approval obligations, including additional research and development and clinical trials, and the FDA, EMA or other regulatory agency subsequently may withdraw approval based on these additional trials or obligations.

Even for approved products, the FDA, EMA or other regulatory agency may impose significant restrictions on the indicated uses, conditions for use, labeling, advertising, promotion, marketing and production of such product. In addition, the labeling, packaging, adverse event reporting, storage, advertising, promotion and record-keeping for such products are subject to extensive regulatory requirements.

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Furthermore, marketing approval of a product may be withdrawn by the FDA, the EMA or another regulatory agency or such product may be withdrawn voluntarily by our potential royalty providers based, for example, on subsequently arising safety concerns. The FDA, EMA and other agencies also may impose various civil or criminal sanctions for failure to comply with regulatory requirements, including withdrawal of product approval.

Healthcare reform measures and other statutory or regulatory changes could adversely affect our business.

The U.S. and some foreign jurisdictions have enacted or are considering a number of legislative and regulatory proposals to change the healthcare system in ways that could affect our potential royalty providers’ ability to sell products in which we have ownership or and royalty interests, if approved, profitably. Among policy makers and payors in the U.S. and elsewhere, there is significant interest in promoting changes in healthcare systems with the stated goals of containing healthcare costs, improving quality and expanding access. In the U.S., the pharmaceutical industry has been a particular focus of these efforts and has been significantly affected by major legislative initiatives. For example, in March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, or collectively the ACA, was enacted, which, among other things, substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both governmental and private payors.

There have been judicial, Congressional and executive branch challenges to the ACA. As a result, there have been delays in the implementation of, and action taken to repeal or replace, certain aspects of the ACA. For example, on June 17, 2021, the U.S. Supreme Court dismissed a challenge on procedural grounds that argued the ACA is unconstitutional in its entirety because the “individual mandate” was repealed by Congress. In addition, there have been a number of health reform initiatives by the Biden administration that have impacted the ACA. On August 16, 2022, President Biden signed the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, or the IRA, into law, which among other things, extends enhanced subsidies for individuals purchasing health insurance coverage in ACA marketplaces through plan year 2025. The IRA also eliminates the “donut hole” under the Medicare Part D program beginning in 2025 by significantly lowering the beneficiary maximum out-of-pocket cost and through a newly established manufacturer discount program. It is possible that the ACA will be subject to judicial or Congressional challenges in the future. It is unclear how other such challenges, and the healthcare reform measures of the Biden administration will impact the ACA and our business.

Also, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny recently in the U.S. over pharmaceutical pricing practices in light of the rising cost of prescription drugs and biologics. Such scrutiny has resulted in several recent Congressional inquiries and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to product pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for products. For example, in July 2021, the Biden administration released an executive order, “Promoting Competition in the American Economy,” with multiple provisions aimed at prescription drugs. In response to Biden’s executive order, on September 9, 2021, the Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS, released a Comprehensive Plan for Addressing High Drug Prices that outlines principles for drug pricing reform and sets out a variety of potential legislative policies that Congress could pursue to advance these principles. In addition, the IRA, among other things, (i) directs the Secretary of HHS to negotiate the price of certain high-expenditure, single-source drugs and biologics covered under Medicare Part B and Medicare Part D, and subjects drug manufacturers to civil monetary penalties and a potential excise tax by offering a price that is not equal to or less than the negotiated “maximum fair price” under the law, and (ii) imposes rebates under Medicare Part B and Medicare Part D to penalize price increases that outpace inflation. The IRA permits HHS to implement many of these provisions through guidance, as opposed to regulation, for the initial years. HHS has and will continue to issue and update guidance as these programs are implemented. These provisions will take effect progressively starting in fiscal year 2023. On August 29, 2023, HHS announced the list of the first ten drugs that will be subject to price negotiations, although the Medicare drug price negotiation program is currently subject to legal challenges. It is currently unclear how the IRA will be implemented but it is likely to have a significant impact on the pharmaceutical industry. Further, in response to the Biden administration’s October 2022 executive order, on February 14, 2023, HHS released a report outlining three new models for testing by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation which will be evaluated on their ability to lower the cost of drugs, promote accessibility, and improve quality of care. It is unclear whether the models will be utilized in any health reform measures in the future. In addition, beginning in 2023, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, or CMS, will require manufacturers to refund CMS for certain discarded amounts of single-dose container and single-use package drugs. At the state level, legislatures have increasingly passed legislation and implemented regulations designed to control

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pharmaceutical and biological product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, and restrictions on certain product access. In some cases, such legislation and regulations have been designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing.

An expansion in the government’s role in the U.S. healthcare industry may cause general downward pressure on the prices of prescription pharmaceutical products, lower reimbursements for providers, and reduced product utilization, any of which could adversely affect our business and results of operations. We expect that additional healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future. We cannot know what form any such new legislation may take or the market’s perception of how such legislation would affect us. Any reduction in reimbursement from government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent our potential royalty providers from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability, develop, or commercialize our current product candidates in which we have an ownership or royalty interest.

We and our potential milestone and royalty providers are subject to various state and federal healthcare-related laws and regulations that if violated may impact the commercialization of our product candidates for which we possess milestone or royalty rights or could subject us to significant fines and penalties.

Our operations may be directly or indirectly subject to various state and federal healthcare laws, including the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, the federal False Claims Act, state analogues of those laws, and various state and federal data privacy and security laws. These laws may impact, among other things, the commercial operations for any of our product candidates that may be approved for commercial sale.

The federal Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits, among other things, persons and entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, offering, receiving or providing any remuneration, directly or indirectly, in cash or in kind, in exchange for or to induce either the referral of an individual for, or the furnishing or arranging for the purchase, lease, or order of a good or service for which payment may be made under a federal healthcare program, such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The ACA modified the federal Anti-Kickback Statute’s intent requirement so that a person or entity no longer needs to have actual knowledge of the statute or the specific intent to violate it to have committed a violation. In addition, several courts have interpreted the statute’s intent requirement to mean that if any one purpose of an arrangement involving remuneration is to induce referrals of federal healthcare covered business, the statute has been implicated. The Anti-Kickback Statute is broad and prohibits many arrangements and practices that are lawful in businesses outside of the healthcare industry.

The federal false claims laws, including the False Claims Act, and civil monetary penalties laws prohibit, among other things, persons and entities from knowingly filing, or causing to be filed, a false claim to, or the knowing use of false statements to obtain payment from the federal government. Certain suits filed under the False Claims Act, known as “qui tam” actions, can be brought by any individual on behalf of the government and such individual, commonly known as a “whistleblower,” or “relator” may share in any amounts paid by the entity to the government in fines or settlement. The filing of qui tam actions has caused a number of pharmaceutical, medical device and other healthcare companies to have to defend and/or settle a False Claims Act action.

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA created new federal criminal statutes that prohibit, among other things, executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program, including a private payor, or falsifying, concealing or covering up a material fact or making any materially false, fictitious or fraudulent statement in connection with the delivery of, or payment for, health care benefits, items or services.

HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology and Clinical Health Act, and its implementing regulations, also imposes certain requirements relating to the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information by entities subject to the law, such as certain healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses as well as their respective business associates and their subcontractors that perform certain functions or activities that involve the use or disclosure of protected health information on their behalf.

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Many states also have adopted laws similar to each of the federal laws described above, some of which apply to healthcare items or services reimbursed by any source, not only federal healthcare programs, such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs. In addition, some states have laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the applicable compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government. Additionally, certain state and local laws require the registration of pharmaceutical sales representatives, restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources, and require manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers. Further, some states have laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which are not preempted by HIPAA and differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts.

Because of the breadth of these laws, and the narrowness of the statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors available, it is possible that some of our or our potential milestone and royalty providers’ business activities could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws.

If we or our potential milestone and royalty providers are found to be in violation of any of the laws and regulations described above or other applicable state and federal healthcare laws, we or our potential milestone and royalty providers may be subject to penalties, including significant civil, criminal, and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, integrity oversight and reporting obligations, reputational harm, exclusion from government healthcare reimbursement programs and the curtailment or restructuring of our or our potential milestone and royalty providers’ operations, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. In addition, we and our licensees may be subject to certain analogous foreign laws and violations of such laws could result in significant penalties.

We are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption laws, as well as export control laws, import and customs laws, trade and economic sanctions laws and other laws governing our operations.

We are subject to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-corruption laws, as well as export control laws, import and customs laws, trade and economic sanctions laws and other laws governing our operations. Our operations are subject to anti-corruption laws including the FCPA, the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. §201, the U.S. Travel Act, and other anti-corruption laws that apply in countries where we do business. The FCPA and these other laws generally prohibit us and our employees and intermediaries from authorizing, promising, offering, or providing, directly or indirectly, improper or prohibited payments, or anything else of value, to government officials or other persons to obtain or retain business or gain some other business advantage. We and the royalty agreement counterparties and licensees who generate our royalties operate in a number of jurisdictions that pose a high risk of potential FCPA violations, and we participate in collaborations and relationships with third parties whose activities could potentially subject us to liability under the FCPA or local anti-corruption laws, even if we do not explicitly authorize or have actual knowledge of such activities. In addition, we cannot predict the nature, scope or effect of future regulatory requirements to which our international operations might be subject or the manner in which existing laws might be administered or interpreted. We are also subject to other laws and regulations governing our international operations, including regulations administered by the governments of the U.S. and authorities in the European Union, including applicable export control regulations, economic sanctions and embargoes on certain countries and persons, anti-money laundering laws, import and customs requirements and currency exchange regulations, collectively referred to as the Trade Control laws. There is no assurance that we will be completely effective in ensuring our compliance with all applicable anti-corruption laws, including the FCPA or other legal requirements, including Trade Control laws. If we are not in compliance with the FCPA and other anticorruption laws or Trade Control laws, we may be subject to criminal and civil penalties, disgorgement and other sanctions and remedial measures, and legal expenses, which could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and liquidity. Likewise, any investigation of any potential violations of the FCPA, other anti-corruption laws or Trade Control laws by the U.S. or other authorities could also have an adverse impact on our reputation, our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Efforts to confirm that our business arrangements with third parties comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations may involve substantial costs. Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the statutory exceptions and safe harbors available, it is possible that some of our business activities or our business arrangements with third parties could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws. It is possible that governmental authorities will conclude that our business practices or the business practices of the royalty agreement counterparties and licensees who generate our royalties may not comply with current or future statutes, regulations or case law involving applicable fraud and abuse or other healthcare laws and regulations. If our operations or the operations of the royalty agreement counterparties and licensees who generate our royalties are found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations, we or the royalty agreement counterparties and licensees who generate our royalties may be subject to significant criminal, civil and administrative sanctions, including monetary penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, individual imprisonment and exclusion from participation in government-funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, additional reporting requirements and oversight if we or the royalty agreement counterparties and licensees who generate our royalties become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or similar agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws, reputational harm, and we or marketers of products that generate our royalties may be required to curtail or restructure operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations. The risk of our being found in violation of these laws is increased by the fact that many of them have not been fully interpreted by the regulatory authorities or the courts, and their provisions are open to a variety of interpretations. Any action against us for violation of these laws, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business. The shifting enforcement landscape and the need to build and maintain robust and expandable systems to comply with multiple jurisdictions with different compliance and/or reporting requirements increases the possibility that a healthcare company may run afoul of one or more of the requirements.

As we or our potential milestone and royalty providers do more business internationally, we expect to become subject to additional political, economic and regulatory uncertainties.

We or our potential milestone and royalty providers may not be able to operate successfully in any foreign market. We believe that because the pharmaceutical industry is global in nature, international activities are expected to become a significant part of future business activities and when and if we or our potential milestone and royalty providers are able to generate income, a substantial portion of that income will be derived from product sales and other activities outside the U.S. Foreign regulatory agencies often establish standards different from those in the U.S., and an inability to obtain foreign regulatory approvals on a timely basis, if at all, could put us at a competitive disadvantage or make it uneconomical to proceed with a product or product candidate’s development. International sales may be limited or disrupted by many factors, including without limitation:

imposition of government controls;
export license requirements;
political or economic instability or conflict;
trade restrictions;
international disputes;
changes in tariffs;
restrictions on repatriating profits;
exchange rate fluctuations;
evolving government regulations, including those related to healthcare reimbursement and data privacy and security; and

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withholding and other taxation.

General Risk Factors

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research reports about our business or if they make adverse recommendations regarding an investment in our stock, our stock price and trading volume may decline.

The trading market for our common stock can be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about our business. Currently, coverage of our Company by industry and securities analysts is limited. Investors have many investment opportunities and may limit their investments to companies that receive greater coverage from analysts. If additional industry or securities analysts do not commence coverage of the Company, the trading price of our stock could be negatively impacted. If one or more of the analysts downgrade our stock or comment negatively on our prospects, our stock price may decline. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover our industry or us or fail to publish reports about the Company regularly, our common stock could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could also cause our stock price or trading volume to decline. Further, incorrect judgments, estimates or assumptions made by research analysts may adversely affect our stock price, particularly if subsequent performance falls below the levels that were projected by the research analyst(s), even if we did not set or endorse such expectations. Any of these events could cause further volatility in our stock price and could result in substantial declines in the value of our stock.

Our share price may be volatile, which may subject us to litigation, and there may not be an active trading market for our common stock, Series A Preferred Stock or our Series B Preferred Stock.

There can be no assurance that the market price of our common stock will not decline below its present market price. Additionally, there may not be an active trading market for our common stock, Series A Preferred Stock or depositary shares representing interests in our Series B Preferred Stock. The market prices of biotechnology companies have been and are likely to continue to be highly volatile, and are affected by a number of factors, including:

fluctuations in our operating results;
general market and macroeconomic conditions, including market conditions in our industry and the industries of our collaborators;
the coverage of our common stock by the financial media, including television, radio and press reports and blogs;
recruitment or departure of key personnel;
our ability to realize benefits from strategic partnerships, acquisitions or investments;
trading activity or positions by a limited number of stockholders who together beneficially own a significant portion of our outstanding common stock;
the issuance of shares of common stock by us, including as consideration in or in conjunction with acquisitions;
the inability to execute on our share repurchase program as planned, including failure to meet internal or external expectations around the timing or price of share repurchases, and any reductions or discontinuances of repurchases thereunder;
issuance of debt or other convertible securities, including as consideration in or in conjunction with acquisitions;
the inability to conclude that our internal controls over financial reporting are effective;

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changes to our credit ratings; and
market perception or investment sentiment regarding us or our business strategy.

We have experienced significant volatility in the price of our common stock in the past. From January 1, 2023, through March 4, 2024, the share price of our common stock has ranged from a high of $25.91 to a low of $13.48. From January 1, 2023, through March 4, 2024, the share price of our Series A Preferred Stock has ranged from a high of $25.98 to a low of $21.40. From January 1, 2023, through March 4, 2024, the share price of our Series B Preferred Stock has ranged from a high of $25.37 to a low of $20.43. Additionally, we currently have two significant holders of our common stock that could affect the liquidity of our stock and have a significant negative impact on our stock price if those holders were to sell their ownership positions.

Our results of operations and liquidity needs could be materially negatively affected by market fluctuations or an economic downturn.

Our results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by macroeconomic conditions generally, both in the U.S. and elsewhere around the world. Concerns over inflation, slower growth or recession, new or increased tariffs or other barriers to trade, changes in fiscal and monetary policy or government budget dynamics, interest rates, high unemployment, labor availability constraints, currency fluctuations, epidemics and other public health crises (such as the COVID-19 pandemic), significant natural disasters (including as a result of climate change), rising energy costs, geopolitical conflict, such as the ongoing conflict in Ukraine, the Middle East and surrounding areas and the rising tensions between China and Taiwan, the availability and cost of credit, and the volatility in U.S. financial markets have in the past contributed to, and may continue in the future contribute to, increased volatility and diminished expectations for the economy and the U.S. and global markets. Domestic and international equity markets periodically experience heightened volatility and turmoil. These events may have an adverse effect on us. In the event of a market downturn, our results of operations could be adversely affected by those factors in many ways, including making it more difficult for us to raise funds if necessary, and our stock price may decline.

We have issued equity securities and may issue additional equity securities from time to time, that materially and adversely affect the price of our common stock, including our Series X Preferred Stock, Series A Preferred Stock and depositary shares representing interests in our Series B Preferred Stock.

We expect significant additional capital will be needed in the future to continue our planned operations. To the extent we raise additional capital by issuing equity securities, our stockholders may experience substantial dilution. We may sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities in one or more transactions at prices and in such a manner as we determine from time to time, including pursuant to our 2018 Common Stock ATM Agreement, as amended, and 2021 Series B Preferred Stock ATM Agreement. If we sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities in more than one transaction, investors may be materially diluted by subsequent sales. These sales may also result in material dilution to our existing stockholders, and new investors could gain rights superior to our existing stockholders. If we issue additional equity securities, the price of our existing securities may be materially and adversely affected.

As of December 31, 2023, there were 5,003 shares of Series X Preferred Stock issued and outstanding. Each share of Series X Preferred Stock is convertible into 1,000 shares of registered common stock. The total number of shares of common stock issuable upon conversion of all issued Series X Preferred Stock would be 5,003,000 shares. Each share is convertible at the option of the holder at any time, provided that the holder is prohibited from converting into common stock if, as a result of such conversion, the holder, together with its affiliates, would beneficially own a number of shares above a conversion blocker, which was initially set at 19.99% of our total common stock then issued and outstanding immediately following the conversion of such shares. A holder of Series X Preferred Stock may elect to increase or decrease the conversion blocker above or below 19.99% on 61 days’ notice, provided the conversion blocker does not exceed the limits under Nasdaq Listing Rule 5635(b), to the extent then applicable. If holders of our Series X Preferred Stock elect to convert their preferred shares into common stock such conversion would dilute our currently outstanding common stock both in number and in earnings per share. BVF (and its affiliates), as current holders of all of the shares of our Series X Preferred Stock, would, if they converted all such shares to common stock, obtain majority voting control of

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the Company. As of December 31, 2023, BVF owned approximately 31.6% of our total outstanding shares of common stock, and if all of its shares of the Series X Preferred Stock were converted (without taking into account beneficial ownership limitations), BVF would own 52.3% of our total outstanding shares of common stock. Additionally, as of December 31, 2023, we had issued and outstanding 984,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock and 1,600,000 depositary shares, each representing a 1/1000th fractional interest in a share of our Series B Preferred Stock.

In addition, funding from collaboration partners and others has in the past and may in the future involve issuance by us of our common stock. We cannot be certain how the purchase price of such shares, the relevant market price or premium, if any, will be determined or when such determinations will be made.

Any issuance by us of equity securities, whether through an underwritten public offering, an at the market offering, a private placement, in connection with a collaboration or otherwise could result in dilution in the value of our issued and outstanding shares, and a decrease in the trading price of our securities.

We may sell additional equity or debt securities to fund our operations, which may result in dilution to our stockholders and impose restrictions on our business.

In order to raise additional funds to support our operations, we may sell additional equity or convertible debt securities, which would result in dilution to our stockholders and/or debt securities which may impose restrictive covenants that would adversely impact our business. The sale of additional equity or convertible debt securities could result in additional dilution or result in other rights or obligations that adversely affect our stockholders. For example, holders of shares of our Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to receive, when and as declared by our Board, out of funds legally available for the payment of dividends, cumulative cash dividends at the rate of 8.625% of the $25.00 liquidation preference per year (equivalent to $2.15625 per year). Additionally, holders of depositary shares representing interests in our Series B Preferred Stock are entitled to receive, when and as declared by our Board, out of funds legally available for the payment of dividends, cumulative cash dividends at the rate of 8.375% of the $25,000 liquidation preference per share of Series B Preferred Stock ($25.00 per depositary share) per year (equivalent to $2,093.75 per year per share or $2.09375 per year per depositary share). The incurrence of indebtedness would result in increased fixed payment obligations and could also result in certain restrictive covenants, such as limitations on our ability to incur additional debt, limitations on our ability to acquire, sell or license intellectual property rights and other operating restrictions that could adversely impact our ability to conduct our business.

Our organizational documents contain provisions that may prevent transactions that could be beneficial to our stockholders and may insulate our management from removal.

Our charter and by-laws:

require certain procedures to be followed and time periods to be met for any stockholder to propose matters to be considered at annual meetings of stockholders, including nominating directors for election at those meetings; and
authorize our Board to issue up to 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock without stockholder approval and to set the rights, preferences and other designations, including voting rights, of those shares as the Board may determine.

In addition, we are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”), that may prohibit large stockholders, in particular those owning 15% or more of our outstanding common stock, from merging or combining with us.

These provisions of our organizational documents and the DGCL, alone or in combination with each other, may discourage transactions involving actual or potential changes of control, including transactions that otherwise could involve payment of a premium over prevailing market prices to holders of common stock, could limit the ability of stockholders to approve transactions that they may deem to be in their best interests, and could make it considerably more difficult for a potential acquirer to replace management.

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As a public company in the U.S., we are subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We have determined our disclosure controls and procedures and our internal control over financial reporting are effective. We can provide no assurance that we will, at all times, in the future be able to report that our disclosure controls and internal controls over financial reporting are effective.

Companies that file reports with the SEC, including us, are subject to the requirements of Section 404 of the SOX. Section 404 requires management to establish and maintain a system of internal control over financial reporting, and annual reports on Form 10-K filed under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), must contain a report from management assessing the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Ensuring we have adequate internal financial and accounting controls and procedures in place to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis is a time-consuming effort that needs to be re-evaluated frequently. Failure on our part to have effective internal financial and accounting controls would cause our financial reporting to be unreliable, could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial condition, and could cause the trading price of our common stock to fall.

Our ability to use our NOL carry-forwards and certain other tax attributes to offset taxable income or taxes may be limited.  

Our net operating loss, or NOL, carryforwards could expire unused and/or be unavailable to offset future income tax liabilities. As of December 31, 2023, we had U.S. federal NOL carryforwards of $137.8 million, of which $13.6 million will begin to expire in 2036. Under the federal income tax law, federal NOLs incurred in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 may be carried forward indefinitely, but the deductibility of such federal NOLs is limited to 80% of current year taxable income. It is uncertain if and to what extent various states will conform to the federal tax law. In addition, Section 382 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), and corresponding provisions of state law, generally limit the ability of a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” to utilize its NOL carry-forwards and certain other tax attributes against any taxable income in taxable periods after the ownership change. An “ownership change” is generally defined as a greater than 50% change, by value, in a corporation’s equity ownership over a three-year period.

Based on an analysis under Section 382 of Code, we experienced an ownership change in February 2017, that significantly limits the availability of our tax attributes to offset future income. To the extent that we do not utilize our carry forwards within the applicable statutory carry-forward periods, either because of Section 382 limitations or the lack of sufficient taxable income, the carry-forwards will also expire unused. As of December 31, 2023, we had $55.4 million in federal net operating loss carryforwards subject to an annual limitation of $0.9 million. Of this amount, $13.6 million will begin to expire in 2036, if not utilized.

Changes in tax laws or regulations that are applied adversely to us may have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flow, financial condition, or results of operations.

New tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations, or ordinances could be enacted at any time. For instance, the recently enacted Inflation Reduction Act imposes, among other rules, a 15% minimum tax on the book income of certain large corporations and a 1% excise tax on certain corporate stock repurchases. Further, existing tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations, or ordinances could be interpreted differently, changed, repealed, or modified at any time. Any such enactment, interpretation, change, repeal, or modification could adversely affect us, possibly with retroactive effect. In particular, changes in corporate tax rates, the realization of our net deferred tax assets, the taxation of foreign earnings, and the deductibility of expenses under the Tax Act, as amended by the CARES Act or any future tax reform legislation, could have a material impact on the value of our deferred tax assets, result in significant one-time charges, and increase our future tax expenses.

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Stockholder and private lawsuits, and potential similar or related lawsuits, could result in substantial damages, divert management’s time and attention from our business, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Securities-related class action and stockholder derivative litigation has often been brought against companies, including many biotechnology companies, which experience volatility in the market price of their securities. This risk is especially relevant for us because biotechnology and biopharmaceutical companies often experience significant stock price volatility in connection with their product development programs, and could be increased as a result of our acquisitions of other companies, including our potential acquisition of Kinnate.

It is possible that suits will be filed, or allegations received from stockholders, naming us and/or our officers and directors as defendants. These potential lawsuits are subject to inherent uncertainties, and the actual defense and disposition costs will depend upon many unknown factors. The outcome of any such lawsuits is uncertain. We could be forced to expend significant time and resources in the defense of these suits, and we may not prevail. In addition, we may incur substantial legal fees and costs in connection with these lawsuits. Although we carry insurance to protect us from such claims, our insurance may not provide adequate coverage. It is possible that we could, in the future, incur judgments or enter into settlements of claims for monetary damages. A decision adverse to our interests on these actions could result in the payment of substantial damages, or possibly fines, increased insurance costs, and could have a material adverse effect on our cash flow, results of operations and financial position.

Monitoring, initiating and defending against legal actions, including any currently pending litigation, are time-consuming for our management, are likely to be expensive and may detract from our ability to fully focus our internal resources on our business activities. The outcome of litigation is always uncertain, and in some cases could include judgments against us that require us to pay damages, enjoin us from certain activities, or otherwise affect our legal or contractual rights, which could have a significant adverse effect on our business. In addition, the inherent uncertainty of any future litigation could lead to increased volatility in our stock price and a decrease in the value of an investment in our common stock.

Item 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

Item 1C. CYBERSECURITY

Risk Management and Strategy

We evaluate our cybersecurity strategy annually, including our processes designed to assess, identify, and manage risks from potential unauthorized occurrences on or through our information technology systems that may result in adverse effects on the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of these systems and the data residing therein, within our overall enterprise risk management framework. Our cybersecurity strategy takes a multi-faceted approach, one which focuses on the following key areas: (i) the human element within the organization; (ii) perimeter security; (iii) network security; (iv) application security; (v) endpoint security; and (vi) data security. We use a wide array of processes, mechanisms, controls, technologies, systems, strategies and tools in each of these areas, including but not limited to: routine security awareness training, formal evaluations of third-party applications, password strength policies, antivirus software, firewalls, routine patch management, encryption software, data backups and data redundancies, email security software, multi-factor authentication tools, network security monitoring, and web vulnerability scanning.

We engage outside consultants on a regular basis to help us design internal controls and processes to address cybersecurity risks. We also leverage these outside consultants and other third parties, when appropriate, to implement appropriate processes, policies, and internal controls designed to help prevent, detect, and/or mitigate these cyberthreats.

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In the last fiscal year, we have not identified risks from known cybersecurity threats, including as a result of any prior cybersecurity incidents, that have materially affected us, but we face certain ongoing cybersecurity threats that, if realized, are reasonably likely to materially affect us. These threats include but are not limited to: (i) ransomware and malware attacks; (ii) endpoint attacks; (iii) compromised business email and other social engineering threats; and (iv) vulnerabilities related to inadequate patch management. Our licensees, suppliers, contractors, and consultants also face similar cybersecurity risks, which could have an adverse impact on our business. Additional information on cybersecurity risks we face is discussed in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” under the headings “If our information technology systems or data or those of our partners or contractors are compromised, our business could experience adverse consequences, including regulatory investigations or actions; litigation; fines and penalties; a disruption of our business operations; reputational harm; and loss of revenue or profits” and “Compliance with the stringent and changing obligations related to data privacy and security is an onerous and resource-intensive process. Our actual or perceived failure to comply with any data privacy or security obligations could lead to regulatory investigations or actions; litigation; fines and penalties; a disruption of our business operations; reputational harm; loss of revenue or profits; loss of customers or sales; and other adverse business consequences.”

Governance

Our management, led by our Chief Executive Officer and the Senior Vice President, Finance and Chief Financial Officer, is responsible for assessing cybersecurity risks and for confirming we have an appropriate cybersecurity strategy to assess and manage those risks, including responding to attacks or breaches. Our Chief Executive Officer and the Senior Vice President, Finance and Chief Financial Officer each have experience in senior leadership roles in which they have been responsible for the entity’s enterprise risk management, including management of cybersecurity risks. The Chief Executive Officer and the Senior Vice President, Finance and Chief Financial Officer meet regularly with the individuals charged with the day-to-day IT operations and infrastructure, and at least quarterly to review and assess potential cybersecurity threats to determine whether any changes need to be made to our cybersecurity strategy. The Chief Executive Officer and the Senior Vice President, Finance and Chief Financial Officer sponsor periodic cybersecurity awareness training for all employees.

We also maintain an Incident Response Plan that sets forth a protocol in the event we are exposed to a cyber-attack or breach. The Incident Response Plan provides a framework for our response, including the appropriate communication and escalation channels.

The Board, as a whole and at the committee level, has oversight for the most significant risks facing us and for our processes to identify, prioritize, assess, manage, and mitigate those risks. The Audit Committee of the Board, which is comprised solely of independent directors, has been designated by our Board to oversee cybersecurity risks. Management provides regular updates to the Audit Committee of the Board regarding risk assessments, developing threats, and the current and planned cybersecurity strategy, and promptly provides notification of significant attacks or breaches as part of the Incident Response Plan.  The Board also receives updates from management and the Audit Committee on cybersecurity risks on at least an annual basis.  

Item 2. PROPERTIES

We lease space for our corporate headquarters in Emeryville, California. As of December 31, 2023, we expect to incur incremental undiscounted costs of $0.5 million associated with our building lease until it expires in April 2029. We believe our facilities are adequate to meet our current requirements.

Item 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

We are not currently engaged in any legal proceedings that, in the opinion of our management, if determined adversely to us, would individually or taken together, have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial position or cash flows. However, from time to time, we may become involved in litigation, arbitration or other proceedings relating to claims arising from the ordinary course of business.

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We may become involved in material legal proceedings in the future, and the potential impact on us of any on-going proceeding which we do not currently believe to be material could become material. Such matters are subject to significant uncertainties, and there can be no assurance that any legal proceedings in which we are or may become involved will not have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial position or cash flows.

Item 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

PART II

Item 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity

Our common stock trades on The Nasdaq Global Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol “XOMA.” On March 4, 2024, there were 188 stockholders of record of our common stock, one of which was Cede & Co., a nominee for Depository Trust Company (“DTC”). Shares of our common stock held by brokerage firms, banks and other financial institutions as nominees for beneficial owners are deposited into participant accounts at DTC and are therefore considered to be held of record by Cede & Co., and we are unable to estimate the total number of stockholders represented by these record holders.

Dividend Policy

We have not paid dividends on our common stock and do not anticipate paying cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. Holders of shares of our Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to receive, when and as declared by our Board, out of funds legally available for the payment of dividends, cumulative cash dividends at the rate of 8.625% of the $25.00 liquidation preference per year (equivalent to $2.15625 per year per share) per year. Holders of our Series B Preferred Stock are entitled to receive, when and as declared by our Board, out of funds legally available for the payment of dividends, cumulative cash dividends at the rate of 8.375% of the $25,000 liquidation preference per year of Series B Preferred Stock ($25.00 per depositary share) per year (equivalent to $2,093.75 per year per share of Series B Preferred Stock or $2.09375 per year per depositary share).

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

None.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

None.

Item 6. RESERVED

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Item 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Overview

XOMA is a biotech royalty aggregator. We have a sizable portfolio of economic rights to future potential milestone and royalty payments associated with partnered commercial and pre-commercial therapeutic candidates. Our portfolio was built through the acquisition of rights to future milestones, royalties and commercial payments, since our royalty aggregator business model was implemented in 2017, combined with out-licensing our proprietary products and platforms from our legacy discovery and development business. Our royalty aggregator business is primarily focused on early to mid-stage clinical assets, primarily in Phase 1 and 2, with significant commercial sales potential that are licensed to large-cap partners. We also acquire milestone and royalty revenue streams on late-stage clinical assets and commercial assets that are designed to address unmet markets or have a therapeutic advantage, have long duration of market exclusivity, and are expected to deliver a financial return to us in a short timeframe. We expect most of our future revenue to be based on payments we may receive for milestones and royalties associated with these programs.

The generation of future revenues related to licenses, milestone payments, and royalties is dependent on the achievement of milestones or product sales by our existing licensees. We generated a net loss of $40.8 million and net cash used in operating activities was $18.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, and we had an accumulated deficit of $1.2 billion as of December 31, 2023. We generated a net loss of $17.1 million and net cash used in operating activities was $12.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2022.

Significant Business Developments

Kinnate Acquisition

On February 16, 2024, we entered into an agreement to acquire Kinnate for a base cash purchase price of $2.3352 per share and an additional cash payment amount of up to $0.2527 per share upon the closing of the merger plus a non-transferable contingent value right per share, representing the right to receive 85% of the net proceeds, if any, from any out license or sale of the Kinnate programs effected within one year of closing of the merger and 100% of the net proceeds, if any, from any out license or sale of certain Kinnate programs entered into prior to the closing of the merger.  We expect this acquisition to provide additional cash to our balance sheet and potentially add several programs to our portfolio. This merger is expected to close in April 2024.

Blue Owl Loan Agreement

On December 15, 2023, our wholly owned subsidiary, XRL, entered into the Blue Owl Loan Agreement, pursuant to which we borrowed $130.0 million.  We received a net cash amount of $119.6 million after the payment of $4.1 million in fees and lender expenses and $6.3 million that was deposited into reserve accounts to pay interest, administrative fees and XRL’s operating expenses. We also incurred $0.6 million in direct issuance costs related to the Blue Owl Loan Agreement. The Blue Owl Loan is secured by, and is expected to be repaid based upon, commercial payments from Roche’s VABYSMO, pursuant to the Affitech CPPA (see Note 8 to the consolidated financial statements). The carrying value of the short and long-term portion of the initial term loan was $5.5 million and $118.5 million, respectively as of December 31, 2023.

In connection with the Blue Owl Loan Agreement, we issued warrants to certain funds associated with Blue Owl to purchase (i) up to 40,000 shares of our common stock at an exercise price of $35.00 per share; (ii) up to 40,000 shares of our common stock at an exercise price of $42.50 per share; and (iii) up to 40,000 shares of our common stock at an exercise price of $50.00 per share (collectively, the “Blue Owl Warrants”) (see Note 12 to the consolidated financial statements).

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Owen Hughes Appointed as Chief Executive Officer

On January 7, 2024, the Board appointed Owen Hughes as our Chief Executive Officer (principal executive officer) and Jack L. Wyszomierski as Chairman of the Board. Mr. Hughes previously served as our Executive Chairman and Interim Chief Executive Officer beginning on January 1, 2023. In connection with his appointment, Mr. Hughes will receive an annual base salary of $575,000 and will be eligible to receive an annual discretionary cash bonus with a target amount equal to 60% of his annual base salary upon the achievement of annual performance milestones to be established by the Board.

Stock Repurchase Program

In January 2024, our Board authorized our first stock repurchase program, which permits us to purchase up to $50.0 million of our common stock through January 2027. Under the program, we have discretion in determining the conditions under which shares may be purchased from time to time, including through transactions in the open market, in privately negotiated transactions, under plans compliant with Rule 10b5-1 under the Exchange Act, as part of accelerated share repurchases or by other means in accordance with applicable laws. The manner, number, price, structure, and timing of the repurchases, if any, will be determined at our sole discretion and repurchases, if any, depend on a variety of factors, including legal requirements, price and economic and market conditions, royalty and milestone acquisition opportunities, and other factors. The repurchase authorization does not obligate us to acquire any particular amount of our common stock. The Board may suspend, modify, or terminate the stock repurchase program at any time without prior notice. As of March 4, 2024, we have purchased 660 shares of common stock pursuant to this stock repurchase program.

Portfolio Updates – Royalty and Commercial Payment Purchase Agreements

Talphera Commercial Payment Purchase Agreement

In January 2024, we acquired an economic interest in DSUVIA from Talphera, for $8.0 million. DSUVIA was approved in 2018 by the FDA for use in adults in certified medically supervised healthcare settings. In April 2023, Talphera divested DSUVIA to Alora Pharmaceuticals for an upfront payment, a 15% royalty on commercial net sales, a 75% royalty on net sales to the DoD, and up to $116.5 million in milestone payments. Under the terms of the agreement, we are entitled to receive 100% of all royalties and milestones related to DSUVIA sales until we receive $20.0 million. Once we receive $20.0 million, the 75% royalties generated from DoD purchases and the remaining $116.5 million in potential milestone payments due from Alora will be shared equally between us and Talphera. We will fully retain the 15% royalty associated with DSUVIA commercial sales.

LadRx Agreements

In June 2023, we entered into the LadRx AAA pursuant to the which we acquired from LadRx all of its rights, title and interests related to arimoclomol under the Zevra RPA. We also entered into the LadRx RPA, pursuant to which we acquired the right to receive all of the future royalties, regulatory and commercial milestone payments as well as other related payments due to LadRx from ImmunityBio related to aldoxorubicin under the ImmunityBio License Agreement. The purchased rights related to arimoclomol include potential regulatory and commercial milestone payments of up to $52.5 million (net of certain payment obligations of up to $9.5 million based on a portion of the regulatory and commercial milestone payments) and potential royalty payments in low single-digit percentages of aggregate net sales associated with arimoclomol. The purchased payments related to aldoxorubicin include potential regulatory and commercial milestone payments of up to $342.7 million and royalty payments on aggregate net sales of aldoxorubicin in the low to mid-teens for sales of orphan indications and mid to high single-digit percentages for sales of other licensed products. Upon closing of the LadRx Agreements, we paid LadRx an upfront payment of $5.0 million.  

In January 2024, Zevra announced the FDA accepted its NDA resubmission for arimoclomol, and pursuant to the LadRx RPA, we paid LadRx a $1.0 million milestone payment in January 2024. We may pay up to an additional $1.0 million commercial milestone related to arimoclomol and an additional $4.0 million regulatory milestone related to aldoxorubicin.  

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Viracta Royalty Purchase Agreement

In October 2023, we earned a $5.0 million milestone payment related to the FDA’s acceptance of Day One Biopharmaceuticals’ NDA for tovorafenib as a monotherapy in relapsed or progressive pediatric low-grade glioma.

Affitech Commercial Payment Purchase Agreement

Pursuant to our Affitech CPPA, we are eligible to receive commercial payments from Roche consisting of 0.5% of net sales of VABYSMO for a ten-year period following the first commercial sale in each applicable jurisdiction. In 2022, VABYSMO was approved by the FDA and the EMA for the treatment of wet, or neovascular, age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema. In October 2023, the FDA approved VABYSMO for the treatment of retinal vein occlusion.

Payments are due from Roche within 60 days of December 31 and June 30 of each year.  In 2023 and 2022, we received commercial payments totaling $7.3 million and $0.5 million, respectively, and in February 2024, we received $7.4 million. Based on net sales of VABYSMO in 2023, we paid Affitech sales milestones totaling $6.0 million in March 2024, and we may pay up to an additional $6.0 million in milestones based on the achievement of certain sales thresholds in future periods.

Aptevo Commercial Payment Purchase Agreement

In March 2023, we entered into the Aptevo CPPA, pursuant to which we acquired the full commercial payment stream and a portion of the milestone rights to IXINITY, which is marketed by Medexus for the control and prevention of bleeding episodes and postoperative management in people with Hemophilia B. We are eligible to receive a mid-single digit percentage payment stream on all IXINITY sales from January 1, 2023 until the first quarter of 2035, and also expect to be entitled to receive milestone payments. Under the terms of the Aptevo CPPA, in 2023 we paid Aptevo a $9.6 million upfront payment plus a $50,000 one-time payment when the first commercial payment exceeded $0.5 million. In 2023, we received $1.7 million in commercial payments pursuant to this agreement.

ObsEva IP Acquisition Agreement

In October 2023, Organon notified us of its intent to terminate the Organon License Agreement effective as of January 21, 2024, which we assumed pursuant to the ObsEva IP Acquisition Agreement dated November 21, 2022. We were not entitled to any milestone payments with respect to any milestone achieved by Organon following the termination date. We evaluated the related intangible asset balance for impairment in the fourth quarter of 2023 and recorded an impairment charge of $14.2 million as of December 31, 2023 (see note 4 to the consolidated financial statements).

Bioasis Royalty Purchase Agreement

In June 2023, Bioasis announced the suspension of all of its operations and the termination of the research collaboration and license agreement between Bioasis and Chiesi. We do not expect to receive any milestone, royalty or other payments under the Biosis RPA or Second Bioasis RPA and accordingly, we recorded an impairment charge of $1.6 million in the second quarter of 2023.

Portfolio Updates - License and Collaboration Agreements

In April 2023, we earned a $0.5 million milestone payment from Janssen, upon dosing of the first patient in a Phase 3 clinical trial evaluating one of Janssen’s biologic assets. In addition, during 2023, we also earned $1.0 million in milestone payments for five additional milestones related to IND filings, pursuant to our agreement with Janssen.

Critical Accounting Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires us to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosures of

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contingent assets and liabilities. We routinely evaluate our estimates. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form our basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from those estimates under different assumptions and conditions.

Critical accounting estimates are those estimates that involve a significant level of judgment and/or estimation uncertainty and could have or are reasonably likely to have a material impact on our financial condition or results of operations. We believe the following critical accounting policies and estimates describe the more significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements.

Purchase of Rights to Future Milestones, Royalties and Commercial Payments

We have purchased rights to receive a portion of certain future developmental, regulatory and commercial sales milestone payments, royalties and option fees on sales of products currently in clinical development or recently commercialized. We acquire such rights from various entities and record the amount paid for these rights as long-term royalty receivables. We have accounted for the purchased rights as a financial asset in accordance with ASC 310 (see Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements).

Receivables

We account for milestone and royalty rights related to developmental pipeline or recently commercialized products on a non-accrual basis using the cost recovery method. Except for VABYSMO and IXINITY, our other developmental pipeline products are non-commercialized, non-approved products that require FDA or other regulatory approval, and thus have uncertain cash flows. VABYSMO received FDA approval in January 2022, was approved by Japan’s Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare in March 2022, and was approved by the EU’s EC in September 2022. In October 2023, the FDA approved VABYSMO for the treatment of retinal vein occlusion. As of December 31, 2023, these recently commercialized products have not yet established a reliable sales pattern under the respective royalty term. The carrying balances of receivables for VABYSMO and IXINITY are classified as current receivables based on whether payments to be received in the near term are presumed to become probable and reasonably estimable. Under the cost recovery method, any milestone, royalty, or other payment received is recorded as a direct reduction of the recorded receivable balance. When the recorded receivable balance has been fully collected, any additional amounts collected will be recognized as revenue.

Contingent Payments

We may be obligated to make contingent payments related to certain product development milestones, fees upon exercise of options related to future licensed products and sales-based milestones. The contingent payments are evaluated to determine if they are freestanding instruments or embedded derivatives. If the contingent payments fall within the scope of ASC 815, the contingent payments are measured at fair value at the inception of the arrangement, and subject to remeasurement to fair value during each reporting period. Any changes in the estimated fair value are recorded in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. Contingent consideration payments that do not fall within the scope of ASC 815 are recognized when the amount is probable and estimable according to ASC 450.

Allowance for Current Expected Credit Losses

We review our allowance for current expected credit losses for impairment on a quarterly basis based on updates from our partners, press releases and public information on clinical trials. If we determine an impairment is necessary, the impairment recorded will be based on an estimate of discounted future cash flows, which will rely on assumptions including probability of technical success and discount rate. Changes to these assumptions could have a material impact on our financial statements. In June 2023, Bioasis announced the suspension of all its operations and the termination of the research collaboration and license agreement between Bioasis and Chiesi and, as a result, we recorded an impairment charge of $1.6 million (see Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements).

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Intangible Assets

Our intangible assets consist of IP acquired in the ObsEva IP Acquisition Agreement in 2022. We review our intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability is measured by comparison of the carrying amount of an asset group to the future net undiscounted cash flows that the assets are expected to generate. If the carrying amount of an asset group exceeds its estimated future cash flows, an impairment charge is recognized in the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset group exceeds the fair value of the asset group. In October 2023, Organon notified us of its intent to terminate the Organon License Agreement effective as of January 21, 2024, which we assumed pursuant to the ObsEva IP Acquisition Agreement. As such, in the fourth quarter of 2023 we recorded an impairment charge of $14.2 million (see Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements).

Stock-Based Compensation

Stock-based compensation expense for stock options and other stock awards is estimated at the grant date based on the award’s fair value-based measurement. The valuation of stock-based compensation awards is determined on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes Model. This model requires highly complex and subjective inputs, such as the expected term of the option and expected volatility. These inputs are subjective and generally require significant analysis and judgment to develop. Our current estimate of volatility is based on the historical volatility of our stock price. To the extent volatility in our stock price increases in the future, our estimates of the fair value of options granted in the future could increase, thereby increasing stock-based compensation expense recognized in future periods. To establish an estimate of expected term, we consider the vesting period and contractual period of the award and our historical experience of stock option exercises, post-vesting cancellations and volatility. The risk-free rate is based on the yield available on U.S. Treasury zero-coupon issues. Forfeitures are recognized as they occur.

The grant date fair values of PSUs with market conditions are determined using the Monte Carlo valuation model. This model requires highly complex and subjective inputs, such as probability estimates. We record compensation expense for PSUs based on graded expense attribution over the requisite service periods.

We review our valuation assumptions quarterly and update our valuation assumptions used to value stock-based awards granted in future periods utilizing then-current data. In future periods, as additional empirical evidence regarding input estimates becomes available, we may change or refine our approach of deriving these input estimates. These changes could impact our fair value-based measurement of stock options granted in the future. Changes in the fair value-based measurement of stock awards could materially impact our operating results.

Results of Operations

Revenues

Total revenues for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, were as follows (in thousands):

Year Ended

December 31, 

2023

    

2022

    

Change

Revenue from contracts with customers

$

2,650

$

4,150

$

(1,500)

Revenue recognized under units-of-revenue method

 

2,108

 

1,877

231

Total revenues

$

4,758

$

6,027

$

(1,269)

Revenue from Contracts with Customers

Revenue from contracts with customers includes upfront fees, annual license fees and milestone payments related to the out-licensing of our legacy product candidates and technologies. Revenue from contracts with customers for the year ended December 31, 2023 primarily included milestone payments of $1.5 million and $1.0 million pursuant to the license agreements with Janssen and an undisclosed licensee, respectively. Revenue from contracts with customers for the

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year ended December 31, 2022 primarily included milestone payments of $2.0 million pursuant to our Rezolute License Agreement, $0.8 million pursuant to the Takeda Collaboration Agreement, $0.8 million pursuant to our license agreement with an undisclosed licensee  and $0.5 million pursuant to our Sonnet Collaboration Agreement.

Revenue Recognized under Units-of-Revenue Method

Revenue recognized under the units-of-revenue method includes the amortization of unearned revenue from the sale of royalty interests to HCRP in 2016. The increase for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared with the year ended December 31, 2022 was due to increased sales of products underlying the agreements with HCRP.

R&D Expenses

R&D expense was $0.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, which was consistent with $0.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. We expect our R&D expenses to increase in 2024 related to our acquisition of Kinnate.

G&A Expenses

G&A expenses include salaries and related personnel costs, professional fees, and facilities costs. For the year ended December 31, 2023, G&A expenses were $25.6 million compared with $23.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2022. The increase of $2.4 million was primarily due to a $5.5 million increase in stock-based compensation, partially offset by a $2.1 million decrease in consulting and legal expenses and a $0.9 million decrease in salaries and related expenses. We expect G&A expenses to increase in 2024 due to the appointment of Mr. Hughes as our full-time Chief Executive Officer in January 2024.  We expect G&A expenses to further increase due to an anticipated increase in activity related to our evaluation of potential royalty acquisitions.

Impairment Charges

Impairment charges of $15.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 consisted of the impairment recorded related to our Bioasis RPAs of $1.6 million in the second quarter of 2023 and the impairment of our ObsEva intangible asset of $14.2 million in the fourth quarter of 2023.

Arbitration Settlement Costs

Arbitration settlement costs of $4.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2023 consisted of the costs incurred related to the settlement of an arbitration proceeding with one of our licensees in the first quarter of 2023.

Other Income (Expense)

Interest Expense

The accretion of debt discount and debt issuance costs is included in interest expense. Interest expense is shown below for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 (in thousands):

Year Ended

December 31, 

    

2023

    

2022

    

Change

Accrued interest expense

$

535

$

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