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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_______________________________________________________
Form 10-K
_______________________________________________________
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number: 001-32172
_______________________________________________________
XPO 2022 Q3 10-Q (Cover - NEW v2)DM.jpg
XPO, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
_______________________________________________________
Delaware03-0450326
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
Five American Lane
Greenwich,CT06831
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code (855) 976-6951
_______________________________________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, par value $0.001 per shareXPONew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
_______________________________________________________
(Title of class)
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  No 



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes  No 
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $6.7 billion as of June 30, 2023, based upon the closing price of the common stock on that date.
As of February 1, 2024, there were 116,112,873 shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Specified portions of the registrant’s proxy statement, which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A in connection with the registrant’s 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders (the “Proxy Statement”), are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “Annual Report”). Except with respect to information specifically incorporated by reference in this Annual Report, the Proxy Statement is not deemed to be filed as part hereof.




XPO, INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2023
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART IPage No.
Item 1
Item 1A
Item 1B
Item 1C
Item 2
Item 3
Item 4
PART II
Item 5
Item 6
Item 7
Item 7A
Item 8
Item 9
Item 9A
Item 9B
Item 9C
PART III
Item 10
Item 11
Item 12
Item 13
Item 14
PART IV
Item 15
Item 16
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PART I
In this Annual Report, "we," "our," "us," "XPO, Inc.," “XPO,” and "the Company" refer to XPO, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, unless the context requires otherwise.
Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report and other written reports and oral statements we make from time to time contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). All statements other than statements of historical fact are, or may be deemed to be, forward-looking statements. In some cases, forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of forward-looking terms such as “anticipate,” “estimate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “should,” “will,” “expect,” “objective,” “projection,” “forecast,” “goal,” “guidance,” “outlook,” “effort,” “target,” “trajectory” or the negative of these terms or other comparable terms. However, the absence of these words does not mean that the statements are not forward-looking. These forward-looking statements are based on certain assumptions and analyses made by the Company in light of its experience and its perception of historical trends, current conditions and expected future developments, as well as other factors it believes are appropriate in the circumstances. These forward-looking statements are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions that may cause actual future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from our expected future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Factors that might cause or contribute to a material difference include those discussed below and the risks discussed in the Company’s other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). All forward-looking statements set forth in this Annual Report are qualified by these cautionary statements, and there can be no assurance that the actual results or developments anticipated by the Company will be realized or, even if substantially realized, that they will have the expected consequence to or effects on the Company or its business or operations. The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report. Forward-looking statements set forth in this Annual Report speak only as of the date hereof, and we do not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect subsequent events or circumstances, changes in expectations or the occurrence of unanticipated events, except to the extent required by law.
ITEM 1.    BUSINESS
Company Overview
XPO, Inc., together with its subsidiaries, is a leading provider of freight transportation services, with company-specific avenues for value creation. We use our proprietary technology to move goods efficiently through our customers’ supply chains in North America and Europe. As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 38,000 employees and 596 locations in 17 countries serving approximately 52,000 customers.
Our company has two reportable segments: North American Less-Than-Truckload (“LTL”), the largest component of our business, and European Transportation.
North American LTL Segment
LTL in North America is a bedrock industry providing a critical service to the economy, with favorable pricing dynamics and an established competitive landscape. XPO is one of the largest LTL networks in North America, with approximately 8% share of the U.S. market, estimated to be $59 billion in 2022.
We provide approximately 31,000 shippers in North America with critical geographic density and day-definite domestic and cross-border services to approximately 99% of U.S. zip codes, as well as Mexico, Canada and the Caribbean. Our capacity and reach give us the ability to manage large freight volumes efficiently and balance our network to leverage fixed costs. For the full year 2023, our customer-focused organization of truck drivers, service center teams and sales professionals worked together to move approximately 18 billion pounds of freight through our network to its destinations.
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Importantly, our LTL business historically has generated a high return on invested capital and robust free cash flow. This supports our ongoing investments in our people, network capacity and proprietary technology. We manage the business to specific objectives, such as high customer service scores for on-time delivery and damage-free freight, the optimal sourcing of linehaul transportation, and the expansion of our service center footprint in strategic markets with long-term demand. Since implementing our LTL 2.0 growth plan in the fourth quarter of 2021, we have added 551 net new doors to our network through organic expansion. In December 2023, we completed the acquisition of 28 service centers previously operated by Yellow Corporation (the “Yellow Asset Acquisition”), representing approximately 2,900 doors.
Additionally, in 2023, we continued to advance a host of initiatives that are specific to XPO and largely independent of the macroeconomic environment. We produced over 6,400 trailers at our in-house trailer manufacturing facility, surpassing our goal of more than 6,000 trailers, and continued to invest in training drivers at our 130 commercial driver schools. Our in-house trailer manufacturing and driver schools are examples of self-reliant capabilities that are competitively advantageous to us, particularly when industry conditions make it difficult to source equipment or drivers.
Specific to our technology, we believe that we have a large opportunity to drive further growth and profitability in our LTL network through innovation. For more information, see “Proprietary Technology and Intellectual Property” below.
European Transportation Segment
XPO has a unique pan-European transportation platform with leading positions in key geographies: We are the #1 full truckload broker and the #1 pallet network (LTL) provider in France; the #1 full truckload broker and the #1 LTL provider in Iberia (Spain and Portugal); and a top-tier dedicated truckload provider in the U.K., where we also have the largest single-owner LTL network. We serve an extensive base of customers within the consumer, trade and industrial markets, including many sector leaders that have long-tenured relationships with us.
Our range of freight services in Europe encompasses dedicated truckload, LTL, truck brokerage, managed transportation, last mile, freight forwarding and, increasingly, multimodal solutions, such as road-rail and road-short sea combinations that we tailor to customer needs. Our operators use our proprietary technology to manage these services within our digital ecosystem in Europe.
Strategic Developments
2023 was the first full year that XPO operated solely as an asset-based LTL service provider in North America, following the completion of three key parts of our strategic plan, as previously announced: the spin-offs of RXO, Inc. and GXO Logistics, Inc. in November 2022 and August 2021, respectively; and the sale of our North American intermodal operation in March 2022.
On December 20, 2023, we acquired 28 LTL service centers in the U.S. previously operated by Yellow Corporation. Under the transaction, we purchased 26 of the service centers and assumed existing leases for the other two locations. This is a strategic acquisition of assets that aligns with our commitment to invest in expanding our LTL network capacity.
Our Board of Directors has previously authorized the divestiture of our European business. There can be no assurance that the divestiture will occur, or of the terms or timing of a transaction.
Proprietary Technology and Intellectual Property
One of the ways in which we deliver superior service to our customers is by empowering our employees with technology. Our industry is evolving, and customers want to de-risk their supply chains by forming relationships with reliable service providers that have invested in innovation.
We have built a highly scalable ecosystem on the cloud that deploys our software consistently across our operating footprint. In our North American LTL business, the caliber of our technology is mission-critical to our success; it optimizes linehaul, pickup-and-delivery and pricing — the main components of the service we provide. An LTL
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network of our scale has hundreds of thousands of activities underway at any given time, all managed on our technology. In 2023, we moved approximately 18 billion pounds of freight 803 million miles, including moving linehaul freight an average of 2.6 million miles a day.
With intelligent route-building, we can reduce empty miles in our linehaul network, improve load factor and mitigate cargo damage. Our proprietary bypass models make recommendations to enhance trailer utilization, assimilating massive amounts of data and taking volume, density, and freight dimensions into account. We use our real-time visualization tools to reduce costs with pickups and deliveries and developed a robust pricing platform for contractual account management and automated, dynamic pricing for local accounts.
XPO Smart® is our proprietary suite of intelligent tools and analytics that self-adjusts site by site to drive productivity across our LTL service center operations. Our software incorporates dynamic data science, predictive analytics and machine learning to aid our managers in workflow decision-making. We use XPO Smart® to improve our labor in a safe, disciplined and cost-effective manner.
XPO Connect® is our fully automated, cloud-based digital platform for transportation procurement used by our European operations — it encompasses our Freight Optimizer system, shipper interface, pricing engine, carrier interface and our Drive XPO® mobile app for carriers. When our customers in Europe have freight to move, XPO Connect® tracks the freight movement from end-to-end with the optimal transportation provider, giving us a key lever to earn customer loyalty and share.
The “XPO” trademark, service mark, and trade name are essential to our business and critical to our success. XPO, XPO Smart, XPO Connect, and Your Freight First, among others, are trademarks and service marks for which registrations, or applications for registration, are on file, as applicable with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. We believe these trademarks, service marks, and trade names are important components of our marketing strategy, and seek to protect those proprietary marks and trade names relevant to our business. For some marks, we have also registered or are pursuing registration in certain other countries.
Environmental Information
Our innovation strategy is focused on providing highly efficient supply chain services that use automation and data science to create value for our shareholders and customers. We use our proprietary technology to provide reliable freight transportation services and make the most of the resources within our company.
For many of our customers, the transportation needs of their business account for a significant portion of their CO2 footprint. Our technology can coordinate the movement of customer goods in ways that are greener, safer, more efficient and more cost-effective. Some of our key priorities in this regard are to optimize the utilization of truck and trailer capacity, invest in modern, fuel-efficient fleet, streamline local and linehaul freight flows and train our drivers in eco-friendly techniques.
Transportation Fleet
Our ongoing fleet initiatives companywide include modernizing our tractors and trailers; deploying cleaner fuels where practical, such as natural gas, biodiesel, biogas and electricity; expanding our use of data and analytics to improve the efficiency of routing, loading and handling freight; and exploring the commercial viability of alternative vehicles that have a lower environmental impact.
COVID-19 created supply chain challenges that temporarily disrupted the retirement of older LTL tractors industrywide. Now, new equipment is more readily available, and we will continue to invest in tractors with 15-liter engines and automatic transmissions that improve reliability and fuel economy, while lowering emissions and extending engine life. In 2024, we intend to purchase approximately 2,000 new LTL tractors for our North American LTL network.
In Europe, our diesel road fleet is over 97% compliant with Euro 6 standards, and we have a natural gas-powered fleet of more than 230 trucks serving customers in France, the U.K., Spain and Portugal. Additionally, we have environmentally-sound fleet initiatives ranging from government-approved mega-trucks in Spain, which can
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transport more freight with fewer trips, to fully electric vehicles for certain “last mile” home deliveries. We are also testing the use of duo-trailer vehicles that have the potential to reduce CO2 emissions, compared with using traditional trucks for the same freight.
Electric vehicles show promise in commercial transport applications as an alternative to diesel, particularly in urban areas. Our fleet experts are working with manufacturers of larger electric trucks, and we have completed two pilot programs to advance our understanding of the commercial viability of these vehicles. In the U.S., we have placed an order for six all-electric trucks to deploy in California, and we announced an agreement to purchase more than 100 all-electric trucks in France supported by the ongoing installation of more than 80 electric charging stations at our facilities.
Facilities
Our expertise in the circular economy helps us to continually improve the eco-profile of our facilities. We have ongoing initiatives underway to install LED lighting in our buildings, reuse pallets, right-size packaging and incorporate other environmentally friendly practices in our operations. We also reduce waste by recycling or reusing materials where feasible.
Our Strategy
XPO’s strategy is to help customers move goods efficiently through their supply chains by using our transportation capacity, organizational strengths and proprietary technology. We deliver value in the form of technological innovations, process efficiencies, cost efficiencies and reliable outcomes. Our services are both highly responsive to customer goals, such as mitigating environmental impacts over time, and proactive in identifying potential improvements. Most important, we have instilled a culture that defines success as mutually beneficial results for our company and our customers.
In late 2021, we launched our LTL 2.0 growth plan in North America to focus on four pillars of value creation: provide best-in-class customer service, invest in adding capacity and enhancing our network for the long term, accelerate yield growth, and drive cost efficiencies. We made considerable progress with these initiatives in 2022 and again in 2023, and we see significant potential for further improvements with all four pillars of our plan:
Provide best-in-class service. We are committed to building a premium service organization by aligning employee incentives and accountability with tangible quality-of-service results for our customers. In 2023, we improved our damage claims ratio to 0.3% in the fourth quarter, from 1.2% at the launch of LTL 2.0, and we improved our full year on-time performance by 8% year-over-year. We support our team with ongoing investments in employee training programs, state-of-the-art equipment and technological enhancements to elevate service quality and productivity.
Invest in network capacity for the long-term. We are expanding our linehaul fleet with fuel-efficient tractors and in-house trailer manufacturing and adding new doors in capacity-constrained markets. Since the launch of LTL 2.0, we have added more than 11,000 trailers — including over 6,400 in 2023 — as well as more than 2,400 tractors and 551 net new doors through organic expansion. Our average tractor age at year-end 2023 was 5.0 years, compared with 5.9 years at year-end 2022. Together, these investments enable us to transport more freight while improving service and maintaining strong network fluidity. Excluding the Yellow Asset Acquisition, more than two-thirds of our capital expenditures in 2023 were deployed to increase the capacity of our fleet.
Accelerate yield growth. We are intently focused on customer service excellence as our most powerful lever to grow yield, which we measure as gross revenue per hundredweight, excluding fuel surcharges. Our service improvements and, to a lesser extent, the expansion of both our accessorial services and local customer base, accelerated yield growth throughout the year, driving full year growth of 4.9%, compared with 2022.
Drive cost efficiencies. We aim to improve cost efficiency by optimizing our purchased transportation, variable costs and overhead. In the fourth quarter of 2023, we lowered our cost for third-party purchased
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transportation by reducing the number of outsourced linehaul miles as a percentage of total linehaul miles to 19.6%, compared with 22.7% at the start of LTL 2.0, and by negotiating lower contract rates for the miles we outsourced. We expect that the investments we are making in expanding capacity will enhance our network fluidity and drive productivity gains, thereby accelerating cost efficiencies.
Customers and Markets
We provide services to approximately 52,000 customers ranging in size from small, entrepreneurial businesses to Fortune 500 companies. Our customers span every major industry, giving us a presence in verticals that are bedrocks of the economy, such as industrial and manufacturing, retail and e-commerce, food and beverage, and consumer goods. Our revenue is derived primarily from the United States and Europe — in 2023, we generated approximately 59% of our revenue in the U.S., 17% in France, 12% in the U.K. and 11% in the rest of Europe.
The diversification of our customer base minimizes concentration risk. Globally, the combined revenue from our top five customers in 2023 accounted for approximately 7% of revenue, with our largest customer accounting for less than 2% of revenue. In North American LTL, the combined revenue from our top five customers accounted for approximately 8% of segment revenue in 2023, with our largest customer accounting for less than 3% of revenue.
Competition
We operate in highly competitive marketplaces where customers can choose from among many different transportation providers with distinct value propositions. We compete on quality and reliability of service, scope and scale of operations, technological capabilities, expertise and price.
Our competitors in North America include local, regional and national LTL carriers that offer the same services we provide, such as Old Dominion Freight Line and Saia. Our competitors in Europe vary based on the types of services provided; for example, LTL transportation versus dedicated or brokered full truckload transportation or multimodal solutions. Due to the competitive nature of our marketplaces, we strive daily to strengthen existing business relationships and forge new relationships.
In 2023, the market environment was significantly hampered by the ongoing freight recession, which continues to impact industry volumes. In the third quarter of 2023, Yellow Corporation, a national LTL provider in North America, ceased operations and filed for bankruptcy. This exit of a major competitor temporarily disrupted supply and demand in the industry and diverted more freight to other large LTL carriers, including XPO.
We believe that we have positioned XPO to benefit from secular trends in the retail and industrial economies, such as the shipper trend toward outsourcing freight transportation in all parts of the cycle, and the trend in some sectors toward more frequent shipments of freight volumes that are smaller than a full truckload, and that our ongoing expansion of capacity will facilitate the onboarding of significantly more freight when market conditions improve. Our ability to continually invest in the business is a compelling competitive strength of XPO, because we can increasingly provide our customers with the reliable capacity, technological solutions and problem-solving expertise they value.
Regulation
Our operations are regulated and licensed by various governmental agencies in the U.S. and in other countries where we conduct business. These regulations impact us directly and also indirectly when they regulate third-party transportation providers we arrange and/or contract with to transport freight for our customers.
Regulations Affecting Motor Carriers and Transportation Brokers. In the U.S., our subsidiaries that operate as motor carriers and freight transportation brokers are licensed by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (“FMCSA”) of the U.S. Department of Transportation (“DOT”). Our motor carrier subsidiaries and the third-party motor carriers we contract with in the U.S. must comply with the safety and fitness regulations of the DOT, including those related to, without limitation, controlled substances and alcohol, hours-of-service compliance, vehicle maintenance, hazardous materials compliance, driver fitness, unsafe driving, and minimum insurance requirements, as well as the Compliance Safety Accountability (“CSA”) program, which uses a Safety Measurement
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System (“SMS”) to rank motor carriers on seven categories of safety-related data, known as Behavioral Analysis and Safety Improvement Categories (“BASICs”).
Other federal and state agencies, such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”), the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (“DHS”) and the California Air Resources Board (“CARB”), also regulate our equipment, operations, and cargo. In 2021, CARB adopted more stringent standards to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions from heavy-duty trucks and also adopted regulations to accelerate large-scale transition in California to zero-emission medium and heavy-duty trucks, including trucks of a type used in our operations in California. While CARB’s Advanced Clean Truck regulation and proposed Advanced Clean Fleets regulation may permit companies to seek exemptions or relief, there are no assurances that relief from either regulation will be obtained and there are virtually no zero-emissions vehicles currently widely available that are suitable replacements for current technology used in less-than-truckload operations. We are also subject to a variety of vehicle registration and licensing requirements in certain states and local jurisdictions where we operate, as are the third-party transportation providers with which we contract. In foreign jurisdictions where we operate, our operations are regulated by the appropriate governmental authorities. We may become subject to new or more restrictive regulations relating to emissions, drivers’ hours-of-service, onboard reporting of operations, cargo security and other matters affecting safety or operating methods. Regulatory requirements, and changes to the regulatory environment, may affect our business or the economics of the transportation industry by requiring changes in operating practices that could impact the demand for, and increase the costs of providing, transportation services.
Environmental Regulations. We are subject to various environmental laws and regulations in the jurisdictions where we operate. In the U.S., these laws and regulations deal with the hauling, handling and disposal of hazardous materials, emissions from vehicles, engine-idling, storage tanks (fuel, oil, antifreeze and other products) and related fuel spillage and seepage, discharge and retention of storm water, and other environmental matters. We may be responsible for the cleanup of any spill or other incident involving hazardous materials caused by our business. In the past, we have been responsible for the cost to clean up diesel fuel spills caused by traffic accidents or other events, and none of these incidents materially affected our business or operations. We generally transport only hazardous materials rated as low-to-medium-risk, and only a small percentage of our total loads contain hazardous materials. We do not know of any existing environmental law, regulation or condition that reasonably would be expected to have a material adverse effect on our business, capital expenditures, or operating results. However, future changes to environmental laws or regulations may impact our operations and could result in increased costs.
Other Regulations. We are subject to a variety of other U.S. and foreign laws and regulations, including, but not limited to, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and other anti-bribery and anti-corruption statutes, and trade compliance laws. We are also subject to state and U.S. federal laws and regulations addressing some types of cargo transported or stored by our subsidiaries, or transported pursuant to a government contract or subcontract. Violations or noncompliance could result in significant fines from governmental authorities and negatively impact our reputation, operations and financial condition.
Risk Management and Insurance
We maintain insurance for commercial automobile and trucker’s liability, commercial general liability, cargo legal liability, workers’ compensation and employers’ liability, umbrella and excess liability, cyber risk, and property coverage with coverage limits, deductibles and self-insured retention levels that we believe are reasonable given the varying historical frequency, severity and timing of claims.
Seasonality
Our revenue and profitability in the first and fourth quarters of the calendar year are typically lower than in the second and third quarters. The productivity of our transportation fleet historically decreases during the winter season, as it does for the industry in general, because inclement weather impedes operations. Additionally, we believe that many of our customers historically ship less freight in the first quarter, due in part to lower post-holiday demand for their products. It is not possible to reliably predict whether our historical revenue and profitability trends will continue to occur in future periods.
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Human Capital Management
As a people-driven company with a strong customer service culture, our ability to be an employer of choice and a business partner of choice are intertwined. We have an unwavering commitment to a workplace culture that places a premium on safety, as well as professional growth, engagement and competitive total compensation and benefits for our employees. These and many other aspects of our culture help us attract and retain a high caliber of talent to our organization.
Our Chief Human Resources Officer (“CHRO”) has primary responsibility for our human capital management strategy, including recruiting, developing, engaging and retaining employees who share our work ethic and values. The CHRO is also responsible for the design of employee compensation and benefits programs.
In addition to our employment culture, our success relies on our company’s robust governance structure, our Code of Business Ethics and the importance we place on being a good corporate citizen. Ultimately, our decisions and actions are guided by XPO’s values — overachieve for customers, be safe, be accountable, always improve, respect each other and be world-class in every way.
Employee Base Profile
Based on December 31, 2023 data, XPO has locations in 17 countries, with approximately 23,300 employees in North America, 14,300 employees in Europe and 400 employees in Asia, supplemented by approximately 2,900 temporary workers.
By geography, approximately 61% of our global employees are based in North America, 38% in Europe and 1% in Asia. By job description, approximately 65% of our employees work as drivers and dockworkers, 23% as operations and facility workers, and the remainder in support roles and other positions. In North America, approximately 85% of our employees have hourly roles and 15% have salaried positions.
By gender, approximately 14% of our global employees are women — this increases to 37% when excluding drivers, dockworkers and technicians. In North America, 52% of our professional management positions are held by women, representing an increase of 2.9% from 2022.
We are continuing to make steady progress on being an employer of choice for employees of all races and backgrounds. In 2023, 56% of our newly hired U.S. employees self-identified as ethnically or racially diverse, representing a 1.4% increase from 2022, and approximately 43% of our total U.S. employee population was ethnically or racially diverse. This includes 20% of U.S. employees who self-identified as Black or African American, which is eight percentage points higher than the U.S. population, based on the most recent census data.
Additionally, we continued to expand our pipeline of women and ethnically or racially diverse employees at the middle and senior management levels (manager or supervisor and above). In our total workforce, the absolute number of females in managerial positions grew by 20% cumulatively from 2021 to 2023; the absolute number of ethnically or racially diverse employees in managerial positions grew by 20% cumulatively in the same period. Ethnically or racially diverse employees earned 34% of managerial promotions in 2023, up significantly from 9% in 2022, and held 17% of executive leadership positions (vice president and above), 28% of professional management roles and 31% of operational management roles.
XPO is committed to being transparent about the composition of our workforce. We have publicly disclosed our 2023 EEO-1 report on our website, and expect to publish our 2024 EEO-1 report in the second quarter of this year.
As of December 31, 2023, none of our employees were represented by a union in the U.S. and 85% of our employees in Europe were covered by a collective bargaining or similar agreement, consistent with our December 31, 2022 position.
Throughout 2023, we continued to make substantial investments in direct employee communications, conducting both quarterly and annual engagement surveys and holding approximately 8,000 roundtable discussions and safety and engagement committee meetings across our North American LTL network. The employee feedback we receive is often instrumental in driving new initiatives that strengthen our culture of respect, appreciation and opportunity.
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Health and Safety
The physical and emotional safety of our employees is paramount, and we have numerous protocols in place to ensure a safe work environment. We developed our Road to Zero program to decrease occupational injuries and illnesses through education, mentoring, communication and on-the-job training that instills awareness and reduces risk. These same priorities are emphasized when we train new commercial driver candidates at our inhouse, LTL driver training schools nationwide, where veteran XPO driver-instructors reinforce our safety culture.
As part of Road to Zero, we track accident-free miles and recognize XPO drivers who have achieved million-mile safety milestones. As of December 31, 2023, more than 2,475 of our LTL drivers have achieved a safety designation of at least one million accident-free miles, with 194 of these drivers meeting this threshold in 2023. In 2022, we announced a landmark achievement by a driver on our team — our first driver to reach four million accident-free miles, which is the highest driver safety record in XPO’s history.
In addition to physical well-being, we consider emotional well-being to be an important part of workplace safety. Our Code of Business Ethics mandates zero tolerance of discrimination, harassment, retaliation, bullying and other unacceptable behaviors. We want our employees to feel welcome at work, and we give them multiple channels to report any incidents. This includes an open-door policy that encourages employees to speak with any supervisor, manager or member of the HR team, and our EthicsPoint hotline and website for reporting incidents anonymously.
We are diligent about evaluating new programs as they become available to support the physical and mental health of our employees. In our open enrollment period for 2024 benefit plans, we introduced new options for virtual physical therapy and “physicals on the go,” and enhanced our employee assistance programs specifically for mental health.
Employee Engagement and Development
XPO executive leadership regularly solicits feedback from employees to gauge our progress, assess satisfaction and encourage constructive suggestions. Each quarter, we ask our “wired” employees to submit their input through an anonymous online satisfaction survey. In the U.S., we also conduct an annual satisfaction survey of our “non-wired” frontline employees, and hold regular roundtables and town halls. Based on employee feedback, we develop action plans at the business unit and facility levels to implement targeted improvements.
In 2023, our annual engagement survey yielded a participation rate of over 80%, and employee satisfaction scores rose to their highest historical levels. XPO was named a 2023 “Top Company for Women to Work for in Transportation” by the Women in Trucking Association, a 2024 “Top 25 Veteran Employer” by military.com, and one of “America’s Best Large Employers” by Forbes for the third time.
Additionally, we foster career development at all levels to recruit and retain high-caliber employees. Our career development infrastructure includes these nine areas of focus, among others:
Recruitment. We tailor our recruitment efforts by geography and job function using an array of channels and recruiting partnerships. This enables us to reach a diversity of candidates with tailored messaging. For example, we advertise open positions on recruitment websites designed to reach women, the LGBTQ+ community, Blacks and African Americans, Hispanics, military veterans and individuals with disabilities. Our goal is to identify candidates who have the skills our customers need, or the desire to learn those skills. In 2023, we partnered with Partnership for Your Success to attract military veterans, and worked with Women in Trucking to engage more women in transportation industry careers.
Interactive Hiring. Our integrated approach to talent development begins with our robust digital recruitment platform, which includes online job previews and pre-employment assessments for key positions. Our platform provides an efficient way for candidates to learn about XPO at their convenience and explore positions that match their interests and abilities. This is a more stress-free entry into the recruitment process for job candidates, and improves both the onboarding experience and retention rates for new hires.
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Grow at XPO. Data from our new hire survey indicates that the majority of hourly employees join XPO for professional growth and learning opportunities. The Grow at XPO program is structured to cultivate continuous learning for our hourly population — it includes development tracks that teach, for example, computer skills, safety knowledge, people skills, work-life integration and commercial driving fundamentals. Employees are paid while completing the courses and are supported by on-site management and our field HR team. As of December 31, 2023, 93% of employees who completed the Grow at XPO program have been retained.
XPO Accelerate. Launched in September 2022, XPO Accelerate prepares high-potential service center, sales and support staff leaders to be “ready now” successors for director-level roles. This program helps retain and promote promising leadership talent by building relevant strategic skills.
XPO Field Management Training. XPO maintains a strong “ready now” pipeline of future leaders for our operations through a comprehensive, 14-week, blended learning approach. Our Field Management Training program graduated over 60 supervisors in 2023, of which more than two-thirds were ethnically or racially diverse, or female.
Frontline Leadership Training. XPO’s Freight Leadership Certification is part of a robust onboarding process for newly hired frontline leaders. The program equips employees with fundamental skills to succeed in our operations, and offers weekly live, instructor-led training sessions to reinforce those skills. Freight operations supervisors who complete all sessions and achieve certification have an 83% retention rate.
LTL Driver Training Schools. XPO’s commercial truck driver training schools are an essential channel for recruiting new drivers to XPO, as well as providing new careers for employees currently in other roles, such as dockworkers. Trainees attend our driver school tuition-free, receive pay while training and have an opportunity for full-time employment with XPO after earning a CDL-A license. We also offer employees tuition reimbursement of up to $5,000 for any approved non-XPO driver training school. In 2023, we graduated nearly 800 students from our LTL driver training locations.
Maintenance Training. Well-maintained tractors and trailers are an essential component of both safety and customer service in LTL transportation. Our in-house maintenance training school enhances technical skills for new hires and provides continuous learning for our field maintenance personnel to stay abreast of maintenance developments and warranty recovery requirements.
XPO University. Our learning and development platform, XPO University, delivers approximately 25,000 online and in-person learning and assessment programs in areas such as onboarding, management training and professional skills development. XPO University supports approximately 38,000 employees in North America and Europe, and tracks their progress. In 2023, more than a million training hours were completed by our employees worldwide.
Expansive Total Rewards
Our total compensation package is instrumental in providing a superior employment experience, and conveys how much we appreciate each employee’s choice of XPO. The pillars of the expansive total rewards we offer are:
Competitive Wages and Jobs Creation. In addition to our annual merit and hourly pay increases that broadly cover our employee population in North America, approximately 1,000 eligible LTL employees at over 35 locations received additional wage increases throughout 2023. Further, across our North American and European operations, our ongoing investments in growth expanded our total permanent workforce by 1.4% year-over-year with a net 401 new permanent employees.
Comprehensive Benefits. We offer an extensive suite of benefits to support the health and well-being of our employees and their families, often reflecting responsiveness to employee feedback. In the U.S., examples include:
Pregnancy Care Policy: Guarantees up to 80 hours of paid prenatal leave and certain automatic accommodations, plus consideration of more significant accommodations while preserving existing wage rates.
Family Bonding Policy: Provides an additional six weeks of 100% paid time off for the primary caregiver of a newborn or newly adopted child, and two weeks of 100% paid time off for a secondary caregiver.
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Tuition Reimbursement: Provides for up to $5,250 of annual reimbursement for continuing education, academic discounts in more than 80 fields of online study and tuition-free commercial driver training.
Additional Benefits: Includes virtual preventive health care, pelvic health management, physical therapy services and diabetes management services at no cost to employees, as well as supplemental insurance, short-term loans and a personalized Total Rewards Statement.
In Europe, XPO’s benefit programs vary by country and are tailored to the needs of local markets. Examples include comprehensive health and risk insurances, employee assistance programs covering mental, physical and financial well-being, commercial driver training, vocational coaching and training, and a fully flexible benefits program in the U.K.
Community Outreach
XPO continues to support organizations that reflect the interests of our employees and the communities where we operate. In 2023, our company served as official transportation partner for the Susan G. Komen 3-Day Walks to end breast cancer, and partnered with Truckers Against Trafficking to educate our employees about human trafficking. We supported homeless shelters by donating more than 60,000 pairs of socks, and participated in the Pat Tillman Run. Local teams from our North American LTL service centers helped Scouts complete their Trucking Merit Badge in Oregon, assisted Habitat for Humanity with a build in Wisconsin, and cleaned up trash in an Illinois community, as a few examples. On the safety front, our employees take pride in XPO being the official transport partner for the Tour de France competition for 43 years.
Information about our Executive Officers
The following information relates to each of our executive officers:
NameAgePosition
Brad Jacobs67Executive Chairman of the Board
Mario Harik43Chief Executive Officer
Kyle Wismans40Chief Financial Officer
David Bates58Chief Operating Officer
Wendy Cassity48Chief Legal Officer and Corporate Secretary
Brad Jacobs has served as XPO’s executive chairman since November 2022, and served as the Company’s chairman and chief executive officer from September 2011 through October 2022. Mr. Jacobs led the spin-offs of GXO Logistics, Inc. and RXO, Inc. from XPO as separate public companies and has served as non-executive chairman of GXO and RXO from August 2021 and November 2022, respectively. Additionally, he is the managing member of Jacobs Private Equity, LLC. Prior to XPO, Mr. Jacobs led two other public companies: United Rentals, Inc., which he founded in 1997, and United Waste Systems, Inc., which he founded in 1989. He served as chairman of United Rentals from 1997 to 2007, and as chief executive officer from 1997 to 2003. He served as chairman and chief executive officer of United Waste Systems from 1989 to 1997.
Mario Harik has served as XPO’s chief executive officer since November 2022, after previously leading the Company’s North American less-than-truckload segment as president from October 2021 to October 2022. Additionally, he served as XPO’s chief information officer from November 2011 to October 2022 and XPO’s chief customer officer from February 2021 to January 2022. Mr. Harik has led numerous technological developments for global transportation and logistics operations, built comprehensive technology organizations and consulted to Fortune 100 companies. His prior positions include chief information officer and senior vice president of research and development with Oakleaf Waste Management; chief technology officer with Tallan, Inc.; co-founder of G3 Analyst, where he served as chief architect of web and voice applications; and solutions architect and consultant with Adea Solutions. Mr. Harik holds a master’s degree in engineering – information technology from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and a degree in engineering – computer and communications from the American University of Beirut, Lebanon.
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Kyle Wismans has served as XPO’s chief financial officer since August 2023, after being promoted from our senior vice president of revenue management and finance, a position he held from February 2023 to August 2023. Additionally, he served as XPO’s senior vice president, financial planning and analysis from September 2019 to February 2023. Mr. Wismans has played a vital role in the implementation of our LTL growth strategy, as well as our spin-offs of GXO and RXO. He was previously an executive with General Electric Company for over a decade, including most recently as head of global financial planning and analysis for Baker Hughes Oilfield Services, a GE company, from August 2017 to August 2019. Mr. Wismans holds a degree in business administration from the University of Michigan, Stephen M. Ross School of Business.
David Bates joined XPO as chief operating officer in April 2023. He previously served as senior vice president – operations at Old Dominion Freight Line, Inc. from November 2011 to April 2023. From July 2007 to November 2011, Mr. Bates served as a regional vice president, and from December 1995 to July 2007 as a manager, at Old Dominion. Prior to joining Old Dominion, Mr. Bates served in supervisory roles with Carolina Freight Carriers and YRC Freight. Mr. Bates received his Bachelor's degree in Business Management from Junita College.
Wendy Cassity joined XPO in March 2023 as chief legal officer and corporate secretary. Prior to joining XPO, she was chief legal officer of Nuance Communications, Inc. from September 2018 to March 2023. Nuance was publicly traded until it was acquired in March 2022. Prior to joining Nuance, she was general counsel of Zayo Group, a publicly traded communications infrastructure company, from January 2016 to August 2018, and general counsel of Thompson Creek Metals Company, a publicly traded natural resources company, from 2010 to January 2016. Prior to joining Thompson Creek Metals Company, Ms. Cassity was in private practice as a corporate transactional attorney at McDermott Will & Emery, LLP and Cravath Swaine & Moore, LLP in their New York offices. Ms. Cassity holds a B.A. from the University of Arizona in English and History and received her J.D. from Columbia Law School.
Available Information
Our corporate website is www.xpo.com. On this website, you can access, free of charge, our Annual Report on Form 10–K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10–Q, and Current Reports on Form 8–K, as well as specialized disclosure reports on Form SD, Proxy Statements on Schedule 14A and amendments to those materials filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Materials are available online as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. You can also access materials on our website regarding our corporate governance policies and practices, including our Corporate Governance Guidelines, Code of Business Ethics and the charters relating to the committees of our Board of Directors. You may request a printed copy of these materials without charge by writing to: Investor Relations, XPO, Inc., Five American Lane, Greenwich, Connecticut 06831. Information filed electronically with, or furnished to, the SEC is also available at www.sec.gov. References to these websites do not constitute incorporation by reference of the information contained therein and should not be considered part of this document.
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ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS
The following are important factors that could affect our financial performance and could cause actual results for future periods to differ materially from our anticipated results or other expectations, including those expressed in any forward-looking statements made in this Annual Report or our other filings with the SEC or in oral presentations such as telephone conferences and webcasts open to the public. You should carefully consider the following factors in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Item 7 and our Consolidated Financial Statements and related Notes in Item 8.
COMPANY RISK
Risks related to Our Business Model
Economic recessions and other factors that reduce freight volumes, both in North America and Europe, could have a material adverse impact on our business.
The transportation industry in North America and Europe historically has experienced cyclical fluctuations in financial results due to economic recessions, downturns in the business cycles of our customers, increases in the prices charged by third-party carriers, interest rate fluctuations, changes in international trade policies and other U.S. and global economic factors beyond our control. Our business levels are directly tied to the purchase and production of goods and the rate of growth of global trade — key macroeconomic measurements influenced by, among other things, inflation and deflation, supply chain disruptions, interest rates and currency exchange rates, labor costs and unemployment levels, fuel and energy prices, pandemics and other public health crises, inventory levels, buying patterns and disposable income, debt levels, and credit availability. When individuals and companies purchase and produce fewer goods, we transport fewer goods, and as companies move manufacturing closer to consumer markets and expand the number of distribution centers, we transport goods shorter distances, which adversely affects our yields and profitability. During economic downturns, a reduction in overall demand for transportation services will likely reduce demand for our services and exert downward pressures on our rates and margins. In addition, in periods of strong economic growth, overall demand may exceed the available supply of transportation resources, resulting in increased network congestion and operating inefficiencies. Additional changes in international trade policies could significantly reduce the volume of goods transported globally and adversely affect our business and results of operations. These factors subject our business to various risks that may have a material impact on our operating results and future prospects. These risks may include the following:
A reduction in overall freight volume reduces our opportunities for growth. In addition, if a downturn in our customers’ business causes a reduction in the volume of freight shipped by those customers, our operating results could be adversely affected;
Some of our customers may experience financial distress, file for bankruptcy protection, go out of business, or suffer disruptions in their business and may be unable to pay us. In addition, some customers may not pay us as quickly as they have in the past, causing our working capital needs to increase;
A significant number of our transportation providers may go out of business and we may be unable to secure sufficient equipment capacity or services to meet our commitments to our customers;
A pandemic or other public health epidemic poses the risk that we or our employees, customers, suppliers, manufacturers and other commercial partners may be prevented from conducting business activities for an indefinite period of time, including due to the spread of the disease or shutdowns requested or mandated by governmental authorities;
We may not be able to appropriately adjust our expenses to rapid changes in market demand. In order to maintain high variability in our business model, it is necessary to adjust staffing levels when market demand changes. In periods of rapid change, it is more difficult to match our staffing levels to our business needs. In addition, we have other expenses that are primarily variable but are fixed for a period of time, as well as certain significant fixed expenses; we may be unable to adequately adjust these expenses to match a rapid change in demand;
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The U.S. government has made significant changes in U.S. trade policy and has taken certain actions that have negatively impacted U.S. trade, including imposing tariffs on certain goods imported into the U.S. To date, several governments, including the European Union (“EU”) have imposed tariffs on certain goods imported from the U.S. These actions may contribute to weakness in the global economy that could adversely affect our results of operations. Any further changes in U.S. or international trade policy could trigger additional retaliatory actions by affected countries, resulting in “trade wars” and further increased costs for goods transported globally, which may reduce customer demand for these products if the parties having to pay those tariffs increase their prices, or in trading partners limiting their trade with countries that impose anti-trade measures. Such conditions could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as on the price of our common stock; and
Governmental authorities have implemented and are continuing to implement various anti-terrorism measures, including checkpoints and travel restrictions on trucks. If such measures or new anti-terrorism measures disrupt or impede our operations, we may fail to timely deliver products to our customers or incur increased expenses to do so. Such measures could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, as well as on the price of our common stock.
Risks related to Our Strategy and Operations
Our company-specific action plan to enhance network efficiencies and drive growth in our North American LTL business, and other management actions to improve our North American LTL business, may not be effective or timely, and may not improve our results of operations or cash flow from operations as planned.
We have undertaken a company-specific action plan to enhance network operating efficiencies and drive growth in our North American LTL business, including by, among other actions, growing yield by providing best-in-class customer service and enhancing business mix, expanding our tractor fleet, increasing production capacity of our trailer manufacturing facility, investing in the door count in our network of service center facilities, and driving cost efficiencies through, among other actions, insourcing linehaul from third-party transportation providers and improving productivity. The effectiveness and timeliness of these actions, which are and will be costly, and other management actions to improve our North American LTL business, may not result in the expected improvements in our results of operations or cash flow from operations in our North American LTL business.
Our profitability may be materially adversely impacted if our investments in equipment and service centers do not match customer demand for these resources or if there is a decline in the availability of funding sources for these investments.
Our LTL and full truckload operations require significant investments in equipment and freight service centers. The amount and timing of our capital investments depend on various factors, including anticipated freight volume levels and the price and availability of appropriate property for service centers and newly manufactured tractors. If our anticipated requirements for service centers or fleet differ materially from actual usage, our capital-intensive operations, specifically LTL and full truckload, may have more or less capacity than is optimal.
Our investments in equipment and service centers depend on our ability to generate cash flow from operations and our access to credit, debt and equity capital markets. A decline in the availability of these funding sources could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Failure to successfully implement our cost and revenue initiatives could cause our future financial results to suffer.
We are implementing various cost and revenue initiatives to further increase our profitability, including advanced pricing analytics and revenue management tools, cross-selling to strategic accounts, LTL process improvements, workforce productivity, European margin expansion, global procurement and further back-office optimization. If we are not able to successfully implement these cost and revenue initiatives, our future financial results may suffer.
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Our past acquisitions, as well as any acquisitions that we may complete in the future, may be unsuccessful or result in other risks or developments that adversely affect our financial condition and results.
While we intend for our acquisitions to enhance our competitiveness and profitability, we cannot be certain that our past or future acquisitions will be accretive to earnings or otherwise meet our operational or strategic expectations. Special risks, including accounting, regulatory, compliance, information technology or human resources issues, may arise in connection with, or as a result of, an acquisition, including the assumption of unanticipated liabilities and contingencies, difficulties in integrating acquired assets or businesses, possible management distractions, or the inability of acquired assets or businesses to achieve the levels of revenue, profit, productivity or synergies we anticipate or otherwise perform as we expect on the timeline contemplated. We are unable to predict all of the risks that could arise as a result of our acquisitions.
In December 2023, we completed our acquisition of 28 service centers, including the assumption of certain leases, of Yellow Corporation (the “Yellow Service Centers”). The ultimate success of the acquisition of the Yellow Service Centers will depend on, among other things, the ability to integrate the Yellow Service Centers into our LTL network in a manner that supports our North American LTL business and facilitates growth opportunities. It is possible that the integration process could result in the loss of customers, the disruption of ongoing businesses, inconsistencies in standards, controls, procedures and policies, unexpected integration issues and delays, potential environmental liabilities and higher than expected integration costs.
We may not successfully manage our growth.
We have grown rapidly and substantially over prior years, including by expanding our internal resources, making acquisitions and entering into new markets, and we intend to continue to focus on growth, including organic growth through new customer wins and increased business with existing customers, as well as additional acquisitions. We may experience difficulties and higher-than-expected expenses in executing this strategy as a result of unfamiliarity with new markets, changes in revenue and business models, entry into new geographic areas and increased pressure on our existing infrastructure and information technology systems from multiple customer project implementations.
Our growth may place a significant strain on our management, operational, financial and information technology resources. We seek to continually improve existing procedures and controls, as well as implement new transaction processing, operational and financial systems, and procedures and controls to expand, train and manage our employee base. Our working capital needs may continue to increase as our operations grow. Failure to manage our growth effectively, or obtain necessary working capital, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
We may sell or otherwise divest our European business, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows, the market price of our common stock, and on our North American LTL business.
In potentially selling or otherwise divesting our European business, we may not realize the price we expect to receive when contemplating the divestment of the business, we may incur a loss in connection with a sale or other divestiture of the business, the market price of our common stock and the multiples at which our common stock trades may not increase following a sale or other divestiture of our European business, and/or we may incur ongoing transition obligations and costs that adversely impact our operations following a sale or other divestiture of our European business. We also would anticipate incurring material compensation, transactional and other expenses, in connection with entering into and/or completing a sale of our European business. Certain of these factors could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows, and the market price of our common stock.
A sale or other divestiture of our European business will result in us being a smaller, less diversified company with a more concentrated area of focus and less geographical diversification, as North American LTL would be our only remaining business. Following a potential sale or other divestiture of our European business, our Company likely would become more vulnerable to changing market conditions in the U.S., which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The diversification of our revenues, costs and cash flows will diminish as a result of a sale or other divestiture of our European business, and our ability to fund capital expenditures, investments and service our debt may be diminished. We may also incur ongoing costs and
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retain certain liabilities that were previously allocated to entities that are sold or otherwise divested. Those costs may exceed our estimates or could diminish the benefits we expect to realize.
Further, a sale or other divestiture of one or more of our business units may subject us to litigation. An unfavorable outcome of such litigation may result in a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, cash flows or results of operations. In addition, regardless of the outcome, litigation proceedings can be costly, time-consuming, disruptive to our operations, and distracting to management.
There can be no assurance that a sale or other divestiture of our European business will occur, or the terms or timing of a potential transaction.
If we determine that our goodwill has become impaired, we may incur impairment charges, which would negatively impact our operating results.
At December 31, 2023, we had $1.5 billion of goodwill on our consolidated balance sheet. Goodwill represents the excess of cost over the fair value of net assets acquired in business combinations. We assess potential impairment of our goodwill annually, or more frequently if an event or circumstance indicates an impairment loss may have been incurred. Impairment may result from significant changes in the manner or use of the acquired assets, in connection with the sale, spin off or other divestiture of a business unit, negative industry or economic trends and/or significant underperformance relative to historic or projected operating results. For a discussion of our goodwill impairment testing, see “Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates - Evaluation of Goodwill” in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
We have recently experienced changes in management and our future success will depend in part on our ability to manage these transitions successfully.
We have experienced recent changes in management, including our chief executive officer, chief financial officer, chief operating officer, and a number of our other executive and non-executive officers. Changes in management have the potential to disrupt our business, and any such disruption could adversely affect our operations, growth, financial condition and results of operations. Further, new members of management may have different perspectives on our operations and opportunities for our business, which may cause us to reduce or change the emphasis on the vision for our company.
Our success is dependent upon our ability to attract and retain qualified management in a highly competitive environment. Qualified individuals are in high demand, and we may incur significant costs to attract them, particularly at the executive level. We may face difficulty in attracting, retaining and compensating key talent for a number of reasons, including competitive market conditions and the need to align the vision of a new executive team with our Board of Directors’ vision for our company.
Replacing departing executives or directors can involve organizational disruption and uncertainty. If we fail to manage this transition successfully, we could experience significant delays or difficulty in the achievement of our strategic objectives and our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely harmed.
Issues related to the intellectual property rights on which our business depends, whether related to our failure to enforce our own rights or infringement claims brought by others, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We use both internally developed and purchased technologies in conducting our business. Whether internally developed or purchased, it is possible that users of these technologies could be claimed to infringe upon or violate the intellectual property rights of third parties. In the event that a claim is made against us by a third party for the infringement of intellectual property rights, a settlement or adverse judgment against us could result in increased costs to license the technology or a legal prohibition against our use of the technology. Thus, our failure to obtain, maintain or enforce our intellectual property rights could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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We rely on a combination of intellectual property rights, including patents, copyrights, trademarks, domain names, trade secrets, intellectual property licenses and other contractual rights, to protect our intellectual property and technology. Any of our owned or licensed intellectual property rights could be challenged, invalidated, circumvented, infringed or misappropriated; our trade secrets and other confidential information could be disclosed in an unauthorized manner to third parties; or we may fail to secure the rights to intellectual property developed by our employees, contractors and others. Efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights may be time-consuming and costly, distract management’s attention and divert our resources, and ultimately be unsuccessful. Moreover, should we fail to develop and properly manage future intellectual property, this could adversely affect our market positions and business opportunities.
Our overseas operations are subject to various operational and financial risks that could adversely affect our business.
The services we provide outside the U.S. are subject to risks resulting from changes in tariffs, trade restrictions, trade agreements, tax policies, difficulties in managing or overseeing foreign operations and external agents, different liability standards, issues related to compliance with data protection laws, competition laws, and intellectual property laws of countries that do not protect our rights relating to our intellectual property, including our proprietary information systems, to the same extent as do U.S. laws. The occurrence or consequences of any of these factors may restrict our ability to operate in the affected region or decrease the profitability of our operations in that region. In addition, as we expand our business in foreign countries, we will be exposed to increased risk of loss from foreign currency fluctuations and exchange controls.
We are exposed to currency exchange rate fluctuations because a significant proportion of our assets, liabilities and earnings are denominated in foreign currencies.
We present our financial statements in U.S. dollars, but we have a significant proportion of our net assets and income in non-U.S. dollar currencies, primarily the euro and British pound sterling. Consequently, a depreciation of non-U.S. dollar currencies relative to the U.S. dollar could have an adverse impact on our financial results as further discussed in Item 7A, “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk.”
Volatility in fuel prices impacts our fuel surcharge revenue and may impact our profitability.
We are subject to risks associated with the availability and price of fuel, all of which are subject to political, economic and market factors that are outside of our control.
Fuel expense constitutes one of the greatest costs to our LTL carrier operations, as well as to third-party linehaul and transportation providers. Accordingly, we may be adversely affected by the timing and degree of fuel price fluctuations. As is customary in our industry, most of our customer contracts include fuel surcharge programs or other cost-recovery mechanisms to mitigate the effect of any fuel price increases over base amounts established in the contract. However, these mechanisms may not fully capture an increase in fuel price. Furthermore, market pressures may limit our ability to assess fuel surcharges in the future. The extent to which we are able to recover increases in fuel costs may be impacted by the amount of empty or out-of-route truck miles or engine idling time.
Decreases in fuel prices reduce the cost of transportation services and accordingly, will reduce our revenues and may reduce margins for certain lines of business. Significant changes in the price or availability of fuel in future periods, or significant changes in our ability to mitigate fuel price increases through the use of fuel surcharges, could have a material adverse impact on our operations, fleet capacity and ability to generate both revenues and profits.
Productivity of our fleet historically decreases during the winter season and extreme or unusual weather conditions, whether due to climate change or otherwise, can disrupt our operations, impact freight volumes, and increase our costs, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business results.
Our business depends, in part, on predictable temperate weather patterns. Our productivity historically decreases during the winter season, as it does for the industry in general, because inclement weather impedes operations. Certain seasonal weather conditions and isolated weather events can disrupt our operations and further impact productivity. We frequently incur costs related to snow and ice removal, towing and other maintenance activities during winter months. At least some of our operations are constantly at risk of extreme adverse weather conditions.
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Any unusual or prolonged adverse weather patterns in our areas of operations or markets, whether due to climate change or otherwise, can temporarily impact freight volumes and increase our costs.
Also, concerns relating to climate change have led to a range of local, state, federal, and international regulatory and policy efforts to seek to address greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions. In the U.S., various approaches are being proposed or adopted at the federal, state, and local government levels. These efforts could lead to additional costs on the Company now or in the future, including increased fuel and other capital or operational costs, compliance costs, or additional legal requirements on the Company. In addition to the potential for additional GHG regulation or incentives, enhanced corporate, public, and stakeholder awareness of climate change could affect the Company's reputation or customer demand such as customers requesting more fuel-efficient transportation or increased transparency to carbon emissions in their supply chains. Climate change concerns and GHG regulatory efforts could also affect the Company's customers themselves. Any of these factors, individually or combined with one or more factors, or other unforeseen factors or other impacts of climate change, could affect the Company and have an effect on our business, operations, or financial condition.
Our reputation could be harmed if we fail to satisfy evolving stakeholder expectations regarding environmental, social and governance matters.
Companies across all industries are facing scrutiny from stakeholders related to ESG matters, including practices and disclosures related to environmental stewardship; social responsibility; diversity, equity and inclusion; and workplace rights. If we are unable to meet stakeholder expectations and industry standards, or if we are perceived to have not responded appropriately, our reputation could be negatively impacted. In addition, in recent years, investor advocacy groups and certain institutional investors have placed increasing importance on ESG matters. If, as a result of their assessment of our ESG practices, certain investors are unsatisfied with our actions, they may reconsider their investment in our company. As the nature, scope and complexity of ESG reporting, diligence and disclosure requirements expand, including the SEC’s recently proposed disclosure requirements regarding, among other matters, GHG emissions, we may have to undertake additional costs to control, assess and report on ESG metrics. Any failure or perceived failure, whether or not valid, to pursue or fulfill our ESG expectations or to satisfy various ESG reporting standards within the timelines we announce, or at all, could increase the risk of litigation.
Risks related to Our Use of Technology
Our business will be seriously harmed if we fail to develop, implement, maintain, upgrade, enhance, protect and integrate our information technology systems, including those systems of any businesses that we acquire.
We rely heavily on our information technology systems in managing our business; they are a key component of our customer-facing services and internal growth strategy. In general, we expect our customers to continue to demand more sophisticated, fully integrated technology from their transportation providers. This process of continuous enhancement may lead to significant ongoing software development costs, which will continue to increase if we pursue new acquisitions of companies and their current systems. Technology and new market entrants may also disrupt the way we and our competitors operate. In addition, we may fail to accurately determine the needs of our customers or trends in the transportation industry. Any such failures could result in decreased demand for our services and a corresponding decrease in our revenues.
We must ensure that our information technology systems remain competitive. If our information technology systems are unable to manage high volumes with reliability, accuracy and speed as we grow, or if such systems are not suited to manage the various services we offer, our service levels and operating efficiency could decline. In addition, if we fail to hire and retain qualified personnel to implement, protect and maintain our information technology systems, or if we fail to enhance our systems to meet our customers’ needs, our results of operations could be seriously harmed. This could result in a loss of customers or a decline in the volume of freight we receive from customers.
We are developing proprietary information technology. Our technology may not be successful or may not achieve the desired results and we may require additional training or different personnel to successfully implement this technology. Our technology development process may be subject to cost overruns or delays in obtaining the expected results, which may result in disruptions to our operations.
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A significant breach of our information security systems, networks or processes could materially adversely affect our business.
We process and maintain certain information that is confidential, proprietary, personal, or otherwise sensitive, including financial and confidential business information. Our information technology systems, devices, storage and applications, as well as those maintained by our third-party providers, are susceptible to damage, disruptions and shutdowns due to computer viruses, cyberattacks, ransomware or malware attacks, phishing, denial of service attacks, malicious social engineering, attacks by foreign actors, and other attempts to gain unauthorized access. Our systems and the systems maintained by our third-party providers have been subject to attempts to gain unauthorized access, breaches, and other system disruptions, and these and similar incidents could happen again. These events could, from time to time, cause material service outages, allow inappropriate or block legitimate access to systems or information, or result in other material interruptions to our business, our customers and other stakeholders could be impacted, and our reputation could be harmed. The techniques used to obtain unauthorized access, disable or degrade service or sabotage systems change frequently and the frequency and sophistication of cyber-attacks globally have increased over time. As a result, we may be unable to anticipate these attacks or techniques or to implement adequate measures to recognize, detect or prevent the occurrence of any of the events described above or to adequately mitigate their effects. We also may not discover the occurrence of any of the events described above for a significant period of time after the event occurs. These risks, as well as the number and frequency of cybersecurity events globally, may also be heightened during times of geopolitical tension or instability between countries.
We depend on and interact with the information technology networks and systems of third parties for many aspects of our operations, including our customers and service providers such as cloud service providers and third-party delivery services. These third parties are subject to risks resulting from data breaches, cyberattacks, and other events or actions that could damage or disrupt their networks or systems, which could adversely affect our operations and have an impact on our business.
Any failure to identify and address such defects or errors or prevent a cyber-attack could result in service interruptions, operational difficulties, loss of revenues or market share, liability to our customers or others, the diversion of corporate resources, injury to our reputation or increased service and maintenance costs. Addressing such issues could prove to be impossible or very costly and responding to the resulting claims or liability could similarly involve substantial cost, and the costs related to cybersecurity threats or disruptions may not be fully insured or indemnified by other means. While we have dedicated significant resources to security and privacy and to incident response capabilities, our response processes may not be adequate, may fail to accurately assess the severity of an incident, may not be sufficient to prevent or limit harm, or may fail to sufficiently remediate an incident in a timely fashion, any of which could harm our business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition.
A failure of our information technology infrastructure may materially adversely affect our business.
The efficient operation of our business depends on our information technology systems. We rely on our information technology systems to effectively manage our order entry and fulfillment, communications, labor management, sales and marketing, financial, legal and compliance functions, engineering and product development tasks, research and development data, and other business processes. We also rely on third parties and virtualized infrastructure to operate our information technology systems. Despite significant testing, external and internal risks, such as malware, insecure coding, “Acts of God,” data leakage and human error, pose a direct threat to the stability and effectiveness of our information technology systems and operations. The failure of our information technology systems to perform as we anticipate has in the past adversely affected, and could in the future adversely affect our business, including through service delays, delayed communications, loss and delay of sales, transaction errors, billing and invoicing errors, processing inefficiencies and delayed receivables collection. Any such failure could result in harm to our reputation and have an ongoing adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition, including after the underlying failure has been remedied. Further, the delay or failure to implement information system upgrades and new systems effectively could disrupt our business, distract management’s focus and attention from our business operations, and increase our implementation and operating costs, any of which could negatively impact our operations and operating results.
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Also, due to recent advances in technology and well-known efforts on the part of computer hackers and cyber-terrorists to breach data security of companies, we face risks associated with potential failure to adequately protect critical corporate, customer and employee data, which, if released, could adversely impact our customer and employee relationships, our reputation, and even violate privacy laws. Recently, regulatory and enforcement focus on data protection has heightened in the United States and abroad, particularly in the EU. Failure to comply with applicable U.S. or foreign data protection regulations or other data protection standards may expose us to litigation, fines, sanctions or other penalties, which could harm our business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition.
Risks related to Our Credit and Liquidity
Our indebtedness could adversely affect our financial condition.
We have outstanding indebtedness, which could: negatively affect our ability to pay principal and interest on our debt; increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions; limit our ability to fund future capital expenditures and working capital, to engage in future acquisitions or development activities, or to otherwise realize the value of our assets and opportunities fully because of the need to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow to payments of interest and principal or to comply with any restrictive terms of our debt; limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we operate; impair our ability to obtain additional financing or to refinance our indebtedness in the future; and place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that may have proportionately less debt.
Our inability to generate sufficient cash flows to satisfy our debt obligations, or to refinance our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all, could materially and adversely affect our financial position and results of operations. Further, failure to comply with the covenants under our indebtedness may have a material adverse impact on our operations. If we fail to comply with any of the covenants under our indebtedness, and are unable to obtain a waiver or amendment, such failure may result in an event of default under our indebtedness. We may not have sufficient liquidity to repay or refinance our indebtedness if such indebtedness were accelerated upon an event of default.
Under the terms of our outstanding indebtedness, we may not be able to incur substantial additional indebtedness in the future, which could further exacerbate the risks described above.
The execution of our strategy could depend on our ability to raise capital in the future, and our inability to do so could prevent us from achieving our growth objectives.
We may in the future be required to raise capital through public or private financing or other arrangements in order to pursue our growth strategy or operate our businesses. Such financing may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all, and our failure to raise capital when needed could harm our business and/or our ability to execute our strategy. Further debt financing may involve restrictive covenants and could reduce our profitability. We currently have investment grade credit ratings for our secured debt, however, we may not be able to maintain these ratings or obtain investment grade credit ratings for our unsecured debt or corporate ratings. Without investment grade credit ratings, we incur increased interest expense and borrowing costs and may have reduced access to financial markets to obtain additional debt financing or refinance our existing debt, potentially adversely affecting our financial condition and results of operations. If we cannot raise funds on acceptable terms, we may not be able to grow our business as planned or respond to competitive pressures.
We may be adversely affected by interest rate changes because of our floating rate credit facilities.
The Second Amended and Restated Revolving Loan Credit Agreement, as amended (the “ABL Facility”), and the senior secured term loan credit agreement, as amended (the “Term Loan Facility”), provide for an interest rate based on the Secured Overnight Offering Rate (“SOFR”) or a Base Rate, as defined in the agreements, plus an applicable margin. Our European trade receivables securitization program (the “Receivables Securitization Program”) provides for an interest rate at lenders’ cost of funds plus an applicable margin. Our financial position may be affected by fluctuations in interest rates since the ABL Facility, Term Loan Facility and Receivables Securitization Program are subject to floating interest rates. Refer to Item 7A, “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk” for
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the impact on interest expense of a hypothetical 1% increase in the interest rate. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors, including governmental monetary policies, domestic and international economic and political conditions and other factors beyond our control. A significant increase in interest rates could have an adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations.
Risks related to Third-Party Relationships
We depend on third parties in the operation of our business.
Our European business heavily relies on subcontracting and we use a large number of temporary employees in these operations. As a result, we are exposed to various risks related to managing our subcontractors, such as the risk that they do not fulfill their assignments in a satisfactory manner or within the specified deadlines. Moreover, we cannot guarantee that temporary employees are as well-trained as our other employees. Specifically, we may be exposed to the risk that temporary employees may not perform their assignments in a satisfactory manner or may not comply with our safety rules in an appropriate manner, whether as a result of their lack of experience or otherwise. Such failures could compromise our ability to fulfill our commitments to our customers, comply with applicable regulations or otherwise meet our customers’ expectations. Such failures could also harm our reputation and ability to win new business and could lead to us being liable for contractual damages. Furthermore, in the event of a failure by our subcontractors or temporary employees to fulfill their assignments in a satisfactory manner, we could be required to perform unplanned work or additional services in line with the contracted service, without receiving any additional compensation. As a result, any failure to properly manage our subcontractors or temporary employees in Europe or elsewhere could have a material adverse impact on our revenues, earnings, financial position and outlook.
Increases in driver compensation and difficulties with attracting and retaining drivers could adversely affect our revenues and profitability.
Our LTL services in North America and Europe and our full truckload services in Europe are conducted primarily with employee drivers. Our industry is currently experiencing and may, in the future, experience intense competition for qualified drivers in the transportation industry due to a shortage of drivers. The availability of qualified drivers may be affected from time to time by changing workforce demographics, competition from other transportation companies and industries for employees, the availability and affordability of driver training schools, changing industry regulations, and the demand for drivers in the labor market. If the current industry-wide shortage of qualified drivers continues, our global LTL operations and our European truckload operation could experience difficulty in attracting and retaining enough qualified drivers to fully satisfy customer demand. During periods of increased competition in the labor market for drivers, our LTL and full truckload operations may be required to increase driver compensation and benefits in the future to attract and retain a sufficient number of qualified drivers or face difficulty meeting customer demand, all of which could adversely affect our profitability. Additionally, a shortage of drivers could result in the underutilization of our truck fleet, lost revenue, increased costs for purchased transportation or increased costs for driver recruitment.
If we are unable to retain our key employees, our business, results of operations and financial position could be adversely affected.
Our success will continue to depend upon the experience and leadership of our key employees. In that regard, the loss of the services of any of our key personnel could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and liquidity if we are unable to secure replacement personnel who have sufficient experience in our industry and in the management of our business. The competition for these employees is intense and the labor market is tight. The loss of key personnel, the inability to attract, timely hire and retain key employees with critical technical skills, or unforeseen difficulties associated with the transition of key employees, could negatively impact our business.
Our business may be materially adversely affected by labor disputes.
Our business in the past has been, and in the future could be, adversely affected by strikes and labor negotiations at seaports, labor disputes between railroads and their union employees, or by a work stoppage at one or more railroads or local trucking companies servicing rail or port terminals. Strikes and work stoppages also could occur at our own
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facilities. Port shutdowns and similar disruptions to major points in national or international transportation networks, most of which are beyond our control, could result in terminal embargoes, disrupt equipment and freight flows, depress volumes and revenues, increase costs and have other negative effects on our operations and financial results.
Labor disputes involving our customers could affect our operations. If our customers experience plant slowdowns or closures because they are unable to negotiate labor contracts, our revenue and profitability could be negatively impacted.
Our European business activities require a large amount of labor, which represents one of our most significant costs. It is essential that we maintain good relations with employees, trade unions and other staff representative institutions. A deteriorating economic environment may result in tensions in industrial relations, which may lead to industrial action within our European operations; this could have a direct impact on our business operations. Generally, any deterioration in industrial relations in our European operations, such as general strike activities or other material labor disputes, could have an adverse effect on our revenues, earnings, financial position and outlook.
Efforts by labor organizations to organize employees at certain locations in North America, if successful, may impact costs and efficiencies at those locations.
Since 2014, in the U.S., the International Brotherhood of Teamsters (“Teamsters”) has attempted to organize employees at dozens of our LTL locations, and the International Association of Machinists (“Machinists”) has attempted to organize a small number of mechanics at three LTL maintenance shops.
The majority of our employees involved in these organizing efforts rejected union representation. As of December 31, 2023, our employees had voted against union representation in 19 of the 28 union elections held since 2014.
In May 2020, LTL technicians at our Gary Hammond, IN shop ratified a contract negotiated between XPO and the Machinists union. In November 2021, the Gary Hammond facility lease expired and XPO closed that shop and the contract was therefore rendered null and void. In July 2021, LTL drivers and dockworkers at our Miami, FL service center and drivers at our Trenton, NJ service center ratified contracts negotiated between XPO and the Teamsters. Less than a year later, in April 2022, the Teamsters disclaimed interest in the Trenton, NJ service center and no longer represent our employees in Trenton. In June 2023, Miami employees submitted a decertification petition and voted to remove the Teamsters union.
In 2019, a majority of employees at our LTL service centers in Laredo, TX and Aurora, IL, voted to decertify the Teamsters as the employees’ representative. In December 2020, a majority of employees at our LTL service center in Cinnaminson, NJ also voted to decertify the Teamsters as their bargaining representative. Since August 2021, the Teamsters disclaimed interest in five of our LTL locations, including Bakersfield, CA, Los Angeles, CA, Trenton, NJ, Albany, NY and most recently, King of Prussia, PA.
Since 2014, the Teamsters have withdrawn seven petitions seeking elections on behalf of LTL employees prior to the election being held, and the Machinists withdrew one petition for an LTL election on behalf of a small group of shop employees. Today, none of the Company’s employees in the U.S. are represented by a union or subject to a collective bargaining agreement.
In January 2022, LTL employees at our Trenton, NJ service center filed a deauthorization petition with the National Labor Relations Board seeking to withdraw the authority of the Teamsters to require union employees to pay union dues to retain their XPO jobs. The employees voted to remove the requirement that they pay dues and then, in April 2022, the Teamsters disclaimed interest in representing employees in Trenton, NJ.
The White House Task Force on Worker Organizing and Empowerment released a report on February 7, 2022, with numerous pro-labor recommendations regarding, among others, federal government support of union organizing efforts. There can be no assurance that increased government regulation and enforcement in this area will not increase our costs or have an adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and business.
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We cannot predict with certainty whether further organizing efforts may result in the unionization of any additional locations in the U.S. If union efforts are successful, these efforts may impact costs and efficiencies at the specific locations where representation is elected and have an adverse effect on our results of operations, cash flows and business.
Risks related to the Spin-Offs
We may be unable to achieve some or all of the benefits that we expect to achieve from the spin-offs of GXO or RXO and may be required to indemnify GXO or RXO for certain liabilities.
Although we believe that separating our logistics segment and tech-enabled broker transportation platform into stand-alone, publicly traded companies (the “Spin-offs”) has provided financial, operational and other benefits to us and our stockholders, we cannot provide assurance that we will achieve the full strategic and financial benefits expected from the spin-offs. If we do not realize the intended benefits of the spin-offs, we could suffer a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions, results of operations and cash flows.
Pursuant to the separation and distribution agreements and certain other agreements between XPO and GXO and XPO and RXO, each party agrees to indemnify the other for certain liabilities, in each case for uncapped amounts. Indemnities that we may be required to provide GXO and RXO are not subject to any cap, may be significant and could negatively impact our business. Third parties could also seek to hold us responsible for any of the liabilities that GXO or RXO has agreed to retain. Any amounts we are required to pay pursuant to these indemnification obligations and other liabilities could require us to divert cash that would otherwise have been used in furtherance of our operating business. Further, the indemnities from GXO or RXO for our benefit may not be sufficient to protect us against the full amount of such liabilities, and GXO or RXO may not be able to fully satisfy its indemnification obligations.
Moreover, even if we ultimately succeed in recovering from GXO or RXO any amounts for which we are held liable, we may be temporarily required to bear these losses ourselves. Each of these risks could negatively affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
If the spin-offs of GXO and/or RXO, together with certain related transactions, do not qualify as transactions that are generally tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes, XPO and XPO stockholders could be subject to significant tax liabilities. In addition, if certain internal restructuring transactions were to fail to qualify as transactions that are generally tax-free for U.S. federal or non-U.S. income tax purposes, we could be subject to significant tax liabilities.
In connection with the spin-offs of GXO and RXO, we received opinions from outside counsel regarding the qualification of each spin-off, together with certain related transactions, as a “reorganization” within the meaning of Sections 355 and 368(a)(1)(D) of the Internal Revenue Code. The opinions of counsel were based upon and relied on, among other things, various facts and assumptions, as well as certain representations, statements and undertakings of XPO, GXO, and RXO, including those relating to the past and future conduct of each company. If any of these facts, assumptions, representations, statements or undertakings was, or becomes, inaccurate or incomplete, or if XPO, GXO, or RXO breaches any of its representations or covenants contained in the separation agreement and certain other agreements and documents or in any documents relating to the related opinion of counsel, the opinion of counsel may be invalid, and the conclusions reached therein could be jeopardized.
Notwithstanding receipt of the opinion of counsel, there can be no assurance that the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) will not assert that either spin-off and/or certain related transactions do not qualify for tax-free treatment for U.S. federal income tax purposes or that a court would not sustain such a challenge. In the event the IRS were to prevail with such challenge, XPO and XPO stockholders could be subject to significant U.S. federal income tax liability.
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Risks related to Litigation and Regulations
We are involved in multiple lawsuits and are subject to various claims that could result in significant expenditures and impact our operations.
The nature of our business exposes us to the potential for various types of claims and litigation, including matters related to commercial disputes, labor and employment, workers’ compensation, personal injury, cargo and other property damage, environmental liability, insurance coverage, securities and other matters, including with respect to claims asserted under various other theories of agency or employer liability. Claims against us may exceed the amount of insurance coverage that we have or may not be covered by insurance at all. Businesses that we acquire also increase our exposure to litigation. Material increases in the frequency or severity of vehicular accidents, liability claims or workers’ compensation claims, or the unfavorable resolution of claims, or our failure to recover, in full or in part, under indemnity provisions with third-party transportation providers, could materially and adversely affect our operating results. Our involvement in the transportation of certain goods, including but not limited to hazardous materials, could also increase our exposure in the event that we or one of our third-party transportation providers is involved in an accident resulting in injury or contamination. In addition, significant increases in insurance costs or the inability to purchase insurance as a result of these claims could reduce our profitability. Under some agreements, we maintain the inventory of our customers, some of which may be significant in value. Our failure to properly handle and safeguard such inventory exposes us to potential claims and expenses.
An increase in the number or severity of self-insured claims or an increase in insurance premiums could have an adverse effect on us.
We use a combination of self-insurance programs and purchased insurance to provide for the costs of employee medical, vehicular collision and accident, cargo loss and damage, property damage, and workers’ compensation claims. Our estimated liability for self-retained insurance claims reflects certain actuarial assumptions and judgments, which are subject to a degree of variability. We reserve for anticipated losses and expenses and periodically evaluate and adjust our claims reserves to reflect our experience. Estimating the number and severity of claims, as well as related judgment or settlement amounts, is inherently difficult. This inherent difficulty, along with legal expenses, incurred but not reported claims, and other uncertainties can cause unfavorable differences between actual self-insurance costs and our reserve estimates. Our operating results could be adversely affected if any of the following were to occur: (i) the number or the severity of claims increases; (ii) we are required to accrue or pay additional amounts because claims prove to be more severe than our original assessment; or (iii) claims exceed our coverage amounts. Accordingly, our ultimate results may differ from our estimates, which could result in losses over our reserved amounts. We periodically evaluate our level of insurance coverage and adjust insurance levels based on targeted risk tolerance and premium expense. An increase in the number or severity of self-insured claims or an increase in insurance premiums could have an adverse effect on us, while higher self-insured retention levels may increase the impact of loss occurrences on our results of operations.
In addition, the cost of providing benefits under our medical plans is dependent on a variety of factors, including governmental laws and regulations, healthcare cost trends, claims experience and healthcare decisions by plan participants. As a result, we are unable to predict how the cost of providing benefits under medical plans will affect our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
We are subject to risks associated with defined benefit plans for our current and former employees, which could have a material adverse effect on our earnings and financial position.
We maintain defined benefit pension plans and a postretirement medical plan. Our defined benefit pension plans include funded and unfunded plans in the U.S. A decline in interest rates and/or lower returns on funded plan assets may cause increases in the expense and funding requirements for these defined benefit pension plans and for our postretirement medical plan. Despite past amendments that froze our defined benefit pension plans to new participants and curtailed benefits, these pension plans remain subject to volatility associated with interest rates, inflation, returns on plan assets, other actuarial assumptions and statutory funding requirements. In addition to being subject to volatility associated with interest rates, our postretirement medical plan remains subject to volatility associated with actuarial assumptions and trends in healthcare costs. Any of the aforementioned factors could lead to
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a significant increase in the expense of these plans and a deterioration in the solvency of these plans, which could significantly increase our contribution requirements. As a result, we are unable to predict the effect on our financial statements associated with our defined benefit pension plans and our postretirement medical plan.
Changes in income tax regulations for U.S. and multinational companies may increase our tax liability.
We are subject to income taxes in the United States and many foreign jurisdictions. Changes to income tax laws and regulations, or the interpretation of such laws, in any of the jurisdictions in which we operate could significantly increase our effective tax rate and ultimately reduce our cash flows from operating activities and otherwise have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. The U.S. Congress, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (“OECD”), the EU and other government agencies in jurisdictions in which we and our affiliates do business have maintained a focus on the taxation of multinational companies. The OECD has recommended changes to numerous long-standing international tax principles through its base erosion and profit shifting (“BEPS”) project, and many jurisdictions have begun codifying those recommendations into law. These and other tax laws and related regulations changes, to the extent adopted, may increase tax uncertainty and/or our effective tax rate, result in higher compliance cost and adversely affect our provision for income taxes, results of operations and/or cash flows.
We are subject to governmental regulations, political conditions, and emissions-control regulations which could substantially increase operating expenses or negatively impact our business.
Our operations are regulated and licensed by various governmental agencies in the U.S. and in foreign countries where we operate. These regulatory agencies have authority and oversight of domestic and international transportation services and related activities, licensure, motor carrier operations, safety and security and other matters. We must comply with various insurance and surety bond requirements to act in the capacities for which we are licensed. Our subsidiaries and third-party transportation providers must also comply with applicable regulations and requirements of various agencies. Through our subsidiaries and operations, we hold various licenses required to carry out our domestic and international services. These licenses permit us to provide services as a motor carrier and property broker. In addition, we are subject to regulations and requirements promulgated by the DOT, EPA, FMCSA, DHS, CBP, Canada Border Services Agency and various other international, domestic, state and local agencies and port authorities.
Certain of our businesses engage in the transportation of hazardous materials, the movement, handling and accidental discharge of which are highly regulated. Our failure to maintain the required licenses, or to comply with applicable regulations, could have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations. See the “Regulation” section under Item 1, “Business” for more information.
In 2021, the EPA announced a series of regulations to be implemented to decrease emissions from new heavy-duty vehicles and, in 2022, finalized new stringent emission standards to reduce nitrogen oxides and establish new standards for greenhouse gas emissions from heavy-duty engines. In December 2021, CARB adopted more stringent standards to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions from heavy-duty trucks and also adopted regulations to accelerate large-scale transition in California to zero-emission medium and heavy-duty trucks, including trucks of a type used in our operations in California. CARB’s Advanced Clean Truck regulation is designed to ensure that zero-emission vehicles are brought to market in California and regulation requires manufacturers to sell zero-emission trucks as an increasing percentage of their annual California sales. While CARB’s Advanced Clean Truck regulation and proposed Advanced Clean Fleets regulation may permit companies to seek exemptions or relief, there are no assurances that relief from either regulation will be obtained. At this point, there are virtually no zero-emissions vehicles widely available that are suitable replacements for current technology used in less-than-truckload operations. If zero-emission vehicles are not available or not commercially viable for the less-than-truckload market, we may be required to modify or curtail our operations in California. The transition to utilizing zero-emission vehicles could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows or may require us to incur significant additional costs, any of which could negatively impact our business.
Future laws and regulations may be more stringent and may require changes to our operating practices that influence the demand for our services or require us to incur significant additional costs. We are unable to predict the impact that recently enacted and future regulations may have on our business. In particular, it is difficult to predict which,
27


and in what form, FMCSA regulations may be modified or enforced, and what impact these regulations may have on motor carrier operations. If higher costs are incurred by us as a result of future changes in regulations, or by third-party transportation providers who pass increased costs on to us, this could adversely affect our results of operations to the extent we are unable to obtain a corresponding increase in price from our customers.
Furthermore, political conditions may increase the level of intensity of regulations that impact our business, may require changes to our operating practices, may influence demand for our services, or may require us to incur significant additional costs, any of which could negatively impact our business.
Failure to comply with trade compliance and anti-corruption laws and regulations applicable to our operations could expose us to potential fines, criminal sanctions, or reputational harm.
We are a global company subject to changing laws, policies, sanctions, and other regulatory requirements in the U.S., the U.K. and the E.U. relating to trade compliance and anti-corruption. Economic sanctions and other trade compliance restrictions in the U.S., the U.K., the E.U., and other countries may prohibit us from engaging in business activities with restricted entities or sanctioned countries. The U.S. and other export controls may restrict us from exporting specific products or arranging transportation or other services to or for the benefit of certain entities in specified countries. Global developments such as the ongoing conflict in Ukraine may result in new and evolving sanctions and trade restrictions. Non-compliance with trade compliance laws, policies, sanctions, and other regulatory requirements could result in reputational harm, operational delays, monetary fines and penalties, loss of revenues, increased costs, loss of export privileges, and criminal sanctions.
The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), the U.K. Bribery Act, Sapin II and other anti-corruption laws and regulations prohibit corrupt payments by our employees, vendors, or agents. While we have implemented policies, training, and internal controls designed to reduce the risk of corrupt payments, our employees, vendors, or agents may violate our policies and controls. Our failure to comply with anti-corruption laws and regulations could result in monetary fines and penalties, criminal sanctions against us, our officers, or our employees, restrictions on the conduct of our business, and reputational harm.
INDUSTRY RISK
Risks related to Our Markets and Competition
We operate in a highly competitive industry and, if we are unable to adequately address factors that may adversely affect our revenue and costs, our business could suffer.
Competition in the transportation services industry is intense. Increased competition may lead to a reduction in revenues, reduced profit margins, or a loss of market share, any one of which could harm our business. There are many factors that could impair our profitability, including the following: (i) competition from other transportation services companies, some of which offer different services or have a broader coverage network, more fully developed information technology systems and greater capital resources than we do; (ii) a reduction in the rates charged by our competitors to gain business, especially during times of declining economic growth, which may limit our ability to maintain or increase our rates, maintain our operating margins or achieve significant growth in our business; (iii) shippers soliciting bids from multiple transportation providers for their shipping needs, which may result in the depression of freight rates or loss of business to competitors; (iv) the establishment by our competitors of cooperative relationships to increase their ability to address shipper needs; (v) decisions by our current or prospective customers to develop or expand internal capabilities for some of the services we provide; and (vi) the development of new technologies or business models that could result in our disintermediation in certain services we provide.
ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

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ITEM 1C.    CYBERSECURITY
XPO employs a robust system of information technology and information security controls and measures to assess, identify, and mange risks from cybersecurity threats which we consider to be critically important to maintaining our business and ensuring our business continuity. Our information security program is managed by a dedicated Chief Information Security Officer (“CISO”), whose team is responsible for leading enterprise-wide cybersecurity strategy, policy, standards, architecture, threat detection, and incident response processes. Our CISO has a background in cybersecurity and risk management, including assessing, designing, building and operating security platforms. He has over 10 years of information technology and information security experience having successfully built and led security programs on areas relating to cybersecurity, risk management, identity and access, data protection, product and software security, cyber engineering, cyber defense, automation, and compliance initiatives. The CISO, who reports directly to our Chief Information Officer, provides periodic reports to our Board of Directors, as well as our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Information Officer, and other members of our senior management as appropriate. Our CISO meets regularly with his team as well as other key personnel to share information about potential cybersecurity events and monitor, prevent, and detect potential cybersecurity incidents and develop reports for our senior management. These reports include updates on the Company’s cyber risks and threats, the status of projects to strengthen our information security systems, assessments of the information security program, including the results of security breach simulations, and the emerging threat landscape. Our Board of Directors will be informed of all material cybersecurity incidents and our information security program includes procedures for calling a special session of the Board of Directors in the event of a high or critical-risk cybersecurity incident. The Board of Directors also discusses relevant incidents in the industry and the evolving threat landscape.
As part of our information security program, our CISO and his team integrate our information security measures into our overall risk management processes to identify, evaluate, and quantify risks based on available information and classify the severity of potential cybersecurity incidents. XPO employs technical measures to protect against cybersecurity attacks that align with functions identified in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (“NIST”) Cybersecurity Framework. The information security team continuously reviews our information security systems for unauthorized system access, cybersecurity incidents, and unusual traffic on our systems and meets regularly to identify, assess, and manage cybersecurity threats, including those posed by third-party service providers who provide services to our business. Our information security team also reviews relevant legislative and regulatory developments and conducts regular and tailored information security training for our global workforce, in various formats.
In the event of a cybersecurity incident, our incident response team, composed of members of our information security team as well as other key personnel, identifies, evaluates, and quantifies the relevant risks based on the available information and classifies the severity of the cybersecurity incident based on the level of risk to the Company. Our incident response measures include procedures to provide incident updates and developments to our senior management and the Board of Directors in the event of an ongoing cybersecurity incident. We also maintain an information security risk insurance policy. We conduct internal exercises to prepare our leadership and cross-functional teams to respond in the event of a cybersecurity incident and to help us test and consider revisions to our incident response procedures. We also actively engage with key consultants, auditors, industry participants, and intelligence and law enforcement communities as part of our continuing efforts to evaluate and enhance the effectiveness of our information security program. Our program is regularly evaluated by internal and external experts, with the results of those reviews reported to senior management and the Board of Directors. To date, we have not experienced any cybersecurity threats or incidents which have materially affected or are reasonably likely to materially affect the Company.
While we have dedicated significant resources to identifying, assessing, and managing material risks from cybersecurity threats, our efforts may not be adequate, may fail to accurately assess the severity of an incident, may not be sufficient to prevent or limit harm, or may fail to sufficiently remediate an incident in a timely fashion, any of which could harm our business, reputation, results of operations and financial condition. For an additional discussion of certain risks associated with cybersecurity see Item 1A, “Risk Factors” above.
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ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES
As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 596 locations, primarily in North America and Europe. These facilities are located in all 48 contiguous U.S. states, as well as globally.
SegmentLeased FacilitiesOwned Facilities
Customer
Facilities (1)
Total
North American LTL(2)
231 140 — 371 
European Transportation202 13 219 
Corporate— — 
Total439 153 596 
(1) Includes locations owned or leased by customers.
(2) Includes 26 owned facilities and 2 leased facilities acquired in December 2023 in connection with the Yellow Asset Acquisition.
We lease our current executive office located in Greenwich, Connecticut, as well as various office facilities in the U.S., France, the U.K. and India to support our global executive and shared-services functions. We believe that our facilities are sufficient for our current needs.
ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Information with respect to certain legal proceedings is included in Note 18—Commitments and Contingencies to our Consolidated Financial Statements and as a Litigation matter in our Consolidated Statements of Income (included in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report) and is incorporated herein by reference. For an additional discussion of certain risks associated with legal proceedings, see Item 1A, “Risk Factors” above.
ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
PART II
ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Common Stock
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (“NYSE”) under the symbol XPO.
As of February 1, 2024, there were approximately 70 registered holders of our common stock. We have never paid, and have no immediate plans to pay, cash dividends on our common stock.
Stock Performance Graph
The graph below compares the cumulative five-year total return of holders of our common stock with the cumulative performance of the Dow Jones Transportation Average index, the S&P 400 MidCap index and the S&P Transportation Select Industry index. The graph assumes that the value of the investment in our common stock and each index was $100 on December 31, 2018 and that all dividends and other distributions, including the effect of spin-offs, were reinvested. The comparisons in the graph below are based on historical data and not indicative of, or intended to forecast, future performance of our common stock.
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The graph in our 2022 Annual Report on Form 10-K included a comparison of our common stock with the Dow Jones Transportation Average index and the S&P 400 MidCap index. Going forward, our performance graphs will use the S&P Transportation Select Industry index rather than the Dow Jones Transportation Average index. We believe that the S&P Transportation Select Industry is a more appropriate index as our outstanding performance-based restricted stock units (“PRSUs”) generally measure our performance compared to this index, of which we are a component.
549755820262
12/31/1812/31/1912/31/2012/31/2112/31/2212/31/23
XPO, Inc.$100.00 $139.73 $208.98 $237.73 $162.15 $426.64 
Dow Jones Transportation Average$100.00 $120.83 $140.80 $187.56 $154.62 $186.46 
S&P 400 MidCap$100.00 $126.20 $143.44 $178.95 $155.58 $181.15 
S&P Transportation Select Industry$100.00 $122.05 $136.78 $183.86 $132.35 $166.38 
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
None.
ITEM 6.    [RESERVED]
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ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Overview
XPO is a leading provider of freight transportation services, with company-specific avenues for value creation. We use our proprietary technology to move goods efficiently through our customers’ supply chains in North America and Europe. Our company has two reportable segments: North American Less-Than-Truckload (“LTL”), the largest component of our business, and European Transportation. Our North American LTL segment includes the results of our trailer manufacturing operations.
In the first quarter of 2023, we made certain changes to our financial reporting to increase transparency and improve comparability. Specifically, we changed the expense captions within Operating income in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Income to more clearly reflect the nature of the expenses. The change to natural expense classification had no impact on consolidated Revenues or Operating income. At the time of the change, we recast prior period amounts to conform to the current presentation.
Strategic Developments
2023 was the first full year that XPO operated solely as an asset-based LTL service provider in North America, following the completion of three key parts of our strategic plan, as previously announced: the spin-offs of RXO, Inc. (“RXO”) and GXO Logistics, Inc. (“GXO”) in November 2022 and August 2021, respectively; and the sale of our North American intermodal operation in March 2022.
On December 20, 2023, we acquired 28 LTL service centers in the U.S. previously operated by Yellow Corporation. Under the transaction, we purchased 26 of the service centers and assumed existing leases for the other two locations. This is a strategic acquisition of assets that aligns with our commitment to invest in expanding our LTL network capacity.
Our Board of Directors has previously authorized the divestiture of our European business. There can be no assurance that the divestiture will occur, or of the terms or timing of a transaction.
The historical results of operations and financial positions of RXO, GXO and our intermodal operation are presented as discontinued operations and, as such, have been excluded from both continuing operations and segment results for all periods presented. We completed the sale of our intermodal operation for cash proceeds of approximately $705 million, net of cash disposed. The pre-tax gain on the sale was $430 million, net of transaction costs and working capital adjustments, and was included in Income from discontinued operations, net of taxes, for the year ended December 31, 2022.
Impacts of Notable External Conditions
As a leading provider of freight transportation services, our business can be impacted to varying degrees by factors beyond our control. The overall freight environment continues to be recessionary, in large part due to underlying trends in supply and demand. In addition, equipment and labor shortages, particularly a shortage of truck drivers and dockworkers, continue to present challenges to many transportation-related industries. Despite this, we see growth potential ahead in all of our major markets. We expect to continue to expand our business by investing in capacity for the long-term, gaining profitable market share and aligning price with the value we provide to customers.
Pandemic-related disruptions in supply chains for industrial materials and supplies, such as semiconductor chips, have largely abated, but new supply constraints are on the horizon as shippers increasingly avoid utilizing routes through areas with regional conflicts. We cannot predict how long these dynamics will last, or whether future challenges, if any, will adversely affect our results of operations.
Other examples of macroeconomic factors that can affect our results are a rise in interest rates, which increased our cost of capital in 2023, and economic inflation, which, while lessening in the U.S., may still have a negative impact on certain of our operating costs, such as salaries, wages and employee benefits, fuel and purchased transportation.
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We mitigate these impacts with mechanisms in our customer contracts, including fuel surcharge clauses and general rate increases.
Regarding the war between Russia and Ukraine and the unrest in the Middle East, we have no direct exposure to those geographies. We cannot predict how global supply chain activities or the economy at large may be impacted by prolonged disruptions in these regions, or sanctions imposed, or whether future conflicts, if any, may adversely affect our results of operations.
Consolidated Summary Financial Results
Years Ended December 31,Percent of Revenue
(Dollars in millions)
2023
2022
2021202320222021
Revenue$7,744 $7,718 $7,202 
Salaries, wages and employee benefits3,159 2,945 2,866 40.8 %38.2 %39.8 %
Purchased transportation1,760 1,964 1,934 22.7 %25.4 %26.9 %
Fuel, operating expenses and supplies1,623 1,687 1,492 21.0 %21.9 %20.7 %
Operating taxes and licenses60 58 56 0.8 %0.8 %0.8 %
Insurance and claims167 183 174 2.2 %2.4 %2.4 %
Gains on sales of property and equipment(5)(60)(72)(0.1)%(0.8)%(1.0)%
Depreciation and amortization expense432 392 385 5.6 %5.1 %5.3 %
Goodwill impairment— 64 — — %0.8 %— %
Litigation matter— — 0.1 %— %— %
Transaction and integration costs58 58 36 0.7 %0.8 %0.5 %
Restructuring costs44 50 19 0.6 %0.6 %0.3 %
Operating income438 377 312 5.7 %4.9 %4.3 %
Other income(15)(55)(60)(0.2)%(0.7)%(0.8)%
Debt extinguishment loss25 39 54 0.3 %0.5 %0.7 %
Interest expense168 135 211 2.2 %1.7 %2.9 %
Income from continuing operations before
income tax provision
260 258 107 3.4 %3.3 %1.5 %
Income tax provision68 74 11 0.9 %1.0 %0.2 %
Income from continuing operations192 184 96 2.5 %2.4 %1.3 %
Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net
of taxes
(3)482 245 — %6.2 %3.4 %
Net income$189 $666 $341 2.4 %8.6 %4.7 %

Year Ended December 31, 2023 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2022
Our consolidated revenue for 2023 increased by 0.3% to $7.7 billion, compared with 2022. The increase reflects the dynamics in the North American LTL industry described in the segment results below, partially offset by a decline in fuel surcharge revenue. Foreign currency movement increased revenue by approximately 0.8 percentage points in 2023.
Salaries, wages and employee benefits includes compensation-related costs for our employees, including salaries, wages, incentive compensation, healthcare-related costs and payroll taxes, and covers drivers and dockworkers, operations and facility workers and employees in support roles and other positions. Salaries, wages and employee benefits in 2023 was $3.2 billion, or 40.8% of revenue, compared with $2.9 billion, or 38.2% of revenue, in 2022. The year-over-year increase as a percentage of revenue primarily reflects the impact of inflation on our cost base, the insourcing of a greater proportion of linehaul from third-party transportation providers, and higher incentive compensation related to our operating performance.
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Purchased transportation includes costs of procuring third-party freight transportation. Purchased transportation in 2023 was $1.8 billion, or 22.7% of revenue, compared with $2.0 billion, or 25.4% of revenue, in 2022. The year-over-year decrease as a percentage of revenue primarily reflects lower rates paid to third-party providers for purchased transportation miles and the insourcing of a greater proportion of linehaul from third-party transportation providers.
Fuel, operating expenses and supplies includes the cost of fuel purchased for use in our vehicles as well as related taxes, maintenance and lease costs for our equipment, including tractors and trailers, costs related to operating our owned and leased facilities, bad debt expense, third-party professional fees, information technology expenses and supplies expense. Fuel, operating expenses and supplies was $1.6 billion in 2023, or 21.0% of revenue, compared with $1.7 billion, or 21.9% of revenue, in 2022. The year-over-year decrease primarily reflects lower fuel costs.
Operating taxes and licenses includes tax expenses related to our vehicles and our owned and leased facilities as well as license expenses to operate our vehicles. Operating taxes and licenses in 2023 was $60 million, compared with $58 million in 2022.
Insurance and claims includes costs related to vehicular and cargo claims for both purchased insurance and self-insurance programs. Insurance and claims in 2023 was $167 million, compared with $183 million in 2022. The year-over-year decrease reflects lower expense due to improved operating performance related to damaged shipments.
Gains on sales of property and equipment in 2023 was $5 million, compared with $60 million in 2022. The year-over-year decrease reflects $55 million in gains on real estate transactions in our North American LTL segment in 2022 and no comparable gains in 2023.
Depreciation and amortization expense in 2023 was $432 million, compared with $392 million in 2022. The year-over-year increase reflects the impact of capital investments, in particular tractors and trailers.
There was no goodwill impairment loss in 2023, compared with a $64 million impairment loss in 2022, which related to our European Transportation reporting units. For more information, see critical accounting policies and estimates below.
Litigation matter was $8 million in 2023, with no comparable expense in 2022. See Note 18—Commitments and Contingencies to our Consolidated Financial Statements for further information.
Transaction and integration costs in 2023 and 2022 were $58 million. Transaction and integration costs for 2023 are primarily comprised of stock-based compensation and retention awards for certain employees related to strategic initiatives. Transaction and integration costs for 2022 are primarily comprised of stock-based compensation and third-party professional fees related to strategic initiatives. We expect stock-based compensation costs related to our previously announced strategic initiatives to conclude in 2024.
Restructuring costs in 2023 were $44 million, compared with $50 million in 2022. We engage in restructuring actions as part of our ongoing efforts to best use our resources and infrastructure, including actions in connection with spin-offs and divestment activities. For more information, see Note 6—Restructuring Charges to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Other income primarily consists of pension income. Other income for 2023 was $15 million, compared with $55 million in 2022. The year-over-year decrease reflects lower net periodic pension income in 2023 primarily due to a rise in interest rates and a lower expected return on plan assets.
Debt extinguishment loss was $25 million in 2023, compared with $39 million in 2022. The debt extinguishment loss in 2023 related primarily to the refinancing of our Term Loan Facility in the second quarter of 2023, and to a much lesser extent, the redemption of our outstanding 6.25% senior notes due 2025 (“Senior Notes due 2025”) in the fourth quarter of 2023. In 2022, the debt extinguishment loss related to the redemption of a portion of our outstanding Senior Notes due 2025.
Interest expense for 2023 increased 24.4% to $168 million, from $135 million in 2022. The increase in interest expense is primarily due to higher prevailing interest rates, partially offset by the impact of the retirement of $1.1
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billion of our Senior Notes due 2025 in 2022 as well as higher interest income. We anticipate interest expense to be between $240 million and $260 million in 2024.
Our consolidated income from continuing operations before income taxes in 2023 was $260 million, compared with $258 million in 2022. The increase was primarily driven by higher operating income and lower debt extinguishment loss, partially offset by lower pension income and higher interest expense. With respect to our U.S. operations, income from continuing operations before income taxes was income of $286 million in 2023, compared with income of $303 million in 2022. The decrease was primarily due to higher salaries, wages and employee benefits, lower gains on real estate transactions, higher depreciation and amortization, lower pension income and higher interest expense, partially offset by higher revenue, lower purchased transportation and lower fuel costs. With respect to our non-U.S. operations, loss from continuing operations before income taxes was $26 million in 2023, compared with a loss of $45 million in 2022. The decrease in the loss is primarily due to the goodwill impairment charge of $64 million in 2022, and the absence of any such impairment in 2023, and lower purchased transportation and fuel costs in 2023, partially offset by higher salaries, wages and employee benefits and higher lease and facility costs in 2023.
Our effective income tax rates were 26.0% and 28.6% in 2023 and 2022, respectively. The decrease in our effective income tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the year ended December 31, 2022 was primarily driven by the non-deductible goodwill impairment charge in 2022 and the absence of any such impairment in 2023. For the year ended December 31, 2023, our effective tax rate was impacted by $15 million from non-deductible compensation partially offset by $9 million of discrete tax benefits, the largest of which was a $4 million benefit from changes in reserves for uncertain tax positions. For the year ended December 31, 2022, our effective tax rate was impacted by the non-deductible goodwill impairment charge and $10 million from non-deductible compensation.
Year Ended December 31, 2022 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2021
Our consolidated revenue for 2022 increased by 7.2% to $7.7 billion, from $7.2 billion in 2021. The increase primarily reflects growth in our LTL segment. Foreign currency movement decreased revenue by approximately 5.3 percentage points in 2022.
Salaries, wages and employee benefits in 2022 was $2.95 billion, or 38.2% of revenue, compared with $2.87 billion, or 39.8% of revenue in 2021. The year-over-year decrease as a percentage of revenue reflects leveraging compensation-related costs across a larger revenue base in 2022.
Purchased transportation in 2022 was $2.0 billion, or 25.4% of revenue, compared with $1.9 billion, or 26.9% of revenue, in 2021. The year-over-year decrease as a percentage of revenue is primarily due to a larger revenue base in 2022, partially offset by a small increase in costs due to higher rates paid to third-party providers for purchased transportation, including higher fuel surcharges.
Fuel, operating expenses and supplies in 2022 was $1.7 billion, or 21.9% of revenue, compared with $1.5 billion, or 20.7% of revenue, in 2021. The year-over-year increase as a percentage of revenue was primarily driven by higher fuel costs.
Operating taxes and licenses in 2022 was $58 million, compared with $56 million in 2021.
Insurance and claims in 2022 was $183 million, compared with $174 million in 2021. The year-over-year increase was primarily driven by an increase in large loss vehicular claims in 2022.
Gains on sales of property and equipment in 2022 was $60 million, compared with $72 million in 2021.
Depreciation and amortization expense in 2022 was $392 million, compared with $385 million in 2021.
Goodwill impairment was $64 million in 2022 and related to our European Transportation reporting units, compared to no goodwill impairment loss in 2021. For more information, see critical accounting policies and estimates below.
Transaction and integration costs in 2022 were $58 million, compared with $36 million in 2021. Transaction and integration costs for 2022 are primarily comprised of stock-based compensation and third-party professional fees
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related to strategic initiatives. Transaction and integration costs for 2021 are primarily comprised of third-party professional fees related to strategic initiatives as well as retention awards paid to certain employees.
Restructuring costs in 2022 were $50 million, compared with $19 million in 2021. We engage in restructuring actions as part of our ongoing efforts to best use our resources and infrastructure, including actions in connection with spin-offs and divestment activities. For more information, see Note 6—Restructuring Charges to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Other income primarily consists of pension income. Other income for 2022 was $55 million, compared with $60 million in 2021.
Debt extinguishment loss was $39 million in 2022, compared with $54 million in 2021. In 2022, we repurchased a portion of our outstanding Senior Notes due 2025 and wrote-off related debt issuance costs and incurred a pre-payment penalty. In 2021, we redeemed our outstanding senior notes due 2022, 2023 and 2024 and wrote-off related debt issuance costs, incurred a pre-payment penalty on the redemption of the 2024 senior notes and incurred costs related to the amendment of our term loan credit agreement.
Interest expense for 2022 decreased 36.0% to $135 million, from $211 million in 2021. The decrease in interest expense reflected lower average debt balances.
Our consolidated income from continuing operations before income taxes in 2022 was $258 million, compared with $107 million in 2021. The increase was primarily driven by higher operating income and lower interest expense and debt extinguishment loss. With respect to our U.S. operations, income from continuing operations before income taxes was $303 million in 2022, compared with income of $108 million in 2021. The increase was primarily due to higher revenue, partially offset by higher fuel, third-party transportation and personnel costs. Additionally impacting the increase in 2022 were lower interest expense and debt extinguishment loss. With respect to our non-U.S. operations, loss from continuing operations before income taxes was $45 million in 2022, compared with a loss of $1 million in 2021. The increase in the loss was primarily due to higher fuel costs and the goodwill impairment charge of $64 million in 2022, partially offset by lower personnel costs.
Our effective income tax rates were 28.6% and 10.4% in 2022 and 2021, respectively. The increase in our effective income tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared to the year ended December 31, 2021 was primarily driven by increased pre-tax book income, which decreased the impact of discrete tax benefits. For the year ended December 31, 2022, our effective tax rate was impacted by the non-deductible goodwill impairment charge and $10 million from non-deductible compensation.
For the year ended December 31, 2021, our effective tax rate was impacted by discrete tax benefits of $45 million related to a tax planning initiative that resulted in the recognition of a long-term capital loss, partially offset by discrete tax expenses of $39 million related to foreign valuation allowances, of which $34 million of the valuation allowances were transferred to GXO. Additionally, impacting the year ended December 31, 2021, were $8 million from non-deductible compensation and discrete tax benefits of $4 million related to stock-based compensation.
Segment Financial Results
Our chief operating decision maker (“CODM”) regularly reviews financial information at the operating segment level to allocate resources to the segments and to assess their performance. Our CODM evaluates segment profit (loss) based on adjusted earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“Adjusted EBITDA”), which we define as income from continuing operations before debt extinguishment loss, interest expense, income tax, depreciation and amortization expense, goodwill impairment charges, litigation matters, transaction and integration costs, restructuring costs and other adjustments. Segment Adjusted EBITDA reflects an allocation of corporate costs. See Note 4—Segment Reporting and Geographic Information for further information and a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to Income from continuing operations.
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North American Less-Than-Truckload Segment
Years Ended December 31,Percent of Revenue
(Dollars in millions)202320222021202320222021
Revenue$4,671 $4,645 $4,125 
Adjusted EBITDA864 932 826 18.5 %20.1 %20.0 %
Depreciation and amortization expense291 239 227 6.2 %5.1 %5.5 %
Year Ended December 31, 2023 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2022
Revenue in our North American LTL segment increased 0.6% to $4.7 billion in 2023, compared with $4.6 billion in 2022. Revenue included fuel surcharge revenue of $857 million and $1.0 billion, respectively, for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022. The decrease in fuel surcharge revenue was primarily driven by lower diesel prices.
We evaluate the revenue performance of our LTL business using several commonly used metrics, including volume (weight per day in pounds) and yield, which is a commonly used measure of LTL pricing trends. We measure yield using gross revenue per hundredweight, excluding fuel surcharges. Impacts on yield can include weight per shipment and length of haul, among other factors, while impacts on volume can include shipments per day and weight per shipment. The following table summarizes our key revenue metrics:
Years Ended December 31,
20232022Change %
Pounds per day (thousands)70,196 70,163 — %
Shipments per day51,322 49,257 4.2 %
Average weight per shipment (in pounds)1,368 1,424 (3.9)%
Gross revenue per hundredweight, excluding fuel surcharges $22.21 $21.18 4.9 %
The year-over-year increase in revenue for 2023, excluding fuel surcharge revenue, reflects higher gross revenue per hundredweight, primarily related to our improvements in service quality and the benefit of numerous pricing initiatives. Volume was flat year-over year, with higher shipments per day in 2023 offset by lower average weight per shipment. A soft industry environment for freight transportation contributed to lower volumes in the first half of the year, which was offset by higher volumes as the year continued. Despite unfavorable industry conditions, our volumes increased in the second half of the year due to higher shipments per day resulting from improvements in service quality and investments in capacity, as well as the impact of a competitor ceasing operations during the third quarter of 2023.
In the month of January 2024, weight per day decreased 1.1%, as compared with January 2023, attributable to a year-over-year decrease of 2.5% in weight per shipment and an increase of 1.4% in shipments per day.
Adjusted EBITDA was $864 million, or 18.5% of revenue, in 2023, compared with $932 million, or 20.1% of revenue, in 2022. Adjusted EBITDA included gains from real estate transactions of $55 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 with no comparable gains in 2023. Excluding these gains, the small decrease in Adjusted EBITDA reflected lower fuel surcharge revenue, higher salaries, wages and employee benefits, and, to a lesser extent, lower pension income. These items were partially offset by higher revenue, excluding fuel surcharge revenue, driven by the pricing and volume dynamics explained above, lower purchased transportation, lower fuel costs, and lower damage claims.
Depreciation and amortization expense increased in 2023 compared with 2022 due to the impact of capital investments, in particular tractors and trailers.
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Year Ended December 31, 2022 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2021
Revenue in our North American LTL segment increased 12.6% to $4.6 billion in 2022, compared with $4.1 billion in 2021. Revenue included fuel surcharge revenue of $1.0 billion and $632 million, respectively, for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021.
The following table summarizes our key revenue metrics:
Years Ended December 31,
20222021Change %
Pounds per day (thousands)70,163 71,739 (2.2)%
Shipments per day49,257 50,392 (2.3)%
Average weight per shipment (in pounds)1,424 1,424 — %
Gross revenue per hundredweight, excluding fuel surcharges $21.18 $19.80 7.0 %
The year-over-year increase in revenue for 2022 reflects an increase in gross revenue per hundredweight. The decrease in weight per day for 2022 reflects lower shipments per day.
Adjusted EBITDA was $932 million, or 20.1% of revenue, in 2022, compared with $826 million, or 20.0% of revenue, in 2021. Adjusted EBITDA included gains from real estate transactions of $55 million and $62 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively. Additionally, Adjusted EBITDA in 2022 reflected higher revenue, partially offset by increased compensation and fuel costs, as well as higher purchased transportation costs, in part due to inflation.
Depreciation and amortization expense increased in 2022 compared with 2021 due to the impact of prior capital investments, in particular tractors and trailers.
European Transportation Segment
Years Ended December 31,Percent of Revenue
(Dollars in millions)202320222021202320222021
Revenue$3,073 $3,073 $3,077 
Adjusted EBITDA163 169 165 5.3 %5.5 %5.4 %
Depreciation and amortization expense136 128 140 4.4 %4.2 %4.5 %
Year Ended December 31, 2023 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2022
Revenue in our European Transportation segment remained consistent at $3.1 billion in 2023 and 2022. Foreign currency movement increased revenue by approximately 2.0 percentage points in 2023. The decrease in revenue compared to 2022, after taking into effect the impact of foreign currency movement, primarily reflects lower volumes in a soft industry environment for freight transportation.
Adjusted EBITDA was $163 million, or 5.3% of revenue in 2023, compared with $169 million, or 5.5% of revenue, in 2022. The decrease in Adjusted EBITDA was primarily driven by the decrease in revenue after taking into effect the impact of foreign currency movement, described above, higher salaries, wages and employee benefits, and higher lease and facility costs. These items were partially offset by lower purchased transportation and fuel costs.
Depreciation and amortization expense increased in 2023 compared with 2022 primarily due to the impact of capital investments as well as foreign currency movements.
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Year Ended December 31, 2022 Compared with Year Ended December 31, 2021
Revenue in our European Transportation segment decreased 0.1% to $3.07 billion in 2022, compared with $3.08 billion in 2021. Foreign currency movement decreased revenue by approximately 12.3 percentage points in 2022. The increase in revenue compared to 2021, after taking into effect the impact of foreign currency movement, primarily reflects higher fuel surcharge revenue.
Adjusted EBITDA was $169 million, or 5.5% of revenue in 2022, compared with $165 million, or 5.4% of revenue, in 2021. The increase in Adjusted EBITDA was primarily driven by lower compensation-related and third-party transportation costs, partially offset by higher fuel costs and the impact of inflation.
Depreciation and amortization expense decreased in 2022 compared with 2021 primarily due to the impact of foreign currency movement.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our cash and cash equivalents balance was $412 million as of December 31, 2023, compared to $460 million as of December 31, 2022. Our principal existing sources of cash are (i) cash generated from operations; (ii) borrowings available under our Second Amended and Restated Revolving Loan Credit Agreement, as amended (the “ABL Facility”); and (iii) proceeds from the issuance of other debt. As of December 31, 2023, we have $508 million available to draw under our ABL Facility, based on a borrowing base of $508 million and outstanding letters of credit of less than $1 million. Additionally, under a credit agreement, we have a $200 million uncommitted secured evergreen letter of credit facility, under which we have issued $139 million in aggregate face amount of letters of credit as of December 31, 2023.
In connection with the spin-off of RXO, effective November 4, 2022, the commitments under the ABL Facility were reduced from $1.0 billion to $600 million. There were no other significant changes made to the terms of the facility at that time. In February 2023, we amended the facility to, among other things: (i) extend the maturity date to April 30, 2026 (subject, in certain circumstances, to a springing maturity if more than $250 million of our existing term loan debt or certain refinancings thereof remain outstanding 91 days prior to their respective maturity dates); (ii) replace LIBOR-based benchmark rates applicable to loans outstanding with SOFR-based rates; (iii) reduce the sublimit for issuance of letters of credit to $200 million; (iv) reduce the sublimit for borrowings in Canadian Dollars to $50 million; (v) exclude real property from the collateral securing the obligations and (vi) make certain other changes to the covenants and other provisions therein. The aggregate commitment of all lenders under the amended ABL Facility remains equal to $600 million.
As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately $920 million of total liquidity. We continually evaluate our liquidity requirements in light of our operating needs, growth initiatives and capital resources. We believe that our existing liquidity and sources of capital are sufficient to support our operations over the next 12 months.
Trade Receivables Securitization and Factoring Programs
We sell certain of our trade accounts receivable on a non-recourse basis to third-party financial institutions under factoring agreements. We also sell trade accounts receivable under a securitization program for our European transportation business. We use trade receivables securitization and factoring programs to help manage our cash flows and offset the impact of extended payment terms for some of our customers. For more information, see Note 2 —Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
The maximum amount of net cash proceeds available at any one time under our securitization program, inclusive of any unsecured borrowings, is €200 million (approximately $221 million as of December 31, 2023). As of December 31, 2023, €1 million (approximately $1 million) was available under the program. Under the securitization program, we service the receivables we sell on behalf of the purchasers. The program expires in July 2026.
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Information related to the trade receivables sold was as follows:
Years Ended December 31,
(In millions)202320222021
Securitization programs
Receivables sold in period
$1,815 $1,744 $1,726 
Cash consideration
1,815 1,744 1,726 
Factoring programs
Receivables sold in period
103 111 64 
Cash consideration
103 111 64 
Bridge Facility
On December 4, 2023, in connection with the Yellow Asset Acquisition, we entered into a senior secured bridge term loan credit agreement (the “Bridge Credit Agreement”). Under this agreement, we were able to borrow up to an aggregate amount of $870 million (the “Bridge Facility”). Concurrently with the issuance of the Incremental Term Loans and the Senior Notes due 2032, described below, on December 13, 2023, we terminated the commitments under this agreement. The Bridge Facility remained unfunded at the termination date.
Term Loan Facility
In 2015, we entered into a Term Loan Credit Agreement that provided for a single borrowing of $1.6 billion, which was subsequently amended to increase the principal balance to $2.0 billion and to extend the maturity date to February 2025 (the “Existing Term Loan Facility”).
In May 2023, we amended the Term Loan Credit Agreement to obtain $700 million of new term loans (the “New Term Loan Facility”) having substantially similar terms as the Existing Term Loan Facility, except with respect to maturity date, issue price, interest rate, prepayment premiums in connection with certain voluntary prepayments and certain other provisions. The New Term Loan Facility was issued at 99.5% of the face amount and will mature on May 24, 2028.
In the same period, we used net proceeds from the New Term Loan Facility, the Senior Secured Notes due 2028 and the Senior Notes due 2031, as described below, together with cash on hand, to repay $2.0 billion of outstanding principal under the Existing Term Loan Facility, which was scheduled to mature in 2025, and to pay related fees, expenses and accrued interest. We recorded a debt extinguishment loss of $23 million in 2023 due to this repayment.
In December 2023, we entered into an incremental amendment to the Term Loan Credit Agreement to obtain $400 million of incremental term loans (the “Incremental Term Loans”). The Incremental Term Loans are a new tranche of loans under the Term Loan Credit Agreement, having substantially similar terms as the New Term Loan Facility, except with respect to maturity date, issue price, prepayment premiums in connection with certain voluntary prepayments and certain other provisions. The Incremental Term Loans were issued at par and will mature on February 1, 2031.
Both the New Term Loan Facility and Incremental Term Loans bear interest at a rate per annum equal to, at our option, either (a) a Term SOFR rate (subject to a 0.00% floor) or (b) a base rate (subject to a 0.00% floor), in each case, plus an applicable margin of 2.00% for Term SOFR loans or 1.00% for base rate loans. The interest rate for both tranches was 7.36% as of December 31, 2023.
Senior Notes
In December 2023, we completed the private placement of $585 million aggregate principal amount of senior notes due 2032 (the “Senior Notes due 2032”), which mature on February 1, 2032 and bear interest at a rate of 7.125% per annum. Interest is payable semi-annually in cash in arrears, commencing August 1, 2024. These notes were issued at par.
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In the same period, we used net proceeds from the Incremental Term Loans and the Senior Notes due 2032, together with cash on hand, to finance the Yellow Asset Acquisition, to repay in full the $112 million aggregate principal amount outstanding of our Senior Notes due 2025, and to pay related fees, expenses and accrued interest. The redemption price for the Senior Notes due 2025 was 101.563% of the principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest. We recorded a debt extinguishment loss of $2 million due to this redemption.
In May 2023, we completed private placements of $830 million aggregate principal amount of senior secured notes due 2028 (the “Senior Secured Notes due 2028”) and $450 million aggregate principal amount of senior notes due 2031 (the “Senior Notes due 2031”). The Senior Secured Notes due 2028 mature on June 1, 2028 and bear interest at a rate of 6.25% per annum. The Senior Notes due 2031 mature on June 1, 2031 and bear interest at a rate of 7.125% per annum. Interest is payable semi-annually in cash in arrears and commenced December 1, 2023. These notes were issued at par and were used to repay our Existing Term Loan Facility as described above.
In November 2022, we repurchased $408 million of the then $520 million outstanding Senior Notes due 2025 in a cash tender offer. Holders of the Senior Notes due 2025 received total consideration of $1,022.50 per $1,000.00 principal amount of notes tendered and accepted for purchase, plus accrued and unpaid interest. We paid for the tender using cash received from RXO in connection with its spin-off. We recorded a debt extinguishment loss of $13 million due to this repurchase in the fourth quarter of 2022.
In April 2022, we redeemed $630 million of the then $1.15 billion outstanding principal amount of the Senior Notes due 2025. The redemption price for the notes was 100% of the principal amount plus a premium, as defined in the indenture, of approximately $21 million and accrued and unpaid interest. We paid for the redemption using available liquidity. We recorded a debt extinguishment loss of $26 million due to this redemption in 2022.
In 2021, we redeemed our outstanding 6.125% senior notes due 2023 (“Senior Notes due 2023”), 6.75% senior notes due 2024 (“Senior Notes due 2024”) and 6.50% senior notes due 2022 (“Senior Notes due 2022”). The redemption price for the Senior Notes due 2023 and Senior Notes due 2022 was 100.0% of the principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest and the redemption price for the Senior Notes due 2024 was 103.375% of the principal amount, plus accrued and unpaid interest. We paid for the redemptions using available cash, net proceeds from a debt issuance and equity offering and cash received from GXO of approximately $794 million. We recorded debt extinguishment losses of $51 million related to these redemptions.
Share Issuance
In 2021, we completed a registered underwritten offering of 5.0 million shares of our common stock at a public offering price of $138.00 per share, plus an additional 750,000 shares of our common stock through an option granted to underwriters. Of the 5.0 million shares, we offered 2.5 million shares directly and 2.5 million shares were offered by Jacobs Private Equity, LLC (“JPE”), an entity controlled by the Company’s executive chairman. The additional 750,000 purchased shares were also split equally between us and JPE. We received approximately $384 million of proceeds, net of fees and expenses, from the sale of the shares and used them to repay a portion of our outstanding borrowings and for general corporate purposes. XPO did not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares by JPE.
Series A Convertible Perpetual Preferred Stock (“Preferred Stock”) and Warrants
In order to simplify our equity capital structure, in 2021, the remaining 1,015 preferred shares outstanding were exchanged for 0.1 million shares of common stock and the remaining 9.8 million warrants outstanding were exchanged for 9.2 million shares of common stock. The warrants exchanged included holdings of JPE. Subsequent to the exchange, there are no shares of Preferred Stock or warrants outstanding.
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Share Repurchases
In February 2019, our Board of Directors authorized repurchases of up to $1.5 billion of our common stock. Our share repurchase authorization permits us to purchase shares in both the open market and in private transactions, with the timing and number of shares dependent on a variety of factors, including price, general business conditions, market conditions, alternative investment opportunities and funding considerations. We are not obligated to repurchase any specific number of shares and may suspend or discontinue the program at any time.
There were no share repurchases in 2023, 2022 or 2021. Our remaining share repurchase authorization as of December 31, 2023 is $503 million.
Loan Covenants and Compliance
As of December 31, 2023, we were in compliance with the covenants and other provisions of our debt agreements. Any failure to comply with any material provision or covenant of these agreements could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and operations.
LIBOR
In 2023, as described above, we amended the terms of our ABL Facility and Existing Term Loan Facility, including transitioning the interest rate from the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) to other base rates. We have no other contracts or hedging relationships that reference LIBOR.
Sources and Uses of Cash
Our cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities from continuing operations, as reflected on our Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows, are summarized as follows:
Years Ended December 31,
(In millions)202320222021
Net cash provided by operating activities from continuing operations$694 $824 $490 
Net cash used in investing activities from continuing operations(1,502)(404)(141)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities from continuing operations761 (861)(1,933)
During 2023, we: (i) generated cash from operating activities from continuing operations of $694 million and (ii) received net proceeds of $3.0 billion from the issuance of debt. We used cash during this period primarily to: (i) purchase property and equipment of $1.5 billion; (ii) repay our Existing Term Loan Facility for $2.0 billion and (iii) redeem our Senior Notes due 2025 for $114 million.
During 2022, we: (i) generated cash from operating activities from continuing operations of $824 million; (ii) generated proceeds from sales of property and equipment of $88 million; and (iii) received a distribution from RXO of $312 million. We used cash during this period primarily to: (i) purchase property and equipment of $521 million; (ii) redeem a portion of our Senior Notes due 2025 for $1.1 billion and (iii) make payments on debt and finance leases of $61 million.
During 2021, we: (i) generated cash from operating activities from continuing operations of $490 million; (ii) generated proceeds from sales of property and equipment of $131 million; (iii) received a distribution from GXO of $794 million and (iv) generated proceeds of $384 million from the issuance of common stock. We used cash during this period primarily to: (i) purchase property and equipment of $269 million; (ii) redeem our Senior Notes due 2022, 2023 and 2024 for $2.8 billion; (iii) repay our ABL Facility borrowings of $200 million and (iv) make payments on debt and finance leases of $80 million.
Cash flows from operating activities from continuing operations for 2023 decreased by $130 million compared with 2022. The decrease in 2023 compared with 2022 reflects: (i) the impact of operating assets and liabilities utilizing $99 million of cash in 2023, compared with generating $1 million of cash in 2022; (ii) a $64 million non-cash
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goodwill impairment charge recognized in 2022, that was added back to income from continuing operations in the determination of 2022 operating cash flows; (iii) lower non-cash deferred tax expense of $49 million in 2023, that is also added back in the determination of operating cash flows and (iv) higher cash paid for interest of $40 million in 2023. These items were partially offset by: (i) lower gains on sales of property and equipment of $55 million in 2023 and (ii) higher non-cash depreciation, amortization and net lease activity of $40 million in 2023, that are both also added back in the determination of operating cash flows, and (iii) lower cash paid for taxes of $53 million in 2023.
Cash flows from operating activities from continuing operations for 2022 increased by $334 million compared with 2021. The increase in 2022 compared with 2021 reflects: (i) higher income from continuing operations of $88 million; (ii) higher non-cash deferred tax and stock compensation expenses of $119 million, that are added back to income from continuing operations in determining cash flow from operating activities; (iii) a $64 million non-cash goodwill impairment charge recognized in 2022, that also is added back in the determination of operating cash flows and (iv) the impact of operating assets and liabilities generating $1 million of cash in 2022, compared with utilizing $30 million of cash in 2021. Additionally, cash paid for interest was $108 million lower in 2022 compared to 2021.
As of December 31, 2023, we had $874 million of operating lease and related interest payment obligations, of which $152 million is due within the next twelve months. Additionally, we had operating leases that have not yet commenced with future undiscounted lease payments of $72 million. These operating leases will commence at various times beginning in 2024 through 2025 with initial lease terms of 4.5 years to 15 years. For further information on our operating leases and their maturities, see Note 8—Leases to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Investing activities from continuing operations used $1,502 million of cash in 2023 compared with $404 million used in 2022 and $141 million used in 2021. During 2023, we used $1,533 million of cash to purchase property and equipment, including $878 million related to the Yellow Asset Acquisition, and received $29 million from sales of property and equipment. During 2022, we used $521 million of cash to purchase property and equipment and received $88 million of cash from sales of property and equipment and $29 million from the settlement of cross currency swaps. During 2021, we used $269 million of cash to purchase property and equipment and received $131 million of cash from sales of property and equipment. We anticipate gross capital expenditures to be between $700 million and $800 million in 2024, funded by cash on hand and available liquidity.
Financing activities from continuing operations generated $761 million of cash in 2023 compared with $861 million of cash used in 2022 and $1.9 billion of cash used in 2021. The primary source of cash from financing activities during 2023 was $3.0 billion of net proceeds from the issuance of debt. The primary uses of cash from financing activities during 2023 were $2.1 billion used to repay our Existing Term Loan Facility and redeem the Senior Notes due 2025 and $71 million used to repay other borrowings. The primary uses of cash from financing activities during 2022 were $1.1 billion used to redeem a portion of the Senior Notes due 2025 and $61 million used to repay other borrowings. The primary source of cash from financing activities from continuing operations during 2022 was $312 million of net proceeds from a distribution from RXO, which included net proceeds from RXO’s debt offerings. The primary uses of cash from financing activities from continuing operations during 2021 were $2.8 billion used to redeem the senior notes due 2022, 2023 and 2024 and $200 million used to repay borrowings under our ABL Facility. The primary sources of cash from financing activities from continuing operations during 2021 were $794 million of proceeds from a distribution from GXO and $384 million of net proceeds from the issuance of common stock. In 2021, GXO completed a debt offering and used the net proceeds to fund a cash payment from GXO to XPO.
As of December 31, 2023, we had $3.3 billion total outstanding principal amount of debt, excluding finance leases. We have no significant debt maturities until 2028. Interest on our ABL and Term Loan facilities is variable, while interest on our senior notes is at fixed rates. Future interest payments associated with our debt total $1.4 billion at December 31, 2023, with $213 million payable within 12 months, and are estimated based on the principal amount of debt and applicable interest rates as of December 31, 2023. Additionally, as of December 31, 2023, we have $290 million of finance lease and related interest payment obligations, of which $71 million is due within the next twelve months. For further information on our debt facilities and maturities, see Note 12—Debt to our Consolidated Financial Statements. For further information on our finance lease maturities, see Note 8—Leases to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
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Defined Benefit Pension Plans
We sponsor both funded and unfunded defined benefit plans for some employees in the U.S. Historically, we have realized income, rather than expense, from these plans. We generated aggregate income from our plans of $18 million in 2023, $60 million in 2022 and $61 million in 2021. The plans have been generating income due to their funded status and because they do not allow for new plan participants or additional benefit accruals.
Defined benefit pension plan amounts are calculated using various actuarial assumptions and methodologies. Assumptions include discount rates, inflation rates, expected long-term rate of return on plan assets, mortality rates, and other factors. The assumptions used in recording the projected benefit obligations and fair value of plan assets represent our best estimates based on available information regarding historical experience and factors that may cause future expectations to differ. Differences in actual experience or changes in assumptions could materially impact our obligation and future expense or income.
Discount Rate
In determining the appropriate discount rate, we are assisted by actuaries who utilize a yield-curve model based on a universe of high-grade corporate bonds (rated AA or better by Moody’s, S&P or Fitch rating services). The model determines a single equivalent discount rate by applying the yield curve to expected future benefit payments.
The discount rates used in determining the net periodic benefit costs and benefit obligations are as follows:
Qualified PlansNon-Qualified Plans
2023202220232022
Discount rate - net periodic benefit costs5.36 %2.43 %5.26% - 5.33%
1.70% - 2.23%
Discount rate - benefit obligations5.15 %5.42 %4.98% - 5.12%
5.29% - 5.42%
An increase or decrease of 25 basis points in the discount rate would decrease or increase our 2023 pre-tax pension income by approximately $1 million.
We use a full yield curve approach to estimate the interest cost component of net periodic benefit cost by applying specific spot rates along the yield curve used to determine the benefit obligation to each of the underlying projected cash flows based on time until payment.
Rate of Return on Plan Assets
We estimate the expected return on plan assets using current market data as well as historical returns. The expected return on plan assets is based on estimates of long-term returns and considers the plans’ anticipated asset allocation over the course of the next year. The plan assets are managed using a long-term liability-driven investment strategy that seeks to mitigate the funded status volatility by increasing participation in fixed-income investments generally as funded status increases. This strategy was developed by analyzing a variety of diversified asset-class combinations in conjunction with the projected liabilities of the plans.
For the year ended December 31, 2023, our expected return on plan assets was $92 million, compared to the actual return on plan assets of $124 million. The actual annualized return on plan assets for 2023 was approximately 10%, which was above the expected return on asset assumption for the year due to positive returns in the long duration fixed income market environment, which represented 90% of the portfolio, along with positive performance from the domestic and international equity markets. An increase or decrease of 25 basis points in the expected return on plan assets would increase or decrease our 2023 pre-tax pension income by approximately $4 million.
Actuarial Gains and Losses
Changes in the discount rate and/or differences between the expected and actual rate of return on plan assets results in unrecognized actuarial gains or losses. For our defined benefit pension plans, accumulated unrecognized actuarial losses were $174 million as of December 31, 2023. The portion of the unrecognized actuarial gain/loss that exceeds 10% of the greater of the projected benefit obligation or the fair value of plan assets at the beginning of the year is
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amortized and recognized as income/expense over the estimated average remaining life expectancy of plan participants.
Effect on Results
The effects of the defined benefit pension plans on our results consist primarily of the net effect of the interest cost on plan obligations and the expected return on plan assets. We estimate that the defined benefit pension plans will contribute annual pre-tax income in 2024 of approximately $25 million.
Funding
In determining the amount and timing of pension contributions, we consider our cash position, the funded status as measured by the Pension Protection Act of 2006 and generally accepted accounting principles, and the tax deductibility of contributions, among other factors. We contributed $5 million in both 2023 and 2022 to the non-qualified plans and we estimate that we will contribute $5 million in 2024.
For additional information, see Note 13—Employee Benefit Plans to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. A summary of our significant accounting policies is contained in Note 2—Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies to our Consolidated Financial Statements. The methods, assumptions, and estimates that we use in applying our accounting policies may require us to apply judgments regarding matters that are inherently uncertain and may change based on changing circumstances or changes in our analysis. Material changes in these assumptions, estimates and/or judgments have the potential to materially alter our results of operations. We have identified below our accounting policies that we believe could potentially produce materially different results if we were to change underlying assumptions, estimates and/or judgments. Although actual results may differ from estimated results, we believe the estimates are reasonable and appropriate.
Evaluation of Goodwill
We measure goodwill as the excess of consideration transferred over the fair value of net assets acquired in business combinations. We allocate goodwill to our reporting units for the purpose of impairment testing. We evaluate goodwill for impairment annually as of August 31, or more frequently if an event or circumstance indicates an impairment loss may have been incurred. We measure goodwill impairment, if any, at the amount a reporting unit’s carrying amount exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. Our reporting units are our operating segments or one level below our operating segments for which discrete financial information is prepared and regularly reviewed by segment management. Application of the goodwill impairment test requires judgment, including the identification of reporting units, the assignment of assets and liabilities to reporting units, the assignment of goodwill to reporting units, and a determination of the fair value of each reporting unit.
Accounting guidance allows entities to perform a qualitative assessment (a “step-zero” test) before performing a quantitative analysis. If an entity determines that it is not more-likely-than-not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, the entity does not need to perform a quantitative analysis for that reporting unit. The qualitative assessment includes a review of macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, internal cost factors, and overall financial performance, among other factors.
For our 2023 annual goodwill assessment, we performed a step-zero qualitative analysis for our five reporting units. Based on the qualitative assessments performed, we concluded that it was not more-likely-than-not that the fair value of each of our reporting units was less than their carrying amounts and, therefore, further quantitative analysis was not performed, and we did not recognize any goodwill impairment.
Similarly, for our 2022 annual goodwill assessment performed as of August 31, we performed a step-zero qualitative analysis for each of the three reporting units that existed at that time and reached the same conclusion. However, in the fourth quarter of 2022 and in connection with the RXO spin-off, we performed additional impairment tests
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because the number of our reporting units increased from three to five to reflect our new internal organization. Specifically, while our European Transportation business was previously considered a single reporting unit, after the spin-off of RXO, it was determined that the European Transportation business was comprised of four reporting units. As a result, in the fourth quarter of 2022, we tested each of the four new reporting units for potential impairment. A quantitative test was performed for each of these four new reporting units using a combination of income and market approaches and we recorded an aggregate impairment charge of $64 million related to two of these new reporting units.
The income approach of determining fair value is based on the present value of estimated future cash flows, discounted at an appropriate risk-adjusted rate. The discount rates reflect management’s judgment and are based on a risk adjusted weighted-average cost of capital utilizing industry market data of businesses similar to the reporting units. Inherent in our preparation of cash flow projections are assumptions and estimates derived from a review of our operating results, business plans, expected growth rates, cost of capital and tax rates. Our forecasts also reflect expectations concerning future economic conditions, interest rates and other market data. The market approach of determining fair value is based on comparable market multiples for companies engaged in similar businesses, as well as recent transactions within our industry. We believe this approach, which utilizes multiple valuation techniques, yields the most appropriate evidence of fair value.
Many of the factors used in assessing fair value are outside the control of management, and these assumptions and estimates may change in future periods. Changes in assumptions or estimates could materially affect the estimate of the fair value of a reporting unit, and therefore could affect the likelihood and amount of potential impairment.
Self-Insurance Accruals
We use a combination of self-insurance programs and purchased insurance to provide for the costs of medical, casualty, liability, vehicular, cargo, workers’ compensation, cyber risk and property claims. We periodically evaluate our level of insurance coverage and adjust our insurance levels based on risk tolerance and premium expense. Liabilities for the risks we retain, including estimates of claims incurred but not reported, are not discounted and are estimated, in part, by considering historical cost experience, demographic and severity factors, and judgments about current and expected levels of cost per claim and retention levels. Additionally, claims may emerge in future years for events that occurred in a prior year at a rate that differs from previous actuarial projections. We believe the actuarial methods are appropriate for measuring these self-insurance accruals. However, based on the number of claims and the length of time from incurrence of the claims to ultimate settlement, the use of any estimation method is sensitive to the assumptions and factors described above along with other external factors. Accordingly, changes in these assumptions and factors can affect the estimated liability and those amounts may be different than the actual costs paid to settle the claims.
Income Taxes
Our annual effective tax rate is based on our income and statutory tax rates in the various jurisdictions in which we operate. Judgment and estimates are required in determining our tax expense and in evaluating our tax positions, including evaluating uncertainties. Evaluating our tax positions would include but not be limited to our tax positions on internal restructuring transactions as well as the spin-offs of RXO and GXO. We review our tax positions quarterly and as new information becomes available. Our effective tax rate in any financial statement period may be materially impacted by changes in the mix and/or level of earnings by taxing jurisdiction.
Deferred income tax assets represent amounts available to reduce income taxes payable in future years. Such assets arise because of temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, as well as from net operating losses and tax credit carryforwards. We evaluate the recoverability of these future tax deductions and credits by assessing all available evidence, including the reversal of deferred tax liabilities, carrybacks available, and historical and projected pre-tax profits generated by our operations. Valuation allowances are established when, in management’s judgment, it is more likely than not that our deferred tax assets will not be realized. In assessing the need for a valuation allowance, management weighs the available positive and negative evidence, including limitations on the use of tax losses and other carryforwards due to changes in ownership,
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historic information, and projections of future sources of taxable income that include and exclude future reversals of taxable temporary differences.
New Accounting Standards
Information related to new accounting standards is included in Note 2—Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies.
ITEM 7A.    QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Our market risk disclosures involve forward-looking statements. Actual results could differ materially from those projected in such forward-looking statements. We are exposed to market risk related to changes in interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates and commodity price risk.
Interest Rate Risk
We have exposure to changes in interest rates on our debt, as follows:
Term Loan Facility. As of December 31, 2023, we had an aggregate principal amount outstanding of $1.1 billion on our Term Loan Facility. The interest rate fluctuates based on SOFR or a Base Rate, as defined in the agreement, plus an applicable margin. Assuming an average annual aggregate principal amount outstanding of $1.1 billion, a hypothetical 1% increase in the interest rate would have increased our annual interest expense by $11 million. Additionally, we utilize short-term interest rate swaps to mitigate variability in forecasted interest payments on our Term Loan Facility. The interest rate swaps convert floating-rate interest payments into fixed rate interest payments.
ABL Facility. The interest rates on our ABL Facility fluctuate based on SOFR or a Base Rate, as defined in the agreement, plus an applicable margin. Assuming our ABL Facility was fully drawn throughout 2023, a hypothetical 1% increase in the interest rate would have increased our annual interest expense by $6 million.
Fixed Rate Debt. As of December 31, 2023, we had $2.2 billion of fair value of indebtedness (excluding finance leases and asset financings) that bears interest at fixed rates. A 1% decrease in market interest rates as of December 31, 2023 would increase the fair value of our fixed-rate indebtedness by approximately 4%. For additional information concerning our debt, see Note 12—Debt to our Consolidated Financial Statements.
We also have exposure to changes in interest rates as a result of our cash balances, which totaled $412 million as of December 31, 2023 and generally earn interest income that approximates the federal funds rate. Assuming an annual average cash balance of $412 million, a hypothetical 1% increase in the interest rate would reduce our net interest expense by $4 million.
Foreign Currency Exchange Risk
A proportion of our net assets and income are in non-U.S. dollar (“USD”) currencies, primarily the euro (“EUR”) and British pound sterling (“GBP”). We are exposed to currency risk from potential changes in functional currency values of our foreign currency denominated assets, liabilities and cash flows. Consequently, a depreciation of the EUR or the GBP relative to the USD could have an adverse impact on our financial results.
As of December 31, 2023, a uniform 10% strengthening in the value of the USD relative to the EUR would have resulted in an increase in net assets of $7 million. As of December 31, 2023, a uniform 10% strengthening in the value of the USD relative to the GBP would have resulted in a decrease in net assets of $34 million. These theoretical calculations assume that an instantaneous, parallel shift in exchange rates occurs, which is not consistent with our actual experience in foreign currency transactions. Fluctuations in exchange rates also affect the volume of sales or the foreign currency sales price as competitors’ services become more or less attractive. The sensitivity analysis of the impact of changes in foreign currency exchange rates does not factor in a potential change in sales levels or local currency prices.
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Commodity Price Risk
We are exposed to price fluctuations for diesel fuel purchased for use in our vehicles. During the year ended December 31, 2023, diesel prices fluctuated by as much as 19% in France, 21% in the United Kingdom, and 23% in the United States. We include fuel surcharge programs or other cost-recovery mechanisms in many of our customer contracts to mitigate the effect of any fuel price increases over base amounts established in the contract. For our North American LTL business, pricing agreements with customers include a fuel surcharge that is typically indexed to fuel prices published weekly by the U.S. Department of Energy. The extent to which we are able to recover increases in fuel costs may also be impacted by the amount of empty or out-of-route truck miles or engine idling time. See the applicable discussion under Item 1A, “Risk Factors.”


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ITEM 8.    FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

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Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
To the Stockholders and Board of Directors
XPO, Inc.:
Opinions on the Consolidated Financial Statements and Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of XPO, Inc. and subsidiaries (the Company) as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, cash flows, and changes in equity for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2023, and the related notes (collectively, the consolidated financial statements). We also have audited the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.
In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2023, in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. Also in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2023 based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission.
Basis for Opinions
The Company’s management is responsible for these consolidated financial statements, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting, and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud, and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects.
Our audits of the consolidated financial statements included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

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Definition and Limitations of Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that were communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relate to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of a critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which they relate.
Liabilities for self-insured claims
As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company uses a combination of self-insurance programs and purchased insurance to provide for the costs of liability, vehicular, and workers’ compensation claims (self-insured claims). The Company records estimates of the undiscounted liability associated with claims incurred as of the balance sheet date, including estimates of claims incurred but not reported, by considering historical cost experience, demographic and severity factors, and judgments about current and expected levels of cost per claim and retention levels. These liabilities are recorded within accrued liabilities and other long-term liabilities as of December 31, 2023.
We identified the assessment of the estimated liabilities for self-insured claims as a critical audit matter. The evaluation of the uncertainty in the amounts that will ultimately be paid to settle these claims required subjective auditor judgment. Assumptions that may affect the estimated liability of claims include the consideration of historical cost experience, severity factors, and judgments about current and expected levels of cost per claims that have uncertainty related to future occurrences or events and conditions. Additionally, the Company’s liabilities for self-insured claims included estimates for expenses of claims that have been incurred but have not been reported, and specialized skills were needed to evaluate the actuarial methods and assumptions used to make these estimates.

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The following are the primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter. We evaluated the design and tested the operating effectiveness of certain internal controls over the Company’s self-insurance process. This included controls over the assumptions used in estimating the liabilities for self-insured claims. In addition, for a sample of claims, we compared the Company’s estimates of liabilities for individual self-insured claims to current available information, which included legal claims, incident and case reports, current and historical cost experience, or other evidence. We involved an actuarial professional with specialized skills and knowledge, who assisted in:
comparing the Company’s actuarial reserving methodologies with accepted actuarial methods and procedures
evaluating assumptions used in determining the liability, including expected level of cost per claim in relation to recent historical loss payment trends and demographic and severity factors
developing an independent expected range of liabilities, including liabilities for claims that have been incurred but have not been recorded, based on actuarial methodologies
comparing the Company’s recorded liability to the independently developed liability range.


/s/ KPMG LLP
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2011.
Stamford, Connecticut

February 8, 2024
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XPO, Inc.
Consolidated Balance Sheets
December 31,
(In millions, except per share data)20232022
ASSETS
Current assets
Cash and cash equivalents$412 $460 
Accounts receivable, net of allowances of $45 and $43, respectively
973 954 
Other current assets208 199 
Current assets of discontinued operations 17 
Total current assets1,593 1,630 
Long-term assets
Property and equipment, net of $1,853 and $1,679 in accumulated depreciation, respectively
3,075 1,832 
Operating lease assets708 719 
Goodwill1,498 1,472 
Identifiable intangible assets, net of $452 and $392 in accumulated amortization, respectively
422 407 
Other long-term assets196 209 
Total long-term assets5,899 4,639 
Total assets$7,492 $6,269 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current liabilities
Accounts payable$532 $521 
Accrued expenses775 774 
Short-term borrowings and current maturities of long-term debt69 59 
Short-term operating lease liabilities121 107 
Other current liabilities93 30 
Current liabilities of discontinued operations 16 
Total current liabilities1,590 1,507 
Long-term liabilities
Long-term debt3,335 2,473 
Deferred tax liability337 319 
Employee benefit obligations91 93 
Long-term operating lease liabilities588 606 
Other long-term liabilities285 259 
Total long-term liabilities4,636 3,750 
Stockholders’ equity
Common stock, $0.001 par value; 300 shares authorized; 116 and 115 shares issued and
      outstanding as of December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively
  
Additional paid-in capital1,298 1,238 
Retained earnings (accumulated deficit)185 (4)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(217)(222)
Total equity1,266 1,012 
Total liabilities and equity$7,492 $6,269 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
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XPO, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Income
Years Ended December 31,
(In millions, except per share data)202320222021
Revenue$7,744 $7,718 $7,202 
Salaries, wages and employee benefits3,159 2,945 2,866 
Purchased transportation1,760 1,964 1,934 
Fuel, operating expenses and supplies1,623 1,687 1,492 
Operating taxes and licenses60 58 56 
Insurance and claims167 183 174 
Gains on sales of property and equipment(5)(60)(72)
Depreciation and amortization expense432 392 385 
Goodwill impairment 64  
Litigation matter8   
Transaction and integration costs58 58 36 
Restructuring costs44 50 19 
Operating income438 377 312 
Other income(15)(55)(60)
Debt extinguishment loss25 39 54 
Interest expense168 135 211 
Income from continuing operations before income tax provision260 258 107 
Income tax provision68 74 11 
Income from continuing operations192 184 96 
Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of taxes (3)482 245 
Net income189 666 341 
Net income from discontinued operations attributable to
noncontrolling interests
  (5)
Net income attributable to XPO$189 $666 $336 
Net income (loss) attributable to common shareholders
Continuing operations$192 $184 $96 
Discontinued operations(3)482 240 
Net income attributable to common shareholders$189 $666 $336 
Earnings (loss) per share data
Basic earnings per share from continuing operations$1.66 $1.60 $0.85 
Basic earnings (loss) per share from discontinued operations(0.02)4.19 2.14 
Basic earnings per share attributable to common shareholders$1.64 $5.79 $2.99 
Diluted earnings per share from continuing operations$1.62 $1.59 $0.83 
Diluted earnings (loss) per share from discontinued operations(0.02)4.17 2.10 
Diluted earnings per share attributable to common shareholders$1.60 $5.76 $2.93 
Weighted-average common shares outstanding
Basic weighted-average common shares outstanding116 115 112 
Diluted weighted-average common shares outstanding118 116 114 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
54


XPO, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income
Years Ended December 31,
(In millions)202320222021
Net income$189 $666 $341 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax
Foreign currency translation gain (loss), net of tax effect of $12, $(15) and $
$28 $(69)$(85)
Unrealized loss on financial assets/liabilities designated as hedging instruments, net of tax effect of $1, $(1) and $1
 (2)(3)
Defined benefit plans adjustment, net of tax effect of $9, $21 and $(11)
(23)(69)34 
Other comprehensive income (loss)5 (140)(54)
Comprehensive income$194 $526 $287 
Less: Comprehensive income attributable to noncontrolling interests  3 
Comprehensive income attributable to XPO$194 $526 $284 
See accompanying notes to consolidated financial statements.
55


XPO, Inc.
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
Years Ended December 31,
(In millions)202320222021
Cash flows from operating activities of continuing operations
Net income$189 $666 $341 
Income (loss) from discontinued operations, net of taxes (3)482 245 
Income from continuing operations192 184 96 
Adjustments to reconcile income (loss) from continuing operations to net
cash from operating activities
Depreciation, amortization and net lease activity432