We are commercializing our technology through the creation of filter designs that address the problems in the high growth RFFE industry created by the growing number of frequency bands in mobile devices. The worldwide adoption of Long Term Evolution, or LTE, as the global standard, and the use of mobile devices to access the Internet, has resulted in massive proliferation of frequency bands which, when combined with CA for higher data rates and multiple input multiple output, or MIMO, has resulted in an ever-increasing number and complexity of filters in the RFFE. We have developed and continue to expand a series of single-band designs for frequency bands presently dominated by larger and more expensive bulk acoustic wave, or BAW, filters. We are also developing multiplexer filter designs for two or more bands to address the CA requirements of our customers. We are using our ISN® platform to efficiently integrate these designs into RF modules for our module customers. Finally, we are developing unique filter designs, enabled by ISN®, to replace multiple filters and associated componentry for many bands, with higher performance. Currently, we are leveraging ISN® to develop these designs targeted for either the Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) or Temperature Compensated, Surface Acoustic Wave (TC-SAW) manufacturing processes. In 2018 we further extended ISN® for BAW designs, which has resulted in our invention of a unique resonator structure that we call XBARTM, which exhibits performance parameters suitable for 5G applications - high frequency operation, large bandwidth and high power reliability. Our success with XBARTM is dependent on our ability to develop high frequency filters utilizing these resonator structures that are successfully adopted by our targeted customers, which will be determined by our ability to show improved performance over competing products or significantly reduce the size and cost of their products.
We believe licensing our designs is the most direct and effective means of validating our ISN® platform and related IP libraries to address this rapidly growing market. Our target customers make part or all of the RFFE. We intend to retain ownership of our designs, and we expect to be compensated through license fees and royalties based on sales of RFFE filters that incorporate our designs and leverage our ISN® platform.
Our typical customer engagement process begins with the execution of a Joint Development Agreement, or JDA, and License Agreement, or LA, for specific bands. Depending on the complexity of the design, we estimate that initial samples of products to OEMs, will occur typically within nine to thirty-six months following execution of a license agreement. We classify these new designs as either ISN® Ready (9-12 months), ISN® Pilot (12-18 months), ISN® Advanced (18-36 months) or ISN® Development (Custom). Following these development cycles, designs are manufactured, qualified by our customers and sampled to OEM customers. Our customers can take from three to six months to qualify a design and then the OEMs can take an additional three to six months, or longer, to qualify a design as fit for use, reliable and ready for mass production. The point at which an OEM begins taking product from our customers in mass production is typically when royalty revenues would begin. Our customer agreements typically provide for upfront design fees and royalty payments for each unit sold using our filter designs and typically last for a minimum of two years, but may be renewed for a longer period.