Company Quick10K Filing
Federal Life Group
Price11.69 EPS-0
Shares4 P/E-329
MCap45 P/FCF-19
Net Debt-30 EBIT-0
TEV16 TEV/EBIT-111
TTM 2019-03-31, in MM, except price, ratios
10-Q 2019-03-31 Filed 2019-05-20
10-K 2018-12-31 Filed 2019-04-01
S-1 2018-10-11 Public Filing
8-K 2019-03-25

FLF Filing

Part II  Information Not Required in Prospectus
Item 13. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.
Item 14. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.
Item 15. Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities.
Item 16. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.
Item 17. Undertakings.
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Federal Life Group Filing 2018-10-11

S-1 1 tv503091-s1.htm FORM S-1 tv503091-s1 - none - 23.5399664s
As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on October 11, 2018
Registration No. 333-     ​
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
FEDERAL LIFE GROUP, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Pennsylvania
6311
82-4944172
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
3750 West Deerfield Road
Riverwoods, Illinois 60015
(847) 520-1900
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Joseph D. Austin
Chairman and Chief Executive Officer
3750 West Deerfield Road
Riverwoods, Illinois 60015
(847) 520-1900
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
Wesley R. Kelso, Esq.
Stevens & Lee, P.C.
111 North Sixth Street
Reading, Pennsylvania 19603
(610) 478-2242
James M. Connolly, Esq.
Griffin Financial Group LLC
100 Lennox Drive, Suite 200
Lawrenceville, NJ 08648
(609) 987-6677
Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after the registration statement becomes effective.
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box: ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of  “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer ☐ Accelerated filer ☐
Non-accelerated filer ☐ Smaller reporting company ☐
Emerging growth company ☒
If an emerging growth company, indicate by checkmark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐
Calculation of Registration Fee
Title of Each Class of Securities to be Registered
Amount to be
Registered(1)
Proposed
Maximum
Offering Price
Per Share(2)
Proposed
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price
Amount of
Registration Fee
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share
4,600,000 $ 10.00 $ 46,000,000 $ 5,576
(1)
Includes shares to be offered to eligible members and directors and officers of Federal Life Mutual Holding Company, pursuant to Federal Life Mutual Holding Company’s plan of conversion.
(2)
Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the amount of the registration fee in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said section 8(a), may determine.

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state or other jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
PROSPECTUS Subject to Completion, dated            , 2018
Federal Life Group, Inc.
We are offering up to 4,600,000 shares of our common stock for sale at a price of  $10.00 per share in connection with the conversion of Federal Life Mutual Holding Company, or Federal Life Mutual, from the mutual to stock form of organization. Immediately following the conversion, we will acquire all of the newly issued shares of Federal Life Mutual common stock. This is our initial public offering.
We are offering shares of our common stock in a subscription offering and a community offering. The subscription offering will be made to eligible members of Federal Life Mutual, who were the policyholders and holders of annuities of Federal Life Insurance Company, an Illinois life insurance company and indirect subsidiary of Federal Life Mutual, as of March 8, 2018, and to the directors and officers of Federal Life Mutual.
The subscription offering will end at noon, Central Time, on [•], 2018. Concurrently with the subscription offering and subject to the prior right of subscribers in the subscription offering, shares will be offered in a community offering to employees of Federal Life Mutual and its subsidiaries (who may purchase through their 401-K Plan accounts), to a limited number of persons identified by Federal Life Insurance Company as possible strategic partners, and to Insurance Capital Group, LLC, or ICG, which has agreed to act as a standby purchaser pursuant to a standby stock purchase agreement dated March 8, 2018. This phase of the stock offering is referred to as the community offering. We refer to the subscription offering and the community offering as the offerings. The aggregate number of shares that employees, officers, directors, and strategic investors can purchase in the offerings cannot exceed 700,000 shares.
Our ability to complete this offering is subject to two conditions. First, a minimum of 3,400,000 shares of common stock must be sold to complete this offering. Second, Federal Life Mutual’s plan of conversion must be approved by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes cast at the special meeting of members to be held on [•], 2018. Until such time as these conditions are satisfied, all funds submitted to purchase shares will be held in escrow with Computershare Trust Company, N.A. If the offering is terminated, purchasers will have their funds promptly returned without interest.
ICG has agreed to purchase in the community offering any shares not subscribed for in the offerings up to the offering minimum of 3,400,000 shares. If all of the conditions to ICG’s obligations to purchase shares in the offering are satisfied, the sale of the minimum number of shares is guaranteed. See “The Conversion and the Offering — Description of Standby Stock Purchase Agreement.” Accordingly, the number of shares purchased by eligible members of Federal Life and other purchasers will not impact the condition to closing that at least 3,400,000 shares must be sold in the offering. The sale of sufficient shares to meet the offering minimum of 3,400,000 shares does not indicate that sales have been made to investors who have no financial or other interest in the offering, and the sale of 3,400,000 shares in the offering should not be viewed as an indication of the merits of the offering.
Shares purchased by ICG and by directors and officers of Federal Life Mutual will be counted toward satisfaction of the minimum amount needed to complete this offering. If more orders are received than shares offered, shares will be allocated in the manner and priority described in this prospectus. The standby purchaser has the right and may purchase additional shares in the community offering up to the offering maximum of 4,600,000 shares. It is likely that ICG, as the standby purchaser, will own a majority of our outstanding shares after the offering. However, we are unable to predict the number of shares that eligible members subscribe to purchase in the subscription offering, so the percentage of our outstanding shares owned by ICG after the offering may range from 0% to 100%.
The minimum number of shares that a person may subscribe to purchase is 50 shares. Except for the standby purchaser and the directors and officers of Federal Life Mutual and its subsidiaries, the maximum number of shares that a person may purchase in the offering is 50,000 shares.
Griffin Financial Group LLC will act as our placement agent and will use its best efforts to assist us in selling our common stock in this offering, but Griffin Financial is not obligated to purchase any shares of common stock that are being offered for sale. Purchasers will not pay any commission to purchase shares of common stock in this offering.
There is currently no public market for our common stock. We intend to apply for the listing of our common stock on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “FLF.” People considering purchasing shares in the offerings should note that our management and the standby purchaser are likely to seek to delist our shares from trading on the NASDAQ Capital Market. This would materially and adversely affect the liquidity of our stock. See “Risk Factors — Our management and the standby purchaser are likely to seek to delist our shares from trading on the NASDAQ Stock Market and end our reporting obligations under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.”
We are an “emerging growth company” under applicable Securities and Exchange Commission rules and will be eligible for reduced public company reporting requirements. See “Prospectus Summary — Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company.”
Investing in our common stock involves risks. For a discussion of the material risks that you should consider, see “Risk Factors” beginning on page 15of this prospectus.
OFFERING SUMMARY
Price: $10.00 per share
Minimum
Maximum
Number of shares offered
3,400,000 4,600,000
Gross offering proceeds
$ 34,000,000 $ 46,000,00
Estimated offering expenses
$ 1,000,000 $ 1,000,000
Commissions(1)(2) $ 1,895,000 $ 2,135,000
Net proceeds
$ 31,105,000 $ 42,865,000
Net proceeds per share
$ 9.15 $ 9.32
(1)
Represents the amount to be paid to Griffin Financial, based on 2.0% of the proceeds from shares sold in the subscription and community offerings and 6.5% of the proceeds from the shares sold to the standby purchaser. See “The Conversion and Offering — Marketing Arrangements” for a description of the placement agent compensation.
(2)
Assumes (x) at the offering minimum, 700,000 shares are sold in the subscription and community offerings to persons other than the standby purchaser and 2,700,000 shares are sold to the standby purchaser; and (y) at the offering maximum, 1,900,000 shares are sold in the subscription and community offerings to persons other than the standby purchaser and 2,700,000 shares are sold to the standby purchaser.
None of the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Illinois Department of Insurance or any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is accurate or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
For assistance, please call the Stock Information Center at (610) 205-6005.
Griffin Financial Group LLC
The date of this Prospectus is            , 2018

TABLE OF CONTENTS
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CERTAIN IMPORTANT INFORMATION
This Prospectus
You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus. We have not, and Griffin Financial has not, authorized any other person to provide information that is different from that contained in this prospectus. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We and Griffin Financial are offering to sell and seeking offers to buy our common stock only in jurisdictions where such offers and sales are permitted. You should assume that the information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or of any sale of our common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may have changed since that date. Information contained on our website, or any other website operated by us, is not part of this prospectus.
Frequently Used Terms
Unless the context otherwise requires, as used in this prospectus:

“Federal Life Mutual” refers to Federal Life Mutual Holding Company and its consolidated subsidiaries;

“the stock holding company” refers to Federal Life Group, Inc., a Pennsylvania corporation formed to be the holding company for Federal Life Mutual upon its conversion from mutual to stock form;

“Federal Life” refers to Federal Life Insurance Company, an Illinois life insurance company and an indirect subsidiary of Federal Life Mutual;

“the Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to Federal Life Mutual and its consolidated subsidiaries prior to the conversion as described in this prospectus, and to Federal Life Group, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries after the conversion;

“conversion” refers to a series of transactions by which Federal Life Mutual will convert from mutual to stock form and become a subsidiary of Federal Life Group, Inc. under the terms of the plan of conversion adopted by the board of directors of Federal Life Mutual;

“Department” means the Illinois Insurance Department;

“exchangeable note” means the $2,000,000 promissory note issued by Federal Life Mutual to the standby purchaser upon the signing of the standby stock purchase agreement. The standby purchaser has agreed to loan up to $2,000,000 to Federal Life Mutual to fund costs incurred by Federal Life Mutual in connection with the conversion and the offerings. The outstanding principal balance of the exchangeable note will automatically convert to shares of the Company’s common stock upon the completion of the conversion and the offerings at a price of  $10.00 per share. Shares issued in connection with the exchangeable note will count towards the minimum number of shares that must be sold in the offerings;

“fixed index annuity” means a contract issued and guaranteed by an insurance company that provides for a return on the amount invested that is typically tied to a specified stock index (such as the S&P 500 index) while guaranteeing no loss of the amount originally invested, and which in some cases can be converted to a guaranteed level of lifetime income;

“variable annuity” means a contract issued and guaranteed by an insurance company that provides the holder with future payments based on the performance of the contract’s underlying securities. The insurer guarantees a minimum payment during the payout phase, but the rate of return on the underlying securities may vary. The performance of these securities, usually mutual funds, dictates the size of the eventual annuity payment;

“mutual form” refers to an insurance company or its holding company organized as a mutual company, which is a form of organization in which the policyholders or members have certain membership rights in the mutual company, such as the right to vote with respect to the election of
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directors and approval of certain fundamental transactions, including the conversion from mutual to stock form; however, unlike shares held by stockholders, membership rights are not transferable and do not exist separately from the related insurance policy;

“stock form” is a form of organization in which the only rights that policyholders have are contractual rights under their insurance policies and in which voting rights reside with stockholders under state corporate law;

“subscription offering” refers to this offering of up to 4,600,000 shares of our common stock under the plan of conversion to eligible members and directors and officers of Federal Life Mutual;

“community offering” refers to this offering of up to 4,600,000 shares of our common stock under the plan of conversion to employees of Federal Life Mutual and its subsidiaries (who may purchase shares through their 401-K plan accounts), a limited number of persons identified by Federal Life as possible strategic partners, and the standby purchaser;

“offerings” refers to the subscription offering and the community offering;

“standby purchaser” refers to Insurance Capital Group, LLC, which has agreed to stand by and purchase any shares not subscribed for in the subscription and community offerings up to the offering minimum of 3,400,000 shares, and which has the right to purchase additional shares up to the offering maximum of 4,600,000 shares, upon the terms and conditions set forth in the standby stock purchase agreement;

“standby stock purchase agreement” refers to the standby stock purchase agreement dated March 8, 2018, by and among Federal Life Mutual, Federal Life Group, Inc., Federal Life, and Insurance Capital Group, LLC;

“eligible member” refers to a person who was an owner of a policy issued by Federal Life and in-force on March 8, 2018, the date the plan of conversion was adopted by the board of directors of Federal Life Mutual;

“policy” includes a life insurance policy, an annuity, or an accident and health policy;

“member” refers to a person who is the owner of an in-force policy, or the holder of a certificate under a group policy, issued by Federal Life;

“accidental death coverage” refers to insurance coverage for a cause of death that does not include illness, suicide in most circumstances, or natural causes;

“affinity partner” refers to a company with whom we have a marketing relationship to provide insurance or annuity product services to that company’s customers or members under its brand or Federal Life’s brand;

“term life insurance” refers to a type of life insurance that is pure life insurance that ordinarily does not build cash value over time. Term life insurance coverage generally lasts for a specified time, generally 5, 10, 15, or 20 years or more, with level premiums over the period;

“whole life insurance” refers to a type of life insurance that builds cash value over time;

“universal insurance” refers to a type of flexible permanent life insurance that offers lower cost protection similar to term life insurance as well as a savings element similar to whole life insurance that builds cash value over time; and

“final expense protection” means a permanent life insurance policy designed to cover immediate expenses related to an insured’s death, such as funeral, burial, and medical bills. These policies typically never expire and provide for level premiums.
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Market And Industry Data
Market data and other statistical information used throughout this prospectus are based on independent industry publications, government publications, publicly available information, reports by market research firms, or other published independent sources. Independent industry publications, government publications, and other published independent sources generally indicate that the information included therein was obtained from sources believed to be reliable. Some data are based upon good faith estimates derived from our management’s review of the independent sources referenced herein and from experience with partners, licensees, and other contacts in the markets in which the Company operates.
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. Before making a decision to purchase our common stock, you should read the entire prospectus carefully, including the “Risk Factors” and “Forward-Looking Statements” sections and our consolidated financial statements and the notes to those financial statements.
Overview
We provide life insurance and annuity products targeted to the middle American market. Industry data indicates there is a substantial unmet need for life insurance and investment and retirement products, particularly among domestic households with annual incomes of between $60,000 and $250,000, a market we refer to as the Middle Market. We believe that approximately 45 million households comprise our target market — households with identified need for life insurance and guaranteed retirement income products and the financial means to address that need. We strive to deliver to this market affordable, easy to understand life insurance and annuity products through knowledgeable independent agents.
We have not been profitable in recent years due to the prolonged low interest rate environment, which has depressed interest income, insufficient size to absorb our fixed costs, a lack of distribution partners and an A.M. Best rating needed to generate sales of insurance and annuity products, and insufficient capital to support a larger book of business. To address these shortcomings, we have identified variable and fixed annuities, and certain life and supplemental health products, as niche markets that have also attracted the interest of distribution partners and, in the case of fixed annuities, shown strong sales growth. We have also implemented significant expense reductions that have successfully offset the decline in our investment income.
For the year ended December 31, 2017, we had total consolidated revenue of  $23.0 million, insurance revenues of  $12.1 million, and a net loss of  $1.9 million. As of December 31, 2017, we had over 26,000 policyholders and group certificate holders, almost 2,000 annuity holders, total assets of  $257.1 million, and equity of  $31.4 million. For the six months ended June 30, 2018, we had total consolidated revenue of $10.9 million, insurance revenues of  $6.3 million and a net loss of  $2.0 million.
We conduct our business through our primary operating subsidiary, Federal Life Insurance Company or Federal Life, an Illinois-domiciled life insurance company that was incorporated in 1899. Federal Life distributes its life insurance and annuity products through independent agents and is licensed in the District of Columbia and every state except Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont. Federal Life is not rated by A.M. Best. Federal Life is located in Riverwoods, Illinois.
Our Market and Opportunities
Market for Life Insurance Products
We believe that the conditions for increasing sales of life insurance in the Middle Market are favorable. Recent reports from LIMRA, a worldwide research, learning, and development organization serving the financial services industry, indicate that significant unmet demand exists in this market, with less than half of Middle Market consumers having individual life insurance coverage. We believe that the financial implications for Middle Market households are profound and that consumers are aware of the need for coverage.
The three largest living generations, often referred to as Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Millennials, are at a life stage that aligns well with mortality protection products. According to LIMRA, 33% of Millennials are very likely or extremely likely to buy life insurance within the next year — compared to just 17% of the total population. Meanwhile, members of Generation X view life insurance as a method to protect their families’ standard of living and to provide for their children’s college expenses in the event of a parent’s unexpected death. Additionally, as Baby Boomers enter retirement age, they become prospects for life insurance products for estate planning and for final expense protection. According to the Pew Research Center, approximately 10,000 Americans turn age 65 every day — a trend that is projected to continue until 2030. We believe that significant growth potential exists for life insurance sales by companies that position themselves to satisfy the unmet need among this large, growing segment of the U.S. population.
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Market for Annuity Products
Our target market includes the group of individuals who are seeking to accumulate tax deferred savings or create guaranteed lifetime income. We believe that significant growth opportunities exist for annuity products because of favorable demographic and economic trends. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, there were approximately 39 million Americans age 65 and older in 2010, representing 13% of the U.S. population, and this group had grown to 44.7 million in 2013. By 2030, this sector of the population is expected to increase to 20% of the total population. Our fixed index and fixed rate annuity products are particularly attractive to this group due to their principal protection, competitive rates of credited interest, tax deferred growth, guaranteed lifetime income, and alternative payout options. Our competitive fixed index and fixed rate annuity products have enjoyed favorable growth in recent years.
According to Wink’s Sales and Market Report published by Wink, Inc., total industry sales of fixed index annuities increased 19.8% to $44.9 billion for the first three quarters of 2016 from $37.5 billion for the first three quarters of 2015. Total industry sales of fixed index annuities have increased 64% over the five year period from 2010 to 2015, which we believe is attributable to more Americans reaching retirement age and seeking products that will provide principal protection and guaranteed lifetime income.
We intend to introduce a variable annuity product to our group of annuity product offerings upon completion of the offering. Federal Life was a pioneer in the variable annuity market and introduced one of the first variable annuity products in 1975. The additional capital from the offering will provide the capital needed to support our growing index annuity business and allow us to re-enter the variable annuity market.
Our Competitive Strengths
We believe that we are strategically positioned to take advantage of the following competitive strengths:

Long Tenured and Experienced Management Team.   Our management team, led by Joseph D. Austin, has an average of 40 years of experience in the life insurance business. Our management team has experience in adapting to significant changes in the life insurance industry over several decades and in developing innovative products such as fixed index annuity products and variable annuities in response to changes in the industry.

Rich History and Strong Reputation for Service.   We have been in business since 1900 and are widely recognized in the life insurance industry for our customer service and strong agency relationships.

Experience in Product Development.   We were one of the first insurance companies in the country to develop and offer a variable annuity product, which we first introduced in 1975. Recently, we have developed and offered fixed index annuity products to complement the fixed rate annuity products that we have traditionally offered. These products typically are offered only by much larger companies.

Scalable Platform.   We believe that we can significantly increase our volume without a significant increase in expense. We have the administrative capacity to process and service additional policy volumes without a significant increase in personnel or additional technology or infrastructure expenditures.
Our Growth Strategies
We intend to use our competitive strengths and the capital from this offering to grow our business through the following strategies:

Enter into Strategic Partnerships to Expand our Sales and Distribution.   We currently distribute our life insurance and annuity products through approximately 1,000 independent agents. We intend to expand our distribution platform by entering into strategic partnerships with companies that can broaden our distribution channels. We have recently executed an agreement with a leading exchange traded fund provider that will enable us to co-brand and use its ETF products as
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the investment options in our variable rate annuity product upon its introduction. We believe the standby purchaser can provide assistance in expanding our distribution network. We continue to strive to provide all of our distribution partners with the highest quality service possible.

Pursue Acquisitions of Life Companies and Related Businesses.   We intend to use the additional capital provided by this offering to explore possible acquisitions of other life insurance companies to grow our business and leverage our existing available administrative capacity. We will also explore opportunities to acquire related businesses, such as insurance agencies, that can expand our distribution network.

Continue to Introduce Innovative and Competitive Products.   We intend to be at the forefront of the fixed index and fixed rate annuity industry in developing and introducing innovative and competitive products. We offer a fixed index annuity that allows a choice among interest crediting strategies including both equity indexes as well as a traditional fixed rate strategy. We include a lifetime income benefit rider with our fixed index annuities and have a lifetime income benefit rider with gender-based income payments. After the closing of the offerings, we intend to introduce a variable annuity product. We believe that our continued focus on anticipating and being responsive to the product needs of the ever-growing population of retirees will lead to increased customer loyalty, revenues, and profitability.

Focus on Profitability and Improve Operating Efficiency.   We are committed to improving our profitability by advancing the scope and sophistication of our investment management and spread capabilities and continuously seeking efficiencies within our operations. The expanded use of technological resources will continue to allow us to improve our processes, scalability, and response times.

Take Advantage of the Growing Popularity of Index Products.   Fixed index and single premium annuities have been profitable for us in both the short-term and long-term and impose minimal or no strain on our statutory surplus. We believe that the growing popularity of fixed index annuity products that allow equity and bond market participation without the risk of loss of the premium deposit presents an attractive opportunity to grow our business. The popularity of fixed index annuity products has increased in recent years with the availability of lifetime income benefit riders that provide an attractive alternative for converting accumulated retirement savings into lifetime income. We believe that there is a significant market for these products as the Baby Boomer generation continues to reach retirement age. We intend to capitalize on our reputation as a provider of fixed index annuities in this expanding segment of the annuity market.

Target Niche Markets for Our Products.   We intend to focus on niche markets for our products, such as the Hispanic market, the direct-to-consumer market, and the senior and retirement planning markets. Federal Life currently has a presence in the Hispanic market and maintains an entirely separate Spanish-language website that features content and themes unique to that target market. Federal Life is also committing substantial resources to upgrade its digital platform and intends to leverage these new digital distribution and service applications to meet the needs of today’s consumers by promoting ease of access to information and efficient sales and customer service. We intend to target the senior and retirement planning markets with our existing fixed index annuity, flexible premium deferred annuity, and final expense plan insurance products.

Focus on High Quality Service to Agents and Policyholders.   We have maintained high quality personal service as one of our highest priorities since the inception of our company and continue to strive for an unprecedented level of timely and accurate service to both our agents and policyholders. We believe high quality service is one of our strongest competitive advantages.

Target Direct to Consumer Sales.   We are committing substantial resources to upgrade our digital platform to provide digital distribution and sales applications to meet the demands of today’s consumers by promoting ease of access to information and efficiency between sales and customer service. This permits us to generate more business from new and existing customers. We intend to provide access to our single premium deferred annuity, flexible premium deferred annuity, and single premium whole life products through the online platform that we are currently upgrading.
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Our Challenges and Risks
Our company and our business are subject to numerous risks as more fully described in the section of this prospectus entitled “Risk Factors.” As part of your evaluation of our business, you should consider the challenges and risks we face in implementing our business strategies:

Low Interest Rate Environment.   Although the Federal Reserve has raised key short term interest rates multiple times since the end of 2015, medium and long-term interest rates remain historically low. The prolonged period of low interest rates that began in 2008 has significantly reduced the returns on our investment portfolio and decreased demand for fixed rate annuity products.

History of Losses.   We have experienced losses for the past several years primarily due to our lack of size and scale. Our lack of an A.M. Best rating also limits our ability to grow our business, which impairs our ability to leverage our operating expenses over a larger premium base.

Lack of Marketing Resources.    We are small in relation to many of the life insurance companies with which we compete. Larger life insurance companies have a substantial advantage with respect to the resources that they can devote to advertising, marketing, and agent recruitment. In addition, their larger surplus permits them to maintain a larger book of business and spread their administrative expenses over a larger revenue base.

Lack of Multiple Distribution Channels.   We rely primarily on independent agents to distribute our life insurance and annuity products. As a result, access to talented independent agents is very important to our plan to grow our business and product offerings. Much of the competition for talent involves agent recruitment. If our competitors are rated, provide the agents with better technology, pay higher commissions, or provide access to products that are perceived to be better than those we can provide, our ability to attract and retain agents may be reduced, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.

Intense Competition for Policyholders.   We face intense competition for policyholders and compete with much larger life insurance companies, many of which seek to sell life insurance and annuity products to the same demographic markets that we target. Most of these companies devote substantial resources to advertising and marketing to potential policyholders and to agent recruitment. Many of these companies have multiple distribution channels for their products and some employ in-house agents, which reduces their commission expense. In addition, several of these companies have well established Internet sales capabilities.
Business Segment
We manage our business through one segment. Our insurance segment operates through Federal Life. Federal Life engages in the principal business lines of life insurance and annuities. Federal Life offers primarily term life insurance products, whole and universal life products, and to a lesser extent accidental death and final expenses products. In addition, we currently offer both fixed interest and fixed index annuity contracts.
Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company
As a company with less than $1.0 billion in revenue during our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, commonly known as the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of specified reduced reporting requirements and reduction of other obligations that are otherwise generally applicable to public companies. These provisions include:

a requirement to include in this prospectus only two years of audited financial statements, two years of selected financial information, and two years of related Management Discussion & Analysis;

exemption from the auditor attestation requirement on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting;
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reduced disclosure about our executive compensation arrangements; and

no stockholder non-binding advisory votes on executive compensation or golden parachute arrangements.
We may take advantage of these provisions until the earlier of five years or such time as we are no longer an emerging growth company. We would cease to be an emerging growth company if we have more than $1.0 billion in annual revenues, have more than $700 million in market value of our capital stock held by non-affiliates, or issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period. We may choose to take advantage of some but not all of these reduced compliance obligations.
Section 107 of the JOBS Act also provides that an “emerging growth company” can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act for complying with new or revised accounting standards. We will take advantage of the extended transition period, and as a result we will not be required to comply with new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for publicly reporting companies that are not emerging growth companies.
Our Companies
Federal Life Group, Inc. is a newly created Pennsylvania corporation organized to be the stock holding company for Federal Life Mutual following the conversion. We formed Federal Life Group, Inc. so that it could acquire all of the capital stock of Federal Life Mutual as part of the conversion. Prior to the conversion, Federal Life Group, Inc. has not engaged and will not engage in any significant operations and does not have any assets or liabilities. After the conversion, our primary assets will be the outstanding capital stock of Federal Life Mutual and a portion of the net proceeds of the offerings. Federal Life Group, Inc. is a direct, wholly-owned subsidiary of Federal Life Mutual. Following the conversion, we intend to reorganize our corporate structure so that Federal Life Mutual is a direct, wholly owned subsidiary of Federal Life Group, Inc.
In 2016, Federal Life completed a reorganization in which it converted from a mutual to a stock insurance company within a newly created mutual holding company structure. As part of the reorganization, Federal Life Mutual was formed as an Illinois mutual insurance holding company and Federal Life continued its existence as an Illinois stock life insurance company. All of the shares of Federal Life were issued to FEDHO Holding Company (“FEDHO”), an intermediate holding company that, in turn, was a wholly-owned subsidiary of Federal Life Mutual. In the reorganization, policyholders’ membership interests in Federal Life automatically became membership interests in Federal Life Mutual, but policyholders’ contractual rights remained with Federal Life. Since the effective date of the reorganization, each person who has become a Federal Life individual or group policyholder has automatically become a member of Federal Life Mutual and has retained that membership interest as long as the Federal Life policy owned by the member remains in force.
FED Mutual Financial Services, Inc. is a Finra licensed broker-dealer and a wholly owned subsidiary of Federal Life. We plan to offer and sell Federal Life variable annuity products directly to customers through FED Mutual. FED Mutual is currently inactive.
Americana Realty Company is a wholly owned subsidiary that owns mineral rights that Federal Life acquired in the 1930s and 1940s and which it leases to oil and gas producers. Americana Realty has no other assets and does not engage in any business other than collecting royalty payments and occasional sales of some of its oil and gas interests. For the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, Americana Realty had total bonus and royalty revenues of  $657,000 and $448,000, respectively.
Our executive offices are located at 3750 West Deerfield Road, Riverwoods, Illinois, 60015, and our phone number is (847) 520-1900. Our website address is www.Federallife.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and such information should not be considered to be part of this prospectus.
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Our Structure Prior to the Conversion
Since Federal Life converted from mutual to stock form in 2016, we have operated under a mutual holding company structure. Our current corporate structure is shown in the following chart:
[MISSING IMAGE: tv498201_chrt-flow1.jpg]
Prior to the conversion, Federal Life Group has not engaged in any significant operations and does not have any assets or liabilities.
Our Structure Following the Conversion
Immediately upon the conversion of Federal Life Mutual, all of the authorized capital stock of the converted Federal Life Mutual will be issued to the Company, and the common stock of the Company held by the converted Federal Life Mutual will be cancelled, such that, upon completion of these series of actions, the issued and outstanding shares of our common stock will consist of the shares of common stock sold in the offerings and any shares of our common stock that become subject to restricted stock awards granted under our stock-based incentive plan.
Upon completion of the conversion, we intend to merge Federal Life Mutual and FEDHO with and into the Company, with the Company as the surviving entity. Following the completion of these actions, our corporate structure will be as shown in the following chart:
[MISSING IMAGE: tv498201_chrt-flow2.jpg]
It is likely that ICG will own a majority of our outstanding shares and that our directors and executive officers will own approximately 9% of our shares after completion of the offering. However, we are unable to predict the number of shares that eligible members subscribe to purchase in the subscription offering, so the percentage of our outstanding shares owned by ICG after the offering may range from 0% to 100%.
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The Conversion of Federal Life Mutual from Mutual to Stock Form
Federal Life Mutual is an Illinois domiciled mutual insurance holding company. As a mutual company, it has no stockholders but it does have members. A member of Federal Life Mutual is either the owner of an in-force individual policy issued by Federal Life or the holder of a certificate under a group master policy issued by Federal Life.
Like stockholders, the members have certain rights with respect to Federal Life Mutual such as voting rights with respect to the election of directors and approval of certain fundamental transactions, including the conversion of Federal Life Mutual from mutual to stock form. However, unlike shares held by stockholders, the memberships in Federal Life Mutual are not transferable and do not exist separately from the related insurance policy issued by Federal Life. Therefore, these membership rights are extinguished when a member’s policy with Federal Life is terminated by surrender, death, lapse, or cancellation. Those membership interests will also be extinguished upon conversion of Federal Life Mutual from mutual to stock form in accordance with Illinois law and the plan of conversion.
The board of directors of Federal Life Mutual adopted a plan of conversion on March 8, 2018, under which Federal Life Mutual will convert from a mutual insurance holding company to a stock company. Following the conversion, Federal Life Mutual will become a wholly-owned subsidiary of Federal Life Group, Inc. A special meeting of the members of Federal Life Mutual eligible to vote (those persons who were members of Federal Life as of the close of business on March 8, 2018) will be held on [•], 2018 (special meeting date), to approve the plan of conversion. To become effective, the plan must be approved by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes cast at the special meeting.
As part of the conversion, we are offering for sale in a subscription offering between 3,400,000 shares and 4,600,000 shares of our common stock at a purchase price of  $10.00 per share on a priority basis to eligible members and to the directors and officers of Federal Life Mutual. If less than 3,400,000 shares are subscribed for in the subscription offering, we will offer shares in a community offering to employees of Federal Life Mutual and its subsidiaries (who may purchase shares through their 401-K plan accounts), to a limited number of investors who we anticipate may become strategic partners of Federal Life, and to the standby purchaser. Subject to satisfaction of all conditions in the standby stock purchase agreement, the standby purchaser has agreed to purchase at least such number of shares as is necessary for the offering minimum of 3,400,000 shares to be sold in the offerings and may purchase any shares remaining up to the 4,600,000 share maximum. The standby purchaser currently expects to purchase approximately 2,700,000 shares in the community offering if such shares are available. All purchasers of our common stock in the offerings will pay the same price per share. It is likely that ICG, as the standby purchaser, will own a majority of our outstanding shares after the offering. However, we are unable to predict the number of shares that eligible members subscribe to purchase in the subscription offering, so the percentage of our outstanding shares owned by ICG after the offering may range from 0% to 100%.
The sale of sufficient shares to meet the offering minimum of 3,400,000 shares does not indicate that sales have been made to investors who have no financial or other interest in the offering, and the sale of 3,400,000 shares in the offering should not be viewed as an indication of the merits of the offering.
In connection with entering into the standby stock purchase agreement, the standby purchaser agreed to loan up to $2,000,000 to Federal Life Mutual to cover costs incurred by the Company in connection with the conversion and the offerings. Any outstanding principal balance of such loan will automatically convert into shares of our common stock at a price of  $10.00 per share upon completion of the conversion and the offerings. Such shares will be counted toward satisfaction of the minimum amount needed to complete this offering and will be included in any shares purchased by the standby purchaser in the community offering.
The Subscription Offering
We are offering shares of our common stock in a subscription offering. The subscription offering will end at noon, Central Time, on [•], 2018 [expiration date]. In the subscription offering, 4,600,000 shares of common stock are being offered in the following order of priority: first, to the policyholders and holders of annuities of Federal Life as of the close of business on March 8, 2018, who we refer to as eligible members, and second, to the directors and officers of Federal Life Mutual.
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The number of shares of common stock issued in the offerings will not exceed 4,600,000 shares. Shares purchased by the directors and officers of Federal Life Mutual will be purchased for investment and not for resale and will be counted toward satisfaction of the minimum amount needed to complete this offering.
The Community Offering
If less than 3,400,000 shares are subscribed for in the subscription offering, we will offer the remaining shares to employees of Federal Life Mutual and its subsidiaries (who may purchase through their 401-K plan accounts), to a limited number of investors who we anticipate may become strategic partners of Federal Life, and to the standby purchaser. The community offering will end at noon, Central Time, on [•], 2018 [expiration date].
If less than 3,400,000 shares are subscribed for in the subscription and community offerings by other purchasers, the standby purchaser has agreed to purchase any shares not subscribed for in the subscription offering up to the offering minimum of 3,400,000 shares. The standby purchaser currently expects to purchase approximately 2,700,000 shares in the community offering if such shares are available. Shares purchased by the standby purchaser are purchased for investment and not for resale and will count toward the completion of this offering.
The Standby Stock Purchase Agreement
On March 8, 2018, the Company entered into the standby stock purchase agreement with ICG. Subject to the terms and conditions of the standby stock purchase agreement, ICG has agreed to purchase from the Company at a price of  $10.00 per share such number of shares as is necessary for the minimum of 3,400,000 shares to be sold as required under the plan of conversion. ICG, however, has the right to purchase additional shares from the Company up the offering maximum of 4,600,000 shares. ICG currently expects to purchase approximately 2,700,000 shares in the community offering if such shares are available. Accordingly, if all of the conditions to ICG’s obligation to purchase shares in the offering are satisfied, the sale of the minimum number of shares is guaranteed. We anticipate that ICG will own approximately 80% of our outstanding shares after completion of the offering
ICG has agreed to loan up to $2,000,000 to Federal Mutual Life to fund expenses incurred by Federal Mutual Life in connection with the conversion and the offerings. Federal Mutual Life issued an exchangeable note to ICG in connection with such credit facility. The outstanding principal balance of the exchangeable note will automatically convert into shares of our common stock at a price of  $10.00 per share upon completion of the offerings. The shares issued upon the conversion of the exchangeable note will count towards the minimum number of shares that must be sold in the offerings. On October 1, 2018, the outstanding principal balance of the exchangeable note was $1,050,000. Accordingly, based on that outstanding balance, we anticipate issuing approximately 105,000 shares upon conversion of the exchangeable note upon completion of the offerings. See “The Conversion and Offering — Description of Standby Stock Purchase Agreement.”
In connection with closing under the standby stock purchase agreement, we will appoint Matthew T. Popoli and Craig A. Huff, the founders of ICG, to the Company’s board of directors. So long as ICG beneficially owns more than 5.0% of the outstanding shares of our common stock and a standstill termination event has not occurred, we and Federal Life will nominate, recommend, and support Mr. Popoli and Mr. Huff, or any replacement director selected by ICG and reasonably acceptable to the Company, for election to the boards of directors of the Company and Federal Life.
The standby purchaser agreed to certain post-closing standstill and voting covenants and restrictions on its ability to sell shares for three years following the closing of the offerings and additional limitations for up to five years following the closing of the offerings. In addition, so long as ICG beneficially owns 5.0% or more of the shares of our common stock and a standstill termination event has not occurred, ICG shall generally vote all shares of common stock beneficially owned by ICG (a) for persons nominated and recommended by the Company’s board of directors for election as directors of the Company and against any person nominated for election as a director by any other person, and (b) as directed or recommended by the Company’s board of directors with respect to any proposal presented at any meeting of the Company’s shareholders.
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ICG will be entitled to preemptive rights that would allow it to maintain its percentage ownership in certain subsequent offerings of our common stock or securities convertible into our common stock. This right will not apply to, and shall terminate upon the earlier of  (a) the first date upon which ICG no longer beneficially owns more than five percent (5%) of the outstanding shares of our common stock, (b) the date of any breach by ICG of any obligation under the standby stock purchase agreement that remains uncured after 15 days’ notice thereof, or (c) a standstill termination event.
So long as ICG owns 25% or more of the outstanding shares of our common stock, without the affirmative vote or written approval of ICG, none of the Company, Federal Life, or Federal Life Mutual shall cause or permit, take or decide, or agree or commit to take any of the following actions, and ICG will have the right to vote its shares (or provide or withhold its written approval) with respect to such actions in its sole and absolute discretion:

making use of the net proceeds of the offering (including the contribution or loan of such net proceeds to Federal Life or Federal Life Mutual); other than a contribution of least $12,500,000 of such net proceeds, which shall be contributed to Federal Life immediately after the closing;

the merger or consolidation of the Company or Federal Life with any person or the sale, lease, or other transfer of all or substantially all of the Company’s or Federal Life’s assets to any person, or entry into any agreement to do any of the foregoing; and

the entry into any material transaction with any affiliate of the Company, Federal Life Mutual, or Federal Life.
For more information regarding the provisions of the standby stock purchase agreement, see “The Conversion and Offering — Description of Standby Stock Purchase Agreement” and “Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Ownership of Our Common Stock — There will not be an active, liquid trading market for our common stock.”
Conflicts of interest may arise between ICG and the Company, and ICG and its representatives on our board of directors may at times take actions that are not in the best interests of our other shareholders. See “Risk Factors —Risks Relating to Ownership of Our Common Stock — The standby purchaser may obtain control over us and may not always exercise its control in a way that benefits our public shareholders.
Insurance Capital Group LLC
One of the reasons that we entered into the standby stock purchase agreement with the standby purchaser is that we expect to benefit from the standby purchaser’s knowledge and experience in the life insurance industry and its ability to provide resources to us that may enable us to further develop our distribution strategy and grow our business in our target Middle Market.
ICG is a holding company that was organized on January 8, 2018, for the purpose of acquiring and making investments in businesses across targeted sectors, with a focus on sponsored insurance company demutualizations and other complex conversion transactions. ICG currently owns an interest in Capital Insurance Company, a Pennsylvania non-standard auto insurance company that ICG acquired in the second quarter of 2018.
ICG is controlled by its managing members, Craig Huff and Matt Popoli. ICG’s board of directors has extensive experience in investing in and operating insurance businesses, including two directors who were formerly Commissioners of Insurance in Illinois, Connecticut and Texas. We expect that the investment, corporate governance and regulatory expertise developed by ICG’s management and board of directors will benefit us as we seek to expand our life insurance business in the middle market, including ICG’s experience in identifying, acquiring and improving the operations and financial performance of insurance companies. For more information regarding Mr. Huff and Mr. Popoli, see “Management — Post Conversion Directors.”
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We believe that ICG may be able to provide significant resources to help us further develop our distribution strategy and grow our business in the middle market for the following reasons:

The members of the ICG Board have extensive life insurance and distribution relationships that may be of benefit to us. Mssrs. Huff and Popoli and another ICG director previously sat on the board of directors of one of the largest independently owned life insurance, annuity and Medicare supplement distribution businesses. Mr. Popoli is currently assisting us with exploring a possible new distribution agreement for this entity to sell our insurance products;

The relationships of the members of the ICG Board may provide us with attractive investment opportunities that would not be otherwise available to us because ICG Board members from time to time identify small acquisition targets of both insurance companies and insurance agencies, and these opportunities could be referred to Federal Life;

The members of the ICG Board have experience improving operations, expanding distribution, supplementing investment portfolios, and growing premiums as a result of their involvement in Prosperity Life Insurance Company (“Prosperity”), a life insurance carrier formed from the combination of SBLI USA Life Insurance Company and Shenandoah Life Insurance Company, and we believe such experience may be of value to improvement of operations at Federal Life. Specifically, at the time of acquisition, Prosperity was not rated and writing a minimal amount of new business. Under the leadership of the members of the ICG Board, Prosperity Life experienced a material increase in premium growth over the next several years and achieved an A- rating from A. M Best in 2016:

The experience of members of ICG’s board of directors may be helpful in providing direction in our new product development; and

The members of the ICG Board and ICG management have significant investment management experience, which may be of value in improving the risk-adjusted net yield of our invested assets.
Conditions to Completion of the Conversion and this Offering
Before we can complete this offering and issue our common stock, the members of Federal Life Mutual eligible to vote must approve the plan of conversion and we must sell at least the minimum number of shares offered in the offerings. If all of the conditions to ICG’s obligations to purchase shares in the offering are satisfied, the sale of the minimum number of shares is guaranteed. See “The Conversion and the Offering — Description of Standby Stock Purchase Agreement.” No funds will be released from the escrow account until all of these conditions have been satisfied. The acquisition by ICG of a controlling interest in our stock is subject to approval by the Illinois Insurance Department (the “Department”), which was received on [•], 2018.
Termination of this Offering
We have the right to cancel this offering at any time. In addition, the completion of this offering is subject to market conditions and other factors beyond our control. If this offering is not completed, all funds received will be promptly returned to purchasers without interest.
Stock Pricing and Number of Shares to be Issued
The plan of conversion requires that the range of the value of the total number of shares to be issued in connection with the conversion must be based on a valuation of our estimated consolidated pro forma market value. Under the plan of conversion, the valuation must be in the form of a range consisting of a midpoint valuation, a valuation fifteen percent (15%) above the midpoint valuation, and a valuation fifteen percent (15%) below the midpoint valuation. We retained RP Financial, LC (“RP Financial”) to determine the valuation range for this offering. RP Financial has determined that, as of December 22, 2017, the estimated consolidated pro forma market value of Federal Life Mutual is $40,000,000 at the midpoint, and the range of value of the total number of shares of common stock to be issued in the offering is between a minimum value of  $34,000,000 and a maximum value of  $46,000,000. We plan to issue between 3,400,000 and 4,600,000 shares of our common stock in this offering. This range was determined by
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dividing the $10.00 price per share into the range of RP Financial’s valuation. Shares purchased by the standby purchaser and the directors and officers of Federal Life will be purchased for investment and not for resale and will be counted toward satisfaction of the minimum amount needed to complete this offering.
We determined to offer the common stock in the subscription offering at the price of  $10.00 per share to ensure a sufficient number of shares are available for purchase by eligible members. In addition, Griffin Financial advised us that the $10.00 per share offering price is commonly used in mutual-to-stock conversions of other insurance companies and savings banks and savings associations that use the subscription rights conversion model. These were the only factors considered by our board of directors in determining to offer shares of common stock at $10.00 per share.
How Do I Buy Stock in this Offering?
If you wish to purchase shares of common stock in the subscription offering, you must sign and complete the stock order form that accompanies this prospectus and send it to us with your payment such that your order is received before the offering deadline. You may submit your order to us by overnight delivery to the address indicated for this purpose on the top of the stock order form or by mail using the stock order reply envelope provided. Payment by check or money order must accompany the stock order form. No cash or third party checks will be accepted. All checks or money orders must be made payable to “Computershare Trust Company, N.A., escrow agent, on behalf of Federal Life Group, Inc.” We may permit certain persons who submit orders in the community offering to make payment by a wire transfer to the escrow agent of the purchase price for any shares that they seek to purchase.
The completed stock order form and payment in full for the shares ordered must be received (not postmarked) no later than noon, Central Time, on [•, 2018] [expiration date]. Once submitted, your order is irrevocable without our consent unless we terminate this offering. Our consent to any modification or withdrawal request may or may not be given in our sole discretion. We may reject a stock order form if it is incomplete, improperly completed, or not timely received.
Offering Deadline
All subscription rights will expire at noon, Central Time, on [•, 2018] [expiration date]. Subscription rights not exercised prior to the termination date of this offering will be void, whether or not we have been able to locate each person entitled to receive subscription rights.
Limits on Your Purchase of Common Stock
The plan of conversion and Illinois law establish the following minimum and maximum purchase limitations for participants (including such participants’ associates or a group acting in concert) in the subscription offering:

No person may subscribe for fewer than 50 shares in this offering.

No person other than the standby purchaser and the directors and officers of Federal Life may purchase more than 50,000 shares.

Subject to the prior rights of eligible members to subscribe for up to 4,600,000 shares in this offering, in no event may any director or officer purchase more than 5% of the total number of shares sold in the subscription and community offerings and in no event may the directors and officers of Federal Life, in their capacities as such, their affiliates and associates, together with employees of Federal Life and any investors identified by Federal Life as potential strategic partners, as a group, purchase more than 700,000 shares.

The standby purchaser has agreed to purchase such number of shares of common stock as will result in the minimum number of shares being sold in the offerings. The standby purchaser currently expects to purchase approximately 2,700,000 shares in the community offering if there are sufficient shares remaining after the subscriptions of eligible members and directors and officers of Federal Life.
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In addition to the limitations set forth above, no person (other than the standby purchaser) may acquire, directly or indirectly, in this offering or any public offering, more than 5% of the capital stock of the Company for a period of five years from the effective date of the conversion without the approval of the Department.
For purposes of the limitations described above, an associate of a person includes:

any relative or spouse of such person, or any relative of such person’s spouse, who shares the same home as such person;

any corporation or other organization (other than the Company or a majority-owned subsidiary of the Company) of which such person is an officer, director, or partner, or of which such person is, directly or indirectly, a beneficial owner of 10% or more of any class of equity securities;

any trust or other estate in which such person has a substantial beneficial interest or as to which such person serves as trustee or in a similar fiduciary capacity (exclusive of any employee stock benefit plan of the Company); and

any person acting in concert with any of the persons or entities listed above.
The subscription of any eligible member who subscribes for more than 50,000 shares will be reduced to 50,000 shares.
We have the right in our absolute discretion and without liability to any participant in the subscription offering or to any other person to determine which persons and which subscriptions and orders in this offering meet the criteria provided in the plan of conversion for eligibility to purchase shares of common stock and the number of shares eligible for purchase by any person. Our determination of these matters will be final and binding on all parties and all persons.
Oversubscription
If you are an eligible member and we receive subscriptions in the subscription offering for more than 4,600,000 shares, your requested subscription for shares may be reduced.
If eligible members subscribe for more than 4,600,000 shares, the shares of common stock will be allocated so as to permit each subscribing eligible member to purchase up to the lesser of the number of shares subscribed for or 1,000 shares. Any remaining shares will be allocated among the eligible members whose subscriptions remain unsatisfied in the proportion in which the aggregate number of shares as to which each such eligible member’s subscription remains unsatisfied bears to the aggregate number of shares as to which all such eligible members’ subscriptions remain unsatisfied.
Management Purchases of Stock
The plan of conversion limits the number of shares that directors and officers of Federal Life and their affiliates, together with employees of Federal Life and any investors identified by Federal Life as potential strategic partners, as a group, may purchase in the offering to no more than 700,000 shares. If the eligible members subscribe for less than the maximum number of shares, the directors and officers of Federal Life, together with their affiliates and associates, have indicated their intention to purchase approximately 372,000 shares of common stock in the subscription offering. This amount includes any shares of common stock purchased by the officers as participants in the Federal Life 401-K plan. The directors and officers of Federal Life and their affiliates and associates are not obligated to purchase this number of shares, and in the aggregate they may purchase a greater or smaller number of shares. See “The Conversion and Offering — Proposed Management Purchases.”
If there are insufficient shares remaining after the subscriptions of eligible members to satisfy in full all of the subscriptions of directors and officers of Federal Life, the available shares of common stock will be allocated among the subscribing management participants in the proportion in which the aggregate number of shares as to which each such management participant’s subscription bears to the aggregate number of shares remaining.
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Undersubscription
If less than 3,400,000 shares are subscribed for in the subscription and community offerings by other purchasers, the standby purchaser has agreed to purchase any shares not subscribed for up to the offering minimum of 3,400,000 shares. The standby purchaser currently expects to purchase approximately 2,700,000 shares in the community offering. See “— The Community Offering.”
Benefits to Management
Our board of directors has also adopted a stock based incentive plan for the benefit of our directors, executive officers, and other eligible employees. Under the stock based incentive plan, we may award options to purchase common stock or award shares of restricted stock to directors, executive officer, and other eligible employees. The exercise price of stock options will be the fair market value of our common stock on the date of the option award. All awards under the stock based incentive plan will be subject to such vesting, performance criteria, or other conditions as the compensation committee of our board of directors may establish. Options to purchase 340,000 shares and 140,000 shares of restricted stock may be awarded under the stock based incentive plan.
As discussed in more detail under “Executive Compensation,” we expect that grants of stock options or restricted stock will be made to our executive officers, directors, and certain employees relating to a total of 355,000 shares of our common stock, subject to completion of this offering.
The following table presents information regarding the participants in each benefit plan, and the total amount, the percentage, and the dollar value of the stock that we intend to set aside for the stock-based incentive plan. The table assumes the following:

That 3,400,000 shares will be sold in the offerings; and

that the value of the stock in the table is $10.00 per share.
Options are assigned no value because their exercise price will be equal to the fair market value of the stock on the day the options are awarded or, in the case of options granted at the time of this offering, the price at which stock is sold in this offering. As a result, anyone who receives an option will benefit from the option only if the price of the stock rises above the exercise price and the option is exercised.
Stock Based Incentive Plan
Individuals
Eligible to
Receive Awards
Number of
Shares
Percentage of
shares issued in
the offering
Value of shares
Based on $10.00
Share Price
Shares available for restricted stock awards
Selected officers 140,000 4.12% $ 1,400,000
Shares available for stock options
Directors and selected officers
340,000 10.0%
(1)
(1)
Stock options will be granted with a per share exercise price at least equal to the market price of our common stock on the date of the grant. The value of a stock option will depend upon increases, if any, in the price of our common stock during the term of the option
A minimum of 3,400,000 shares and a maximum of 4,600,000 shares of our common stock will be issued in the subscription and community offerings, excluding any shares that may be issued under our stock-based incentive plan.
Use of Proceeds
We estimate the net proceeds from the offerings will be between $31.1 million at the minimum of the offering range and $43.0 million at the maximum of the offering range. See the “Offering Summary” on the front cover of the prospectus for the assumptions used to arrive at these amounts. The amount of net proceeds from the sale of common stock in the offerings will depend on the total number of shares actually sold in the subscription and community offerings and number of shares sold to the standby purchaser.
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We plan to contribute at least $12,500,000 of the net proceeds from the offerings to Federal Life, which will be used to (i) support organic growth of our life insurance business and annuity business; (ii) fund acquisitions of other life insurance and related businesses; (iii) fund new product launches, including variable annuities; and (iv) selectively deploy new capital to retain, acquire, and bolster talent in key areas.
We expect to retain any remaining net proceeds from the offering at Federal Life Group, Inc., to be used for general corporate purposes, which may include acquisitions of other life insurance companies or related businesses, stock repurchases or cash dividends. On a short term basis, the proceeds retained at Federal Life Group, Inc. will be invested primarily in securities consistent with our investment strategy until utilized. We have no other current specific plans for use of the net proceeds of the offering. See “Use of Proceeds.”
Dividend Policy
Following completion of this offering, our board of directors will have the authority to declare dividends on our shares of common stock, subject to statutory and regulatory requirements. Any decision to pay a dividend will depend on many factors, including our financial condition and results of operations, liquidity requirements, market opportunities, capital requirements of our subsidiaries, legal requirements, regulatory constraints, intercompany dividends from our subsidiaries, and other factors as the board of directors deems relevant. For additional information regarding restrictions on our ability to pay dividends, see “Dividend Policy.”
Market for Common Stock
We intend to apply for the listing of our common stock on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “FLF.” People considering purchasing shares in the offerings should note that our management and the standby purchaser are likely to seek to delist our shares from trading on the NASDAQ Capital Market. This would materially and adversely affect the liquidity of our stock. See “Risk Factors — Our management and the standby purchaser are likely to seek to delist our shares from trading on the NASDAQ Stock Market and end our reporting obligations under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.”
How You May Obtain Additional Information Regarding this Offering
If you have any questions regarding the stock offering, please call the Stock Information Center at (610) 205-6005, Monday through Friday between 10:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m., Central Time.
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RISK FACTORS
An investment in our common stock involves a number of risks. Before making a decision to purchase our common stock, you should carefully consider the following information about these risks, together with the other information contained in this prospectus. Many factors, including the risks described below, could result in a significant or material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. If this were to happen, the price of our common stock could decline significantly and you could lose all or part of your investment.
Risks Relating to Our Business
We have incurred both statutory and GAAP net losses in recent years.
We have incurred both statutory and GAAP net losses in recent years, resulting in an aggregate of $3.9 million in GAAP net losses in 2016 and 2017. Our losses are due principally to operating expenses and corporate overhead exceeding revenues of our annuity and life insurance business and returns on our investment portfolio. We need to increase the sales of our life insurance and annuity products in order to achieve the size and scale necessary to become profitable.
If we cannot expand our distribution network and resulting sales of our products, our losses may continue.
Our ability to increase sales of our life insurance and annuity products will depend on our success in expanding our distribution network. We depend on our network of independent insurance agents to generate almost all of the sales of our life insurance and annuity products. If we are unable to increase direct sales to customers through our website or by establishing relationships with other distribution partners, it is unlikely that we will be able to increase sales of our products to the level necessary to become profitable.
Our results of operations have been adversely affected by the current low interest rate environment and will continue to be adversely affected if interest rates remain low or if interest rates should rapidly increase.
Although the Federal Reserve moved to marginally increase short-term interest rates since 2015, medium and long-term interest rates have remained at historically low levels. During a period of decreasing interest rates or a prolonged period of low interest rates, our investment earnings may decrease because the interest earnings on our recently purchased fixed income investments will likely have declined in parallel with market interest rates. In addition, callable fixed income securities in our investment portfolio will be more likely to be prepaid or redeemed as borrowers seek to borrow at lower interest rates. Consequently, we may be required to reinvest the proceeds in securities bearing lower interest rates. In addition, during periods of declining interest rates, our financial performance may suffer as a result of a decrease in the spread between interest rates credited to our annuity contract holders and returns on our investment portfolio. An extended period of declining or prolonged low interest rates may also cause us to change our assumptions of the interest rates that we can earn on our investments and the long-term interest rate that we assume in our calculation of insurance assets and liabilities under GAAP. This revision would result in increased reserves, accelerated amortization of deferred acquisition costs (“DAC”), and other unfavorable consequences. In addition, certain statutory capital and reserve requirements are based on formulas or models that consider interest rates, and an extended period of low interest rates may increase the statutory capital we are required to hold and the amount of assets we must maintain to support statutory reserves.
Conversely, an increase in market interest rates could also have a material adverse effect on the value of our investment portfolio by, for example, decreasing the estimated fair values of the fixed income securities within our investment portfolio. In addition, in periods of rapidly increasing interest rates, withdrawals or surrenders under our annuity contracts may increase as policyholders choose to seek higher investment returns. Obtaining cash to satisfy these obligations may require us to liquidate fixed income investments at a time when market prices for those assets are depressed because of increases in interest rates. This may result in realized investment losses. Also, certain statutory reserve requirements are based on formulas or models that consider forward interest rates and an increase in forward interest rates may increase the statutory reserves we are required to hold thereby reducing statutory capital.
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The lack of a rating from A.M. Best limits our ability to attract agents and to sell rating sensitive products.
Federal Life is not rated by A.M. Best. Our lack of a rating adversely affects our ability to attract agents and sell our products because ratings assigned by A.M. Best are an important factor influencing the competitive position of insurance companies. Financial strength ratings are used by producers and customers as a means of assessing the financial strength and quality of insurers. A.M. Best ratings, which are reviewed at least annually, represent independent opinions of financial strength and ability to meet obligations to policyholders and are not directed toward the protection of investors. Federal Life does not intend to request the assignment of a financial strength rating from A.M. Best immediately after completion of the conversion. Moreover, the assignment of an unfavorable rating to Federal Life by A.M. Best could impair our ability to grow our business. If we obtain a rating from A.M. Best, any future downgrade could negatively affect our ability to implement our strategy. See “Business — Competition and Ratings.”
Our operations are dependent on access to key technology tools; if we lose access to these tools, our ability to conduct business could be significantly impaired.
In the event of a disaster such as a natural catastrophe, an epidemic, an industrial accident, a blackout, a computer virus, a terrorist attack, a cyber-attack, or a war that causes our data processing system to not function, unanticipated problems with our disaster recovery systems would have an adverse impact on our ability to conduct business and on our results of operations and financial position, particularly if those problems affect our internet access, computer-based data processing, transmission, storage and retrieval systems or destroy valuable data. Despite our implementation of security measures, disaster recovery plans, system backup plans, and offsite arrangements to reduce the risk of a loss of access to these critical systems, there is no assurance that these security measures and backup plans will work when needed or would protect the company in all circumstances that could arise. An interruption in our business because of our inability to access our key technology tools could result in the loss of revenue and damage to our reputation, and could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
If we are unable to protect sensitive consumer information, our reputation could be damaged and we could be subject to fines or litigation.
Our products and services involve the use, collection, and storage of confidential information of consumers and the transmission of this information. This information is used in the underwriting process. For example, we collect names, addresses, personal identity and financial information, and information regarding the medical history of consumers in connection with their applications for life insurance. We continue to maintain detailed information on our policyholders, including sensitive, non-public personal information.
While we take commercially reasonable measures to keep our systems and data secure, it is difficult or impossible to defend against all risks being posed by changing technologies as well as criminals intent on committing cybercrime. Increasing sophistication of cyber criminals and terrorists make keeping up with new threats difficult and could result in a breach. As a result, we may be unable to anticipate the type or manner of attempts to breach our security or to implement adequate preventative measures against these attempts. We may be required to expend significant capital and other resources to protect our technology infrastructure from attack or to alleviate problems caused by security breaches.
Changes in legislation relating to information security or changes in industry best practices may impose new requirements on us relating to data security and may present significant implementation costs and challenges. Changing our processes could be time consuming and expensive, and failure to timely implement required changes could result in our inability to sell certain insurance and annuity products in a particular jurisdiction, which could damage our business and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Any breach or perceived breach of our security could damage our reputation and our relationship with our policyholders and agents. Reputational damage of this kind could significantly harm our business. For example, consumers and agents may be less likely to use our products following a breach because of a
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perceived weakness in our information security measures. Additionally, we could be subject to significant liability as well as regulatory action, which would have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
In the ordinary course of our business we can face coverage disputes and lawsuits that are expensive and time consuming and may include claims for extra-contractual damages, which, if resolved adversely, could harm our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
From time to time, we are involved in coverage and other types of lawsuits in the ordinary course of our business. Defending these claims is costly and can impose a significant burden on our management and employees. We utilize reinsurance to limit our exposure on any one life under the insurance policies we issue. However, our reinsurance arrangements generally do not cover extra-contractual damages that we may incur in connection with coverage disputes. Accordingly, were we to be found liable for extra-contractual damages, we would be responsible for the full amount of extra-contractual damages. If we are found to be liable for significant extra-contractual damages in future cases, there could be a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
Legal and regulatory investigations and actions are increasingly common in the life insurance business and may result in financial losses and harm our reputation.
We face a risk of litigation and regulatory investigations and actions in the ordinary course of operating our businesses, including the risk of class action lawsuits. Federal Life may become subject to class actions and regulatory actions or may become subject to individual lawsuits relating, among other things, to sales or underwriting practices, payment of contingent or other sales commissions, claims payments and procedures, product design, disclosure, administration, additional premium charges for premiums paid on a periodic basis, interest crediting practices, denial or delay of benefits, and breaches of fiduciary or other duties to customers. Plaintiffs in class action and other lawsuits against Federal Life may seek very large or indeterminate amounts, including punitive and treble damages, which may remain unknown for substantial periods of time.
From time to time, Federal Life is subject to regulatory review and examination by state treasurers relating to our escheat practices for unclaimed life insurance death benefits. While we believe our practices comply with applicable law, these practices have come under increased scrutiny by state regulatory bodies. State insurance regulators, treasurers, and comptrollers are requesting life insurance companies to report on their escheat practices and procedures for tracking and identifying claims that became payable by death or other insured events but were not paid because no claim was presented to the company for payment. As a result of these investigations, regulators are routinely looking to adopt regulations that would require insurance companies to perform regular checks against the Social Security Death Master File, which we currently conduct, or review equivalent sources, as well as require insurance companies to collect more information needed to track policyholders, account holders, and beneficiaries. It is possible that these requests by the state regulators may result in payment to beneficiaries, escheatment of funds deemed abandoned under state laws, and changes to our escheat practices and procedures.
Federal Life is also subject to various regulatory inquiries, such as information requests, subpoenas, market conduct exams, and books and record examinations, from state and federal regulators and other authorities, which may result in fines, recommendations for corrective action or other regulatory actions. Current or future investigations, proceedings, or regulatory actions could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition. Moreover, even if we ultimately prevail in the investigation, proceeding, or regulatory action, we could suffer significant reputational harm, which could have an adverse effect on our business. Increased regulatory scrutiny and any resulting investigations or proceedings could result in new legal actions or precedents and industry-wide regulations or practices that could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
We rely on the leadership of the members of our executive management team. The loss of any of these executives could have an adverse impact on our business and our ability to implement our business strategy.
The success of our business is dependent, to a large extent, on our ability to attract and retain key employees including the following members of our executive management team: Joseph D. Austin,
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Chairman and Chief Executive Officer; William S. Austin, President and Chief Operating Officer; Anders Raaum, Chief Financial Officer; and Michael S. Austin, Executive Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer. Our executive management team has extensive experience in the life insurance business. Were we to lose any of these employees, it may be challenging for us to attract a replacement employee with comparable skills and experience in our market niches. We have employment agreements with our executive officers, which are described under “Executive Compensation — Employment Agreements.” We do not currently maintain key man life insurance policies with respect to any member of our senior management team.
We may be required to establish an additional valuation allowance against deferred income tax assets if our business does not generate sufficient taxable income or if our tax planning strategies are modified, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Deferred income tax represents the tax effect of the differences between the financial accounting and tax basis of assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets represent the tax benefit of future deductible temporary differences, operating loss carryforwards, and tax credit carryforwards. We periodically evaluate and test our ability to realize our deferred tax assets. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance if, based on the weight of evidence, it is more likely than not that some portion, or all, of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. In assessing the more likely than not criteria, we consider future taxable income as well as prudent tax planning strategies. Future facts, circumstances, tax law changes, and financial accounting or GAAP developments may result in an increase in the valuation allowance. An increase in the valuation allowance could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations and financial condition.
As of December 31, 2017, we had recorded net deferred tax assets of  $4.4 million and a valuation allowance of  $4.0 million. To the extent we are required to establish an additional valuation allowance against deferred income tax assets, the amount of such valuation allowance would be charged against our net income for the period in which that valuation allowance is established, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
We operate in a heavily state regulated industry, and the prospect exists for further federal involvement in the regulation of insurance companies.
Our business is regulated by government agencies in the states in which we do business, and we must comply with a number of state and federal laws and regulations. Most insurance regulations are intended to protect the interests of current and potential policyholders and customers rather than those of stockholders and other investors in insurance services companies.
State laws and regulations that apply to us include those governing the financial condition of insurers, including standards of solvency, risk-based capital requirements, types, quality and concentration of investments, establishment and maintenance of reserves, required methods of accounting, reinsurance and requirements of capital adequacy, and those governing the business conduct of insurers, including transactions with affiliates, sales and marketing practices, claim procedures and practices, and policy form content. In addition, state insurance laws require licensing of insurers and their agents. State insurance regulators have the power to grant, suspend, and revoke licenses to transact business and to impose substantial fines and other penalties.
We may be unable to comply fully with the wide variety of applicable laws and regulations that are frequently undergoing revision. In addition, we follow practices based on our interpretations of laws and regulations that we believe are generally followed by the insurance industry. These practices may be different from interpretations of insurance regulatory agencies. Moreover, in order to enforce applicable laws and regulations or to protect policyholders, insurance regulatory agencies have relatively broad discretion to impose a variety of sanctions, including examinations, corrective orders, suspension, revocation or denial of licenses, and the takeover of insurance companies. As a result, if we fail to comply with these laws and regulations, state insurance departments can exercise a range of remedies from the imposition of fines to being placed in rehabilitation or liquidation. State insurance departments also conduct periodic examinations of the affairs of insurance companies and require the filing of annual and other reports relating to financial condition, holding company issues and other matters. These regulatory requirements
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may adversely affect or inhibit our ability to achieve some or all of our business objectives. Changes in the level of regulation of the insurance industry or changes in laws or regulations or interpretations of laws and regulations by regulatory authorities could adversely affect our ability to operate our business.
We are subject to various accounting and financial requirements established by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (“NAIC”) as adopted by the states in which we operate. In addition, state regulators and the NAIC continually re-examine existing laws and regulations, with an emphasis on insurance company solvency issues and fair treatment of policyholders. Insurance laws and regulations could change or additional restrictions could be imposed that are more burdensome. Because these laws and regulations are for the protection of policyholders, any changes may not be in your best interest as a shareholder.
Currently, the U.S. federal government does not directly regulate the insurance business. However, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd-Frank Act”) established a Federal Insurance Office (“FIO”) within the Department of the Treasury. The FIO initially is charged with monitoring all aspects of the insurance industry (other than health insurance, certain long-term care insurance, and crop insurance), gathering data, and conducting a study on methods to modernize and improve the insurance regulatory system in the United States. On December 12, 2013, the FIO issued a report entitled “How to Modernize and Improve the System of Insurance Regulation in the United States” (the “Report”), which stated that, given the “uneven” progress the states have made with several near-term state reforms, should the states fail to accomplish the necessary modernization reforms in the near term, “Congress should strongly consider direct federal involvement.” The FIO continues to support the current state-based regulatory regime, but will consider federal regulation should the states fail to take steps to greater uniformity (e.g., federal licensing of insurers). Each year the FIO also releases an annual report on the insurance industry (“Annual Report”), with its latest Annual Report released in September 2017. The Annual Report provided a set of recommendations along with providing an overview of the financial performance and condition of the U.S. insurance industry and outlining a number of insurance industry and regulatory developments from the past year. We cannot predict what impact, if any, this guidance or any new legislation would have on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
In addition, federal legislation and administrative policies in several areas can significantly and adversely affect the insurance industry. These areas include financial services regulation, securities regulation, pension regulation, privacy, and taxation. Compliance with applicable laws and regulations is time-consuming and personnel-intensive, and changes in these laws and regulations may materially impact our business and increase our direct and indirect compliance and other expenses of doing business, thus having a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
The life insurance industry in which we operate is highly competitive, which may limit our ability to maintain and increase our share of our target market.
Our competition includes companies that are almost all larger and which have significantly more resources at their disposal. Competition in the life insurance industry is based on many factors. These factors include the perceived financial strength of the insurer, premiums charged, policy terms and conditions, services provided, reputation, financial ratings assigned by independent rating agencies, and the experience of the insurer in the line of insurance to be written.
Certain of the insurance companies we compete against have substantially greater financial, technical, and operating resources than we have. Many of the lines of insurance we write are subject to significant price competition. If our competitors price their products aggressively, our ability to grow or renew our business may be adversely affected. We pay producers on a commission basis to produce business. Some of our competitors may offer higher commissions or offer insurance products at lower premium rates. Increased competition could adversely affect our ability to attract and retain business and thereby adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
We also compete for access to talented independent agents. Much of the competition for talent involves agent recruitment. If our competitors provide the agents with better technology, pay higher commissions, or provide access to products that are perceived to be better than those we can provide, our ability to attract and retain agents may be reduced, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
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We expect that our ability to use beneficial U.S. tax attributes will be subject to limitations.
Section 382 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), operates as an anti-abuse rule, the general purpose of which is to prevent trafficking in tax losses, but which can apply without regard to whether a “loss trafficking” transaction occurs or is intended. Similar rules apply to capital loss carryforwards. These rules are triggered when an “ownership change”—generally defined as when the ownership of a company, or its parent, changes by more than 50% (measured by value) on a cumulative basis in any three year period-occurs and the company is a “loss” corporation. A company is a loss corporation if, at the date of the ownership change, the company has a tax loss carryforward which may be used in a tax year after the ownership change. When triggered, the amount of the taxable income for any post-change year which may be offset by a pre-change loss is subject to an annual limitation. An annual limitation not used in one year may be carried over to a subsequent year. Generally speaking, the annual limitation is derived by multiplying the fair market value of the stock of the taxpayer immediately before the date of the ownership change by the applicable federal long-term tax-exempt rate. In addition, to the extent that a company has a net unrealized built-in loss or deduction at the time of an ownership change, Section 382 of the Code limits the utilization of any such loss or deduction which is realized and recognized during the 5-year period following the ownership change.
The Tax Cut and Jobs Act enacted in December 2017 limits the deduction for net operating losses to 80% of current year taxable income and eliminates the deduction for net operating loss carrybacks. Following the completion of this offering, we expect that these limitations will apply, which could substantially limit our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryforwards.
Risks Relating to our Insurance Business
The actual experience of our insurance products can differ from the assumptions used to develop and price our insurance products, which can cause us to experience losses from these products.
To develop our insurance products we make assumptions regarding policy persistency, mortality, and other benefit experience, the level of investment income that will be earned from investing the product cash flows, and our expenses to underwrite, sell, and service the policies. Additionally, we make assumptions about the characteristics of our insureds, including age, sex, underwriting class, and coverage amounts purchased. These assumptions, along with our anticipated profit levels, are used to develop the premiums that we will charge customers for our products. In many cases, these premium rates are level and cannot be raised during the initial term of the policy. Our operating results may be materially adversely impacted by variances between our pricing assumptions and our actual experience.
Our key product pricing assumptions are based on a combination of industry studies and other third party data as well as our own experience. We regularly monitor our experience and can adjust premium rates on new business sales should the actual results indicate trends or results that we believe need to be reflected. If the actual product experience for any of these areas varies adversely from the assumptions used to price our products, it could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
Because our acquisition costs for writing a policy exceed the premiums we receive in the first policy year, the early lapse or termination of a policy may cause us to suffer a loss on that policy.
The amount of commission, underwriting, and issue costs payable upon the sale of a life insurance policy typically exceed the amount of premiums receivable during the first policy year or longer. As a result, the sale of new policies in our industry generally results in higher first year costs as compared to the corresponding first year revenues. Because of high front loaded commissions and other expenses, it can take several years for new policies to become profitable. If a policy terminates or lapses before we are able to recover our costs for producing that policy, we will incur a loss on that policy. For example, we have in the past experienced higher lapse rates than expected on certain products, which caused us to incur losses on the policies that lapsed. If we experience higher than expected lapse rates, there could be a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
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We perform annual testing for premium deficiencies on our blocks of business, the results of which could require us to write down deferred acquisition cost balances or increase reserves.
For our traditional life business, a premium deficiency can exist if the discounted present value of future premiums plus the current reserve, reduced by unamortized acquisition expenses, is not sufficient to cover the present value of anticipated future claims and related settlement and maintenance costs. For our interest sensitive products, the test is whether estimated future gross profits are large enough to cover the current deferred acquisition cost. When a premium deficiency is indicated we will write down any deferred acquisition cost balance to the point where the premium deficiency is eliminated. If the deferred acquisition cost is fully written down but the premium deficiency is not eliminated, we will record additional reserves on that block of policies.
Our investment performance may suffer as a result of adverse capital market developments, which may adversely affect our financial results and ability to conduct business.
We allocate a portion of the insurance premiums we receive from policyholders to fund reserves, which are invested until these amounts are needed to pay insured claims. We invest in various securities to earn incremental income. As of December 31, 2017, we held fixed income and equity securities with an estimated fair value of  $194.7 million. For the year ended December 31, 2017, we had net investment income of $8.5 million.
Our investments are subject to a variety of risks that are outside of our control, including risks relating to general economic conditions, market volatility, the extended low interest environment that currently exists, interest rate fluctuations, liquidity risk, and credit risk. For example, an unexpected increase in the number or level of benefits incurred with claims may force us to liquidate securities in order to pay such claims. If the duration of our investments does not match our need for liquidity, we may be forced to liquidate investments prior to maturity at a significant loss to cover such payments. Investment losses could significantly decrease our asset base and capital position, thereby adversely affecting our ability to conduct business.
In the current economic environment, we are experiencing historically low interest rates across all fixed income investment markets. The effective yield or rate of our fixed income investments has declined as currently available interest rates on investments purchased are lower than the rates on our maturing investments. Low current interest rates have resulted in unrealized holding gains recorded as Other Comprehensive Income. However, if interest rates were to rise, it is possible that the market value of the securities and other investments we hold may decline, negatively affecting our earnings and capital level through realized and unrealized investment losses. In that event we could experience increased surrender of annuities, which we would have to fund through the sales of securities, possibly at a loss. If market interest rates remain at historically low levels our investment returns will continue to decline and our investment earnings will be reduced. This could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects.
Some of our investments are relatively illiquid and are in asset classes that have been experiencing significant market valuation fluctuations.
We hold certain assets that lack liquidity, such as privately placed fixed income securities, policy loans, and oil and natural gas interests, and other illiquid assets. These asset classes represented a small percentage of the carrying value of our total cash and invested assets as of December 31, 2017. If we require significant amounts of cash on short notice in excess of normal cash requirements, we may have difficulty selling these investments in a timely manner, be forced to sell them for less than we otherwise would have been able to realize, or both.
The reported fair values of our relatively illiquid types of investments do not necessarily reflect the current market price for the asset. If we were forced to sell certain of our assets in the current market, there can be no assurance that we would be able to sell them for the prices at which we have recorded them and we might be forced to sell them at significantly lower prices.
If we are unable to enter into reinsurance transactions on a cost-effective basis, we will be less profitable and subject to greater risk and we may be unable to expand our business because of capital limitations.
We rely on the availability of reinsurance to manage the risks of our insurance products and to manage the level of capital required to write new business. Reinsurance is the practice of transferring part of an
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insurance company’s liability under an insurance policy and the premium associated with that insurance policy to another insurance company. We enter into reinsurance contracts to limit and manage the amount of risk we retain relating to the insurance policies we issue. This reduction in risk is intended to reduce volatility in year-to-year operating results. For example, we generally limit our retention of exposure on any one life under any insurance policy or policies we issue to a maximum of  $250,000. Our ability to write policies in excess of this amount is therefore typically dependent on the availability of reinsurance for the excess amount of the issued policy at commercially reasonable rates. We also use reinsurance to manage the level of capital required to write new business.
The availability and cost of reinsurance are subject to current market conditions and our experience and may vary significantly over time. Any decrease in the amount of reinsurance available will increase the amount of loss that we retain and could decrease our regulatory capital position. We currently rely on our reinsurance arrangement with Optimum Re to continue to write our new business. Should either or both of those reinsurers cease to reinsure our business, or should we be unable to obtain replacement reinsurance or otherwise be unable to obtain reinsurance coverage in desired amounts, our inability to obtain such reinsurance could increase the amount of risk that we retain, expose our financial results to more year-to-year variability, and limit the amount of new business that we can write. If the cost of reinsurance coverage increases, we may charge higher premiums and that could reduce future sales. Alternatively, we may decide to absorb all or a part of the increased reinsurance costs, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects. See also “— A significant decline in Federal Life’s risk-based capital could limit its ability to write new business.”
Should any of our reinsurers fail to meet their contractual commitments to us, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
The reinsurance contracts that we enter into to help manage our risks require us to pay premiums to the reinsurance carriers who will in turn reimburse us for a portion of covered policy claims. In many cases, a reinsurer will be called upon to reimburse us for policy claims many years after we paid insurance premiums to the insurer. We remain liable to each of our policyholders for their claims, and we rely on our reinsurers to reimburse us for that portion of a claim for which it is responsible. Accordingly, we are subject to loss and credit risk if our reinsurers are not capable of fulfilling their financial obligations to us. We purchase reinsurance coverage from a number of reinsurers. We have not entered into reinsurance agreements with companies that have an A.M. Best financial rating lower than “A-” (Excellent), which is the fourth highest of fifteen ratings.
The reinsurance contracts covering our life insurance policies are long-term contracts mirroring the term of the underlying life insurance contracts. During the contract term, the financial position of our reinsurers can deteriorate and our reinsurers could become insolvent or otherwise unable to reimburse us for ceded claims. Should the financial condition of a reinsurer to which we have ceded premiums deteriorate, it may be unable to reimburse us for losses under its contractual obligations to us. This could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
A significant decline in Federal Life’s risk-based capital could limit its ability to write new business.
Illinois imposes the risk-based capital requirements developed by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (“NAIC”) that require insurance companies to calculate and report information under a risk-based capital formula. These risk-based capital requirements attempt to measure statutory capital and surplus needs based on the risks in an insurance company’s mix of products and investment portfolio.
Until statutory surplus rose modestly in 2017, Federal Life’s statutory surplus has declined as a result of losses in each of the previous nine years. Because the amount of commission, underwriting, and issue costs payable upon the sale of a life insurance policy typically exceed the amount of premiums receivable during the first policy year, it can take several years for new policies to become profitable. In addition, mandated statutory policy reserve methods require that we increase our reserves over the first several years of the policy term. Should statutory capital and surplus continue to decline relative to risk-based capital, we may have to slow the rate of new sales or enter into additional reinsurance arrangements, both steps that could reduce our ability to generate future profits.
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The failure of Federal Life to meet its applicable risk-based capital requirements or minimum capital and surplus requirements could also subject it to further examination or corrective action imposed by insurance regulators, including limitations on its ability to write additional business, supervision by regulators, or seizure or liquidation. Any corrective action imposed could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition. A decline in risk-based capital ratios could also limit the ability of Federal Life to make dividends or distributions to us. See “Business — Regulation —  Risk-Based Capital (RBC) Requirements.”
Risks Relating to this Offering
The Internal Revenue Service may disagree with our position that the subscription rights have no value, and therefore eligible members may be deemed to have taxable income as a result of their receipt of the subscription rights.
Generally, the federal income tax consequences of the receipt, exercise, and expiration of subscription rights are uncertain. We intend to take the position that, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, eligible members will be treated as transferring their membership interests in Federal Life Mutual Holding Company in exchange for subscription rights to purchase Federal Life Group, Inc. common stock. Any gain realized by an eligible member as a result of the receipt of a subscription right that is determined to have ascertainable fair market value on the date of the deemed exchange must be recognized and included in the eligible member’s gross income for federal income tax purposes, whether or not the subscription right is exercised.
RP Financial, which we have engaged to provide us with a valuation of the consolidated pro forma market value of Federal Life Mutual, has advised us that it believes the subscription rights will not have any fair market value. RP Financial has based its view on the fact that the subscription rights are acquired by recipients without cost, are nontransferable, nonnegotiable, and of short duration, and will provide the recipient with the right only to purchase shares of our common stock at a price that is equal to the estimated pro forma market value of the Company, which will be the same price at which any unsubscribed shares will be sold to the standby purchaser. Nevertheless, RP Financial cannot assure us that the Internal Revenue Service will not challenge its determination that the subscription rights will not have any fair market value or that such challenge, if made, would not be successful. You should consult your tax advisors with respect to the potential tax consequences to you of the receipt, exercise, and expiration of subscription rights. For more information see “Federal Income Tax Considerations — Tax Consequences of Subscription Rights to Eligible Members.”
The broad valuation range of the subscription offering and the rights of the standby purchaser make your percentage ownership of Federal Life Group, Inc. uncertain.
The number of shares offered in the subscription offering is based on RP Financial’s valuation of the consolidated pro forma market value of Federal Life Mutual. RP Financial has determined that, as of December 22, 2017, the estimated consolidated pro forma market value of Federal Life Mutual is $40.0 million, and the range of value of the total number of shares of Federal Life Group, Inc. common stock to be issued in the offerings is between $34.0 million and $46.0 million. Shares issued to the standby purchaser upon the automatic conversion of the outstanding principal balance of the $2,000,000 exchangeable note issued to the standby purchaser when the standby stock purchase agreement was signed will be counted towards satisfaction of the minimum number of shares that must be sold in the offerings.
There is a difference of approximately $12.0 million between the minimum and maximum of the estimated valuation range. The aggregate dollar value of the shares sold in the subscription offering must be within this estimated valuation range. As a result, the percentage interest in Federal Life Group, Inc. that a subscriber acquires can vary based on the number of shares sold in the subscription offering. A subscriber for a fixed number of shares of our common stock will have approximately a 26% smaller ownership at the adjusted maximum level of the range than at the minimum level. See “The Conversion and Offering — Description of Standby Stock Purchase Agreement.”
The amount of the net proceeds from the offerings is uncertain, and we will have broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from the offerings.
The amount of proceeds from the sale of common stock in the offerings will depend on the total number of shares actually sold in the subscription and community offerings, including shares sold to the
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standby purchaser, for which a higher commission percentage is applicable. As a result, the net proceeds from the sale of common stock cannot be determined until this offering is completed. See “Use of Proceeds.”
Although we expect to use the net proceeds of the offerings to support the growth of our business and potentially to make open market purchases of our shares for our stock-based incentive plan, our management will have broad discretion with respect to the use of net proceeds from these offerings. Except as specified above, we expect to use the net proceeds for general corporate purposes, which may include, among other things, purchasing investment securities.
Risks Relating to Ownership of Our Common Stock
Our management and the standby purchaser are likely to seek to delist our shares from trading on the NASDAQ Stock Market and end our reporting obligations under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
After the offering, we will be obligated for approximately one year to file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, annual and quarterly information and other reports that are specified in Section 13 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. We will also be required to prepare financial statements that are fully compliant with all SEC reporting requirements on a timely basis. This will require a significant commitment of additional expense and management resources. As result, our management and the standby purchaser are likely to seek to reduce the number of our shareholders of record to less than 300 by purchasing shares in the open market or directly from shareholders. This will permit the Company to cease filing annual and quarterly reports with the SEC after complying with our initial filing requirements. If the Company is no longer filing such reports with the SEC, we will not be eligible for listing on the NASDAQ Stock Market. This will substantially reduce the liquidity of our stock for any remaining shareholders.
The sale of sufficient shares to meet the minimum number of shares required to complete the conversion and the offering does not indicate that sales have been made to investors who have no financial or other interest in the offering, and the sale of the minimum number of shares should not be viewed as an indication of the merits of the offering.
ICG, as the standby purchaser, has agreed to purchase such number of shares in the offering as will result in at least the minimum number of shares being sold in the offering. Accordingly, you should not consider the sale of the minimum number of shares in the offering to be an indication of either the merits of the offering or that a significant number of the other purchasers in the offering have no financial or other interest in the success of the offering.
We are an “emerging growth company,” and we intend to take advantage of reduced disclosure and governance requirements applicable to emerging growth companies, which could result in our common stock being less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, which we refer to as the JOBS Act, and we intend to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. For example:

We will not be required to comply with the auditor attestation requirement on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting contained in Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act;

We will be subject to reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements;

We will not be required to hold a non-binding advisory vote on executive compensation and golden parachute arrangements not previously approved;

We will be exempt from certain audit requirements of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, unless the SEC determines otherwise; and
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We will take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act for complying with new or revised accounting standards.
We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive if we rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile. We may take advantage of these reporting exemptions until we are no longer an emerging growth company, which in certain circumstances could be for up to five years. See “Prospectus Summary — Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company.”
The stock-based incentive plan will increase our costs, which will reduce our net income.
We have adopted a stock-based incentive plan under which we may award participants restricted shares of our common stock or options to purchase shares of our common stock. Restricted stock awards will be made at no cost to the participants. The number of shares of common stock that may be issued pursuant to restricted stock awards or upon exercise of stock option awards under the stock-based incentive plan may not exceed 140,000 and 340,000, respectively.
The costs associated with the grant of restricted stock awarded under the stock-based incentive plan will be recognized and expensed over their vesting period at the fair market value of the shares on the date they are awarded. We intend to issue 140,000 shares of restricted stock to our directors and officers upon the closing of the conversion from our authorized but unissued shares of common stock.
Finally, accounting rules require companies to recognize as compensation expense the award-date fair value of stock options. This compensation expense will be recognized over the appropriate vesting period. When we record an expense for the award of options using the fair value method, we will incur significant compensation and benefits expense, which will reduce our net income.
The implementation of the stock-based incentive plan may dilute your percentage ownership interest and may also result in downward pressure on the price of our stock.
The proposed stock-based incentive plan will be funded from the issuance of authorized but unissued shares and possibly in part through open market purchases. In the event that authorized but unissued shares are used to fund restricted stock awards and the exercise of stock option awards under the plan in an amount equal to 140,000 and 340,000, respectively, shareholders would experience a reduction in ownership interest of approximately 12.4%. In addition, the number of shares of common stock available for issuance pursuant to restricted stock awards and upon exercise of stock option awards may be perceived by the market as having a dilutive effect, which could lead to a decrease in the price of our common stock.
The valuation of our common stock in this offering is not necessarily indicative of the future price of our common stock, and the price of our common stock may decline after this offering.
There can be no assurance that shares of our common stock will be able to be sold in the market at or above the $10.00 per share initial offering price in the future. The final aggregate purchase price of our common stock sold in this offering will be based upon an independent appraisal. The appraisal is not intended, and should not be construed, as a recommendation of any kind as to the advisability of purchasing shares of common stock. The valuation is based on estimates and projections of a number of matters, all of which are subject to change from time to time. See “The Conversion and Offering — The Appraisal” for the factors considered by RP Financial in determining the appraised value.
The trading price of our common stock may be volatile and subject to wide price fluctuations in response to various factors, including:

market conditions in the broader stock market in general;

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly financial and operating results;

changes in interest rates;

departure of key executives;
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possible delisting of our stock from NASDAQ;

introduction of new services or announcements of significant contracts, acquisitions, or capital commitments by us or our competitors;

regulatory or political developments;

issuance of new or changed securities analysts’ reports or recommendations, or our failure to obtain an A.M. Best rating or any negative change in such rating;

availability of capital;

litigation and government investigations;

legislative and regulatory developments;

future sales of our common stock;

investor perceptions of us and the life insurance industry; and

economic conditions.
These and other factors may cause the market price of our common stock to fluctuate substantially, which may limit or prevent investors from readily selling their shares of common stock and may otherwise negatively affect the liquidity of our common stock.
In addition, the stock market has in the past experienced substantial price and volume fluctuations that sometimes have been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of companies. As a result, the trading price of shares of our common stock may be below the initial public offering price, and you may not be able to sell your shares at or above the price you pay to purchase them.
Anti-takeover provisions contained in our articles of incorporation, which we refer to as our articles, and our amended and restated bylaws, which we refer to as our bylaws, as they will be in effect upon completion of this offering, as well as provisions of Illinois law, may render more difficult or discourage takeover attempts on the Company that you may believe are in your best interests or that might result in a substantial profit to you.
The Illinois Insurance Code requires prior approval by the Illinois Department of Insurance for a change of control of an insurance holding company. Under Illinois law, the acquisition of 10% or more of the outstanding voting stock of an insurer or its holding company is presumed to be a change in control. Approval by the Illinois Department of Insurance may be withheld even if the transaction would be in the shareholders’ best interest if the Illinois Department of Insurance determines that the transaction would be detrimental to policyholders. In addition, for 5 years following the effective date of the conversion, no person may acquire more than 5% of the capital stock of the Company in this offering or any other public offering without the approval of the Illinois Department of Insurance. The standby purchaser’s commitment to purchase shares of our stock in the standby offering was approved by the Illinois Director of Insurance on [•], 2018.
Additionally, our articles and bylaws contain provisions that could have the effect of rendering more difficult or discouraging a change in control. These provisions:

Prior to the end of the standstill period under the standby stock purchase agreement, create a classified board of directors, which permits the election of only one-third of the directors at each annual meeting of our shareholders;

contain advance notice procedures with which shareholders must generally comply to nominate candidates to our board or to propose matters to be acted upon at a meeting of shareholders, which may discourage or deter a potential acquiror from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquiror’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us; and

authorize our board of directors, without shareholder approval, to amend our bylaws, which may allow our board of directors to take additional actions to prevent an unsolicited takeover and inhibit the ability of an acquiror to amend the bylaws to facilitate an unsolicited takeover attempt.
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These provisions of our articles and bylaws, alone or together with certain provisions of Illinois and Pennsylvania law, could serve to entrench management and may discourage a takeover attempt that you may consider to be in your best interest or in which you would receive a substantial premium over the current market price. These provisions may make it extremely difficult for any one person, entity, or group of affiliated persons or entities to acquire voting control of the Company, with the result that it may be extremely difficult to bring about a change in the board of directors or management. Some of these provisions also may perpetuate present management because of the additional time required to cause a change in the control of the board of directors.
The standby purchaser may obtain control over us and may not always exercise its control in a way that benefits our public shareholders.
Upon completion of the offering, ICG will likely own a majority of our outstanding shares. So long as ICG beneficially owns more than 5.0% of the outstanding shares of our common stock and a standstill termination event has not occurred, we and Federal Life will nominate, recommend, and support Mr. Popoli and Mr. Huff, or any replacement director selected by ICG and reasonably acceptable to the Company, for election to the boards of directors of the Company and Federal Life. In addition, so long as ICG beneficially owns 5.0% or more of the shares of our common stock and a standstill termination event has not occurred, ICG shall generally vote all shares of common stock beneficially owned by ICG (a) for persons nominated and recommended by the Company’s board of directors for election as directors of the Company and against any person nominated for election as a director by any other person, and (b) as directed or recommended by the Company’s board of directors with respect to any proposal presented at any meeting of the Company’s shareholders.
ICG will be entitled to preemptive rights that would allow it to maintain its percentage ownership in certain subsequent offerings of our common stock or securities convertible into our common stock. This right will not apply to, and shall terminate upon the earlier of  (a) the first date upon which ICG no longer beneficially owns more than five percent of the outstanding shares of our common stock, (b) the date of any breach by ICG of any obligation under the standby stock purchase agreement that remains uncured after 15 days’ notice thereof, or (c) a standstill termination event.
Subject to the provisions of the standby stock purchase agreement, so long as ICG continues to beneficially own more than 50% of our outstanding stock, ICG generally will be able to determine the outcome of corporate actions requiring shareholder approval. In addition, the standby stock purchase agreement provides that for so long as ICG owns 25% or more of our outstanding shares, we may not take certain actions and ICG may vote its shares against such action, including any merger or consolidation involving the Company or Federal Life or the sale or other transfer of all or substantially all of Federal Life’s assets or the contribution of more than $12,500,000 of the net proceeds of the offering to Federal Life. As a result, we may be unable to take advantage of certain opportunities that may be in our best interest or the best interest of the other shareholders.
Conflicts of interest may arise between ICG and the Company, and ICG and its representatives on our board of directors may at times take actions that are not in the best interests of our other shareholders. As a result, ICG may cause the Company to take actions that favor the interests of the standby purchaser over the interests of the other shareholders. Such actions may include causing the Company to enter into transactions with the standby purchaser or other related parties on terms that are not as favorable to the Company as could be obtained from other third parties.
We may not be able to realize the expected benefits from our relationship with the standby purchaser.
One of the reasons that we entered into the standby purchase agreement with the standby purchaser is that we expect to benefit from the standby purchaser’s knowledge and experience in the life insurance industry and its ability to provide resources to us to enable us to further develop our distribution strategy and grow our business in our target Middle Market. Our failure to successfully realize these benefits may negatively impact our plans for growing our business and may prevent us from obtaining some of the anticipated benefits of our relationship with the standby purchaser.
Our ability to pay dividends will be limited.
Upon completion of this offering, the Company will be a holding company with no operations of its own. The Company’s primary assets will be its equity interest in Federal Life and any net proceeds of the
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offerings that are not contributed to Federal Life. Thus, the ability of the Company to pay dividends to our shareholders depends upon the cash and liquid investments held at the holding company and our subsidiaries ability to pay dividends to the Company. Federal Life’s ability to pay dividends to the Company is subject to limitations under Illinois insurance laws and regulations. See “Dividend Policy.”
There will not be an active, liquid trading market for our common stock.
Prior to the subscription offering, there has been no public market for our common stock. We cannot predict the extent to which an active trading market with adequate liquidity will develop, but we believe that development of such a market is unlikely. The liquidity of our common stock will be impacted by the fact that the shares purchased by the standby purchaser and directors and officers of Federal Life Mutual will be purchased for investment and not for resale. The shares purchased by directors and officers will be subject to lockup periods for up to one year, and the shares purchased by the standby purchaser will be restricted securities and subject to trading limitations under the standby stock purchase agreement and under applicable law. If an active trading market does not develop, you may have difficulty selling any of our common stock that you purchase and the value of your shares may be impaired.
As a public company, we will become subject to additional financial and other reporting and corporate governance requirements, which will require additional expense and management resources.
We have historically operated our business as a private company. After the offering, we will become obligated to file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, annual and quarterly information and other reports that are specified in Section 13 of the Exchange Act. We will also be required to prepare financial statements that are fully compliant with all SEC reporting requirements on a timely basis. Unless an exemption is available to us as an “emerging growth company,” we will also become subject to other reporting and corporate governance requirements, including the requirements of NASDAQ and certain provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the regulations promulgated thereunder, which will impose significant compliance obligations upon us. As a public company, we will be required to:

prepare and distribute periodic public reports and other shareholder communications in compliance with our obligations under the federal securities laws and the NASDAQ Marketplace Rules;

create or expand the roles and duties of our board of directors and committees of the board;

institute more comprehensive financial reporting and disclosure compliance functions;

involve and retain to a greater degree outside counsel and accountants in the activities listed above;

create or enhance our investor relations function;

establish new internal policies, including those relating to disclosure controls and procedures; and

comply with certain requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, in particular Section 404 and Section 302.
These changes will require a significant commitment of additional expense and other resources, and these expenses may increase after we are no longer an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act. We may not be successful in implementing these requirements and implementing them could adversely affect our business or operating results. In addition, if we fail to implement the requirements with respect to our internal accounting and audit functions, our ability to report our operating results on a timely and accurate basis could be impaired. Our management and the standby purchaser are likely to seek to delist our stock from the NASDAQ Stock Market in order to avoid these additional expenses. “See — Our management and the standby purchaser are likely to seek to delist our shares from trading on the NASDAQ Stock Market and end our reporting obligations under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.”
Our internal control over financial reporting may not meet the standards required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, and failure to achieve and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could have a material adverse effect on our business and stock price.
As a privately held company, we have not been required to maintain internal control over financial reporting in a manner that meets the standards of publicly traded companies required by Section 404 of the
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Sarbanes-Oxley Act. If we do not de-register our shares, these standards will be required to be met in the course of preparing our consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ending December 31, 2023, except for the auditor attestation requirements exempted under the JOBS Act. Although we have documentation of our internal controls and document and test our compliance with these controls on a periodic basis, our internal control design and effectiveness may not be consistent with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.
If, as a public company, we are not able to implement the requirements of Section 404(b) by the time that the exemption provided under the JOBS Act expires, or with adequate compliance, our independent registered public accounting firm may not be able to attest to the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to maintain adequate internal control over financial reporting, we may be unable to report our financial information on a timely basis, may suffer adverse regulatory consequences, or may violate applicable stock exchange listing rules. There could also be a negative reaction in the financial markets due to a loss of investor confidence in us and the reliability of our financial statements. Confidence in our financial statements is also likely to suffer if we or our independent registered public accounting firm report a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. In addition, we will incur incremental costs in order to improve our internal control over financial reporting and comply with Section 404, including increased auditing and legal fees and costs associated with hiring additional accounting and administrative staff. For as long as we remain an “emerging growth company,” we intend to take advantage of the JOBS Act exemption from being required to comply with the independent registered public accounting firm attestation requirement.
“See — Our management and the standby purchaser are likely to seek to delist our shares from trading on the NASDAQ Stock Market and end our reporting obligations under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.”
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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus contains “forward-looking” statements that are intended to enhance the reader’s ability to assess our future financial and business performance. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements that represent our beliefs concerning future operations, strategies, financial results or other developments, and contain words and phrases such as “may,” “expects,” “should,” “believes,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “intends” or similar expressions. In addition, statements that refer to our future financial performance, anticipated growth, trends in our business and in our industry, and other characterizations of future events or circumstances are forward-looking statements. Because these forward-looking statements are based on estimates and assumptions that are subject to significant business, economic, and competitive uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control or are subject to change, actual results could be materially different.
Consequently, such forward-looking statements should be regarded solely as our current plans, estimates, and beliefs with respect to, among other things, future events and financial performance. Except as required under the federal securities laws, we do not intend, and do not undertake, any obligation to update any forward-looking statements to reflect future events or circumstances after the date of such statements.
The forward-looking statements include, among other things, the factors discussed under “Risk Factors” and those listed below:

future economic conditions in the markets in which we compete that could be less favorable than expected and could have impacts on demand for our products and services;

our ability to grow and develop our insurance business and successfully develop and market new products and new distribution channels;

our inability to maintain or grow our strategic partnerships or our inability to realize synergies from our relationship with the standby purchaser;

our inability to manage future growth and integration of any businesses that we may acquire;

our ability to enter new markets successfully and capitalize on growth opportunities either through acquisitions or organically;

financial market conditions, including, but not limited to, changes in interest rates and the level and trends of stock market prices causing a reduction of investment income or realized losses and reduction in the value of our investment portfolios;

increased competition in our business, including the potential impacts of aggressive price competition by other insurance companies, payment of higher commissions to agents that could affect demand for our insurance products and impact the ability to grow and retain agents, and the entry of new competitors and the development of new products by new or existing competitors, resulting in a reduction in the demand for our products and services;

the effect of legislative, judicial, economic, demographic and regulatory events in the jurisdictions where we do business;

costs, availability and collectability of reinsurance;

the potential impact on our reported net income that could result from the adoption of future accounting standards issued by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board or the Financial Accounting Standards Board or other standard-setting bodies; and

changes in industry trends and financial strength ratings assigned by nationally recognized rating organizations.
You should review carefully the section captioned “Risk Factors” in this prospectus for a complete discussion of the material risks of an investment in our common stock.
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SELECTED FINANCIAL AND OTHER DATA
The following table sets forth selected consolidated financial and other data for Federal Life Mutual prior to this offering. You should read this data in conjunction with our financial statements and accompanying notes, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and other financial information included elsewhere in this prospectus. The balance sheet data as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, and the statement of operations data for each of the years in the two-year period ended December 31, 2017 are derived from our audited financial statements that are included elsewhere in this prospectus. The balance sheet data as of June 30, 2018 and 2017, and the statement of operations data for the six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017 are derived from the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements that are included elsewhere in this prospectus.
These historical results are not necessarily indicative of future results.
Six Months Ended June 30,
Years Ended December 31,
(dollars in thousands)
2018
2017
2017
2016
Statement of Operations Data:
Premiums written
$ 7,593 $ 7,564 $ 14,133 $ 16,299
Ceded premiums
(1,335) (968) (2,075) (1,872)
Insurance revenues
6,258 6,596 $ 12,058 $ 14,427
Net investment income
4,218 4,292 8,523 8,821
Net realized investment gains
324 904 2,228 1,783
Other revenues
97 85 194 173
Total revenues
10,897 11,877 23,003 25,204
Benefits and expenses
Policyholder benefits
7,018 7,215 13,712 16,069
Interest credit to policyholder balances
207 114 386 315
Operating costs and expenses
4,331 3,994 7,889 8,099
Amortization of deferred policy acquisition and sales inducement costs
897 1,124 2,108 1,876
Taxes, licenses and fees
398 392 716 722
Dividends to policyholders
31 31 66 86
Total benefits and expenses
12,882 12,870 24,877 27,167
Net loss before taxes
(1,985) (993) (1,874) (1,963)
Tax expense
9 14 34 34
Net loss
$ (1,994) $ (1,007) $ (1,908) $ (1,997)
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June 30,
Years Ended December 31,
(dollars in thousands)
2018
2017
2016
Balance Sheet Data:
Total investments, cash and cash equivalents
$ 203,640 $ 208,993 $ 201,314
Deferred policy acquisition costs, net
13,320 12,179 11,940
Deferred sales inducement costs, net
1,076 867 315
Reinsurance recoverables
3,622 3,727 2,107
Accrued investment income
1,929 1,886 1,832
Accounts receivable
2,417 538 575
Prepaid reinsurance premiums
1,379 1,358 924
Deferred tax asset, net
495 458 664
Other assets
296 202 254
Separate account asset
23,690 24,779 21,513
Real estate, property and equipment
2,166 2,151 2,297
Total Assets
$ 254,030 $ 257,138 $ 243,735
Future life policy benefits
$ 72,608 $ 71,927 $ 73,097
Policyholder account balance
113,654 109,823 99,440
Future accident and health policy benefits
343 386 351
Reserve for deposit type contracts
11,222 10,850 10,529
Other policyholder funds
2,733 1,970 1,889
Separate account liability
23,690 24,779 21,513
Unearned revenue
1,357 1,387 1,396
Deferred reinsurance settlements
2,826 2,949 1,512
Other liabilities
2,080 1,710 1,146
Total Liabilities
$ 230,513 $ 225,781 $ 210,873
Retained earnings
$ 24,606 $ 26,600 $ 29,313
Accumulated other comprehensive income
(1,089) 4,757 3,549
Total equity
$ 23,517 $ 31,357 $ 32,862
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We estimate the net proceeds from the offerings will be between $31.1 million at the minimum of the offering range and $43.0 million at the adjusted maximum of the offering range. See the “Offering Summary” on the front cover of the prospectus for the assumptions used to arrive at these amounts. The amount of net proceeds from the sale of common stock in the offerings will depend on the total number of shares actually sold in the subscription and community offerings, including the shares sold to the standby purchaser. A higher sales commission applies to shares sold to the standby purchaser. In the event shares are sold to the standby purchaser, our commission expense will be higher with respect to those shares, and therefore our net proceeds from the offerings will be correspondingly lower. As a result, the net proceeds from the sale of common stock cannot be determined until the offerings are completed.
The standby purchaser has agreed to loan up to $2,000,000 to Federal Mutual Life to fund expenses incurred by Federal Mutual Life in connection with the conversion and the offerings. In connection with that credit facility, Federal Life Mutual issued a $2,000,000 exchangeable note to the standby purchaser in connection with the signing of the standby stock purchase agreement. The outstanding principal balance of the exchangeable note will automatically convert into shares of our common stock at a price of  $10.00 per share upon completion of the conversion. See “The Conversion and Offering — Description of Standby Stock Purchase Agreement.” Shares issued in connection with the exchangeable note will be counted towards satisfaction of the minimum number of shares that must be sold in the offerings.
We plan to use the net proceeds from the offerings to support our insurance business and possibly to acquire other life insurance companies and related businesses. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds for stock repurchases or cash dividends. At least $12,500,000 will be contributed to Federal Life to (i) support organic growth of our life insurance business and annuity business; (ii) fund acquisitions of other life insurance and related businesses; (iii) fund new product launches, including variable rate annuities; and (iv) selectively deploy new capital to retain, acquire, and bolster talent in key areas. We have no other current specific plans for the use of the net proceeds of the offering. The principal reason for the offering was to raise additional capital for Federal Life Insurance Company to support its growth and new product offerings.
Under the Illinois mutual-to-stock conversion statute, the plan of conversion must provide that the total price of the stock to be issued in the conversion offering is equal to the estimated pro forma market value of the converted insurance company. Accordingly, the amount of the offering is established by the independent valuation required by the conversion statute, and we cannot sell shares at an aggregate price less than the minimum of the range established by such valuation.
We expect to retain any remaining net proceeds from the offering at Federal Life Group, Inc., to be used for general corporate purposes, including possible acquisitions of other life insurance companies and related businesses. On a short-term basis, the proceeds retained at the holding company will be invested primarily in U.S. government securities, other federal agency securities, and other securities consistent with our investment policy until utilized.
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MARKET FOR THE COMMON STOCK
We intend to apply for the listing of our common stock on the NASDAQ Capital Market under the symbol “FLF.”
We have never issued any capital stock to the public. Consequently, there is no established market for our common stock. The development of a public market having the desirable characteristics of depth, liquidity, and orderliness depends upon the presence in the marketplace of a sufficient number of willing buyers and sellers at any given time. Neither we nor any market maker has any control over the development of such a public market. Although we have applied to have our stock listed on the NASDAQ Capital Market, an active trading market is unlikely to develop. This is due, in part, to the fact that a majority of our stock will likely be held by the standby purchaser and our management. One of the requirements for initial listing of our common stock on the NASDAQ Capital Market is that there are at least three market makers for the common stock. Griffin Financial has indicated that it intends to become a market maker in our common stock following this offering, but is under no obligation to do so. We cannot assure you that there will be three or more market makers for our common stock. Furthermore, we cannot assure you that you will be able to sell your shares of common stock for a price at or above $10.00 per share, or that approval for listing on the NASDAQ Capital Market will be available as contemplated.
Our management and the standby purchaser are likely to seek to delist our shares from trading on the NASDAQ Stock Market. This would greatly reduce the market for our common stock. See “Risk Factors — Our management and the standby purchaser are likely to seek to delist our shares from trading on the NASDAQ Stock Market and end our reporting obligations under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.”
DIVIDEND POLICY
Following completion of this offering, our board of directors will have the authority to declare dividends on our shares of common stock, subject to statutory and regulatory requirements. Any decision to pay a dividend will depend on many factors, including our financial condition and results of operations, liquidity requirements, market opportunities, capital requirements of our subsidiaries, legal requirements, regulatory constraints, dividends from our subsidiaries, and other factors as the board of directors deems relevant.
The Company initially will have no significant source of cash flow other than intercompany dividends from Federal Life, if any, and the investment earnings on any net proceeds of the offerings not contributed to Federal Life. Therefore, the payment of dividends by us to shareholders would depend significantly upon our receipt of dividends from Federal Life and the amount of net proceeds of the offerings retained by the Company that may be available for the declaration of dividends.
Federal Life’s ability to pay dividends is subject to restrictions contained in the insurance laws of Illinois, which require that ordinary dividends be reported to the Illinois Department of Insurance prior to payment of the dividend and that extraordinary dividends be submitted for prior approval. An extraordinary dividend is generally defined as a dividend that, together with all other dividends made within the past 12 months, exceeds the greater of 10% of its statutory policyholders’ surplus as of the preceding year end or the statutory net income of the company for the preceding year. Statutory policyholders’ surplus, as determined under statutory accounting principles, or SAP, is the amount remaining after all liabilities, including loss and loss adjustment expenses, are subtracted from all admitted assets. Admitted assets are assets of an insurer prescribed or permitted by a state insurance regulator to be recognized on the statutory balance sheet. Insurance regulators have broad powers to prevent the reduction of statutory surplus to inadequate levels, and there is no assurance that extraordinary dividend payments will be permitted. During the year ending December 31, 2018, Federal Life would be able to pay dividends in the aggregate amount of  $1.49 million without prior approval from the Illinois Department of Insurance.
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CAPITALIZATION
The following table displays information regarding the consolidated historical capitalization of Federal Life Mutual and its subsidiaries as of June 30, 2018. The table also displays the pro forma consolidated capitalization of the Company. The pro forma information gives effect to the sale of common stock at the minimum of the estimated valuation range of our consolidated pro forma market value, as determined by the independent evaluation of RP Financial, and the maximum of the estimated valuation range. The various capital positions are displayed based upon the assumptions set forth under “Use of Proceeds.” For additional financial information regarding Federal Life Mutual, see our consolidated financial statements and related notes beginning on page F-1 of this prospectus. The total number of shares to be issued in the conversion will range from 3,400,000 shares to 4,600,000 shares. See “Use of Proceeds” and the subsection entitled “The Conversion and Offering — Stock Pricing and Number of Shares to be Issued.”
Pro Forma Capitalization
of Federal Life Group, Inc. as of
June 30, 2018(2)
(dollars in thousands except share
and per share data)
Historical
Consolidated
Capitalization of
FLMHC at
June 30, 2018
Minimum
Maximum
Shareholders’ equity(1):
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share; authorized 10,000,000 shares; shares to be outstanding – as
shown(2)(3)
$ $ 34 $ 46
Additional paid-in capital(2)(3)
$ $ 31,071 $ 42,865
Retained earnings
24,606 24,606 24,606
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss),
net of tax
$ (1,089) $ (1,089) $ (1,089)
Total shareholders’ equity
$ 23,517 $ 54,622 $ 66,428
Capitalization table footnotes (in thousands except share and per share data)
(1)
Pro forma shareholders’ equity is not intended to represent the fair market value of the common stock or the net fair market value of the Company’s assets and liabilities. The amounts indicated also are not intended to represent what would be available for distribution to shareholders, if any, in the event of liquidation. The pro forma data may be materially affected by a change in the number of shares sold in the conversion and by other factors.
(2)
These pro forma amounts include the estimated net proceeds from the conversion.
(3)
Does not reflect additional shares of common stock that could be issued pursuant to our stock-based incentive plan. The aggregate amount of common stock issuable under this plan is equal to 480,000 shares. We expect that grants of stock options and restricted stock will be made to our executive officers, directors, and certain employees relating to a total of 355,000 shares of our common stock under the stock-based incentive plan subject to completion of this offering. An undetermined portion of the remaining shares available for issuance under the stock-based incentive plan may be issued from any treasury shares purchased by the Company in the open market. Each of these methods and amounts would have different and varying effects on our shareholders’ equity. Your ownership percentage would decrease by approximately 12.4% if the remaining available shares were issued from our authorized but unissued shares upon the grant of all potential restricted stock awards and the exercise of all potential stock options, assuming 3,400,000 shares were sold in the offerings. No decrease in your ownership percentage will occur if such shares are purchased for the plan on the open market, but shareholders equity will be reduced. See “Unaudited Pro Forma Financial Information —  Additional Pro Forma Data” and “Executive Compensation — Equity Compensation in Connection With This Offering — Stock-Based Incentive Plan.”
35

UNAUDITED PRO FORMA FINANCIAL INFORMATION
The following unaudited pro forma condensed balance sheet as of December 31, 2017 gives effect to the conversion and completion of this offering, as if it had occurred as of December 31, 2017. The data is based on the assumption that 3,400,000 shares of common stock (the minimum number of shares required to be sold in this offering) are sold to eligible members of Federal Life Mutual, the directors and officers of Federal Life Mutual, and the standby purchaser. For information on the impact of transaction sizes above the minimum level, see “Additional Pro Forma Data” beginning on page 40.
The following unaudited pro forma condensed statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2017, and for the six months ended June 30, 2018, present our operating results as if this offering was completed as of January 1, 2017 and 2018, respectively.
Completion of this offering is contingent on the sale of a minimum of 3,400,000 shares of common stock in this offering. If less than 3,400,000 shares are subscribed for in the subscription offering, the standby purchaser has agreed to purchase any shares not subscribed for in the offerings up to 3,400,000 shares. The standby purchaser currently intends to purchase approximately 2,800,000 shares in the community offering.
The unaudited pro forma information does not claim to represent what our financial position or results of operations would have been had this offering occurred on the dates indicated. This information is not intended to project our financial position or results of operations for any future date or period. The pro forma adjustments are based on available information and certain assumptions that we believe are factually supportable and reasonable under the circumstances. The unaudited pro forma financial information should be read in conjunction with our financial statements, the accompanying notes, and the other financial information included elsewhere in this prospectus.
The pro forma adjustments and pro forma amounts are provided for informational purposes only. Our financial statements will reflect the effects of this offering only from the date it is completed.
Unaudited Pro Forma Financial Information — Balance Sheet(1)
June 30, 2018
(in thousands)
FLMHC
Historical
Consolidated
Pro Forma
Adjustments
Federal Life
Group, Inc.
Pro Forma
Consolidated
Assets
Cash and investments
$ 203,640 $ 31,105 $ 234,745
Deferred policy acquisition costs, net
13,320 13,320
Deferred sales inducement costs, net
1,076 1,076
Accrued investment income
1,929 1,929
Accounts receivable
2,417 2,417
Prepaid reinsurance premiums
1,379 1,379
Real estate, property and equipment
2,166 2,166
Reinsurance recoverables
3,622 3,622
Separate account asset
23,690 23,690
Deferred tax asset, net
495 495
Other assets
296 296
Total assets
$ 254,030 $ 31,105 $ 285,135
36

FLMHC
Historical
Consolidated
Pro Forma
Adjustments
Federal Life
Group, Inc.
Pro Forma
Consolidated
Liabilities
Policyholder account balance
$ 113,654 $ 113,654
Separate account liability
23,690 23,690
Future policy benefits
72,951 72,951
Reserve for deposit accounts
11,222 11,222
Other policyholder funds
2,733 2,733
Deferred reinsurance settlements
2,826 2,826
Unearned revenue
1,357 1,357
Other liabilities
2,080 2,080
Total liabilities
$ 230,513 $ 230,513
Common stock
34(2)(3) $ 34
Additional paid in capital
31,071 31,071
Retained earnings
$ 24,606 24,606
Accumulated other comprehensive income
(1,089) (1,089)
Total equity
23,517 31,105 54,622
Total liabilities and equity
$ 254,030 $ 31,105 $ 285,135
Balance Sheet Footnotes (in thousands, except share and per share data):
(1)
The unaudited pro forma condensed balance sheet, as prepared, gives effect to the sale of the common stock at the minimum of the estimated range of our consolidated pro forma market value, as determined by the independent valuation of RP Financial. The unaudited pro forma condensed balance sheet is based on the assumptions set forth under “Use of Proceeds.”
(2)
Pro forma additional paid in capital includes the net proceeds from the conversion as follows:
Sale of 3,400,000 shares at $10 per share
$ 34,000,000
Conversion and offering expenses
1,000,000
Commissions
1,895,000
Total
$ 31,105,000
Common stock
$ 34,000
Additional paid in capital
$ 31,071,000
Total
$ 31,105,000
(3)
No effect has been given to any issuances of additional shares in connection with the grant of options or awards of stock under the stock-based incentive plan that we have adopted. Under the stock-based incentive plan, we may issue 480,000 shares of our common stock. Of this, 140,000 shares may be granted as restricted stock awards and 340,000 shares may be used to award stock options under the stock-based incentive plan. The issuance of authorized but unissued shares of our common stock upon the exercise of stock options or for purposes of making restricted stock awards under the stock-based incentive plan instead of open market purchases would dilute the voting interests of existing shareholders by approximately 12.4% at the minimum of the offering.
37

Unaudited Pro Forma Financial Information — Statement of Operations
Year Ended December 31, 2017
(dollars in thousands)
FLMHC
Historical
Consolidated
Pro Forma
Adjustments
Federal Life
Group, Inc.
Pro Forma
Consolidated
Revenues
Insurance revenues
$ 12,058 $ $ 12,058
Net investment income
8,523 (1) 8,523
Net realized investment gains
2,228 (1) 2,228
Other revenues
194 194
Total revenues
$ 23,003 $ $ 23,003
Benefits and Expenses
Policyholder benefits
13,712 13,712
Interest credit to policyholders
386 386
Operating costs and expenses
7,889 350(2) 8,239
Amortization of deferred policy acquisition and sales inducement
costs
2,108 2,108
Taxes, licenses and fees
716 716
Dividends to policyholders
66 66
Total benefits and expenses
24,877 350 25,227
Loss before income taxes
(1,874) (350) (2,224)
Tax expense (benefit)
34
(3)
34
Net loss
$ (1,908) $ (350) $ (2,258)
Earnings per share data
Basic and diluted earnings per common share
$ (0.66)
Weighted average basic and diluted shares outstanding
3,435,000(4)
38

Unaudited Pro Forma Financial Information — Statement of Operations
For the Six Months Ended June 30, 2018
(dollars in thousands)
FLMHC
Historical
Consolidated
Pro Forma
Adjustments
Federal Life
Group, Inc.
Pro Forma
Consolidated
Revenues
Insurance revenues
$ 6,258 $ $ 6,258
Net investment income
4,218 (1) 4,218
Net realized investment gains
324 (1) 324
Other revenues
97 97
Total revenues
$ 10,897 $ $ 10,897
Benefits and Expenses
Policyholder benefits
7,018 7,018
Interest credit to policyholders
207 207
Operating costs and expenses
4,331 350(2) 4,681
Amortization of deferred policy acquisition and sales inducement
costs
897 897
Taxes, licenses and fees
398 398
Dividends to policyholders
31 31
Total benefits and expenses
12,882 350 13,232
Loss before income taxes
(1,985) (350) (2,335)
Tax expense (benefit)
9 (3) 9
Net loss
$ (1,994) $ (350) $ (2,344)
Loss per share data
Basic loss per common share
$ (0.59)(4)
Diluted loss per common share
(0.68)
Weighted average basic shares outstanding
3,400,000
Weighted average diluted shares outstanding
3,540,000
Statement of Operations Footnotes (dollars in thousands, except share and per share data):
(1)
We anticipate that we would earn approximately $1,015,000 and $501,500 of investment income, respectively, assuming the net proceeds were received and available for investment as of January 1, 2017 and January 1, 2018, respectively, and that they were invested with an average annual pre-tax rate of return of 3.23%. This income is not included as it is not “factually supportable” as that term is used in the Securities and Exchange Commission’s rules and regulations and therefore no pro forma Adjustment of investment income or realized investment gains is reflected.
(2)
Includes $350,000 of compensation expense in connection with the granting of 140,000 shares of restricted stock to the Company’s executive officers upon the closing of the offerings, one fourth of which will vest at the end of each year after the date of grant. No pro forma adjustment of general operating expenses has been made to reflect additional costs that we could incur operating as a public company as such amount would not be “factually supportable.” We expect to incur higher operating costs as a public company.
(3)
No adjustment has been made to reflect any federal income tax effects of note (2) above because the Company has pro forma net loss before income taxes.
39

(4)
Includes 140,000 shares expected to be granted as restricted stock awards to the Company’s executive officers at the closing of the offerings. No effect has been given to any issuances of additional shares in connection with the grant of options or awards of stock under the stock-based incentive plan that we have adopted. Under the stock-based incentive plan, we may issue 480,000 shares of our common stock. Of this, 140,000 shares may be granted as restricted stock awards and 340,000 shares may be used to award stock options under the stock-based incentive plan. The issuance of authorized but unissued shares of our common stock upon the exercise of stock options or for purposes of making restricted stock awards under the stock-based incentive plan instead of open market purchases would dilute the voting interests of existing shareholders by approximately 12.4% at the minimum of the offering.
Additional Pro Forma Data
The actual net proceeds from the sale of our common stock in the offering cannot be determined until the offering is completed. However, the offering net proceeds are currently estimated to be between $31.1 million and $43.0 million, based on the following assumptions:

Expenses of the conversion and the offering will be $1.0 million; and

Placement agent commissions will equal $1.960 million.
We have prepared the following table which sets forth our historical net loss and retained earnings prior to the offering and pro forma net loss and shareholders’ equity following the offering. In preparing this table and in calculating the pro forma data, the following assumptions have been made:

Pro forma earnings have been calculated assuming the stock had been sold at the beginning of the period; and

Pro forma shareholders’ equity amounts have been calculated as if our common stock had been sold in the offering on June 30, 2018, and, accordingly, no effect has been given to the assumed earning effect of the net proceeds from the offering.
The following pro forma information may not be representative of the financial effects of the offering at the date on which the offering actually occurs and should not be taken as indicative of future results of operations. The pro forma shareholders’ equity is not intended to represent the fair market value of the common stock and may be different from amounts that would be available for distribution to shareholders in the event of liquidation.
40

The following table summarizes historical data and our pro forma data at June 30, 2018, based on the assumptions set forth above and in the table and should not be used as a basis for projection of the market value of the common stock following the completion of the offering.
At or for the Year Ended June 30, 2018
3,400,000
Shares Sold at $10.00
per Share (Minimum
of Range)
4,000,000
Shares Sold at
$10.00 per Share
(Midpoint of Range)
4,600,000
Shares Sold at
$10.00 per Share
(Maximum
of Range)
(dollars in thousands, except share and per share data)
Pro forma offering proceeds
Gross proceeds of public offering
$ 34,000 $ 40,000 $ 46,000
Less offering expenses and commissions
$ 2,895 $ 3,060 $ 3,135
Net Proceeds
$ 31,105 $ 36,940 $ 42,865
Pro forma shareholders’ equity
Historical Equity
$ 23,517 $ 23,517 $ 23,517
Net proceeds
$ 31,105 $ 36,940 $ 42,865
Pro forma shareholders’ equity(1)
$ 54,622 $ 60,457 $ 66,382
Pro forma per share data
Total shares outstanding after the offering
3,400,000 4,000,000 4,600,000
Pro forma book value per share
$ 16.06 $ 15.11 $ 14.43
Pro forma price-to-book value per share
62.3% 66.2% 69.3%
Pro forma net income
Historical net loss
(1,994) $ (1,994) $ (1,994)
Pro forma loss
$ (2,344) $ (2,344) $ (2,344)
Weighted average shares outstanding(2)
3,435,000 4,035,000 4,635,000
Pro forma loss per share
$ (0.68) $ (0.58) $ (0.51)
(1)
No effect has been given to any issuances of additional shares in connection with the grant of options or awards of stock under the stock-based incentive plan that we have adopted. Under the stock-based incentive plan, we may issue 480,000 shares of our common stock. Of this, 140,000 shares may be granted as restricted stock awards and 340,000 shares may be used to award stock options under the stock-based incentive plan. The issuance of authorized but unissued shares of our common stock upon the exercise of stock options or for purposes of making restricted stock awards under the stock-based incentive plan instead of open market purchases would dilute the voting interests of existing shareholders by approximately 12.4% at the minimum of the offering.
(2)
Includes 35,000 shares that would vest after one year under the grant of 140,000 shares of restricted stock immediately after the closing of the offerings.
41

MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF
FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and accompanying notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. Some of the information contained in this discussion and analysis and set forth elsewhere in this prospectus constitutes forward-looking information that involves risks and uncertainties. Please see “Forward Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors” for more information. You should review “Risk Factors” for a discussion of important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results described, or implied by, the forward-looking statements contained herein.
Overview
We provide life insurance protection targeted to middle class America. Industry data indicates there is a substantial unmet need for life insurance, particularly among domestic households with annual incomes of between $40,000 and $125,000, a market we refer to as the Middle Market. We also offer fixed interest and fixed index annuities, and we intend to introduce variable rate annuity products after completion of the conversion.
We conduct our business through our insurance company subsidiary, Federal Life Insurance Company, an Illinois-domiciled life insurance company. Federal Life sells its life insurance and annuity products through independent agents.
Insurance Business
Our business primarily consists of the operations of Federal Life. Federal Life underwrites primarily life insurance and annuity products through approximately 1,000 independent insurance agents.
Our revenues consist of insurance premiums, spreads on annuity contracts, net investment income, and net realized gains/(losses) on investments. Our distributors consist of the independent insurance agencies that we contract with to sell our insurance products to the ultimate customers (policyholders) who buy our insurance policies. We recognize premium revenue from our policyholders. We purchase reinsurance coverage to help manage the risk on our insurance policies by paying, or ceding, a portion of the policyholder premiums to the reinsurance company. Our net insurance premiums reflect amounts collected from policyholders, plus premiums assumed under reinsurance agreements, less premiums ceded to reinsurance companies. Net investment income represents primarily interest income earned on fixed maturity security investments and dividends from equity securities that we purchase with cash flows from our premium revenues and royalties from oil and gas interests that we acquired in the 1930s and 1940s. These investments support our liability for policy reserves and provide the capital required to operate our insurance business. Capital requirements are primarily established by regulatory authorities. See “— Investments” and “Business — Regulation” and “Business — Risk-Based Capital (RBC) Requirements.”
Expenses consist of benefits paid to policyholders or their beneficiaries under life insurance policies and distributions on annuity contracts. Benefit expenses also include additions to the reserve for future policyholder and annuity holder benefits to recognize our estimated future obligations under the policies and annuity contracts. Insurance benefit expenses are shown net of amounts ceded under our reinsurance contracts. We also incur policy acquisition costs that consist of commissions paid to agents, policy underwriting and issue costs, and variable sales costs. A portion of these policy acquisition costs are deferred and expensed over the life of the insurance policies acquired during the period. Our insurance operations also incur overhead costs for functional and administrative staff to support insurance operations, financial reporting, and information technology. We recognize income (loss) on operations to the extent that premium revenues, net investment income, and realized gains (losses) exceed (are less than) benefit expenses and general operating expenses for the period.
42

Strategic Goals
We have identified the following strategic goals to grow our business and achieve the size and scale necessary to return to profitability:

Enter into Strategic Partnerships to Expand our Sales and Distribution.   We currently distribute our life insurance and annuity products through approximately 1,000 independent agents. We intend to expand our distribution platform by entering into strategic partnerships with companies that can broaden our distribution channels. We are currently working on establishing an agreement with a leading exchange-traded fund provider that will enable us to introduce and distribute our variable rate annuity product upon its introduction. We believe the standby purchaser can provide assistance in expanding our distribution network. We continue to strive to provide all of our distribution partners with the highest quality service possible.

Pursue Acquisitions of Life Companies and Related Businesses.   We intend to use the additional capital provided by this offering to explore possible acquisitions of other life insurance companies to grow our business and leverage our existing available administrative capacity. We will also explore opportunities to acquire related businesses, such as insurance agencies, that can expand our distribution network.

Continue to Introduce Innovative and Competitive Products.   We intend to be at the forefront of the fixed index and fixed rate annuity industry in developing and introducing innovative and competitive products. We offer a fixed index annuity that allows a choice among interest crediting strategies including both equity indexes as well as a traditional fixed rate strategy. We include a lifetime income benefit rider with our fixed index annuities and have a lifetime income benefit rider with gender-based income payments. After the closing of the offerings, we intend to introduce a variable annuity product. We believe that our continued focus on anticipating and being responsive to the product needs of the ever-growing population of retirees will lead to increased customer loyalty, revenues, and profitability.

Take Advantage of the Growing Popularity of Index Products.   Fixed index and single premium annuities have been profitable for us in both the short-term and long-term and impose minimal or no strain on our statutory surplus. We believe that the growing popularity of fixed index annuity products that allow equity and bond market participation without the risk of loss of the premium deposit presents an attractive opportunity to grow our business. The popularity of fixed index annuity products has increased in recent years with the availability of lifetime income benefit riders that provide an attractive alternative for converting accumulated retirement savings into lifetime income. We believe that there is a significant market for these products as the Baby Boomer generation continues to reach retirement age. We intend to capitalize on our reputation as a provider of fixed index annuities in this expanding segment of the annuity market.

Target Niche Markets for Our Products.   We intend to focus on niche markets for our products, such as the Hispanic market, the direct-to-consumer market, and the senior and retirement planning markets. Federal Life currently has a presence in the Hispanic market and maintains an entirely separate Spanish-language website that features content and themes unique to that target market. Federal Life is also committing substantial resources to upgrade its digital platform and intends to leverage these new digital distribution and service applications to meet the needs of today’s consumers by promoting ease of access to information and efficient sales and customer service. We intend to target the senior and retirement planning markets with our existing fixed index annuity, flexible premium deferred annuity, and final expense plan insurance products.

Focus on High Quality Service to Agents and Policyholders.   We have maintained high quality personal service as one of our highest priorities since the inception of our company and continue to strive for an unprecedented level of timely and accurate service to both our agents and policyholders. We believe high quality service is one of our strongest competitive advantages.
43


Target Direct-to-Consumer Sales.   We are committing substantial resources to upgrade our digital platform to provide digital distribution and sales applications to meet the demands of today’s consumers by promoting ease of access to information and efficiency between sales and customer service. This permits us to generate more business from new and existing customers. We intend to provide access to our single premium deferred annuity, flexible premium deferred annuity, and single premium whole life products through the online platform that we are currently upgrading.
Factors Affecting Our Results
Accuracy of Our Pricing Assumptions
In order for our life insurance operations to be profitable, we must achieve product experience consistent with our pricing assumptions. We price our products using a number of assumptions that are designed to support the desired level of profitability. The key assumptions made are investment return (the investment income that we will earn on the funds held to support reserves and capital requirements), persistency (the number of lapsed policies that we expect by each policy year), mortality (our future claims experience), and operating expenses, which includes the commission rate that we pay to the agents that market our insurance products. Additionally, we make assumptions about the characteristics of our insureds including age, sex, underwriting class, and coverage amounts purchased. Our operating results will be affected by variances between our pricing assumptions and our actual experience.
Investment Returns
We invest our free cash flow and funds that support our regulatory capital, surplus requirements, and policy reserves in investment securities that are included in our insurance and corporate segments. We earn income on these investments in the form of interest on fixed maturity securities (bonds and mortgage-backed securities) and dividends (equity holdings). Investment income is recorded net of investment related expenses as revenue. The amount of net investment income that we recognize will vary depending on the amount of invested assets that we own, the types of investments we own, the interest rates earned, and amount of dividends received on our investments.
Gains and losses on sales of investments and fair value changes in investments accounted for by the equity method are classified as “realized investment gains (losses)” and recorded as revenue. Capital appreciation and depreciation caused by changes in the market value of investments classified as “available for sale” is recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income. The amount of investment gains and losses that we recognize depends on the amount of and the types of invested assets we own and the market conditions related to those investments. Our cash needs can vary from time to time and could require that we sell invested assets to fund cash needs.
The low interest rate environment has resulted in our current reinvestment yields being lower than the overall portfolio yield, primarily for our investments in fixed maturity securities. Although the Federal Reserve has raised key short-term interest rates multiple times since the end of 2015, medium and long-term interest rates continue near historic lows. If medium and long-term interest rates remain at their current level, our portfolio yields can be expected to continue to decline in future periods. With the additional capital provided by the offering, we may rebalance our investment portfolio to seek higher yields on our securities investments. Higher yielding investments usually are associated with higher investment risks, which may result in us recognizing higher other than temporary impairments.
For our fixed maturity securities available for sale as of December 31, 2017, the annual scheduled payments through 2020, along with the average interest rate, are shown in the following schedule:
Expected Cash Flows
Year
From
Maturities
Average
Interest rate
2018
$ 2,300,000 6.73%
2019
$ 7,500,000 5.21%
2020
$ 11,700,000 4.84%
44

As these assets mature, or are pre-paid, the current average book yield on fixed maturity securities available for sale of 3.98% at December 31, 2017 is expected to decline due to reinvesting in a lower interest rate environment. The average book yield that we would expect to receive on reinvesting in similar types and similarly rated securities was 3.23% as of December 31, 2017, which is equivalent to the market yield on our investment portfolio as of December 31, 2017.
As of December 31, 2017, we had $219.7 million of insurance liabilities and policyholder and annuity account balances. Of this amount, $81.3 million represents contracts with guaranteed minimum crediting rates that are at the guaranteed minimum rate, as shown in the following schedule:
(dollars in thousands)
Guaranteed Minimum Crediting Rates December 31, 2017
Account Value at Minimum
Guaranteed Rate
Policyholder account balances(1)
Greater than 0% to 1%
$
Greater than 1% to 3%
17,375
Greater than 3% to 4%
42,808
Greater than 4%
21,163
$ 81,346
(1)
The table above is not adjusted for policy loans
The reinvestment of scheduled payments and pre-payments at rates below the current average book yield will impact future operating results to the extent we are unable to reinvest at a rate at least equal to the crediting rate. For the year ended December 31, 2017, we also had $98.6 million of insurance liabilities representing participating contracts. The policyholder dividends for these contracts are determined annually, based on, among other factors, the experience, including investment experience, of the policies.
Assuming the investment rate is our average rate of 3.23%, as of December 31, 2017, for the period from January 1, 2018 through December 31, 2018, and credit spreads remain unchanged from levels as of December 31, 2017, we estimate that the unfavorable impact to net interest margins compared to the average interest rate of securities maturing and prepaying would be $100,000 in 2018.
Persistency Experience
We use our historical experience to develop our assumptions as to the amount and timing of future policy lapses. If actual policy lapse rates exceed the lapse rates assumed in pricing our products, we will experience a faster write-off of our deferred acquisition costs and lower premium revenues. If a policy lapses within a few years after issuance, we may not receive enough premium to cover all of our acquisition costs for the policy.
Mortality Experience
We use our historical experience combined with industry experience to develop our assumptions for the level, frequency, and pattern of future claims experience. If our actual experience differs from historical industry experience, we may incur claims in excess of the reserves that we have established.
Operating Expenses
Our level of operating expenses affects our reported net income (loss). Our general operating expenses include expenses that vary based on the growth in our revenues. Policy acquisition costs vary with the amount of first year premium each period, and variable policy administration costs increase as our number of insurance policies in force increase. We also incur other expenses for projects and initiatives designed to increase growth or improve operational efficiency. Our expenses also include amounts spent on general and administrative expenses required to support our business operations, such as financial reporting, rent, information technology, and other costs. These expenses are fixed costs that do not vary directly with business growth.
45

Income Taxes
We record federal income tax expense on our operating results. We file a consolidated federal income tax return.
Critical Accounting Policies
Our critical accounting policies are described in Note 2 — Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The accounting policies discussed in this section are those that we consider to be the most critical to an understanding of our financial statements. The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to use judgment in making estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses, and related disclosures. We regularly evaluate our estimates and judgments based on historical experience, market indicators, and other relevant factors and circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions and may affect our financial position and results of operations.
Valuation of Fixed Maturity Securities and Equity Securities
Our fixed maturity securities are classified as “available-for-sale” securities which are carried at fair value on the balance sheet. Fair value represents the price that would be received to sell an asset in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. For investments that are not actively traded, the determination of fair value requires us to make a significant number of assumptions and judgments. Fair value determinations include consideration of both observable and unobservable inputs. Observable inputs reflect market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs reflect our view of market assumptions in the absence of observable market information. Security pricing is applied using a hierarchy approach.
Level 1 — Unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets in active markets the Company can access.
Level 2 — This Level includes fixed maturity securities priced principally by independent pricing services using observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, such as quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar instruments on inactive markets; and model-derived valuations for which all significant inputs are observable market data. Level 2 instruments include most corporate debt securities and U.S. government and agency mortgage-backed securities that are valued by models using inputs that are derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data.
Level 3 — Fair values are derived from valuation techniques in which one or more significant inputs are unobservable. Level 3 instruments include less liquid securities for which significant inputs are unobservable in the market, such as structured securities and private placement bonds that require significant management assumptions or estimation in the fair value measurement. Level 3 hierarchy requires the use of observable market data when available. Level 3 instruments also include a private placement equity fund.
At December 31, 2017, the estimated fair value of our investments by fair value hierarchy was as follows:
Fair Value of Investments as of December 31, 2017
(dollars in thousands)
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Total
Fair Value
  $37,448
$ 184,290 $ 2,182 $ 223,920
16.72%​
82.30% 0.98% 100.0%
Level 1 securities include principally U.S. Treasury bonds and exchange-traded funds that are valued based on quoted market prices for identical assets.
All of the fair values of our fixed maturity and equity securities within Level 2 are based on prices obtained from independent pricing services. For fixed maturity securities that do not trade on a daily basis, the pricing services prepare estimates of fair value measurements using their pricing applications which
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incorporate a variety of inputs including, but not limited to, benchmark yields, reported trades, broker/​dealer quotes, issuer spreads, and U.S. Treasury curves. Specifically for asset-backed securities, key inputs include prepayment and default projections based on past performance of the underlying collateral and current market data. Securities with validated quotes from pricing services are reflected within Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy, as they generally are based on observable pricing for similar assets or other market significant observable inputs.
Level 3 fair value classification consists primarily of investments in commercial real estate funds where the fair value of the security is determined by the asset manager based on an independent appraisal.
If we believe the pricing information received from third party pricing services is not reflective of market activity or other inputs observable in the market, we may challenge the price through a formal process with the pricing service. Historically, we have not challenged or updated the prices provided by third-party pricing services. However, any such updates by a pricing service to be more consistent with the presented market observations, or any adjustments made by us to prices provided by third-party pricing services, would be reflected in the balance sheet for the current period.
When the inputs used to measure fair value fall within different levels of the hierarchy, the Level within which the fair value measurement is categorized is based on the lowest Level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety. Thus, a Level 3 fair value measurement may include inputs that are observable (Level 1 or Level 2) and unobservable (Level 3).
Other-Than-Temporary Impairments on Available-For-Sale Securities
Securities that are classified as available-for-sale are subject to market declines below amortized cost (a gross unrealized loss position). When a gross unrealized loss position occurs the security is considered impaired. Quarterly or more frequently when necessary, we review each impaired security to identify whether the impairment may be other-than-temporary (“OTTI”) and require the recognition of an impairment loss in the current period earnings. Indication of OTTI includes potential credit deterioration whether due to ratings downgrades, unexpected price variances, and/or other company or industry specific concerns. A number of factors are considered in determining whether or not a decline in a specific security is other-than-temporary, including our current intention or need to sell the security or an indication that a credit loss exists. An impairment loss will be recorded if our intention is to sell an impaired security or it is considered to be more likely than not we will be required to sell the security. An impairment loss will be recorded to the extent that we determine that the impaired security will experience a credit loss.
Our review of our available-for-sale securities for impairment includes an analysis of impaired securities in terms of severity and/or age of the gross unrealized loss. Additionally, we consider a wide range of factors about the security issuer and use our best judgment in evaluating the cause of the decline in the estimated fair value of the security and in assessing the likelihood of near-term recovery. Inherent in our evaluation of the security are assumptions and estimates about the operations of the issuer and its future earnings potential that includes the evaluation of the financial condition and expected near-term and long-term prospects of the issuer, collateral position, the relevant industry conditions and trends, and whether expected cash flows will be sufficient to recover the entire amortized cost basis of the security.
The credit loss component of fixed maturity security impairment is calculated as the difference between amortized cost of the security and the present value of the expected cash flows of the security. The present value is determined using the best estimate of cash flows discounted at the effective rate implicit to the security at the date of purchase or prior impairment. The methodology and assumptions for estimating the cash flows vary depending on the type of security. For mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities, cash flow estimates, including prepayment assumptions, are based on data from widely accepted third-party sources or internal estimates. In addition to prepayment assumptions, cash flow estimates vary based on assumptions regarding the underlying collateral characteristics, expectations of delinquency and default rates, and structural support, including subordination and guarantees. If the present value of the modeled expected cash flows equals or exceeds the amortized cost of a security, no credit loss exists and the security is considered to be temporarily impaired. If the present value of the expected cash flows is less than amortized cost, the security may be determined to be other-than-temporarily impaired for credit reasons
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and recognized as an OTTI loss in earnings. The portion of the OTTI that is not considered a credit loss is recognized as OTTI in accumulated comprehensive income.
We had no other-than-temporarily impaired securities at December 31, 2017 or 2016.
Deferred Policy Acquisition Costs (DAC)
For our insurance and annuity business, the costs of acquiring new business are deferred to the extent that they are directly related to the successful acquisition of insurance or annuity contracts. Deferred acquisition costs include commissions paid in the first policy year that are in excess of the ultimate renewal commissions payable on the policy. We also defer costs associated with policy underwriting and issuance related to the successful acquisition of insurance contracts. Non-deferred first year acquisition costs that are expensed as incurred include expenses that do not meet the definition of a deferrable cost, which includes the acquisition costs incurred on insurance applications that do not result in an in-force policy (unsuccessful efforts).
The amortization of DAC for traditional life insurance products is determined as a level proportion of premiums based on actuarial methods and assumptions about mortality, morbidity, lapse rates, expenses, and future yield on related investments, established by us at the time the policy is issued. GAAP requires that assumptions for these types of products not be modified while the policy is outstanding. Amortization is adjusted each period to reflect policy lapse or termination rates compared to anticipated experience. Accordingly, acceleration of DAC amortization could occur if policies terminate earlier than originally assumed. We establish the assumptions used to determine DAC amortization based on estimates using company experience and other relevant information that is used to price the products. We monitor our actual experience and will update the actuarial factors applied to future policy issues if warranted. The selection of actuarial assumptions requires considerable judgment and has inherent uncertainty. Should actual policy lapse experience be higher than that assumed during a reporting period, we will amortize our DAC balance faster and report lower net income.
We evaluate the recoverability of our DAC asset as part of our premium deficiency testing. If a premium deficiency exists, we reduce DAC by the amount of the deficiency through a charge to current period earnings (loss). If the deficiency is more than the recognized DAC balance, we reduce the DAC balance to zero and increase the reserve for future policy benefits by the excess with a corresponding charge to current period earnings (loss). See “Future Policy Benefit Reserves” below for more information on premium deficiency testing.
For annuity products, DAC is amortized generally in proportion to expected gross profits from investment spreads, including the cost of hedging the fixed indexed annuity obligations, and, to a lesser extent, from product charges net of expected excess payments for lifetime income benefit riders, and mortality and expense margins. Current and future period gross profits/margins for fixed index annuities also include the impact of amounts recorded for the change in fair value of derivatives and the change in fair value of embedded derivatives. That amortization is adjusted retrospectively through an unlocking process when estimates of current or future gross profits/margins (including the impact of net realized gains on investments and net OTTI losses recognized in operations) to be realized from a group of products are revised. Deferred policy acquisition costs and deferred sales inducements are also adjusted for the change in amortization that would have occurred if available-for-sale fixed maturity securities and equity securities had been sold at their aggregate fair value at the end of the reporting period and the proceeds reinvested at current yields. The impact of this adjustment is included in accumulated other comprehensive income within consolidated stockholders’ equity, net of applicable taxes. See Note 2 to our audited financial statements at page F-1 for more information on deferred policy acquisition costs and deferred sales inducements.
Future Policy Benefit Reserves
We calculate and maintain reserves for estimated future claims payments to policyholders using actuarial assumptions in accordance with industry practice and GAAP. Many factors affect these reserves, including mortality trends, policy persistency, and investment returns. We establish our reserves based on estimates, assumptions, and our analysis of historical experience.
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The calculation of future policy reserves requires the use of significant judgment and is inherently uncertain. If our actual experience differs from the experience assumed in establishing our reserves, the impact of these differences is reflected in the results of operations in each period. If actual claims are higher than assumed claims experience, our reported income (loss) will be reduced (increased) for the periods in which this experience occurs. If actual policy lapses are higher than that assumed, our future policy benefit reserves will be reduced for the period in which this experience occurs.
The primary reserve method that is used in calculation of our future policy benefit reserves is the net level premium method. The net level premium method requires that the future policy benefit reserves are accrued as a level proportion of the premium paid by the policyholder. In applying this method, we use a number of actuarial assumptions that represent management’s best estimate at the time the contract was issued with the addition of a margin for adverse deviation. Actuarial assumptions include estimates of morbidity, mortality, policy persistency, discount rates, and expenses over the life of the contracts.
A premium deficiency can exist if the discounted present value of future net premiums is not sufficient to cover anticipated future claims and future DAC amortization. To assess the adequacy of our benefit reserves, we annually perform premium deficiency testing for each of our product groups. In performing our premium deficiency testing we compute our reserves using best estimate assumptions as of the date of the test without provision for adverse deviation. We then compare the results of the recomputed reserves to the recorded reserves net of the DAC asset. If reserves determined using best estimate assumptions are lower than the recorded net GAAP liability, no premium deficiency exists and no adjustments are recorded. If reserves determined based on management’s current best estimate assumptions are greater than the existing reserves net of the deferred acquisition costs asset, we first reduce the amount of recorded DAC to eliminate the premium deficiency. If DAC is reduced to zero but the premium deficiency has not been eliminated, reserves are increased to eliminate the premium deficiency. Recording a premium deficiency will reduce our reported net income, or increase our reported loss, for the period.
In connection with our premium deficiency testing on our most significant business lines, we performed sensitivity analyses on our life and annuities business lines to capture the effect that certain key assumptions have on expected future cash flows and the impact of those assumptions on the adequacy of DAC balances and GAAP benefit reserves. The sensitivity tests are performed independently, without consideration for any correlation among the key assumptions.
We performed the following sensitivity tests as of December 31, 2017:

future lapse assumptions increased by a multiplicative factor of 1.10,

future mortality increased by a multiplicative factor of 1.10 for all blocks except direct annuities; for direct annuities, mortality was decreased by multiplying baseline mortality by a multiplicative factor of 0.90, and

future investment yield assumptions were lowered by 10 basis points.
Under all tests described above, the DAC was still recoverable on the life and the annuity lines. Additionally, the benefit reserve under these tests was demonstrated to be adequate.
Income Taxes
We record federal income tax expense in our consolidated statements of earnings based on pre-tax income as determined using GAAP accounting. The timing of the recognition of certain income and expense items for GAAP accounting can differ from the timing of recognition of the same income and expense items in our federal tax returns. The timing of recognition in the federal tax return is based on tax laws and regulations. As a result, the annual tax expense reflected in our consolidated statements of earnings is different than that reported in the tax returns. We account for income taxes under the asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of deferred taxes for temporary differences between the financial statement and tax return basis of assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets generally represent items that can be used as a tax deduction or credit in future years for which we have already recorded the tax benefit in our income statement. Deferred tax liabilities generally represent tax expense recognized in our financial statements for which payment has been deferred, or expenditures for which we have already taken a deduction in our tax return but have not yet been recognized in our financial statements. Under
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GAAP we are required to evaluate the recoverability of our deferred tax assets and establish a valuation allowance if necessary to reduce our deferred tax assets to an amount that is more likely than not to be realized. Significant judgment is required in determining whether valuation allowances should be established, as well as the amount of such allowances.
We establish or adjust valuation allowances for deferred tax assets when we estimate that it is more likely than not that future taxable income will be insufficient to fully use a deduction or credit. In assessing the need for the recognition of a valuation allowance for deferred tax assets, we consider whether it is more likely than not that some portion, or all, of the deferred tax assets will not be realized and adjust the valuation allowance accordingly. We evaluate all significant available positive and negative evidence as part of our analysis. Negative evidence includes the existence of losses in recent years. Positive evidence includes the forecast of future taxable income, tax-planning strategies that would result in the realization of deferred tax assets, and the presence of taxable income in prior carryback years. The underlying assumptions we use in forecasting future taxable income require significant judgment and take into account our recent performance. The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets depends on the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which temporary differences are deductible or creditable. If actual experience differs from these estimates and assumptions, the recorded deferred tax asset may not be fully realized, resulting in an increase to income tax expense in our results of operations.
Deferred Tax Liability
(in thousands)
December 31, 2017
December 31, 2016
Total deferred tax assets
$ 9,139 $ 13,939
Total deferred tax liabilities
(4,668) (7,127)
Deferred tax asset (liability) before valuation allowance
4,471 6,812
Valuation allowance
(4,013) (6,148)
Deferred income tax liability
$ 458 $ 664
With the current valuation allowance, the current tax benefit is limited.
The calculation of benefit reserves and of the DAC amortization requires us to make assumptions as to mortality, persistency, expense, and interest rates, and to use such assumptions to project the blocks of business into the future. If experience were to deviate adversely from these assumptions on a sustained basis, we may find it necessary to either strengthen the benefit reserves or to write-off the DAC earlier than anticipated. We conduct recoverability and loss recognition tests on a periodic basis; the results of which indicate that our assumptions are reasonable, and that the net liabilities are sufficient to meet all future obligations. In terms of DAC Recoverability, the aggregate K-Factors as of December 31, 2017 were as follows:

FAS60 Life Products — 20%

FAS97 Life Products — 57%

FAS97 Annuity Products — 49%
Recoverability becomes an issue when these percentages approach or exceed 100%. There is a significant margin in these K-Factors, and this is not expected to change into the foreseeable future.
Our most recent loss recognition testing, as of December 31, 2017, for the SFAS 60 life products demonstrated that there is a 30% excess margin in the reported GAAP Benefit Reserve over the minimum required gross premium valuation reserve. We regard a margin of this magnitude to be significant. Based on our analysis, we expect the DAC to be recoverable and the benefit reserves to be adequate into the foreseeable future.
Changes in balance sheet items and in profitability will affect the deferred tax asset calculation and assessment. The valuation allowance is reviewed periodically and will change with the outlook for profitability and recoverability of loss carryforward amounts. We have used reasonable assumptions in the past and do not expect any significant future changes in the assumptions or methodology applied. Estimates for recoverability of the deferred tax asset will depend on expected future profitability that will be influenced by external economic factors and will also be sensitive to changes is future corporate tax rates.
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Principal Revenue and Expense Items
Revenues
Our primary revenue sources are life insurance premiums, net spreads on annuity contract deposits, net investment income, realized investment gains and losses, and other income.
Net Premiums
Net premiums consist of direct life insurance premiums due and collected from our policyholders on in-force insurance policies, less reinsurance premiums paid to reinsurers. Direct premiums are recorded in our insurance segment and classified as first year premiums when they relate to the first calendar year coverage period. Premiums for policies outside their first calendar year are called renewal premiums.
Net Spreads on Annuity Contract Deposits
We recognize income on the difference between the crediting rate on annuity contracts that we have issued and the return on the investments underlying the annuity contract, less the cost of hedging the return on such investments in the case of index annuities.
Net Investment Income
Investment income consists of income generated from our investment portfolio and is recorded net of related expenses incurred to manage our investments. Investment income primarily consists of interest income earned on fixed maturity investments and dividends earned on our equity holdings, net of related expenses incurred to manage our investments, and royalties received with respect to oil and gas rights that we hold.
Net Realized Investment Gains (Losses)
Net realized investment gains (losses) result from sales of investment securities and OTTI for estimated credit losses of fixed income investments.
Other Revenue
Other revenue consists of fee income from the separate account business.
Benefits and Expenses
This category consists of benefits to policyholders, which include policyholder dividends and policyholder dividend obligations (PDO), interest credited to policyholder and contract holder balances, general operating expenses and amortization of DAC.

Life Insurance Benefits
Benefit expenses include claims paid or payable on in-force insurance policies, as well as the change in our reserves for future policy benefits during the period. Benefit expenses are reduced by amounts ceded to reinsurance companies with whom we contract to share policy risks.

Interest Credited to Policyholder and Contractholder Account Balances
The interest credited primarily relates to amounts that contractholders earn on any contractholder deposits from our annuity contracts and other amounts left on deposit with us. Our universal life policies and annuity contracts require Federal Life to periodically establish the crediting rate to be paid on policyholder and contractholder deposits.
Operating Costs and Expenses
Operating expenses include policy acquisition costs in excess of amounts that qualify for deferral, ceding commissions received on ceded reinsurance in excess of amounts deferred, variable policy administration costs, general overhead and administration costs, and insurance premium taxes and assessments paid to various states. Overhead and administrative expenses include employee costs (salaries, bonuses, and benefits), information technology, and costs of third party administrators and other contractors.
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Amortization of DAC
DAC amortization represents the actuarially determined reduction in the DAC asset for the period. The amount of acquisition cost amortization recognized each period is based on actual factors established when the insurance contracts were written.
Amortization of Sales Inducement Costs
Sales inducements such as bonuses on index annuity products are capitalized and amortized over the expected term of the product.
Results of Operations
The major components of operating revenues, benefits and expenses, and net (loss) income are as follows (in thousands):
FLMHC Consolidated Results of Operations
(dollars in thousands)
Six Months Ended June 30,
Year Ended December 31,
2018
2017
2017
2016
REVENUES
Net insurance revenues
$ 6,258 $ 6,596 $ 12,058 $ 14,427
Net investment income
4,218 4,292 8,523 8,821
Net realized investment gains
324 904 2,228 1,783
Other income
97 85 194 173
Total revenues
10,897 11,877 23,003 25,204
BENEFITS AND EXPENSES
Policyholder benefits
7,018 7,215 13,712 16,069
Interest credit to policyholders
207 114 386 315
Operating costs and expenses
4,331 3,994 7,889 8,099
Amortization of deferred policy acquisition and sales inducement costs
897 1,124 2,108 1,876
Taxes, licenses and fees
398 392 716 722
Dividends to policyholders
31 31 66 86
Total benefits and expenses
12,882 12,870 24,877 27,167
Loss before income taxes
(1,985) (993) (1,874) (1,963)
Tax expense
9 14 34 34
NET LOSS
$ (1,994) $ (1,007) $ (1,908) $ (1,997)
Revenues
For the year ended December 31, 2017, revenues were $23.0 million compared to $25.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. This decrease of  $2.2 million (8.7%) results primarily from decreases in net insurance premiums and net investment income, which was partially offset by an increase in realized investment gains. Net insurance premiums decreased by $2.4 million primarily due to lower sales of the Company’s life insurance products and more ceded premium, and net investment income decreased by $298,000 as a result of an overall decrease in the effective yield due to investment asset base mix. Realized investment gains increased by $445,000 primarily due to the increased sales of mineral rights by Americana Realty Company.
Benefits and Expenses
For the year ended December 31, 2017, total benefits and expenses were $24.9 million compared to $27.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. This decrease of  $2.3 million (8.5%) was due primarily to a decrease in life claims of  $700,000 and lower annuity surrenders of  $500,000 and lower operating costs of  $200,000.
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Net Loss Before Taxes
For the year ended December 31, 2017, we had a loss before taxes of  $1.9 million, which was an improvement of  $89,000 from 2016.
Tax Expense
Our income tax expense was $34,000 for both 2017 and for 2016.
Insurance Revenues
For the year ended December 31, 2017, net insurance premiums were $12.1 million compared to $14.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. This decrease of  $2.3 million (16.4%) was attributable mainly to a $2.3 million decrease in life net premiums (16.4%). The decrease in life net premium revenue was due primarily to a $1.1 million decrease in premiums from our single premium whole life product and higher ceded premiums of  $656,000 as a result of a new reinsurance treaty.
Net Investment Income
For the year ended December 31, 2017, net investment income was $8.5 million compared to $8.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. This decrease of  $300,000 (3.4%) is due to lower yields on invested assets as maturing investments were reinvested at lower interest rates.
Net Realized Investment Gains
For the year ended December 31, 2017, realized investment gains were $2.2 million compared with realized investment gains of  $1.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. This increase of  $445,000 (24.7%) was mainly due to larger gains from sales of mineral rights, partially offset by lower gains on equity securities.
Other Revenues
For the year ended December 31, 2017, other revenues were $194,000 compared with $173,000 for the year ended December 31, 2016. This increase of  $21,000 (12.1%) is primarily due to higher fee income from our separate account business in 2017.
Policyholder Benefits
For the year ended December 31, 2017, policyholder benefits were $13.7 million compared with $16.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. This decrease of  $2.4 million (14.7%) resulted mainly from reduced claim benefits of  $687,000 (6.7%) and a $1.1 million (1.5%) decrease in life benefit reserves due to ceding more business under our reinsurance treaty. The decrease in incurred claims benefits were due to lower life claims.
Interest Credit to Policyholders
For the year ended December 31, 2017, interest credited was $386,000 compared to $315,000 for the year ended December 31, 2016. This increase of  $71,000 (22.5%) is due to lower account balances in 2016.
Operating Costs and Expenses
For the year ended December 31, 2017, operating costs and expenses were $7.9 million compared to $8.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. This decrease of  $210,000 (2.6%) was mainly due to an increase in deferrable expenses.
Amortization of Deferred Acquisition and Sales Inducement Costs
For the year ended December 31, 2017, amortization of deferred acquisition and sales inducement costs was $2.1 million compared to $1.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. This increase of $232,000 (12.4%) resulted primarily from amortization of a higher deferred acquisition balance at the end of 2016 than at the end of 2015.
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Change in fair value of derivatives
Our derivatives consist of call options and call option spreads purchased to fund annual index credits on fixed index annuities. The components of change in fair value of derivatives are as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
2017
2016
(dollars in thousands)
Call options:
Gain (loss) on option expiration
$ 94 $ 0
Change in unrealized gains (losses)
140
The differences between the change in fair value of derivatives between years for call options are primarily due to the performance of the indices upon which our call options are based. A substantial portion of our call options are based upon the S&P 500 Index. The range of index appreciation (after applicable caps and participation rates) for options expiring during these years is as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
2017
2016
S&P 500 Index
16.04 – 18.50%
12.59 – 12.59%
Annual point-to-point strategy
Cap
3.00 – 3.75%
3.50 – 3.50%
Participation Rate
30.0 – 35.0%
30.0 – 30.0%
The change in fair value of derivatives is also influenced by the aggregate cost of options purchased. The aggregate cost of options has increased primarily due to an increased amount of fixed index annuities in force. The aggregate cost of options is also influenced by the amount of policyholder funds allocated to the various indices and market volatility which affects option pricing. See Note 5 to our audited financial statements at page F-18 “Derivative Instruments”
Annuity product charges
Annuity product charges (surrender charges assessed against policy withdrawals and fees deducted from policyholder account balances for lifetime income benefit riders) increased 340% to $102,584 in 2017 from $23,308 in 2016. The components of annuity product charges are set forth in the table that follows:
Year Ended December 31,
2017
2016
(dollars in thousands)
Surrender charges
$ 69 $ 22
Lifetime income benefit riders (LIBR) fees
$ 34 $ 1
$ 103 $ 23
Withdrawals from annuity policies subject to surrender charges
$ 1,091 $ 624
Average surrender charge collected on withdrawals subject to surrender charges
6.32% 3.60%
Fund values on policies subject to LIBR fees
$ 4,496 $ 114
Weighted average per policy LIBR fee
0.75% 0.76%
The increases in annuity product charges were primarily attributable to growth and aging of the business attributable to higher volume of business on which lifetime income benefit rider charges were assessed and increased surrenders for which surrender charges were imposed. See “— Interest sensitive and index benefit products” below for corresponding expense recognized on lifetime income benefit riders. Surrender charges increased in 2017 and 2016 due to an increase in withdrawals from annuity policies subject to surrender charges as compared to prior years.
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Interest sensitive and index product benefits
Account values for interest sensitive and index benefit products increased 10.4% to $109.8 million in 2017 from $99.4 million in 2016. The components of interest sensitive and index benefit products are summarized as follows:
Year Ended December 31,
2017
2016
(dollars in thousands)
Index credits on index policies
$ 145 $ 5
Interest credited (including interest credited on fixed allocation for fixed index annuities)
$ 4,209 $ 3,927
Lifetime income benefit riders
(34) (1)
$ 4,320 $ 3,931
The changes in index credits were attributable to changes in the level of appreciation of the underlying indices (see discussion above under “— Change in fair value of derivatives”) and the amount of funds allocated by policyholders to the respective index options. Total net proceeds received upon expiration of the call options purchased to fund the annual index credits were $154,000 for the year ended December 31, 2017, while there were no net proceeds received in 2016. The increase in interest credited in 2017 was primarily due to an increase in the amount of annuity liabilities outstanding receiving a fixed rate of interest. The average amount of annuity liabilities outstanding (net of annuity liabilities ceded under coinsurance agreements) increased 11.7% to $63.7 million in 2017 from $57.0 million in 2016. See “— Annuity product charges.”
Net loss
For the year ended December 31, 2017, the net loss was $1.9 million compared to a net loss of $2.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. Lower insurance revenues and investment income in 2017 were mostly offset by higher realized gains on investments and lower policyholder benefits expense from a reduction in the reserve for future benefit claims.
Six Months Ended June 30, 2018 Compared to Six Months Ended June 30, 2017
Revenues
For the six months ended June 30, 2018, revenues were $10.9 million compared to $11.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017. This decrease of  $980,000 (8.3%) resulted from lower net insurance premiums and lower realized gains on investments. Net insurance revenues decreased by $338,000 primarily due to increased ceded premiums in the Company’s life insurance products. Net investment income decreased by $74,000 as a result of lower yields on invested assets. Realized investment gains decreased by $580,000 due to nonrecurring redemptions and sales of securities.
Benefits and Expenses
Total benefits and expenses for the six months ended June 30, 2018, were unchanged from the $12.9 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017. Policyholder benefits decreased by $197,000 (2.7%) and amortization of DAC and deferred sales inducement costs decreased by $227,000 (20.2%), offset by an increase in interest credited to policyholders of  $93,000 (81.6%) and an increase of  $337,000 (8.4%) in operating costs and expenses due to higher reorganization expenses.
Loss Before Income Taxes
For the six months ended June 30, 2018, we had a loss before taxes of  $2.0 million compared to a loss before taxes of  $1.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017. This increase of  $1.0 million (98%) in loss before taxes was primarily due to lower insurance revenues and reduced realized investment gains, and the increase in operating costs and expenses due to higher reorganization expenses.
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Tax Expense
For the six months ended June 30, 2018, income tax expense was $9,000 compared to an income tax expense of  $14,000 for the six months ended June 30, 2017. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Critical Accounting Policies — Income Taxes.”
Insurance Revenues
For the six months ended June 30, 2018, insurance revenues were $6.3 million compared to $6.6 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017. This decrease of  $338,000 (5.1%) was due to higher ceded premiums as a result of a new reinsurance treaty that became effective in October 2017.
Net Investment Income
For the six months ended June 30, 2018, net investment income was $4.2 million compared to $ 4.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017. This decrease of  $74,000 (1.7%) is mainly due to lower yields on invested assets due to lower interest rates.
Net Realized Investment Gains
For the six months ended June 30, 2018, realized investment gains were $324,000 compared with realized investment gains of  $904,000 for the six months ended June 30, 2017. This decrease of $580,000 million (64.2%) was due mainly to lower realized gains on equity securities.
Other Revenues
For the six months ended June 30, 2018, other revenues were $97,000 compared with $85,000 for the six months ended June 30, 2017. This increase of  $12,000 (14.1%) is primarily due to higher fee income from our separate account business in 2018.
Policyholder Benefits
For the six months ended June 30, 2018, policyholder benefits were $ 7.0 million compared with $7.2 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017. This decrease of  $200,000 (2.9 %) resulted from lower death benefits partially offset by ordinary reserve increases.
Interest Credit to Policyholders
For the six months ended June 30, 2018, interest credited was $207,000 compared to $114,000 for the six months ended June 30, 2017. This increase of  $93,000 (81.6%) is mainly due to new business.
Operating Costs and Expenses
For the six months ended June 30, 2018, operating costs and expenses were $4.3 million compared to $4.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017. This increase of  $337,000 (8.4%) was mainly a result of higher reorganizational costs, partially offset by lower general insurance expenses.
Amortization of deferred acquisition and sales inducement costs
For the six months ended June 30, 2018, amortization of deferred acquisition costs was $0.9 million compared to $1.1 million for the six months ended June 30, 2017. This decrease of  $200,000 (20.2%) resulted primarily from better experience in certain plans.
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Change in fair value of derivatives
Our derivatives consist of call options and call option spreads purchased to fund annual index credits on fixed index annuities. The components of change in fair value of derivatives are as follows:
Six Months Ended June 30,
2018
2017
(dollars in thousands)
Call options:
Gain (loss) on option expiration
$ 116 $ 2
Change in unrealized gains/losses
$ (108) $ 51
The differences between the change in fair value of derivatives between years for call options are primarily due to the performance of the indices upon which our call options are based. A substantial portion of our call options are based upon the S&P 500 Index. The range of index appreciation (after applicable caps and participation rates) for options expiring during these periods is as follows:
Six Months Ended June 30,
2018
2017
S&P 500 Index
14.24 – 15.72% 16.04 – 17.47%
Annual point-to-point strategy
Cap
3.50 – 3.50% 3.50 – 3.75%
Participation rate
35.0 – 35.0% 33.0 – 35.0%
The change in fair value of derivatives is also influenced by the aggregate costs of options purchased. The aggregate cost of options has increased primarily due to an increased amount of fixed index annuities in force. The aggregate cost of options is also influenced by the amount of policyholder funds allocated to the various indices and market volatility which affects option pricing. See Note 5 to our audited financial statements at page F-18 “Derivative Instruments.”
Annuity product charges
Annuity product charges (surrender charges assessed against policy withdrawals and fees deducted from policyholder account balances for lifetime income benefit riders) increased 240% to $56,346 in 2018 from $16,595 in 2017. The components of annuity product charges are set forth in the table that follows:
Six Months Ended June 30,
2018
2017
(dollars in thousands)
Surrender charges
$ 21 $ 5
Lifetime income benefit riders (LIBR) fees
$ 36 $ 12
$ 57 $ 17
Withdrawals from annuity policies subject to surrender charges
$ 346 $ 343
Average surrender charge collected on withdrawals subject to surrender charges
6.03%