Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
South Jersey Industries
10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-09-30 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-06-30 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-K 2017-12-31 Annual: 2017-12-31
10-Q 2017-09-30 Quarter: 2017-09-30
10-Q 2017-06-30 Quarter: 2017-06-30
10-Q 2017-03-31 Quarter: 2017-03-31
10-K 2016-12-31 Annual: 2016-12-31
10-Q 2016-09-30 Quarter: 2016-09-30
10-Q 2016-06-30 Quarter: 2016-06-30
10-Q 2016-03-31 Quarter: 2016-03-31
10-K 2015-12-31 Annual: 2015-12-31
10-Q 2015-09-30 Quarter: 2015-09-30
10-Q 2015-06-30 Quarter: 2015-06-30
10-Q 2015-03-31 Quarter: 2015-03-31
10-K 2014-12-31 Annual: 2014-12-31
10-Q 2014-09-30 Quarter: 2014-09-30
10-Q 2014-06-30 Quarter: 2014-06-30
10-Q 2014-03-31 Quarter: 2014-03-31
10-K 2013-12-31 Annual: 2013-12-31
8-K 2019-02-06 Leave Agreement, Off-BS Arrangement
8-K 2019-01-17 Leave Agreement, Off-BS Arrangement
8-K 2019-01-15 Other Events
8-K 2019-01-14 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-12-31 M&A, Exhibits
8-K 2018-12-20 Enter Agreement, Off-BS Arrangement, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-30 M&A, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-26 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-10-22 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-17 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-08 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-08 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-02 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-05 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-03 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-01 Enter Agreement, M&A, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-06-27 Enter Agreement, Exhibits
8-K 2018-06-20 Enter Agreement, Off-BS Arrangement, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-18 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-14 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-11 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2018-05-08 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-25 Enter Agreement, Off-BS Arrangement, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-18 Enter Agreement, Off-BS Arrangement, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-17 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-27 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-23 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-22 Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-19 Enter Agreement, Off-BS Arrangement, Exhibits
CBZ CBIZ 0
NX Quanex Building Products 0
BMRA Biomerica 0
HICT Hiclasst 0
SAB Grupo Casa Saba 0
FOR Forestar Group 0
SBSI Southside Bancshares 0
ASUR Asure Software 0
FMC FMC 0
WING Wingstop 0
SJI 2018-12-31
Part I
Item 1. Business
Item 1A. Risk Factors
Part I
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Item 4A. Executive Officers of The Registrant
Part I
Part II
Item 5. Market for The Registrant's Common Equity,
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition And
Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risks
Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants On
Item 9A. Controls and Procedures
Item 9B. Other Information
Part III
Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11. Executive Compensation
Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
EX-2.(B)(III) exhibit2biiififthamendment.htm
EX-10.(E)(IV) exhibit10eiv-sjischeduleof.htm
EX-21 exhibit21-sji123118subsidi.htm
EX-23 exhibit23-sji12312018conse.htm
EX-31.1 exhibit311-sji123118ceocer.htm
EX-31.2 exhibit312-sjg123118certif.htm
EX-31.3 exhibit313-sji123118cfocer.htm
EX-31.4 exhibit314-sjg123118cfocer.htm
EX-32.1 exhibit321-sji123118ceocer.htm
EX-32.2 exhibit322-sjg123118certif.htm
EX-32.3 exhibit323-sji123118cfocer.htm
EX-32.4 exhibit324-sjg123118cfocer.htm

South Jersey Industries Earnings 2018-12-31

SJI 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

10-K 1 sji-12311810xk.htm 10-K Document
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D. C. 20549
FORM 10-K
 
 
x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
 
 
o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ____________to ______________.
Commission
File Number
Exact name of registrant as
specified in its charter and principal
office address and telephone number
State of
Incorporation
I.R.S.
Employer
Identification No.
Name of exchange on which registered
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
1-6364
South Jersey Industries, Inc.
1 South Jersey Plaza
Folsom, NJ 08037
(609) 561-9000
New Jersey
22-1901645
New York Stock Exchange
Common Stock - $1.25 par value per share
(Title of each class)
None
000-22211
South Jersey Gas Company
1 South Jersey Plaza
Folsom, NJ 08037
(609) 561-9000
New Jersey
21-0398330
N/A
None
None


Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act: 
South Jersey Industries, Inc.: Yes x No o
South Jersey Gas Company: Yes o No x

 Indicate by check mark if each registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Act: Yes o No x
 
Indicate by check mark whether each registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that each registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes x No o

Indicate by check mark whether each registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that each registrant was required to submit such files). Yes x No o

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.
South Jersey Industries, Inc.: o
South Jersey Gas Company: x
 
Indicate by check mark whether each registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
South Jersey Industries, Inc.:
 
Large accelerated filer   x
Accelerated filer      o
Non-accelerated filer     o 
Smaller reporting company      o
Emerging growth company      o
 
 
 
 
South Jersey Gas Company:
 
Large accelerated filer   o
Accelerated filer      o
Non-accelerated filer     x 
Smaller reporting company      o
Emerging growth company      o
 



 
Indicate by check mark whether any of the registrants are a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes o No x
 
South Jersey Industries, Inc. (common stock - $1.25 par value) - The aggregate market value of voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2018 was $2,854,343,456. As of February 15, 2019, there were 92,315,906 shares of the registrant's common stock outstanding. South Jersey Gas Company common stock ($2.50 par value) outstanding as of February 15, 2019 was 2,339,139 shares. All of South Jersey Gas Company's outstanding shares of common stock are held by South Jersey Industries, Inc.
 
South Jersey Gas Company is a wholly-owned subsidiary of South Jersey Industries, Inc. and meets the conditions set forth in General Instruction I(1)(a) and (b) of Form 10-K; therefore, South Jersey Gas Company files this form with the reduced disclosure format.

Documents Incorporated by Reference:
In Part III of Form 10-K:  Portions of South Jersey Industries, Inc.'s definitive proxy statement for its 2019 annual meeting of shareholders to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
 
 
 
 
Page No.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART I
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 4A.
 
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
 
 
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
 
   South Jersey Industries, Inc.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   South Jersey Gas Company
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
 
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
 
 
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
 
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
 
 
Item 15.
 
 
 





GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

ABO
Accumulated Benefit Obligation
ACB
ACB Energy Partners, LLC
ACLE
AC Landfill Energy, LLC
Acquisition
The Company's acquisition of Elizabethtown Gas Company and Elkton Gas Company effective July 1, 2018, from Pivotal Utility Holdings, Inc., a subsidiary of Southern Company Gas

AFUDC
Allowance for Funds During Construction
AIRP
Accelerated Infrastructure Replacement Program
AMA
Asset Management Agreement
AOCL
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
ARO
Asset Retirement Obligation
ASC
Accounting Standards Codification
ASU
Accounting Standards Update
Bcf
One billion cubic feet
BCLE
BC Landfill Energy, LLC
BGSS
Basic Gas Supply Service
BPA
Bond Purchase Agreement
BPU
New Jersey Board of Public Utilities
CBA
Collective Bargaining Agreement
CEGR
Compounded Earnings Annual Growth Rate
CIP
Conservation Incentive Program
CLEP
Clean Energy Program
CODM
Chief Operating Decision Maker
Columbia
Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC
DCF
Discounted Cash Flow
DOJ
Department of Justice
Dominion
Dominion Transmission, Inc.
DPA
Deferred Payment Arrangements
DRP
Dividend Reinvestment Plan
dt
Decatherm
dts/d
Decatherms per day
EEP
Energy Efficiency Program
EET
Energy Efficiency Tracker
EGR
Earnings Growth Rate
ELK
Elkton Gas Company
EMI
Energy & Minerals, Inc.
EnerConnex
EnerConnex, LLC
Energenic
Energenic US, LLC
EnergyMark
EnergyMark, LLC
EPS
Earnings Per Share
ERIP
Early Retirement Incentive Program
ERISA
Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974
ETG
Elizabethtown Gas Company
F
Fahrenheit
FASB
Financial Accounting Standards Board



FERC
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
FSS
Federal Supply Schedule
FT
Firm Transportation
GAAP
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles for financial reporting in the United States
Gulf South
Gulf South Pipeline
IAM
International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers
IBEW
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers
IIP
Infrastructure Investment Programs
IIT
Infrastructure Investment Recovery
LFGTE
Landfill Gas-to-Energy
LIBOR
London Interbank Offer Rate
LMP
Locational Marginal Price
LNG
Liquefied Natural Gas
Marina
Marina Energy, LLC
Mcf
One thousand cubic feet
MCS
MCS Energy Partners, LLC
MDQ
Maximum Daily Quantities
MDWQ
Maximum Daily Withdrawal Quantity
Midstream
SJI Midstream, LLC
Millennium
Millennium Account Services, LLC
MPSC
Maryland Public Service Commission
MMdts
One million decatherms
MMmwh
One million megawatt hours
Morie
The Morie Company, Inc.
MTM
Mark-to-market
MTN
Medium Term Notes
MW
Megawatts
Mwh
Megawatt-hours
National Fuel
National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation
NAV
Net Asset Value
NBS
NBS Energy Partners, LLC
Non-GAAP
The financial measures that are not prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP
NPA
Note Purchase Agreement
NJCEP
New Jersey Clean Energy Program
NJDEP
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
NJEDA
New Jersey Economic Development Authority
NOL
Net Operating Loss
OPEB
Other Postretirement Benefits
OSMC
On-System Margin Sharing Credit
PennEast
PennEast Pipeline, LLC
Potato Creek
Potato Creek, LLC
PBO
Projected Benefit Obligation
RAC
Remediation Adjustment Clause
RAM
Rate Adjustment Mechanism
ROE
Return on Equity
SAB
Staff Accounting Bulletin



Savings Plan
Employees' Retirement Savings Plan
SBC
Societal Benefits Clause
SBS
SBS Energy Partners, LLC
SCLE
SC Landfill Energy, LLC
SEC
Securities and Exchange Commission
SERP
Supplemental Executive Retirement Plan
SHARP
Storm Hardening and Reliability Program
SJE
South Jersey Energy Company
SJES
South Jersey Energy Solutions, LLC
SJESP
South Jersey Energy Service Plus, LLC
SJEX
South Jersey Exploration, LLC
SJF
South Jersey Fuel, Inc.
SJG
South Jersey Gas Company
SJI
South Jersey Industries, Inc., or the Company
SJIU
SJI Utilities, Inc.
SJRG
South Jersey Resources Group, LLC
SOA
Society of Actuaries
SRECs
Solar Renewable Energy Credits
SXLE
SX Landfill Energy, LLC
Tax Reform
Tax Cuts and Jobs Act which was enacted into law on December 22, 2017
Tennessee
Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.
Tetco
Texas Eastern Transmission Corp
TIC
Transportation Initiation Clause
Transco
Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC
TSA
Transition Services Agreement
TSR
Total Shareholder Return
USF
Statewide Universal Service Fund
Utilities
Represents SJI's three utility businesses: SJG, ETG, and ELK
UWUA
United Workers Union of America
VIE
Variable Interest Entities
WNC
Weather Normalization Clause



INTRODUCTION

FILING FORMAT

This Annual Report on Form 10-K is a combined report being filed separately by two registrants: South Jersey Industries, Inc. (SJI) and South Jersey Gas Company (SJG). Information relating to SJI or any of its subsidiaries, other than SJG, is filed by SJI on its own behalf. SJG is only responsible for information about itself.

Except where the content clearly indicates otherwise, any reference in the report to "SJI," "the Company," "we," "us" or "our" is to SJI and all of its subsidiaries, including SJG, which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of SJI.

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Management's Discussion) included under Item 7 is divided into two major sections: SJI and SJG. Financial information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K included in Item 8 includes separate financial statements (i.e., statements of income, statements of comprehensive income, statements of cash flows, balance sheets, and statements of changes in equity and comprehensive income) for SJI and SJG. The Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements are presented on a combined basis for both SJI and SJG.




Forward Looking Statements
 
Certain statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K may qualify as “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. All statements in this Report other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding future results of operations or financial position, expected sources of incremental margin, strategy, financing needs, future capital expenditures and the outcome or effect of ongoing litigation, should be considered forward-looking statements made in good faith by South Jersey Industries (SJI or the Company) and South Jersey Gas Company (SJG), as applicable, and are intended to qualify for the safe harbor from liability established by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. When used in this Report, or any other documents, words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” "estimate," “expect,” “forecast,” “goal,” “intend,” “objective,” “plan,” “project,” “seek,” “strategy,” "target," "will" and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are based on the beliefs and assumptions of management at the time that these statements were made and are inherently uncertain. Such forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to the risks set forth under “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Report and elsewhere throughout this Report. These cautionary statements should not be construed by you to be exhaustive and they are made only as of the date of this Report. While the Company believes these forward-looking statements to be reasonable, there can be no assurance that they will approximate actual experience or that the expectations derived from them will be realized. Further, neither SJI nor SJG undertakes no obligation to update or revise any of its forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

Available Information
 
Information regarding SJI and SJG can be found at SJI's website, www.sjindustries.com. We make available free of charge on or through our website SJI's Annual Report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains these reports at http://www.sec.gov. Also, copies of SJI's annual report will be made available, free of charge, upon written request. The content on any website referred to in this filing is not incorporated by reference into this Report unless expressly noted otherwise.
 



South Jersey Industries, Inc.
Part I


PART I

Item 1. Business 
Description of Business

South Jersey Industries, Inc. (SJI or the Company), a New Jersey corporation, was formed in 1969 for the purpose of owning and holding all of the outstanding common stock of South Jersey Gas Company, a public utility, and acquiring and developing non-utility lines of business.
 
SJI provides a variety of energy-related products and services, primarily through the following wholly-owned subsidiaries:

SJIU is a holding company that owns SJG, and as of July 1, 2018, ETG and ELK (see "Acquisition" below).

*
SJG is a regulated natural gas utility which distributes natural gas in the seven southernmost counties of New Jersey.
*
ETG is a regulated natural gas utility which distributes natural gas in seven counties in northern and central New Jersey.
*
ELK is a regulated natural gas utility which distributes natural gas in northern Maryland.

SJE acquires and markets electricity to retail end users. SJE previously acquired and marketed natural gas and provided total energy management services to commercial, industrial and residential customers. In November 2018, the Company sold SJE's retail gas businesses.

SJRG markets natural gas storage, commodity and transportation assets along with fuel management services on a wholesale basis in the mid-Atlantic, Appalachian and southern states.

SJEX owns oil, gas and mineral rights in the Marcellus Shale region of Pennsylvania.
Marina develops and operates on-site energy-related projects. The significant wholly-owned subsidiaries of Marina include:

ACB, which owns and operates a natural gas fueled combined heating, cooling and power facility located in Atlantic City, New Jersey.

ACLE, BCLE, SCLE and SXLE, which owns and operates landfill gas-to-energy production facilities in Atlantic, Burlington, Salem and Sussex Counties in New Jersey.

MCS, NBS and SBS, which owned and operated solar-generation sites located in New Jersey. These entities were sold in October 2018.

SJESP receives commissions on service contracts from a third party.

Midstream invests in infrastructure and other midstream projects, including a current project to build an approximately 118-mile natural gas pipeline in Pennsylvania and New Jersey.
 
On July 1, 2018, SJI, through its wholly-owned subsidiary SJIU, acquired the assets of ETG and ELK from Pivotal Utility Holdings, Inc., a subsidiary of Southern Company Gas (collectively, the "Acquisition"), for total consideration of $1.7 billion. See Note 20 to the consolidated financial statements.

On June 27, 2018, the Company, through Marina, entered into a series of agreements whereby Marina agreed to sell its portfolio of solar energy assets to a third-party buyer. As part of these agreements, Marina has agreed to sell its distributed solar energy projects located across New Jersey, Maryland, Massachusetts and Vermont. As of December 31, 2018, the Company earned cash of $228.1 million related to the closing of these projects, which included selling the wholly-owned subsidiaries MCS, NBS and SBS, along with $62.5 million related to the sale of certain SRECs. The Company currently has projects that have not yet closed and are expected to be sold in 2019. See Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements.

On November 30, 2018, SJI sold the retail gas assets of SJE for total consideration of $15.0 million. As a result of this agreement, SJE no longer acquires, transports or markets natural gas for retail markets.

9

South Jersey Industries, Inc.
Part I

Additional Information on the nature of SJI's and SJG's businesses can be found in “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” under Item 7 of this Report.
 
Financial Information About Reportable Segments
 
Information regarding Reportable Segments is incorporated by reference to Note 8 of the consolidated financial statements included under Item 8 of this Report.

Sources and Availability of Raw Materials

The Utilities:

Transportation and Storage Agreements

During 2018, SJG, ETG and ELK purchased and had delivered natural gas distribution of 49.1 MMdts, 21.8 MMdts and 0.5 MMdts, respectively (ETG and ELK are for the period July 1 - December 31, 2018 only). These deliveries were for on-system and off-system customers and for injections into storage. SJG's average cost per dt of natural gas purchased and delivered in 2018, 2017 and 2016, including demand charges, was $5.20, $3.75 and $3.40, respectively. The average cost per dt of natural gas purchased and delivered for ETG and ELK for the period July 1 - December 31, 2018 was $4.71 and $6.43, respectively.

SJG has direct connections to the interstate pipeline systems of Transco and Columbia. SJG secures other long-term services from Dominion, a pipeline upstream of the Transco and Columbia systems. Services provided by Dominion are utilized to deliver gas into either the Transco or Columbia systems for ultimate delivery to SJG.

ETG has direct connections to the interstate pipeline systems of Transco, Columbia, Tetco and Tennessee. ETG secures other long-term services from several inter-state pipelines, Dominion, National Fuel and Gulf South that are not directly connected to ETG and are upstream of the Transco and Tetco systems. Services provided by Dominion are utilized to deliver gas into either the Transco or Tetco systems for ultimate delivery to ETG. Services provided by National Fuel and Gulf South are utilized to deliver gas into the Transco system for ultimate delivery to ETG. ETG also secures third-party storage services from Stagecoach Gas Services and Stagecoach Pipeline & Storage Company.

Total transportation under contract at SJG and ETG are 421,980 dts/d and 218,523 dts/d, respectively. These contracts have terms with various ending dates, ranging from March 31, 2019 through March 31, 2029. The Company's intentions are to renew or extend these service agreements before they expire.

Total storage capacity under contract at SJG and ETG is 8.9 MMdts and 13.1 MMdts, respectively, with a total MDWQ of 170,298 dts and 225,343 dts, respectively. These contracts have terms with various ending dates, ranging from March 31, 2019 through September 30, 2029. The Company's intentions are to renew or extend these service agreements before they expire.

ELK has direct connections to the interstate pipeline systems of Eastern Shore Natural Gas, along with firm transportation agreements with Transco and Columbia Gas. The activities of ELK utility operations are immaterial.

Services provided by all of the above-mentioned pipelines are subject to the jurisdiction of the FERC.  

Gas Supplies

SJG has two separate AMA's with gas marketers that extend through March 31, 2019 and October 31, 2019, respectively. SJG released to the marketers its firm transportation rights, and in return the marketers manage this capacity and provide SJG with firm deliverability each day. The marketer's intents are to optimize the capacity released to SJG under these AMA's and pay SJG an asset management fee.

SJG has two long-term purchase agreements with separate gas producers. SJG has committed to purchase a minimum of 6,250 dts/d and up to 25,000 dts/d of natural gas, from one supplier, for a term of eight years at index-based prices. SJG has also committed to a purchase of a minimum of 55,000 dts/d and up to 70,000 dts/d, from the other supplier for a term of ten years at index-based prices.


10

South Jersey Industries, Inc.
Part I

On July 1, 2018, ETG and ELK entered into an AMA with SJRG which extends through March 31, 2022. Under this agreement ETG and ELK released to SJRG and/or designated SJRG as agent for all firm transportation and storage contracts. SJRG is obligated to provide natural gas supply to meet demand requirements and optimize ETG’s and ELK's portfolio of natural gas transportation and storage contracts. SJRG pays a fixed fee and shares net margin generated through portfolio optimization.

As part of the gas purchasing strategy, the Utilities use financial contracts to hedge against forward price risk. These contracts are recoverable through the BGSS Clause, subject to BPU/MPSC approval.
 
Supplemental Gas Supplies

SJG operates peaking facilities, located in McKee City, NJ, where it liquefies, stores and vaporizes LNG for injection into its distribution system. SJG's LNG facility has a storage capacity equivalent to 434,300 dts of natural gas and has an installed capacity to vaporize up to 118,250 dts of LNG per day for injection into its distribution system.

ETG operates a peaking facility, located in Elizabeth, NJ, where it stores and vaporizes LNG for injection into its distribution system. ETG's LNG facility has a storage capacity equivalent to 145,000 dts of natural gas and has an installed capacity to vaporize up to 25,000 dts of LNG per day for injection into its distribution system.
 
Peak-Day Supply
 
SJG plans for a winter season peak-day demand on the basis of an average daily temperature of 2 degrees F or 63 Heating Degree Days, while ETG's plans on an average daily temperature of 0 degrees F or 65 Heating Degree Days. Gas demand on such a design day for the 2018-2019 winter season is estimated to be 566,405 dts for SJG and 445,102 dts for ETG (excluding industrial customers). SJG and ETG project to have adequate supplies and interstate pipeline entitlements to meet design day requirements. SJG and ETG both experienced their highest peak-day demand for calendar year 2018 on January 6th.
 
South Jersey Energy Company

Due to the liquidity in the market, SJE primarily purchases delivered electric in the day-ahead and real-time markets through regional transmission organizations.
 
South Jersey Resources Group
 
Transportation and Storage Agreements

SJRG holds various firm transportation agreements with National Fuel, Transco, Dominion, Columbia, Columbia Gulf, Tennessee and Tetco. Total transportation under contract is 566,989 dts/d. These contracts have terms with various ending dates, ranging from March 31, 2019 through March 31, 2043. SJRG's intentions are to renew or extend these service agreements before they expire.

SJRG holds multiple storage service agreements with National Fuel, Transco (for storage service at Transco's WSS facility) and Columbia (for service under Columbia's FSS rate schedule). Total storage capacity under contract is approximately 8.6 MMdts. These contracts have terms with various ending dates, ranging from March 31, 2020 through March 31, 2023. SJRG's intentions are to renew or extend these service agreements before they expire.
 
Gas Supplies
 
SJRG has entered into several long-term natural gas supply agreements to purchase 832,500 dts/d, depending upon production levels, for terms ranging from four to ten years at index-based prices.
 
Patents and Franchises
 
The Utilities hold nonexclusive franchises granted by municipalities in the areas to which they serve. No other natural gas public utility presently serves the territory covered by the Utilities' franchises. Otherwise, patents, trademarks, licenses, franchises and concessions are not material to the business of the Utilities.
 

11

South Jersey Industries, Inc.
Part I

Seasonal Aspects
 
Utility Companies
 
The Utilities experience seasonal fluctuations in sales when selling natural gas for heating purposes. The Utilities meet these seasonal fluctuations in demand from firm customers by buying and storing gas during the summer months, and by drawing from storage and purchasing supplemental supplies during the heating season. As a result of this seasonality, the Utilities' revenues and net income are significantly higher during the first and fourth quarters than during the second and third quarters of the year.
 
Non-Utility Companies
 
Among SJI's non-utility activities, wholesale (including fuel supply management) has seasonal patterns similar to the Utilities. Activities such as energy services and energy project development do not follow seasonal patterns. Other activities, such as retail electric marketing, can have seasonal earnings patterns that are different from the Utilities. The first and fourth quarters remain the periods where most of SJI's revenue and net income is produced. 

Working Capital Practices
 
Reference is made to “Liquidity and Capital Resources” included in Item 7, “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” of this Report.
 
Customers
 
No material part of the Company's business is dependent upon a single customer or a few customers, the loss of which would be expected to have a material adverse effect on the results of operations of SJI on a consolidated basis, or of SJG.
 
Backlog
 
Backlog is not material to an understanding of SJI's business or that of any of its subsidiaries.
 
Government Contracts
 
No material portion of the business of SJI or any of its subsidiaries is subject to renegotiation of profits or termination of contracts or subcontracts at the election of any government.
 
Competition
 
Information on competition for SJI and its subsidiaries can be found in Item 7, “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” of this Report.
 
Research
 
During the last three fiscal years, neither SJI nor any of its subsidiaries engaged in research activities to any material extent.
 
Environmental Matters
 
Information on environmental matters for SJI and its subsidiaries can be found in Note 15 of the consolidated financial statements included under Item 8 of this Report.
 

12

South Jersey Industries, Inc.
Part I

Employees
 
SJI and its subsidiaries had a total of approximately 1,100 employees as of December 31, 2018, approximately 550 of which were SJG employees. Of those totals, 495 of SJI employees are unionized and 317 SJG employees are unionized (all of SJI's unionized employees are with SJG or ETG). SJI has collective bargaining agreements with unions that represent these employees: IBEW Local 1293; IAM Local 76; and UWUA Local 424.  SJG employees represented by the IBEW operate under a collective bargaining agreement that runs through February 2022. SJG's remaining unionized employees are represented by the IAM and operate under a collective bargaining agreement that runs through August 2021. ETG employees represented by the UWUA operate under a collective bargaining agreement that runs through November 2019.
 
Financial Information About Foreign and Domestic Operations and Export Sales
 
SJI has no foreign operations and export sales have not been a significant part of SJI's business.

Item 1A. Risk Factors
 
SJI and its subsidiaries, including SJG, operate in an environment that involves risks, many of which are beyond our control. SJI has identified the following risk factors that could cause SJI's operating results and financial condition to be materially adversely affected. In addition, new risks may emerge at any time, and SJI cannot predict those risks or the extent to which they may affect SJI's businesses or financial performance. To the extent such risk factors may affect SJI's utility businesses, such risk factors may also affect SJG's business or performance.
 
SJI is a holding company and its assets consist primarily of investments in subsidiaries. Should SJI's subsidiaries be unable to pay dividends or make other payments to SJI for financial, regulatory, legal or other reasons, SJI's ability to pay dividends on its common stock could be limited. SJI's stock price could be adversely affected as a result.

SJI's business activities, including those of SJG, are concentrated in New Jersey. Changes in the economies of New Jersey and surrounding regions could negatively impact the growth opportunities available to SJI and SJG, and the financial condition of the customers and prospects of SJI and SJG.

Changes in the regulatory environment or unfavorable rate regulation at the Utilities may have an unfavorable impact on financial performance or condition.  SJG and ETG are regulated by the BPU, and ELK is regulated by the MPSC. These regulatory commissions have authority over many of the activities of the utility business including, but not limited to, the rates the Utilities charges to its customers, the amount and type of securities it can issue, the nature of investments it can make, the nature and quality of services it provides, safety standards and other matters. The extent to which the actions of regulatory commissions restrict or delay the Utilities' ability to earn a reasonable rate of return on invested capital and/or fully recover operating costs may adversely affect SJI's and SJG's results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

SJI and SJG may not be able to respond effectively to competition, which may negatively impact their financial performance or condition. Regulatory initiatives may provide or enhance opportunities for competitors that could reduce utility income obtained from existing or prospective customers. Also, competitors in all of SJI's business lines may be able to provide superior or less costly products or services based upon currently available or newly developed technologies.

Warm weather, high commodity costs, or customer conservation initiatives could result in reduced demand for some of SJI's and SJG's energy products and services. SJG currently has a conservation incentive program clause that protects its revenues and gross margin against usage that is lower than a set level. ETG has a weather normalization clause which allows ETG to implement surcharges or credits during the months of October through May to compensate for weather-related changes in customer usage from the previous winter period. Should these clauses be terminated without replacement, lower customer energy utilization levels would likely reduce SJI's and SJG's net income. Further, during periods of warmer temperatures, demand and volatility in the natural gas market could decrease, which would negatively impact their financial results.

High natural gas prices could cause more receivables to be uncollectible. Higher levels of uncollectibles from either residential or commercial customers would negatively impact net income and could result in higher working capital requirements.


13

South Jersey Industries, Inc.
Part I

SJI's and SJG's net income could decrease if it is required to incur additional costs to comply with new governmental safety, health or environmental legislation. SJI and SJG are subject to extensive and changing federal and state laws and regulations that impact many aspects of its business; including the storage, transportation and distribution of natural gas, as well as the remediation of environmental contamination at former manufactured gas plant facilities.

Climate change legislation could impact SJI's and SJG's financial performance and condition.  Climate change is receiving ever increasing attention from both scientists and legislators.  The debate is ongoing as to the extent to which our climate is changing, the potential causes of this change and its future impacts.  Some attribute global warming to increased levels of greenhouse gases, which has led to significant legislative and regulatory efforts to limit greenhouse gas emissions. The outcome of federal and state actions to address global climate change could result in a variety of regulatory programs, including additional charges to fund energy efficiency activities or other regulatory actions.  These actions could affect the demand for natural gas and electricity, result in increased costs to our business and impact the prices we charge our customers. Because natural gas is a fossil fuel with low carbon content, it is possible that future carbon constraints could create additional demands for natural gas, both for production of electricity and direct use in homes and businesses.  Any adoption by federal or state governments mandating a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions could have far-reaching and significant impacts on the energy industry.  We cannot predict the potential impact of such laws or regulations on our future consolidated financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

SJI's wholesale commodity marketing and retail electric businesses are exposed to the risk that counterparties that owe money or energy to SJI will not be able to meet their obligations for operational or financial reasons. SJI could be forced to buy or sell commodity at a loss as a result of such failure. Such a failure, if large enough, could also impact SJI's liquidity.

Increasing interest rates would negatively impact the net income of SJI and SJG. Several of SJI's subsidiaries, including SJG, are capital intensive, resulting in the incurrence of significant amounts of debt financing. Some of the long-term debt of SJI and its subsidiaries is issued at fixed rates or has utilized interest rate swaps to mitigate changes in variable rates.  However, long-term debt of SJI and SJG at variable rates, along with all variable rate short-term borrowings, are exposed to the impact of rising interest rates.

The inability to obtain capital, particularly short-term capital from commercial banks, could negatively impact the daily operations and financial performance of SJI and SJG. SJI and SJG use short-term borrowings under committed credit facilities provided by commercial banks to supplement cash provided by operations, to support working capital needs, and to finance capital expenditures, as incurred. SJG also relies upon short-term borrowings issued under a commercial paper program supported by a committed bank credit facility to support working capital needs, and to finance capital expenditures, as incurred. If the customary sources of short-term capital were no longer available due to market conditions, SJI and its subsidiaries may not be able to meet their working capital and capital expenditure requirements and borrowing costs could increase.

A downgrade in either SJI's or SJG's credit ratings could negatively affect our ability to access adequate and cost-effective capital. Our ability to obtain adequate and cost-effective capital depends to a significant degree on our credit ratings, which are greatly influenced by our financial condition and results of operations. If the rating agencies downgrade either SJI's or SJG's credit ratings, particularly below investment grade, our borrowing costs would increase. In addition, we would likely be required to pay higher interest rates in future financings and potential funding sources would likely decrease. To the extent that a decline in SJG's credit rating has a negative effect on SJI, SJI could be required to provide additional support to certain counterparties.

Hedging activities of the Company designed to protect against commodity price or interest rate risk may cause fluctuations in reported financial results and SJI's stock price could be adversely affected as a result. Although SJI enters into various contracts to hedge the value of energy assets, liabilities, firm commitments or forecasted transactions, the timing of the recognition of gains or losses on these economic hedges in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America does not always match up with the gains or losses on the items being hedged. The difference in accounting can result in volatility in reported results, even though the expected profit margin is essentially unchanged from the dates the transactions were consummated.

14

South Jersey Industries, Inc.
Part I


The inability to obtain natural gas or electricity from suppliers would negatively impact the financial performance of SJI and SJG. Several of SJI's subsidiaries, including SJG, have businesses based upon the ability to deliver natural gas or electricity to customers. Disruption in the production or transportation to SJI or SJG from its suppliers could prevent SJI or SJG from completing sales to its customers.

Transporting and storing natural gas involves numerous risks that may result in accidents and other operating risks and costs. SJI's and SJG's gas distribution activities involve a variety of inherent hazards and operating risks, such as leaks, accidents, mechanical problems, natural disasters or terrorist activities which could cause substantial financial losses. In addition, these risks could result in loss of human life, significant damage to property, environmental pollution and impairment of operations, which in turn could lead to substantial losses. In accordance with customary industry practice, SJI and SJG maintain insurance against some, but not all, of these risks and losses. The occurrence of any of these events, even if fully covered by insurance, could adversely affect SJI's or SJG's financial position, results of operations and cash flows.

Adverse results in legal proceedings could be detrimental to the financial condition of SJI or SJG. The outcomes of legal proceedings can be unpredictable and can result in adverse judgments.

Constraints in available pipeline capacity, particularly in the Marcellus Shale producing region, may negatively impact SJI's financial performance. Natural gas production and/or pipeline transportation disruptions in the Marcellus region, where SJI has natural gas receipt requirements, may cause temporary take-away constraints resulting in higher transportation costs and the sale of shale gas at a loss.

SJI's and SJG's business could be adversely impacted by strikes or work stoppages by its unionized employees. The gas utility operations of SJG and ETG are dependent upon employees represented by unions and covered under collective bargaining agreements. A work stoppage could negatively impact operations, which could impact financial results as well as customer relationships.

The risk of terrorism may adversely affect the economy as well as SJI's and SJG's business. An act of terror could result in disruptions of natural gas supplies and cause instability in the financial and capital markets. This could adversely impact SJI's or SJG's ability to deliver products or raise capital and could adversely impact its results of operations.

Failure to obtain proper approvals and property rights in the PennEast pipeline could hinder SJI's equity investment in the project. Construction, development and operation of energy investments, specifically the PennEast pipeline, are subject to federal and state regulatory oversight and require certain property rights from public and private property owners, as well as regulatory approvals, including environmental and other permits and licenses. SJI, as well as our joint venture partners in the PennEast pipeline, may be unable to obtain all such needed property rights, permits and licenses to successfully construct and develop the pipeline, and failing to do so could cause SJI's equity investment in the project to become impaired. Such impairment could have a materially adverse effect on SJI's financial condition and results of operations.

15

South Jersey Industries, Inc.
Part I


Our business could be harmed by cybersecurity threats and related disruptions. We rely extensively on information technology systems to process transactions, transmit and store information and manage our business. Disruption or failure of our information technology systems could shut down our facilities or otherwise harm our ability to safely deliver natural gas to our customers, serve our customers effectively, manage our assets, or otherwise materially disrupt our business. Cyber threats are constantly evolving, increasing the difficulty of detecting and successfully defending against them. SJI and SJG have experienced such attacks in the past; however, based on information currently available to SJI and SJG, none have had a material impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. In response, we have invested in expanded cybersecurity systems and procedures designed to safeguard the continuous and uninterrupted performance of our information technology systems and protect against unauthorized access. However, all information technology systems are potentially vulnerable to security threats, including hacking, viruses, other malicious software, and other unlawful attempts to disrupt or gain access to such systems. There is no guarantee that our cybersecurity systems and procedures will prevent or detect the unauthorized access by experienced computer programmers, hackers or others. An attack on or failure of our information technology systems could result in the unauthorized disclosure, theft, misuse or destruction of customer or employee data or business or confidential information, or disrupt the performance of our information technology systems. These events could expose us to potential liability, litigation, governmental inquiries, investigations or regulatory actions, harm our brand and reputation, diminish customer confidence, disrupt operations, and subject us to payment of fines or other penalties, legal claims by our clients and significant remediation costs.

Tax law or regulation changes may negatively impact financial performance. SJI and SJG are subject to taxation by various taxing authorities at the federal, state and local levels. Any future changes in tax laws or regulations, including Tax Reform, or interpretation of such laws or regulations, could have a materially adverse effect on SJI's and SJG's financial condition and results of operations.

The loss of long-tenured employees could negatively impact the daily operations and financial performance of SJI and SJG. In October 2018, the Company announced it will offer an ERIP for eligible non-union employees and officers. Several employees have accepted the ERIP and will be retiring from the Company within 6 to 12 months. The departure of these individuals, who have varying roles and corresponding oversight responsibilities for SJI and SJG, could adversely impact SJI's and SJG's results of operations.

Our stated long-term goals are based on various assumptions and beliefs that may not prove to be accurate, and we may not achieve our stated long-term goals by 2020 or at all. SJI's current long-term goals are to grow Economic Earnings Per Share 6-8% annually while maintaining high quality earnings, a strong balance sheet and a low-to-moderate risk profile. Management established those goals in conjunction with our board of directors based upon a number of different internal and external factors that characterize and influence our current and expected future activities. For example, these long-term goals are based on certain assumptions regarding our participation in a current project to build an approximately 118-mile natural gas pipeline in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. However, construction on this project is not expected to begin until 2019 and is estimated to be completed in late 2020, but may be subject to delay. As a result, no assurance can be given that this project will be completed on time or at all. Also, as noted below, the Acquisition involves risks associated with acquisitions and integrating acquired assets, including the potential exposure to significant liabilities, and the intended benefits of the Acquisition may not be realized. Further, the economy could cause increased customer delinquencies or otherwise negatively affect achievement of our long-term earnings goals. Changes in the New Jersey State administration could lead to unfavorable state and local regulatory changes that could delay approvals, require environmental remediation or capital or other expenditures or otherwise adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition or cash flows. Other factors, assumptions and beliefs of management and our board of directors on which our long-term goals were based may also prove to differ materially from actual future results. Accordingly, we may not achieve our stated long-term goals by 2020 or at all, or our stated long-term goals may be negatively revised as a result of less than expected progress toward achieving these goals, and you are therefore cautioned not to place undue reliance on these goals.

16

South Jersey Industries, Inc.
Part I


The Acquisition involves risks associated with acquisitions and integrating acquired assets, including the potential exposure to significant liabilities. The Acquisition may not achieve its intended results and benefits, including anticipated investment opportunities and earnings growth.

The Acquisition involves risks associated with acquisitions and integrating acquired assets into existing operations, including that:

our senior management's attention may be diverted from the management of daily operations to the integration of the Acquisition;
we could incur significant unknown and contingent liabilities for which we have limited or no contractual remedies or insurance coverage;
the assets to be acquired may not perform as well as we anticipate; and
unexpected costs, delays and challenges may arise in integrating the assets acquired in the Acquisition into our existing operations.

Although we expect that the Acquisition will result in various benefits, including expanding our gas utility rate and customer bases, providing investment opportunities through infrastructure development and enhancing our regulatory relationships within the local communities served, we cannot assure you regarding when or the extent to which we will be able to realize these or other benefits. Achieving the anticipated benefits is subject to a number of uncertainties, including whether the businesses acquired can be operated in the manner we intend and whether our costs to finance the Acquisition will be consistent with our expectations. Events outside of our control, including but not limited to regulatory changes or developments, could also adversely affect our ability to realize the anticipated benefits from the Acquisition. Thus the integration of the ETG and ELK businesses, respectively, may be unpredictable, subject to delays or changed circumstances, and we cannot assure you that the acquired businesses will perform in accordance with our expectations or that our expectations with respect to improving our business risk profile, leveraging existing regulatory relationships or achieving earnings growth as a result of the Acquisition will be achieved. In addition, our anticipated costs to achieve the integration of the acquired businesses may differ significantly from our current estimates. The integration may place an additional burden on our management and internal resources, and the diversion of management’s attention during the integration process could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and expected operating results.

We issued additional securities to provide permanent financing for the Acquisition, and, as a result, we are subject to market risks including market demand for our debt and equity securities. We are also seeking to consummate certain asset sales.

In connection with the Acquisition, we have obtained permanent financing which includes common stock and Equity Units, Senior Unsecured Notes, Floating Rate Senior Notes, a Term Loan Facility and a Revolving Credit Agreement.

Among other risks, the increase in our indebtedness may:

make it more difficult for us to repay or refinance our debts as they become due during adverse economic and industry conditions;
limit our flexibility to pursue other strategic opportunities or react to changes in our business and the industries in which we operate and, consequently, place us at a competitive disadvantage to competitors with less debt;
require an increased portion of our cash flows from operations to be used for debt service payments, thereby reducing the availability of cash flows to fund working capital, capital expenditures, dividend payments and other general corporate purposes;
result in a downgrade in the credit rating of our indebtedness, which could limit our ability to borrow additional funds or increase the interest rates applicable to our indebtedness;
result in higher interest expense in the event of increases in market interest rates for both long-term debt as well as short-term commercial paper, bank loans or borrowings under our lines of credit at variable rates;
reduce the amount of credit available to support hedging activities; and
require that additional terms, conditions or covenants be placed on us.


17

South Jersey Industries, Inc.
Part I

Among other risks, the issuance of additional equity by SJI may:

be dilutive to our existing shareholders and earnings per share;
impact our capital structure and cost of the capital;
be adversely impacted by movements in the overall equity markets or the utility or natural gas utility industry sectors of that market, which could impact the offering price of our new equity or necessitate the use of other equity or equity-like instruments such as preferred stock, convertible preferred shares, or convertible debt; and
impact our ability to make our current and future dividend payments.

The Company may not be able to obtain refinancings of short-term debt, causing the ability to pay such debt at maturity to be at risk. As a result of the Acquisition, the Company has $733.9 million of debt coming due within the next twelve months. The plan is to obtain refinancings for most of this debt, with the remainder being paid off through various transactions including the expected sale of non-core assets as noted below. The Company can offer no assurances that these refinancings or sales will be successful.

The agreements to sell certain non-core assets of the Company may not be consummated. An agreement to sell solar assets has been entered into with a third party, with actual sales occurring on a rolling basis as the conditions precedent to the closing of each solar project, including certain regulatory filings and receipt of consents to assignment of project contracts and permits, are satisfied. While certain consents have been received and the sale of certain projects has consummated, we cannot guarantee that all approvals and consents will occur.


Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
 
None.


Item 2. Properties
 
The principal property of SJI consists of gas transmission and distribution systems that include mains, service connections and meters. The transmission facilities carry the gas from the connections with Transco and Columbia to distribution systems for delivery to customers. As of December 31, 2018, there were approximately 146.2 miles of mains in the transmission systems and 6,567 miles of mains in the distribution systems.
 
In 2018, SJG sold 117 acres of deed restricted land in Folsom. Currently, SJG owns approximately 44 acres of land in Folsom, New Jersey which is the site of SJI's corporate headquarters. Approximately 30 acres of this property is deed restricted. SJG also has office and service buildings at six other locations in its territory. There is a liquefied natural gas storage, liquefaction and vaporization facility at one of these locations.

In November 2018, SJG opened its corporate headquarters in Atlantic City, New Jersey.

ETG is headquartered in Union, NJ and owns approximately 3,200 miles of distribution pipeline in seven counties in northern and central New Jersey. ETG has office and service buildings at six other locations in its territory. ELK is headquartered in Elkton, MD and has one other service building in its territory. 

As of December 31, 2018, SJI's utility plant had a gross book value of $4.3 billion and net book value, after accumulated depreciation, of $3.6 billion. In 2018, SJI spent $341.1 million on additions to utility plant and nonutility property and equipment, and there were retirements of property having an aggregate gross book cost of $38.1 million. As of December 31, 2018, SJG's utility plant had a gross book value of $2.9 billion and a net book value, after accumulated depreciation, of $2.4 billion. In 2018, SJG spent $241.9 million on additions to utility plant and there were retirements of property having an aggregate gross book cost of $26.8 million.
 

18


Virtually all of the Utilities transmission pipeline, distribution mains and service connections are under streets or highways or on the property of others. The transmission and distribution systems are maintained under franchises or permits or rights-of-way, many of which are perpetual. The Utilities' properties (other than property specifically excluded) are subject to a lien of mortgage under which its first mortgage bonds are outstanding. We believe these properties are generally well maintained and in good operating condition.
 
Nonutility property and equipment with a net book value of $99.6 million consists primarily of Marina's thermal facility. This amount is reduced compared to the prior year due to the sale of certain solar assets (see Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements).
 
SJF an inactive subsidiary, owns real estate in Deptford Township and Upper Township, New Jersey.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

SJI and SJG are subject to claims arising in the ordinary course of business and other legal proceedings. SJI has been named in, among other actions, certain gas supply contract disputes and certain product liability claims related to our former sand mining subsidiary. See Note 15 to the consolidated financial statements for more detail on these claims.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

Item 4A. Executive Officers of the Registrant

Set forth below are the names, ages and positions of SJI's executive officers along with their business experience during the past five years. All executive officers of SJI are elected annually and serve at the discretion of the Board of Directors. All information is as of the date of the filing of this Report.

Name, age and position with the Company
 
Period Served
 
 
 
Michael J. Renna, Age 51
 
 
Chief Executive Officer
 
April 2015 - Present
Director
 
January 2014 - Present
President
 
January 2014 - Present
Chief Operating Officer
 
January 2014 - April 2015
Senior Vice President
 
January 2013 - January 2014
 
 
 
Cielo Hernandez, Age 43
 
 
Chief Financial Officer
 
January 2019 - Present
Senior Vice President
 
January 2019 - Present
VP and Chief Financial Officer North America and Canada Region, Maersk Line
 
February 2015 - December 2018
VP & CFO Latin America Region, APM Terminals
 
November 2013 - January 2015
 
 
 
Stephen H. Clark, Age 60
 
 
President, SJES
 
August 2018 - Present
Chief Operating Officer, SJES
 
August 2018 - Present
Executive Vice President
 
January 2017 - Present
Senior Vice President
 
April 2015 - December 2016
Chief Financial Officer
 
November 2013 - August 2018
Treasurer
 
January 2004 - April 2014
 
 
 
Kenneth A. Lynch, Age 53
 
 
Chief Accounting & Risk Officer
 
August 2018 - Present
Chief Risk Officer
 
January 2017 - Present


South Jersey Industries, Inc.
Part I

Senior Vice President
 
April 2015 - Present
Chief Accounting Officer
 
January 2013 - December 2016
 
 
 
Kathleen A. McEndy, Age 65
 
 
Chief Administrative Officer
 
June 2015 - Present
Senior Vice President
 
April 2015 - Present
Chief Human Resources Officer
 
March 2013 - June 2015
Vice President
 
March 2013 - April 2015
 
 
 
David Robbins, Jr., Age 56
 
 
President, SJIU
 
August 2018 - Present
President, SJG
 
January 2017 - August 2018
Senior Vice President
 
April 2015 - Present
Vice President
 
April 2014 - April 2015
Senior Vice President, SJES
 
January 2013 - December 2016
Chief Operating Officer, SJES
 
January 2013 - April 2014
 
 
 
Steven R. Cocchi, Age 41
 
 
Chief Strategy and Development Officer
 
January 2018 - Present
Interim General Counsel
 
August 2017 - December 2017
Senior Vice President, Strategy and Growth
 
April 2017 - Present
Vice President, Strategy and Growth
 
January 2017 - April 2017
Vice President, Rates and Regulatory Affairs
 
April 2015 - January 2017
Director, Rates and Revenue Requirements
 
October 2011 - April 2015
 
 
 
Melissa Orsen, Age 43
 
 
Senior Vice President & General Counsel
 
January 2018 - Present
Chief Executive Officer, New Jersey Economic Development Authority
 
March 2015 - December 2017
Deputy Commissioner, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs
 
March 2014 - March 2015
Chief of Staff & Lieutenant Governor, Office of the New Jersey Governor
 
January 2011 - March 2014

20



PART II

Item 5. Market for the Registrant's Common Equity,
Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

South Jersey Industries, Inc.

Market Price of Common Stock and Related Information

Our stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol SJI. As of December 31, 2018, the latest available date, our records indicate there were 6,248 shareholders of record.

Stock Performance Graph

The performance graph below illustrates a five-year comparison of cumulative total returns based on an initial investment of $100 in South Jersey Industries, Inc. common stock, as compared with the S&P 500 Stock Index and the S&P Utility Index for the five-year period through December 31, 2018.

This performance chart assumes:

$100 invested on December 31, 2013 in South Jersey Industries, Inc. common stock, in the S&P 500 Stock Index and in the S&P Utility Index; and
All dividends are reinvested.

chart-de43fda9720f532eb77.jpg

21


 
Dec-13
Dec-14
Dec-15
Dec-16
Dec-17
Dec-18
S&P 500
100

$
114

$
115

$
129

$
157

$
150

S&P Utilities
$
100

$
129

$
123

$
143

$
160

$
167

SJI
$
100

$
109

$
91

$
134

$
128

$
119


Information required by this item is also found in Note 6 of the consolidated financial statements included under Item 8 of this Report.

SJI has a history of paying quarterly dividends and has a stated goal of increasing its dividend annually.
 
In 2018, non-employee members of SJI's Board of Directors received an aggregate of 26,416 shares of restricted stock, valued at that time at $823,123, as part of their compensation for serving on the Board.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities - There were no purchases by SJI of its own common stock during the year ended December 31, 2018.

South Jersey Gas Company

All of the outstanding common stock of SJG (its only class of equity securities) is owned by SJI. The common stock is not traded on any stock exchange.

SJG is restricted under its First Mortgage Indenture, as supplemented, as to the amount of cash dividends or other distributions that may be paid on its common stock. As of December 31, 2018, these restrictions did not affect the amount that may be distributed from SJG’s retained earnings. SJG declared and paid cash dividends of $20.0 million in 2017 to SJI. No dividends were declared or paid on SJG's common stock in 2018 or 2016.

Item 6. Selected Financial Data 

Five-Year Summary of Selected Financial Data
(In Thousands Where Applicable)

South Jersey Industries, Inc. and Subsidiaries
Year Ended December 31,

The following financial data has been obtained from SJI’s consolidated financial statements (in thousands, except for ratios, shares data and earnings per share):

 
2018
2017
2016
2015
2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Results:
 
 
 
 
 
   Operating Revenues
$
1,641,338

$
1,243,068

$
1,036,500

$
959,568

$
886,996

 
 

 

 

 

 
   Income (Loss) from Continuing Operations
$
17,903

$
(3,404
)
$
119,061

$
105,610

$
97,628

   Discontinued Operations - Net (1)
(240
)
(86
)
(251
)
(503
)
(582
)
 
 

 

 

 

 
      Net Income (Loss)
$
17,663

$
(3,490
)
$
118,810

$
105,107

$
97,046

 
 

 

 

 

 
Total Assets
$
5,956,577

$
3,865,086

$
3,730,567

$
3,480,900

$
3,349,425

 
 

 

 

 

 
Capitalization:
 

 

 

 

 
   Equity
$
1,267,022

$
1,192,409

$
1,289,240

$
1,037,539

$
932,432

   Long-Term Debt
2,106,863

1,122,999

808,005

1,006,394

859,491

 
 

 

 

 

 

22


      Total Capitalization
$
3,373,885

$
2,315,408

$
2,097,245

$
2,043,933

$
1,791,923

 
 

 

 

 

 
Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges (2)
1.2x

0.5x

5.4
x
3.8x

3.8x

 
 

 

 

 
 

Diluted Earnings (Loss) Per Common Share (Based on Average Diluted Shares Outstanding) (3):
 
 
 
 
 
   Continuing Operations
$
0.21

$
(0.04
)
$
1.56

$
1.53

$
1.47

   Discontinued Operations - Net (1)



(0.01
)
(0.01
)
 
 

 

 

 
 

   Diluted Earnings (Loss) Per Common Share (3)
$
0.21

$
(0.04
)
$
1.56

$
1.52

$
1.46

 
 

 

 

 
 

Return (Loss) on Average Equity (4)
1.5
%
(0.3
)%
10.2
%
10.7
%
11.1
%
 
 

 

 

 
 

Share Data:
 

 

 

 
 

   Number of Shareholders of Record
6.3

6.5

6.7

6.7

6.9

   Average Common Shares (3)
83,693

79,541

76,362

68,735

66,278

   Common Shares Outstanding at Year End (3)
85,506

79,549

79,478

70,966

68,334

   Dividend Reinvestment Plan:
 

 

 

 

 
      Number of Shareholders
4.8

5.0

5.2

5.2

5.2

      Number of Participating Shares (3)
3,317

3,607

3,627

4,170

4,082

   Book Value at Year End (3)
$
14.82

$
14.99

$
16.22

$
14.62

$
13.65

   Dividends Declared per Common Share (3)
$
1.13

$
1.10

$
1.07

$
1.02

$
0.96

   Market Price at Year End (3)
$
27.80

$
31.23

$
33.69

$
23.52

$
29.46

   Market-to-Book Ratio (3)
1.9
x
2.1
x
2.1
x
1.6x

2.2x

 
 

 

 

 
 

Consolidated Economic Earnings (5)
 

 

 

 
 

 Income (Loss) from Continuing Operations
$
17,903

$
(3,404
)
$
119,061

$
105,610

$
97,628

Minus/Plus:
 

 

 
 

 

Unrealized Mark-to-Market Losses/(Gains) on Derivatives and Realized Losses/(Gains) on Inventory Injection Hedges (6)
(35,846
)
14,558

(26,867
)
(8,355
)
8,211

Net Loss from Affiliated Companies (6,7)



(2,540
)
2,540

Loss on Property, Plant and Equipment (8)
105,280

91,299




Net Losses from Legal Proceedings (9)
5,910

56,075




Acquisition/Sale Costs (10)
34,674

19,564




Customer Credits (11)
15,333





ERIP (12)
6,733





Other (6,13)

2,227

(165
)
(165
)
(165
)
Income Taxes (14)
(33,753
)
(70,834
)
10,813

4,424

(4,235
)
Additional Tax Adjustments (15)

(11,420
)



Economic Earnings
$
116,234

$
98,065

$
102,842

$
98,974

$
103,979

 
 

 

 
 

 

Earnings (Loss) per Share from Continuing Operations (3)
$
0.21

$
(0.04
)
$
1.56

$
1.53

$
1.47

Minus/Plus:
 

 

 
 

 

Unrealized Mark-to-Market Losses/(Gains) on Derivatives and Realized Losses/(Gains) on Inventory Injection Hedges (6)
(0.42
)
0.18

(0.35
)
(0.12
)
0.12

Net Loss from Affiliated Companies (6,7)



(0.04
)
0.04

Loss on Property, Plant and Equipment (8)
1.24

1.14





23


Net Losses from Legal Proceedings (9)
0.07

0.70




Acquisition/Sale Costs (10)
0.41

0.25




Customer Credits (11)
0.18





ERIP (12)
0.08





Other (6,13)

0.03




Income Taxes (14)
(0.39
)
(0.89
)
0.13

0.07

(0.06
)
Additional Tax Adjustments (15)

(0.14
)



Economic Earnings per Share (3,5)
$
1.38

$
1.23

$
1.34

$
1.44

$
1.57

 
(1)
Represents discontinued business segments: sand mining and distribution operations sold in 1996 and fuel oil operations with related environmental liabilities in 1986 (See Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements).

(2)
Calculated as Income (Loss) from Continuing Operations before Income Taxes and Interest Expense divided by Total Fixed Charges, which consists of Interest Expense and Capitalized Interest.

(3)
All share and per share amounts were adjusted for all periods presented for the 2-for-1 stock split, effected in the form of a stock dividend, effective on May 8, 2015.

(4)
Calculated based on Income from Continuing Operations.

(5)
This section includes the non-GAAP financial measures of Economic Earnings and Economic Earnings per share. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in Item 7 of this Report for a discussion regarding the use of non-GAAP financial measures and a reconciliation of income from Continuing Operations and earnings per share to Economic Earnings and Economic Earnings per share, respectively.

(6)
Certain reclassifications have been made to the prior period numbers in these tables to conform to the current period presentation. The 2014-2015 numbers in these line items have been adjusted to be presented before income taxes.

(7)
Resulting from a reserve for uncollectible accounts recorded by an Energenic subsidiary that owned and operated a central energy center and energy distribution system for a hotel, casino and entertainment complex in Atlantic City, New Jersey . In 2014, this charge was excluded from Economic Earnings as the total economic impact of the proceedings had not been realized. During the second quarter 2015, the Company, through its investment in Energenic, reduced the carrying value of the investment in this project. As such, this charge is included in Economic Earnings in 2015.

(8)
Represents impairment charges taken in 2018 on solar generating facilities (which was primarily driven by the purchase price in the agreement to sell solar assets being less than the carrying amount of the assets) along with LFGTE assets (which was primarily driven by the remaining carrying value of these assets no longer being recoverable. Also represents impairment charges taken in 2017 on solar generating facilities, LFGTE long-lived assets, LFGTE assets customer relationships, and goodwill.

(9)
Represents net losses from three separate legal proceedings: (a) charges in 2017 and 2018, including interest, legal fees and the realized difference in the market value of the commodity (including financial hedges) resulting from a ruling in a legal proceeding related to a pricing dispute between SJI and a gas supplier that began in October 2014; (b) a charge in 2017, including legal fees, resulting from a settlement with a counterparty over a dispute related to a three-year capacity management contract; and (c) a gain taken in 2017 resulting from a favorable FERC decision, including interest, over a tariff rate dispute with a counterparty, whereby SJI contended that the counterparty was overcharging for storage demand charges over a ten-year period.

(10)
Represents costs incurred on the agreement to acquire the assets of ETG and ELK, including legal, consulting and other professional fees. Also included here are costs incurred on the sale of solar and SJE assets, partially offset by gains recorded on the sale of solar assets.

(11)
Represents credits to ETG and ELK customers that were required as part of the Acquisition.

(12
Represents costs incurred on the Company's ERIP as well as the benefit of amending the Company's OPEB.


24


(13)
Included in this amount are amendments made to an existing interest rate derivative linked to unrealized losses previously recorded in AOCL. SJI reclassified this amount from AOCL to Interest Charges on the consolidated statements of income as a result of the prior hedged transactions being deemed probable of not occurring. Since the economic impact will not be realized until future periods, this amount is excluded from Economic Earnings. Also included is additional depreciation expense within Economic Earnings on a solar generating facility where an impairment charge was recorded in the past, which reduced the depreciable basis and recurring depreciation expense, and the related reduction in depreciation expense was added back in prior years.

(14)
Determined using a combined average statutory tax rate of approximately 25% for 2018, 39% for 2017 and 40% for 2016, 2015 and 2014.

(15)
Represents one-time tax adjustments, most notably for Tax Reform.


The following financial data has been obtained from SJG’s financial statements (in thousands, except for ratios and customers):

 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Operating Revenues
$
548,000

 
$
517,254

 
$
461,055

 
$
534,290

 
$
501,875

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net Income
$
82,949

 
$
72,557

 
$
69,045

 
$
66,578

 
$
66,483

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average Shares of Common Stock Outstanding
2,339

 
2,339

 
2,339

 
2,339

 
2,339

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges (1)
4.5x

 
5.4x

 
5.5x

 
5.4x

 
5.4x


 
As of December 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Property, Plant and Equipment, Net
$
2,383,459

 
$
2,154,083

 
$
1,952,912

 
$
1,770,766

 
$
1,589,369

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total Assets
$
3,118,236

 
$
2,865,974

 
$
2,551,923

 
$
2,288,204

 
$
2,185,672

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Capitalization:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Common Equity
$
1,008,022

 
$
921,433

 
$
839,900

 
$
707,927

 
$
680,568

Long-Term Debt
874,507

 
758,052

 
423,177

 
584,082

 
507,091

Total Capitalization
$
1,882,529

 
$
1,679,485

 
$
1,263,077

 
$
1,292,009

 
$
1,187,659

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total Customers
391,092

 
383,633

 
377,625

 
373,100

 
366,854


(1) The ratio of earnings to fixed charges represents, on a pre-tax basis, the number of times earnings cover fixed charges. Earnings consist of net income, to which has been added fixed charges and taxes based on income of SJG. Fixed charges consist of interest charges and capitalized interest.


25


Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and
Results of Operations

Introduction

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (Management’s Discussion) analyzes the financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of SJI and its subsidiaries. It also includes management’s analysis of past financial results and potential factors that may affect future results, potential future risks and approaches that may be used to manage them. Except where the content clearly indicates otherwise, “SJI,” “we,” “us” or “our” refers to the holding company or the consolidated entity of SJI and all of its subsidiaries.

Management's Discussion is divided into the following two major sections:

SJI - This section describes the financial condition and results of operations of SJI and its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis. It includes discussions of our regulated operations, including SJG, and our non-regulated operations.

SJG - This section describes the financial condition and results of operations of SJG, a subsidiary of SJI and separate registrant, which comprises the SJG utility operations segment.

Both sections of Management's Discussion - SJI and SJG - are designed to provide an understanding of each company's respective operations and financial performance and should be read in conjunction with each other as well as in conjunction with the respective company's financial statements and the combined Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Unless otherwise noted, earnings per share amounts are presented on a diluted basis, and are based on weighted average common and common equivalent shares outstanding.

OVERVIEW - SJI (or the Company) is an energy services holding company that provides a variety of products and services through the following wholly-owned subsidiaries:

SJIU

SJIU was established as a subsidiary of SJI for the purpose of serving as a holding company that owns SJG, and, as of July 1, 2018, ETG and ELK.

SJG

SJG, a New Jersey corporation, is an operating public utility company engaged in the purchase, transmission and sale of natural gas for residential, commercial and industrial use. SJG also sells natural gas and pipeline transportation capacity (off-system sales) on a wholesale basis to various customers on the interstate pipeline system and transports natural gas purchased directly from producers or suppliers to their customers. SJG contributed approximately $82.9 million to SJI's net income on a consolidated basis in 2018.

SJG's service territory covers approximately 2,500 square miles in the southern part of New Jersey. It includes 117 municipalities throughout Atlantic, Cape May, Cumberland and Salem Counties and portions of Burlington, Camden and Gloucester Counties. SJG benefits from its proximity to Philadelphia, PA and Wilmington, DE on the western side of its service territory and the popular shore communities on the eastern side. Continuing expansion of SJG's infrastructure throughout its seven-county region has fueled annual customer growth and creates opportunities for future extension into areas not yet served by natural gas.

SJG believes there is an ongoing transition of southern New Jersey's oceanfront communities from seasonal resorts to year round economies. In mainland communities, building expansions in the medical, education and retail sectors contributed to SJG's growth. At present, SJG serves approximately 71% of households within its territory with natural gas. SJG also serves southern New Jersey's diversified industrial base that includes processors of petroleum and agricultural products; chemical, glass and consumer goods manufacturers; and high technology industrial parks.


26



As of December 31, 2018, SJG served 391,092 residential, commercial and industrial customers in southern New Jersey, compared with 383,633 customers at December 31, 2017.  No material part of SJG's business is dependent upon a single customer or a few customers. Gas sales, transportation and capacity release for 2018 amounted to 159.1 MMdts, of which 58.2 MMdts were firm sales and transportation, 1.1 MMdts were interruptible sales and transportation and 99.8 MMdts were off-system sales and capacity release. The breakdown of firm sales and transportation includes 46.3% residential, 22.4% commercial, 18.4% industrial, and 12.9% cogeneration and electric generation. As of December 31, 2018, SJG served 365,009 residential customers, 25,657 commercial customers and 426 industrial customers.  This includes 2018 net additions of 6,983 residential customers and 476 commercial and industrial customers.

SJG makes wholesale gas sales to gas marketers for resale and ultimate delivery to end users. These “off-system” sales are made possible through the issuance of the FERC Orders No. 547 and 636. Order No. 547 issued a blanket certificate of public convenience and necessity authorizing all parties, which are not interstate pipelines, to make FERC jurisdictional gas sales for resale at negotiated rates, while Order No. 636 allowed SJG to deliver gas at delivery points on the interstate pipeline system other than its own city gate stations and release excess pipeline capacity to third parties. During 2018, off-system sales amounted to 13.6 MMdts and capacity release amounted to 86.2 MMdts.

Supplies of natural gas available to SJG that are in excess of the quantity required by those customers who use gas as their sole source of fuel (firm customers) make possible the sale and transportation of gas on an interruptible basis to commercial and industrial customers whose equipment is capable of using natural gas or other fuels, such as fuel oil and propane. The term “interruptible” is used in the sense that deliveries of natural gas may be terminated by SJG at any time if this action is necessary to meet the needs of higher priority customers as described in SJG's tariffs. In 2018, usage by interruptible customers, excluding off-system customers, amounted to 1.1 MMdts, or approximately 1% of the total throughput.

ETG/ELK

On July 1, 2018, SJI, through its wholly-owned subsidiary SJIU, acquired the assets of ETG and ELK from Pivotal Utility Holdings, Inc., a subsidiary of Southern Company Gas (see Note 20 to the consolidated financial statements).

ETG is a regulated natural gas utility which distributes natural gas in seven counties in northern and central New Jersey. ETG serves residential, business and industrial customers, with a service territory that covers the northern part of New Jersey, including 86 municipalities throughout Union, Middlesex, Sussex, Warren, Hunterdon, Morris and Mercer Counties. ETG was founded in 1855 and is based in Union, New Jersey. ETG had a net loss of approximately $5.0 million, which reduced SJI's net income on a consolidated basis in 2018 by such amount.

ETG believes growth exists in the expansion of its Northwestern service territory, the Franklin/Sparta area, and the Hackettstown Interconnect. At present, ETG serves approximately 56% of households within its territory with natural gas. ETG also serves northern New Jersey's diversified industrial base that includes pharmaceutical, food and beverage, and transportation industries.

As of December 31, 2018, ETG served 293,672 customers in northern and central New Jersey, including 270,342 residential customers, 23,233 commercial customers and 97 industrial customers.  No material part of ETG's business is dependent upon a single customer or a few customers. Gas sales and transportation for July 1 - December 31, 2018 (post-Acquisition) amounted to 212.9 MMdts, of which 176.7 MMdts were firm sales and transportation and 36.2 MMdts were interruptible sales and transportation. The breakdown of firm sales and transportation includes 93.9 MMdts residential, 56.4 MMdts commercial, and 62.6 MMdts industrial.

ELK is a regulated natural gas utility which distributes natural gas in northern Maryland. ELK's service territory covers approximately six square miles in Elkton, Maryland with an estimated permanent population of 16,000. At present, ELK serves approximately 44% of households within its territory with natural gas. ELK's diverse customer base includes residential and commercial accounts coupled with a significant industrial presence in the military and defense, pharmaceutical, chemical and textile industries.

SJES

SJI groups its nonutility operations into two categories: Energy Group and Energy Services. Energy Group includes wholesale energy and retail electric operations. Energy Services includes on-site energy production and appliance service operations. SJI established SJES as a direct subsidiary for the purpose of serving as a holding company for all of SJI's non-utility businesses. The following businesses are wholly-owned subsidiaries of SJES:


27


SJE

SJE provides services for the acquisition and transportation of electricity for retail end users and markets total energy management services. SJE markets electricity to commercial and industrial customers. SJE became active in the residential market for electricity beginning in March 2016 as a result of several municipal aggregation bids won in the second half of 2015. Most customers served by SJE are located within New Jersey, northwestern Pennsylvania and New England. In 2018, SJE had a net loss of approximately $6.0 million which reduced SJI's net income on a consolidated basis by such amount.

On November 30, 2018, SJI sold the retail gas assets of SJE for total consideration of $15.0 million. As a result of this agreement, SJE no longer acquires, transports or markets natural gas for retail markets. See Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements.

SJRG

SJRG markets natural gas storage, commodity and transportation assets along with fuel management services on a wholesale basis. Customers include energy marketers, electric and gas utilities, power plants and natural gas producers. SJRG's marketing activities occur mainly in the mid-Atlantic, Appalachian and southern regions of the country.

SJRG also conducts price risk management activities by entering into a variety of physical and financial transactions including forward contracts, swap agreements, option contracts and futures contracts. In 2018, SJRG contributed approximately $66.2 million to SJI's net income on a consolidated basis.

SJEX

SJEX owns oil, gas and mineral rights in the Marcellus Shale region of Pennsylvania. SJEX is considered part of SJI's wholesale energy operations. In 2018, SJEX contributed approximately $0.2 million to SJI's net income on a consolidated basis.

Marina

Marina develops and operates on-site energy-related projects. Marina's largest wholly-owned operating project provides cooling, heating and emergency power to the Borgata Hotel Casino & Spa in Atlantic City, NJ.  

Other entities that are wholly owned by Marina are ACB, ACLE, BCLE, SCLE, and SXLE.

ACB owns and operates a natural gas fueled combined heating, cooling and power facility located in Atlantic City, New Jersey.

ACLE, BCLE, SCLE and SXLE own and operate landfill gas-to-energy production facilities in Atlantic, Burlington, Salem and Sussex Counties in New Jersey.

On June 27, 2018, the Company, through Marina, entered into a series of agreements whereby Marina agreed to sell its portfolio of solar energy assets to a third-party buyer. As part of these agreements, Marina has agreed to sell its distributed solar energy projects located across New Jersey, Maryland, Massachusetts and Vermont. As of December 31, 2018, the Company earned cash of $228.1 million related to the closing of these projects, which included selling the wholly-owned subsidiaries MCS, NBS and SBS, along with $62.5 million related to the sale of certain SRECs. The Company currently has projects that have not yet closed and are expected to be sold in 2019. See Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements.

In 2018, Marina had a net loss of approximately $78.0 million, which reduced SJI's net income on a consolidated basis by such amount.

SJESP

SJESP receives commissions on service contracts from a third party. In 2018, SJESP contributed approximately $1.5 million to SJI's net income on a consolidated basis.

Midstream

Midstream owns a 20% equity investment in PennEast, through which SJI, along with other investors, expect to construct an approximately 118-mile natural gas pipeline that will extend from Northeastern Pennsylvania into New Jersey. Construction is expected to begin in 2019 and is estimated to be completed in late 2020. In 2018, Midstream contributed approximately $3.1 million to SJI's net income on a consolidated basis.

28



Other

EMI principally manages liabilities associated with its discontinued operations of nonutility subsidiaries.

Primary Factors Affecting SJI's Business

SJI's current long-term goals are to grow Economic Earnings Per Share 6-8% annually while maintaining high quality earnings, a strong balance sheet and a low-to-moderate risk profile. Management established those goals in conjunction with SJI's Board of Directors based upon a number of different internal and external factors that characterize and influence SJI's current and expected future activities.

The following is a summary of the primary factors we expect to have the greatest impact on SJI's performance and ability to achieve the long-term goals going forward:

Business Model - In developing SJI's current business model, our focus has been on our core Utilities and natural extensions of those businesses. That focus enables us to concentrate on business activities that match our core competencies. Going forward we expect to pursue business opportunities that fit this model.

Customer Growth - Southern New Jersey, SJG's primary area of operations, has not been immune to the issues impacting the new housing market nationally. Residential new construction activity remains steady, supported by growth in higher density and multi-family units. Customers for SJG grew 1.9% for 2018 as SJG continues its focus on customer conversions.  In 2018, the 7,191 consumers converting their homes and businesses from other heating fuels, such as electric, propane or oil, represented approximately 78% of the total new customer acquisitions for the year. In comparison, conversions over the past five years averaged 5,904 annually. Customers in SJG's service territory typically base their decisions to convert on comparisons of fuel costs, environmental considerations and efficiencies. While oil and propane prices have become more competitive with natural gas in the past two years, affecting the number of conversions, SJG began a comprehensive partnership with the State’s Office of Clean Energy to educate consumers on energy efficiency and to promote the rebates and incentives available to natural gas users.

Central and Northern NJ, ETG's primary area of operations continues to grow in multifamily housing and gas infrastructure extensions to unserved areas.  While ETG continues to partner with builders in the new construction sector with the view of increasing natural gas burner tips, ETG is pursuing conversions throughout its service territory.  As a result, customer additions for ETG grew approximately 1.1%.  In 2018, 1,590 consumers converted their homes and businesses from other heating fuels, such as electric, propane or oil, representing approximately 50% of the total new customer acquisitions for the year.  In comparison, conversions over the past five years average 1,499 annually while new construction averaged 1,327 over the same period.   Customers in ETG service territories typically base their decisions to convert on fuel cost savings, efficiencies, and fuel stability pricing.  ETG leverages its comprehensive partnership with the State’s Office of Clean Energy to educate consumers on energy efficiency and to promote the rebates and incentives available to natural gas users.

Regulatory Environment - SJG and ETG are primarily regulated by the BPU; ELK is regulated by the MPSC. The BPU/MPSC approve the rates that are charged to rate-regulated customers for services provided and the terms of service under which the Utilities operate. The rates and established terms of service are designed to enable the Utilities to obtain a fair and reasonable return on capital invested.

SJG’s BPU approved CIP protects SJG's net income from severe fluctuations in gas used by residential, commercial and small industrial customers. SJG's AIRP is a program to replace cast iron and unprotected bare steel mains and services. All AIRP investments are reflected in base rates. Additionally, the BPU issued an Order approving an extension of the AIRP for a five-year period (“AIRP II”), commencing October 1, 2016, with authorized investments of up to $302.5 million to continue replacing cast iron and unprotected bare steel mains and associated services. SJG earns a return on AIRP II investments once they are placed in service and thereafter, once they are included in rate base, through annual filings. SJG's SHARP is a program to replace low-pressure distribution mains and services with high-pressure mains and services in coastal areas that are susceptible to flooding during major storms. In May 2018, the BPU issued an order approving a second phase of the SHARP ("SHARP II") for a three-year period, commencing June 1, 2018, with authorized investments of up to $100.3 million to continue storm hardening efforts to further improve safety, redundancy and resiliency of SJG’s natural gas system in coastal areas. Pursuant to the order, SHARP II investments are to be recovered through annual base rate adjustments.

Effective November 1, 2017, the BPU granted SJG a base rate increase of $39.5 million (see Note 10 to the consolidated financial statements).


29


Effective July 1, 2017, the BPU granted ETG a base rate increase of $13.3 million (see Note 10 to the consolidated financial statements).

Consistent with Acquisition approval, SJI was required to develop a plan, in concert with the BPU and the New Jersey Division of Rate Counsel, to address the replacement of ETG's aging infrastructure. In October 2018, ETG filed an IIP petition with the BPU pursuant to rules adopted by the BPU in December 2017 pertaining to utility infrastructure investments. The IIP petition seeks authority to recover the costs associated with ETG's initial investment of approximately $518.0 million from 2019-2023 to, among other things, replace its cast-iron and low-pressure vintage main and related services. The IIP petition includes a request for timely recovery of ETG's investment on a semi-annual basis through a separate rate mechanism. A resolution of the IIP petition is pending.

Weather Conditions and Customer Usage Patterns - Usage patterns can be affected by a number of factors, such as wind, precipitation, temperature extremes and customer conservation. SJG's earnings are largely protected from fluctuations in temperatures by the CIP. The CIP has a stabilizing effect on utility earnings as SJG adjusts revenues when actual usage per customer experienced during an annual period varies from an established baseline usage per customer. The WNC rate allows ETG to implement surcharges or credits during the months of October through May to compensate for weather-related changes in customer usage from the previous winter period. Our nonutility retail marketing business is directly affected by weather conditions, as it does not have regulatory mechanisms that address weather volatility. The impact of different weather conditions on the earnings of our nonutility businesses is dependent on a range of different factors. Consequently, weather may impact the earnings of SJI's various subsidiaries in different, or even opposite, ways. Further, the profitability of individual subsidiaries may vary from year-to-year despite experiencing substantially similar weather conditions.

Changes in Natural Gas and Electricity Prices - The Utilities' gas costs are passed on directly to customers without any profit margin added. The price the Utilities charge their periodic customers is set annually, with a regulatory mechanism in place to make limited adjustments to that price during the course of a year. In the event that gas cost increases would justify customer price increases greater than those permitted under the regulatory mechanism, the Utilities can petition the BPU/MPSC for an incremental rate increase. High prices can make it more difficult for customers to pay their bills and may result in elevated levels of bad-debt expense. Among our nonutility activities, the business most likely to be impacted by changes in natural gas prices is our wholesale gas marketing business. Wholesale gas marketing typically benefits from volatility in gas prices during different points in time. The actual price of the commodity does not typically have an impact on the performance of this business line.  Our ability to add and retain customers at our retail marketing business is affected by the relationship between the price that the utility charges customers for electric and the cost available in the market at specific points in time.  However, retail marketing accounts for a very small portion of SJI's overall activities.

Fuel Supply Management - SJRG has acquired pipeline transportation capacity that allows SJRG to match end users, many of which are merchant generators, with producers looking to find a long-term solution for their supply. We currently have eleven fuel supply management transactions under contract and expect to continue expanding this business.

Midstream Investments - Midstream owns a 20% equity investment in PennEast, through which SJI, along with other investors, expect to construct an approximately 118-mile natural gas pipeline that will extend from Northeastern Pennsylvania into New Jersey. In September 2015, PennEast submitted an application to FERC for a permit to proceed with construction. In January 2018, the Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity was approved by the FERC.  This authorized PennEast to construct, install, own, operate and maintain this pipeline. While opponents of the project have filed a variety appeals and several are still pending, a December 2018 ruling from the U.S. District Court of New Jersey allowed PennEast to proceed with survey work that is expected to enable it to complete and submit permit applications to the NJDEP. We expect to make additional investments in similar midstream projects.
 
Changes in Interest Rates - SJI has operated in a relatively low interest rate environment over the past several years. Rising interest rates would raise the expense associated with existing variable-rate debt and all issuances of new debt. We have sought to mitigate the impact of a potential rising rate environment by directly issuing fixed-rate debt, or by entering into derivative transactions to hedge against rising interest rates.


30


Labor and Benefit Costs - Labor and benefit costs have a significant impact on SJI's profitability. Benefit costs, especially those related to pension and health care, have risen in recent years. We seek to manage these costs by revising health care plans offered to existing employees, capping postretirement health care benefits, and changing health care and pension packages offered to new hires. In addition, the Company offered an ERIP to non-union, non-Officer employees over the age of 55 years old with 20 or more years of service to the Company as well as to Officers over the age of 55 years old with 5 or more years of service to the Company (see Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements). We expect savings from these changes to gradually increase as new hires replace retiring employees. SJI's workforce totaled approximately 1,100 employees at the end of 2018, approximately 550 of which were SJG employees. Of those totals, 495 of SJI employees are unionized and 317 SJG employees are unionized (all of SJI's unionized employees are with SJG or ETG).

Balance Sheet Strength - SJI's and SJG's goal is to maintain a strong balance sheet. SJI's average equity-to-capitalization ratio was approximately 33% and 47% as calculated for the four quarters of 2018 and 2017, respectively, with the decrease in 2018 due to debt incurred to fund the Acquisition (see Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements). SJG's average equity-to-capitalization ratio was approximately 52% and 54% as calculated for the four quarters of 2018 and 2017, respectively. A strong balance sheet assists us in maintaining the financial flexibility necessary to take advantage of growth opportunities and to address volatile economic and commodity markets while maintaining a low-to-moderate risk platform.

CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES - ESTIMATES AND ASSUMPTIONS - As described in the notes to our consolidated financial statements, management must make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Certain types of transactions presented in our consolidated financial statements require a significant amount of judgment and estimation. These relate to regulatory accounting, derivatives, environmental remediation costs, pension and other postretirement benefit costs, revenue recognition, and goodwill.

Regulatory Accounting - The Utilities maintain their accounts according to the Uniform System of Accounts as prescribed by the BPU (SJG and ETG) or the MPSC (ELK). As a result of the ratemaking process, the Utilities are required to follow FASB ASC Topic 980 - “Regulated Operations,” which requires them to recognize the impact of regulatory decisions on their financial statements. The Utilities are required under their BGSS clauses to forecast their natural gas costs and customer consumption in setting their rates. Subject to regulator approval, they are able to recover or return the difference between gas cost recoveries and the actual costs of gas through a BGSS charge to customers. The Utilities record any over/under recoveries as a regulatory asset or liability on the consolidated balance sheets and reflect them in the BGSS charge to customers in subsequent years. The Utilities also enter into derivatives that are used to hedge natural gas purchases. The offset to the resulting derivative assets or liabilities is recorded as a regulatory asset or liability on the consolidated balance sheets. See additional detailed discussions on Rates and Regulatory Actions in Note 10 to the consolidated financial statements.
 
Derivatives - SJI recognizes assets or liabilities for contracts that qualify as derivatives that are entered into by its subsidiaries when such contracts are executed. We record contracts at their fair value in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 815 - “Derivatives and Hedging.”  We record changes in the fair value of the effective portion of derivatives qualifying as cash flow hedges, net of tax, in AOCL and recognize such changes in the income statement when the hedged item affects earnings. Changes in the fair value of derivatives not designated as hedges are recorded in earnings in the current period. Currently we do not have any energy-related derivative instruments designated as cash flow hedges. Hedge accounting has been discontinued for the remaining interest rate derivatives. As a result, unrealized gains and losses on these derivatives, that were previously recorded in AOCL on the consolidated balance sheets, are being recorded into earnings over the remaining life of the derivative.

Certain derivatives that result in the physical delivery of the commodity may meet the criteria to be accounted for as normal purchases and normal sales, if so designated, in which case the contract is not marked-to-market, but rather is accounted for when the commodity is delivered. Due to the application of regulatory GAAP, derivatives related to SJG's gas purchases that are marked-to-market are recorded through the BGSS.  SJG periodically enters into financial derivatives to hedge against forward price risk. These derivatives are recorded at fair value with an offset to regulatory assets and liabilities through SJG's BGSS, subject to BPU approval (See Notes 10 and 11 to the consolidated financial statements). We adjust the fair value of the contracts each reporting period for changes in the market.  


31


As discussed in Notes 16 and 17 of the consolidated financial statements, energy-related derivative instruments are traded in both exchange-based and non-exchange-based markets. Exchange-based contracts are valued using unadjusted quoted market sources in active markets and are categorized in Level 1 in the fair value hierarchy established by FASB ASC Topic 820 - “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures.” Certain non-exchange-based contracts are valued using indicative price quotations available through brokers or over-the-counter, on-line exchanges and are categorized in Level 2. These price quotations reflect the average of the bid-ask mid-point prices and are obtained from sources that management believes provide the most liquid market.  Management reviews and corroborates the price quotations with at least one additional source to ensure the prices are observable market information, which includes consideration of actual transaction volumes, market delivery points, bid-ask spreads and contract duration. Derivative instruments that are used to limit our exposure to changes in interest rates on variable-rate, long-term debt are valued using quoted prices on commonly quoted intervals, which are interpolated for periods different than the quoted intervals, as inputs to a market valuation model. Market inputs can generally be verified and model selection does not involve significant management judgment, as a result, these instruments are categorized in Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy. For non-exchange-based derivatives that trade in less liquid markets with limited pricing information, model inputs generally would include both observable and unobservable inputs.  In instances where observable data is unavailable, management considers the assumptions that market participants would use in valuing the asset or liability.  This includes assumptions about market risks such as liquidity, volatility and contract duration.  Such instruments are categorized in Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy as the model inputs generally are not observable. Counterparty credit risk and the credit risk of SJI, are incorporated and considered in the valuation of all derivative instruments as appropriate. The effect of counterparty credit risk and the credit risk of SJI on the derivative valuations is not significant.

Significant Unobservable Inputs - Management uses the discounted cash flow model to value Level 3 physical and financial forward contracts, which calculates mark-to-market valuations based on forward market prices, original transaction prices, volumes, risk-free rate of return and credit spreads. Inputs to the valuation model are reviewed and revised as needed, based on historical information, updated market data, market liquidity and relationships, and changes in third party pricing sources. The validity of the mark-to-market valuations and changes in these values from period to period are examined and qualified against historical expectations by the risk management function. If any discrepancies are identified during this process, the mark-to-market valuations or the market pricing information is evaluated further and adjusted, if necessary.

Level 3 valuation methods for natural gas derivative contracts include utilizing another location in close proximity adjusted for certain pipeline charges to derive a basis value. The significant unobservable inputs used in the fair value measurement of certain natural gas contracts consist of forward prices developed based on industry-standard methodologies. Significant increases (decreases) in these forward prices for purchases of natural gas would result in a directionally similar impact to the fair value measurement and for sales of natural gas would result in a directionally opposite impact to the fair value measurement. Level 3 valuation methods for electric represent the value of the contract marked to the forward wholesale curve, as provided by daily exchange quotes for delivered electricity. The significant unobservable inputs used in the fair value measurement of electric contracts consist of fixed contracted electrical load profiles; therefore, no change in unobservable inputs would occur. Unobservable inputs are updated daily using industry-standard techniques. Management reviews and corroborates the price quotations to ensure the prices are observable which includes consideration of actual transaction volumes, market delivery points, bid-ask spreads and contract duration.

Environmental Remediation Costs - We estimate a range of future costs based on projected investigation and work plans using existing technologies. In preparing consolidated financial statements, SJI records liabilities for future costs using the lower end of the range because a single reliable estimation point is not feasible due to the amount of uncertainty involved in the nature of projected remediation efforts and the long period over which remediation efforts will continue. We update estimates each year to take into account past efforts, changes in work plans, remediation technologies, government regulations and site specific requirements (see Note 15 to the consolidated financial statements).

Pension and Other Postretirement Benefit Costs - The costs of providing pension and other postretirement employee benefits are impacted by actual plan experience as well as assumptions of future experience. Employee demographics, plan contributions, investment performance, and assumptions concerning mortality, return on plan assets, discount rates and health care cost trends all have a significant impact on determining our projected benefit obligations. We evaluate these assumptions annually and adjust them accordingly. These adjustments could result in significant changes to the net periodic benefit costs of providing such benefits and the related liabilities recognized by SJI.    

In 2019, the Company expects its cost of providing pension and other postretirement healthcare to decrease approximately
$1.5 million, due to an increase in discount rates and a full year of the acquired companies. In 2019, the acquired companies are estimated to generate net periodic benefit income of approximately $1.0 million. Additional information regarding investment returns and assumptions can be found in Pension and Other Postretirement Benefits in Note 12 to the consolidated financial statements.

32



Revenue Recognition - Gas and electricity revenues are recognized in the period the commodity is delivered to customers. All SJI entities bill customers monthly. A majority of customers have their meters read on a cycle basis throughout the month. For retail customers that are not billed at the end of each month, we record an estimate to recognize unbilled revenues for gas/electricity delivered from the date of the last meter reading to the end of the month. The Utilities' unbilled revenue for natural gas is estimated each month based on monthly deliveries into the system; unaccounted for natural gas based on historical results; customer-specific use factors, when available; actual temperatures during the period; and applicable customer rates. SJE's unbilled revenue for retail electricity is based on customer-specific use factors and applicable customer rates. We bill SJG and ETG customers at rates approved by the BPU, and ELK customers at rates approved by the MPSC. SJE and SJRG customers are billed at rates negotiated between the parties.

SJRG presents revenues and expenses related to its energy trading activities on a net basis in Operating Revenues - Nonutility in the statements of consolidated income consistent with GAAP. This net presentation has no effect on operating income or net income.

SJESP will receive commissions paid on service contracts from the third party on a go forward basis. These commissions are recognized as revenue as they are earned.

Marina recognizes revenue on a monthly basis as services are provided and for on-site energy production that is delivered to its customers.

On January 1, 2018, SJI and SJG adopted ASU 2014-09 Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and all amendments, in accordance with the guidance in ASC 606. SJI and SJG adopted the new guidance using the modified retrospective method applied to those contracts that were not completed as of January 1, 2018. Results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2018 are presented under ASC 606, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with the historical accounting under ASC 605. The methods of recognizing revenue for SJI's and SJG's contracts with customers is the same under ASC 605 and ASC 606, as revenues from contracts that SJI and SJG have with customers are currently recorded as gas or electricity is delivered to the customer, which is consistent with the new guidance under ASC 606. As such, there was no significant impact to revenues for the year ended December 31, 2018 for SJI or SJG as a result of applying ASC 606, and there was no cumulative catch-up to retained earnings for SJI or SJG under the modified retrospective method for changes in accounting for revenues. Further, there were no significant changes to SJI's or SJG's business processes, systems or internal controls over financial reporting needed to support recognition and disclosure under the new guidance. Some revenue arrangements, such as alternative revenue programs and derivative contracts, are excluded from the scope of ASC 606 and, therefore, will be presented separately from revenues under ASC 606 on SJI and SJG's footnote disclosures (see Note 19 to the consolidated financial statements). Alternative revenue programs include revenue earned at the Utilities on such programs as the CIP, AIRP, SHARP and WNC.

The BPU/MPSC allow the Utilities to recover gas costs in rates through the BGSS price structure. The Utilities defer over/under recoveries of gas costs and includes them in subsequent adjustments to the BGSS rate. These adjustments result in over/under recoveries of gas costs being included in rates during future periods. As a result of these deferrals, utility revenue recognition does not directly translate to profitability. While the Utilities realize profits on gas sales during the month of providing the utility service, significant shifts in revenue recognition may result from the various recovery clauses approved by the BPU/MPSC. This revenue recognition process does not shift earnings between periods, as these clauses only provide for cost recovery on a dollar-for-dollar basis (see Notes 10 and 11 to the consolidated financial statements).

Goodwill - Goodwill represents future economic benefits arising from other assets acquired in a business combination that are not individually identified and separately recognized. Goodwill is initially measured at cost, being the excess of the aggregate of the consideration paid or transferred over the fair value of identifiable net assets acquired. Goodwill is not amortized, but instead is subject to impairment testing on an annual basis, and between annual tests whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the fair value of a reporting unit may be below its carrying amount.

Tax Cuts and Jobs Act - On December 22, 2017, Tax Reform was enacted into law, changing various corporate income tax provisions within the existing Internal Revenue Code. The law became effective January 1, 2018 but was required to be accounted for in the period of enactment, as such SJI adopted the new requirements in the fourth quarter of 2017. SJI and SJG were impacted in several ways as a result of Tax Reform, including provisions related to the permanent reduction in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21%. See Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements.

NEW ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS - See detailed discussions concerning New Accounting Pronouncements and their impact on SJI in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements.


33


RATES AND REGULATION - SJG and ETG ("the NJ Utilities" for context of this section) are subject to regulation by the BPU. Additionally, the Natural Gas Policy Act, which was enacted in November 1978, contains provisions for Federal regulation of certain aspects of the NJ Utilities' business. The NJ Utilities are affected by Federal regulation with respect to transportation and pricing policies applicable to pipeline capacity from Transco (both utilities' major supplier), Columbia and Dominion , since such services are provided under rates and terms established under the jurisdiction of the FERC. The NJ Utilities' retail sales are made under rate schedules within a tariff filed with, and subject to the jurisdiction of, the BPU. These rate schedules provide primarily for either block rates or demand/commodity rate structures. The NJ Utilities' primary rate mechanisms include base rates, the BGSS, Accelerated Infrastructure Programs, EET and the CIP for SJG, and BGSS and WNC for ETG.

The CIP is a BPU-approved program that is designed to eliminate the link between SJG profits and the quantity of natural gas SJG sells, and to foster conservation efforts. With the CIP, SJG's profits are tied to the number of customers served and how efficiently SJG serves them, thus allowing SJG to focus on encouraging conservation and energy efficiency among its customers without negatively impacting net income.  The CIP tracking mechanism adjusts earnings based on weather, and also adjusts SJG's earnings when actual usage per customer experienced during an annual period varies from an established baseline usage per customer. 

Each CIP year begins October 1 and ends September 30 of the subsequent year.  On a monthly basis during a CIP year, SJG records adjustments to earnings based on weather and customer usage factors, as incurred.  Subsequent to each year, SJG makes filings with the BPU to review and approve amounts recorded under the CIP.  BPU-approved cash inflows or outflows generally will not begin until the next CIP year and have no impact on earnings at that time.

Utility earnings are recognized during current periods based upon the application of the CIP. The cash impact of variations in customer usage will result in cash being collected from, or returned to, customers during the subsequent CIP year, which runs from October 1 to September 30.

The effects of the CIP on SJG's net income for the last three years and the associated weather comparisons were as follows ($'s in millions):

 
2018
2017
2016
Net Income Impact:
 
 
 
CIP - Weather Related
$
(16.5
)
$
8.7

$
5.9

CIP - Usage Related
7.5

3.3

4.0

Total Net Income Impact
$
(9.0
)
$
12.0

$
9.9

 
 
 
 
Weather Compared to 20-Year Average
183.0% colder
11.5% warmer
8.1% warmer
Weather Compared to Prior Year
7.7% colder
0.4% warmer
2.5% warmer

As part of the CIP, SJG is required to implement additional conservation programs, including customized customer communication and outreach efforts, targeted upgrade furnace efficiency packages, financing offers, and an outreach program to speak to local and state institutional constituents. SJG is also required to reduce gas supply and storage assets and their associated fees. Note that changes in fees associated with supply and storage assets have no effect on SJG's net income as these costs are passed through directly to customers on a dollar-for-dollar basis.

Earnings accrued and payments received under the CIP are limited to a level that will not cause SJG's return on equity to exceed 9.6% (excluding earnings from off-system gas sales and certain other tariff clauses) and CIP recoveries are limited by the annualized savings attained from reducing gas supply and storage assets.

For ETG, the WNC is a BPU-approved program that is designed to recover or refund balances associated with differences between actual and normal weather during the preceding winter period(s). The effective winter period of the WNC is defined as October through May.

In 2018, ETG's net income was reduced by $3.0 million, primarily due to colder than average weather for the applicable months in the 2018 winter period.

See additional detailed discussions on Rates and Regulatory Actions in Note 10 to the consolidated financial statements.


34


ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION - See detailed discussion concerning Environmental Remediation in Note 15 to the consolidated financial statements.

COMPETITION - The Utilities' franchises are non-exclusive. Currently, no other utility provides retail gas distribution services within the Utilities territories, and we do not expect any other utilities to do so in the foreseeable future because of the extensive investment required for utility plant and related costs. The Utilities compete with oil, propane and electricity suppliers for residential, commercial and industrial users, with alternative fuel source providers (wind, solar and fuel cells) based upon price, convenience and environmental factors, and with other marketers/brokers in the selling of wholesale natural gas services. The market for natural gas commodity sales is subject to competition due to deregulation. SJG's competitive position was enhanced while maintaining margins by using an unbundled tariff. This tariff allows full cost-of-service recovery when transporting gas for SJG's customers. Under this tariff, SJG profits from transporting, rather than selling, the commodity. SJG's residential, commercial and industrial customers can choose their supplier, while SJG recovers the cost of service through transportation service (See Customer Choice Legislation below).

SJRG competes in the wholesale natural gas market against a wide array of competitors on a cost competitive, term of service, and reliability basis. SJRG has been a reliable energy provider in this arena for more than 20 years.

Marina competes with other companies that develop and operate similar types of on-site energy production. Marina also faces competition from customers' preferences for alternative technologies for energy production, as well as those customers that address their energy needs internally.

CUSTOMER CHOICE LEGISLATION - All residential natural gas customers in New Jersey can choose their natural gas commodity supplier under the terms of the “Electric Discount and Energy Competition Act of 1999." This bill created the framework and necessary time schedules for the restructuring of the state's electric and natural gas utilities. The Act established unbundling, where redesigned utility rate structures allow natural gas and electric consumers to choose their energy supplier. It also established time frames for instituting competitive services for customer account functions and for determining whether basic gas supply services should become competitive. Customers purchasing natural gas from a provider other than the local utility (the “marketer”) are charged for the gas costs by the marketer and charged for the transportation costs by the utility. The total number of customers in SJG's service territory purchasing natural gas from a marketer averaged 25,665, 30,423 and 34,130 during 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The total number of customers in ETG's service territory purchasing natural gas from a marketer averaged 8,015 during 2018.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS:

SJI operates in several different reportable operating segments. These segments are as follows:

SJG utility operations consist primarily of natural gas distribution to residential, commercial and industrial customers in southern New Jersey.
ETG utility operations consist primarily of natural gas distribution to residential, commercial and industrial customers in northern and central New Jersey.
ELK utility operations consist of natural gas distribution to residential, commercial and industrial customers in Maryland.
Wholesale energy operations include the activities of SJRG and SJEX.
Retail gas and other operations at SJE included natural gas acquisition and transportation service business lines. This business was sold on November 30, 2018 (see Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements).
Retail electric operations at SJE consist of electricity acquisition and transportation to commercial, industrial and residential customers.
On-site energy production consists of Marina's thermal energy facility and other energy-related projects. Also included in this segment are the activities of ACB, ACLE, BCLE, SCLE, SXLE, along with MCS, NBS and SBS, which were sold in October 2018 (see Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements).
Appliance service operations includes SJESP, which receives commissions on service contracts from a third party.
Midstream was formed to invest in infrastructure and other midstream projects, including a current project to build a natural gas pipeline in Pennsylvania and New Jersey.
Corporate & Services segment includes costs related to the Acquisition, along with other unallocated costs.
Intersegment represents intercompany transactions between the above SJI consolidated entities.


35


SJI groups its utility businesses under its wholly-owned subsidiary SJIU. This group consists of gas utility operations of SJG, ETG and ELK. SJI groups its nonutility operations into separate categories: Energy Group and Energy Services. Energy Group includes wholesale energy, retail gas and other, and retail electric operations. Energy Services includes on-site energy production and appliance service operations.
 
SJI's net income for 2018 increased $21.2 million to $17.7 million compared to 2017. The significant drivers for the overall change were as follows:

The net income contribution from the wholesale energy operations at SJRG increased $89.7 million to $66.2 million. The significant drivers for the overall change were as follows:

$37.5 million increase due to the change in unrealized gains and losses on derivatives used by the wholesale energy operations to mitigate natural gas commodity price risk, as discussed under "Operating Revenues - Energy Group" below. This change was also impacted by Tax Reform.
$28.9 million increase due to lower legal fees, reserves and interest recorded on a pricing dispute between SJI and a gas supplier as compared with the same period in 2017 (see Note 15 to the consolidated financial statements), along with two other settled cases (see 2017 vs. 2016 discussion below).
The remaining increase is primarily due to higher margins on daily energy trading activities and an overall increase in sales due to cold weather experienced in the first quarter of 2018, as discussed under "Gross Margin - Energy Group" below. Also contributing was the impact of Tax Reform.

The net income contribution from the gas utility operations at SJG increased $10.3 million to $82.9 million, primarily due to the base rate case settlement, the roll-in of investments for infrastructure replacement and improvement, along with customer growth, partially offset with an overall increase in depreciation, interest and operations expenses.

SJI recorded $30.4 million (after-tax) of additional financing costs and other charges compared to 2017 in connection with the Acquisition (see Note 14 and 20 to the consolidated financial statements). These costs are recorded in the Corporate & Services segment.

The net income contribution from on-site energy production at Marina decreased $17.5 million to a net loss of $78.0 million, primarily due to $78.7 million (after-tax) of impairment charges taken on solar generating facilities and LFGTE assets in 2018, which were driven by the purchase price in the agreement to sell solar assets being less than the carrying amount of the assets, along with the carrying value of LFGTE assets no longer being recoverable. Also contributing were consulting and legal costs incurred as a result of the agreement to sell solar assets. This was partially offset by $56.1 million (after-tax) of impairment charges recorded in 2017, along with gains recorded on the sale of solar assets (see Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements).

SJI recorded $13.5 million of one-time tax gains in 2017 related to the enactment of Tax Reform. See Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements.

SJI recorded $5.0 million (after-tax) related to the implementation of the ERIP as well as amendments made to the OPEB (see Notes 1 and 12 to the consolidated financial statements).

The net income contribution from the retail gas and electric operations at SJE decreased $7.3 million to a net loss of $6.0 million primarily due to the change in unrealized gains and losses on forward financial contracts used to mitigate price risk on retail gas as discussed under "Operating Revenues – Energy Group" below, along with a loss recorded on the sale of the SJE retail gas operations (see Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements).

In connection with the Acquisition (see Note 20 to the consolidated financial statements), SJI consolidated the accounts of ETG and ELK gas utility operations beginning with the third quarter of 2018. This contributed a net loss of $5.2 million in 2018, which included approximately $11.1 million (after-tax) of credits provided to customers of ETG and ELK (see Note 10 to the consolidated financial statements).


36


SJI's net income for 2017 decreased $122.3 million, or 102.9%, to a net loss of $3.5 million compared to 2016. The significant drivers for the overall change were as follows:

The net income contribution from on-site energy production at Marina decreased $76.5 million to a net loss of $60.5 million, primarily due to the following:
$56.1 million decrease due to several impairment charges recorded during the year, including impairments on solar generating facilities, LFGTE long-lived assets, LFGTE assets customer relationships, and goodwill (see Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements).
$9.1 million of investment tax credits on renewable energy facilities recorded in 2016, compared with none recorded in 2017, which is consistent with SJI's previously announced strategy of substantially reducing solar development.
$4.5 million decrease related to gains on two settlements recorded at Marina in 2016 that did not recur in 2017 (see Note 7 to the consolidated financial statements).
$1.7 million decrease related to the change in unrealized gains and losses on interest rate derivative contracts (see Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements).
The remaining decrease is primarily due to an overall increase in operating and interest expenses.

The net income contribution from the wholesale energy operations at SJRG decreased $49.5 million to a net loss of $23.5 million, primarily due to the following:
$32.6 million decrease resulting from an unfavorable court ruling related to a pricing dispute between SJRG and a supplier, including interest (see Note 15 to the consolidated financial statements)
$20.6 million decrease resulting from the change in unrealized gains and losses on derivatives used by the wholesale energy operations to mitigate natural gas commodity price risk, as discussed under "Operating Revenues - Energy Group" below.
$5.8 million decrease resulting from a settlement of a legal dispute related to a three-year capacity management contract with a counterparty (see Note 15 to the consolidated financial statements)
$1.5 million decrease due to legal fees recorded on the two legal disputes noted above
$5.7 million increase resulting from a favorable FERC decision over a tariff rate dispute with a counterparty, including interest, whereby SJI contended that the counterparty was overcharging for storage demand charges over a ten year period (see Note 15 to the consolidated financial statements).
$5.3 million increase due to higher margins earned on daily energy trading activities, colder weather conditions experienced in the fourth quarter of 2017 compared to the prior year, additional margins earned during 2017 on gas supply contracts with three electric generation facilities, and an overall decrease in operating expenses (excluding the legal fees discussed above).

SJI recorded $12.0 million of expenses related to costs incurred on the Acquisition (see Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements). These include finders fees, consulting and legal charges, among others. These costs are recorded in the Corporate & Services segment.

The net income contribution from the retail gas and electric operations at SJE decreased $6.2 million to $1.3 million primarily due to the change in unrealized gains and losses on forward financial contracts used to mitigate price risk on retail gas as discussed under "Operating Revenues – Energy Group" below, along with the expiration of a large electric sales contract with a group of school boards.

SJI recorded $13.5 million of tax gains related to the enactment of Tax Reform. See Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements.

The net income contribution from Midstream increased $4.8 million to $4.6 million primarily due to recognition of AFUDC at PennEast, of which Midstream has a 20% equity interest.

The net income contribution from gas utility operations at SJG increased $3.5 million to $72.6 million primarily due to increased margin resulting from investments included in the rate case, AIRP II and SHARP rolling into base rates during the fourth quarter of 2017, along with customer growth. This is partially offset by increases in depreciation, interest and operations expenses.

SJI recognized an additional gain of $1.7 million related to the sale of real estate during 2017.


37


A significant portion of the volatility in operating results is due to the impact of the accounting methods associated with SJI's derivative activities. SJI uses derivatives to limit its exposure to market risk on transactions to buy, sell, transport and store natural gas and to buy and sell retail electricity. SJI also uses derivatives to limit its exposure to increasing interest rates on variable-rate debt.

The types of transactions that typically cause the most significant volatility in operating results are as follows:

The wholesale energy operations at SJRG purchases and holds natural gas in storage and maintains capacity on interstate pipelines to earn profit margins in the future. The wholesale energy operations utilize derivatives to mitigate price risk in order to substantially lock-in the profit margin that will ultimately be realized. However, both gas stored in inventory and pipeline capacity are not considered derivatives and are not subject to fair value accounting. Conversely, the derivatives used to reduce the risk associated with a change in the value of inventory and pipeline capacity are accounted for at fair value, with changes in fair value recorded in operating results in the period of change. As a result, earnings are subject to volatility as the market price of derivatives change, even when the underlying hedged value of inventory and pipeline capacity are unchanged. Additionally, volatility in earnings is created when realized gains and losses on derivatives used to mitigate commodity price risk on expected future purchases of gas injected into storage are recognized in earnings when the derivatives settle, but the cost of the related gas in storage is not recognized in earnings until the period of withdrawal. This volatility can be significant from period to period. Over time, gains or losses on the sale of gas in storage, as well as use of capacity, will be offset by losses or gains on the derivatives, resulting in the realization of the profit margin expected when the transactions were initiated.

The retail electric operations at SJE use forward contracts to mitigate commodity price risk on fixed price electric contracts with customers. In accordance with GAAP, the forward contracts are recorded at fair value, with changes in fair value recorded in earnings in the period of change. Several related customer contracts are not considered derivatives and, therefore, are not recorded in earnings until the electricity is delivered. As a result, earnings are subject to volatility as the market price of the forward contracts change, even when the underlying hedged value of the customer contract is unchanged. Over time, gains or losses on the sale of the fixed price electric under contract will be offset by losses or gains on the forward contracts, resulting in the realization of the profit margin expected when the transactions were initiated.  
 
As a result, management also uses the non-GAAP financial measures of Economic Earnings and Economic Earnings Per Share when evaluating the results of operations for its operations. These non-GAAP financial measures should not be considered as an alternative to GAAP measures, such as net income, operating income, earnings per share from continuing operations or any other GAAP measure of liquidity or financial performance.
 
We define Economic Earnings as: Income from continuing operations, (i) less the change in unrealized gains and plus the change in unrealized losses on all derivative transactions; (ii) less realized gains and plus realized losses on all commodity derivative transactions attributed to expected purchases of gas in storage to match the recognition of these gains and losses with the recognition of the related cost of the gas in storage in the period of withdrawal; (iii) less the impact of transactions, contractual arrangements or other events where management believes period to period comparisons of SJI's operations could be difficult or potentially confusing. With respect to part (iii) of the definition of Economic Earnings:

For the year ended December 31, 2018, Economic Earnings excludes impairment charges, including charges taken in 2018 on solar generating facilities (which was primarily driven by the purchase price in the agreement to sell solar assets being less than the carrying amount of the assets) along with LFGTE assets (which was primarily driven by the remaining carrying value of these assets no longer being recoverable. For the year ended December 31, 2017, Economic Earnings excludes impairment charges on solar generating facilities, LFGTE long-lived assets, LFGTE assets customer relationships, and goodwill.

For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, Economic Earnings excludes the impact of a May 2017 jury verdict stemming from a pricing dispute with a gas supplier over costs, including interest charges and legal fees incurred, along with the realized difference in the market value of the commodity (including financial hedges).

For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, Economic Earnings excludes various costs related to the Acquisition, a series of agreements whereby Marina agreed to sell its portfolio of solar energy assets to a third-party buyer, and the agreement to sell the assets of SJE's retail gas business.


38


For the year ended December 31, 2018, Economic Earnings excludes approximately $15.3 million (pre-tax) of credits to ETG and ELK customers that was required as part of the Acquisition.

For the year ended December 31, 2018, Economic Earnings excludes costs incurred on the Company's ERIP as well as the benefit of amending the Company's OPEB.

For the year ended December 31, 2017, Economic Earnings also excludes the impact of a 2017 settlement of a legal claim stemming from a dispute related to a three-year capacity management contract with a counterparty, including legal fees incurred, along with the impact of a favorable FERC decision over a tariff rate dispute with a counterparty, including interest earned.

For the year ended December 31, 2017, Economic Earnings excludes an approximately $2.4 million pre-tax loss related to a new interest rate derivative and amendments made to an existing interest rate derivative linked to unrealized losses previously recorded in AOCL. SJI reclassified this amount from AOCL to Interest Charges on the consolidated statements of income as a result of the prior hedged transactions being deemed probable of not occurring. Since the economic impact will not be realized until future periods, this amount is excluded from Economic Earnings.

For the year ended December 31, 2017, Economic Earnings excludes the impact of one-time tax adjustments, most notably related to the Tax Reform.

Economic Earnings is a significant performance metric used by our management to indicate the amount and timing of income from continuing operations that we expect to earn after taking into account the impact of derivative instruments on the related transactions, contractual arrangements and other events that management believes make period to period comparisons of SJI's operations difficult or potentially confusing. Specifically regarding derivatives, we believe that this financial measure indicates to investors the profitability of the entire derivative-related transaction and not just the portion that is subject to mark-to-market valuation under GAAP. We believe that considering only the change in market value on the derivative side of the transaction can produce a false sense as to the ultimate profitability of the total transaction as no change in value is reflected for the non-derivative portion of the transaction.

Economic Earnings for 2018 increased $18.1 million, or 18.5%, to $116.2 million compared to 2017. The significant drivers for the overall change were as follows:

The income contribution from the wholesale energy operations at SJRG increased $22.0 million to $43.6 million, primarily due to higher margins on daily energy trading activities and an overall increase in sales due to cold weather experienced in the first quarter of 2018, as discussed under "Gross Margin - Energy Group" below. Also contributing was the impact of Tax Reform, as discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements.

The income contribution from the gas utility operations at SJG increased $10.3 million to $82.9 million, primarily due to the base rate case settlement, the roll-in of investments for infrastructure replacement and improvement, along with customer growth, partially offset with an overall increase in depreciation, interest and operations expenses.

In connection with the Acquisition, SJI consolidated the results of the ETG and ELK gas utility operations beginning July 2018 (see Note 20 to the consolidated financial statements), contributing net income of $5.8 million for 2018, excluding the customer credits discussed above.

SJI recorded $18.3 million (after-tax) of additional interest charges relating to the debt that was issued during the second quarter of 2018 (see Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements).

Economic Earnings for 2017 decreased $4.8 million, or 4.6%, to $98.1 million compared to 2016. The significant drivers for the overall change were as follows:

The income contribution from on-site energy production at Marina decreased $18.9 million to a net loss of $3.2 million. This was primarily due to the impact of recording no investment tax credits on renewable energy facilities in 2017, compared with $9.1 million in 2016, which is consistent with SJI's previously announced strategy of substantially reducing solar development. Also contributing was $4.5 million for two settlements recorded at Marina during 2016 that did not recur in 2017 (see Note 7 to the consolidated financial statements). The remaining decrease is primarily due to an overall increase in operating and interest expenses.


39


The income contribution from the retail gas and electric operations at SJE decreased $1.8 million to a net loss of $0.5 million primarily due to the expiration of a large electric sales contract with a group of school boards.

The income contribution from the wholesale energy operations at SJRG increased $5.3 million to $21.6 million, primarily due to higher margins earned on daily energy trading activities, colder weather conditions experienced in the fourth quarter of 2017 compared to the prior year, additional margins earned during 2017 on gas supply contracts with three electric generation facilities, and an overall decrease in operating expenses (excluding the legal fees discussed above).

The income contribution from Midstream increased $4.8 million to $4.6 million primarily due to recognition of AFUDC at PennEast, of which Midstream has a 20% equity interest.

The income contribution from gas utility operations at SJG increased $3.5 million to $72.6 million primarily due to increased margin resulting from investments included in the rate case, AIRP II and SHARP rolling into base rates during the fourth quarter of 2017, along with customer growth. This is partially offset by increases in depreciation, interest and operations expenses.

SJI recognized an additional gain of $1.7 million related to the sale of real estate during 2017.

The following table presents a reconciliation of our income from continuing operations and earnings per share from continuing operations to Economic Earnings and Economic Earnings per share (in thousands, except per share data):

 
2018
2017
2016
 
 
 
 
Income (Loss) from Continuing Operations
$
17,903

$
(3,404
)
$
119,061

Minus/Plus:
 

 

 

Unrealized Mark-to-Market (Gains) Losses on Derivatives
(35,846
)
14,226

(27,550
)
Realized Losses on Inventory Injection Hedges

332

683

Loss on Property, Plant and Equipment (A)
105,280

91,299


Net Losses from Legal Proceedings (B)
5,910

56,075


Acquisition/Sale Costs (C)
34,674

19,564


Customer Credits (D)
15,333



ERIP and OPEB (E)
6,733



Other (F)

2,227

(165
)
Income Taxes (G)
(33,753
)
(70,834
)
10,813

Additional Tax Adjustments (H)

(11,420
)

 
 
 
 
Economic Earnings
$
116,234

$
98,065

$
102,842

 
 
 
 
Earnings (Loss) per Share from Continuing Operations
$
0.21

$
(0.04
)
$
1.56

Minus/Plus:
 

 

 

Unrealized Mark-to-Market (Gains) Losses on Derivatives
(0.42
)
0.18

(0.36
)
Realized Losses on Inventory Injection Hedges


0.01

Loss on Property, Plant and Equipment (A)
1.24

1.14


Net Losses from Legal Proceedings (B)
0.07

0.70


Acquisition/Sale Costs (C)
0.41

0.25


Customer Credits (D)
0.18



ERIP and OPEB (E)
0.08



Other (F)

0.03


Income Taxes (G)
(0.39
)
(0.89
)
0.13

Additional Tax Adjustments (H)

(0.14
)

 
 
 
 
Economic Earnings per Share
$
1.38

$
1.23

$
1.34


40



The effect of derivative instruments not designated as hedging instruments under GAAP in the statements of consolidated income (see Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements) is as follows (gains (losses) in thousands):
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
                Gains (Losses) on energy-related commodity contracts
$
34,509

 
$
(13,667
)
 
$
26,935

                Gains (Losses) on interest rate contracts
1,337

 
(677
)
 
647

                         Total before income taxes
35,846

 
(14,344
)
 
27,582

  Unrealized mark-to-market gains (losses) on derivatives
   held by affiliated companies, before taxes

 
118

 
(32
)
   Total unrealized mark-to-market gains (losses) on derivatives
35,846

 
(14,226
)
 
27,550

   Realized losses on inventory injection hedges

 
(332
)
 
(683
)
   Loss on Property, Plant and Equipment (A)
(105,280
)
 
(91,299
)
 

   Net Losses from Legal Proceedings (B)
(5,910
)
 
(56,075
)
 

   Acquisition/Sale Costs (C)
(34,674
)
 
(19,564
)
 

   Customer Credits (D)
(15,333
)
 

 

   ERIP and OPEB (E)
(6,733
)
 
 
 
 
   Other (F)

 
(2,227
)
 
165

   Income Taxes (G)
33,753

 
70,834

 
(10,813
)
   Additional Tax Adjustments (H)

 
11,420

 

   Total reconciling items between (losses) income from continuing
   operations and Economic Earnings
$
(98,331
)
 
$
(101,469
)
 
$
16,219


(A) Represents impairment charges taken in 2018 on solar generating facilities (which was primarily driven by the purchase price in the agreement to sell solar assets being less than the carrying amount of the assets) along with LFGTE assets (which was primarily driven by the remaining carrying value of these assets no longer being recoverable. Also represents impairment charges taken in 2017 on solar generating facilities, LFGTE long-lived assets, LFGTE assets customer relationships, and goodwill.

(B) Represents net losses from three separate legal proceedings: (a) charges in 2017 and 2018, including interest, legal fees and the realized difference in the market value of the commodity (including financial hedges) resulting from a ruling in a legal proceeding related to a pricing dispute between SJI and a gas supplier that began in October 2014; (b) a charge in 2017, including legal fees, resulting from a settlement with a counterparty over a dispute related to a three-year capacity management contract; and (c) a gain taken in 2017 resulting from a favorable FERC decision, including interest, over a tariff rate dispute with a counterparty, whereby SJI contended that the counterparty was overcharging for storage demand charges over a ten-year period.

(C) Represents costs incurred on the agreement to acquire the assets of ETG and ELK, including legal, consulting and other professional fees. Also included here are costs incurred on the sale of solar and SJE assets, partially offset by gains recorded on the sale of solar assets.

(D) Represents credits to ETG and ELK customers that were required as part of the Acquisition.

(E) Represents costs incurred on the Company's ERIP as well as the benefit of amending the Company's OPEB.

(F) Included in this amount are amendments made to an existing interest rate derivative linked to unrealized losses previously recorded in AOCL. SJI reclassified this amount from AOCL to Interest Charges on the consolidated statements of income as a result of the prior hedged transactions being deemed probable of not occurring. Since the economic impact will not be realized until future periods, this amount is excluded from Economic Earnings. Also included is additional depreciation expense within Economic Earnings on a solar generating facility where an impairment charge was recorded in the past, which reduced the depreciable basis and recurring depreciation expense, and the related reduction in depreciation expense was added back in prior years.

(G) Determined using a combined average statutory tax rate of approximately 25%, 39% and 40% for 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

(H) Represents one-time tax adjustments, most notably for Tax Reform.

41



SJI Utilities:

SJG Utility Operations - The following tables summarize the composition of SJG utility operations operating revenues and Utility Margin for the years ended December 31 (in thousands, except for customer and degree day data):

 
December 31, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
 
December 31, 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Utility Operating Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Firm Sales-
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   Residential
$
316,593

 
58
 %
 
$
269,721

 
52
%
 
$
259,881

 
56
%
   Commercial
68,286

 
13
 %
 
61,514

 
12
%
 
55,795

 
12
%
   Industrial
4,630

 
1
 %
 
4,235

 
1
%
 
3,126

 
1
%
   Cogeneration and Electric Generation
9,706

 
2
 %
 
5,519

 
1
%
 
5,257

 
1
%
Firm Transportation -
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   Residential
12,614

 
2
 %
 
14,162

 
3
%
 
14,989

 
3
%
   Commercial
37,764

 
7
 %
 
34,986

 
7
%
 
32,423

 
7
%
   Industrial
23,993

 
4
 %
 
20,576

 
4
%
 
19,594

 
4
%
   Cogeneration and Electric Generation
4,595

 
1
 %
 
4,360

 
1
%
 
4,472

 
1
%
      Total Firm Revenues
478,181

 
88
 %
 
415,073

 
81
%
 
395,537

 
85
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interruptible Sales
349

 

 
25

 

 
18

 

Interruptible Transportation
1,178

 

 
867

 

 
928

 

Off-System Sales
59,157

 
11
 %
 
92,376

 
18
%
 
51,661

 
11
%
Capacity Release
7,963

 
1
 %
 
7,695

 
1
%
 
11,778

 
3
%
Other
1,172

 
 %
 
1,218

 
%
 
1,133

 
1
%
 
548,000

 
100
 %
 
517,254

 
100
%
 
461,055

 
100
%
Less: Intercompany Sales
6,192

 
 
 
4,772

 
 
 
7,236

 
 
Total Utility Operating Revenues
541,808

 
 
 
512,482

 
 
 
453,819

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Less:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
     Cost of Sales - Utility
209,649

 
 
 
204,432

 
 
 
174,390

 
 
     Less: Intercompany Cost of Sales
6,192

 
 
 
4,772

 
 
 
7,236

 
 
Total Cost of Sales - Utility (Excluding Depreciation)
203,457

 
 
 
199,660

 
 
 
167,154

 
 
Conservation Recoveries *
14,136

 
 

 
7,003

 
 

 
9,202

 
 

RAC recoveries *
17,099

 
 

 
11,014

 
 

 
9,326

 
 

EET Recoveries*
1,772

 
 
 
1,284

 
 
 
2,718

 
 
Revenue Taxes
1,074

 
 

 
1,162

 
 

 
1,109

 
 

     Utility Margin**
$
304,270

 
 
 
$
292,359

 
 
 
$
264,310

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Utility Margin:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Residential
$
213,026


70
 %

$
180,106


62
%

$
162,820


62
%
Commercial and Industrial
89,172


29
 %

76,491


26
%

69,396


26
%
Cogeneration and Electric Generation
4,975


1
 %

4,762


1
%

4,898