Chevron Corporation,* a Delaware corporation, manages its investments in subsidiaries and affiliates and provides administrative, financial, management and technology support to U.S. and international subsidiaries that engage in integrated energy and chemicals operations. Upstream operations consist primarily of exploring for, developing and producing crude oil and natural gas; processing, liquefaction, transportation and regasification associated with liquefied natural gas; transporting crude oil by major international oil export pipelines; transporting, storage and marketing of natural gas; and a gas-to-liquids plant. Downstream operations consist primarily of refining crude oil into petroleum products; marketing of crude oil and refined products; transporting crude oil and refined products by pipeline, marine vessel, motor equipment and rail car; and manufacturing and marketing of commodity petrochemicals, plastics for industrial uses and fuel and lubricant additives.
A list of the company's major subsidiaries is presented on page E-1. As of December 31, 2018, Chevron had approximately 48,600 employees (including about 3,600 service station employees). Approximately 24,800 employees (including about 3,300 service station employees), or 51 percent, were employed in U.S. operations.
Petroleum industry operations and profitability are influenced by many factors. Prices for crude oil, natural gas, petroleum products and petrochemicals are generally determined by supply and demand. Production levels from the members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), Russia and the United States are the major factors in determining worldwide supply. Demand for crude oil and its products and for natural gas is largely driven by the conditions of local, national and global economies, although weather patterns and taxation relative to other energy sources also play a significant part. Laws and governmental policies, particularly in the areas of taxation, energy and the environment, affect where and how companies invest, conduct their operations and formulate their products and, in some cases, limit their profits directly.