Company Quick10K Filing
Quick10K
Dropcar
Closing Price ($) Shares Out (MM) Market Cap ($MM)
$2.24 3 $8
10-K 2018-12-31 Annual: 2018-12-31
10-Q 2018-09-30 Quarter: 2018-09-30
10-Q 2018-06-30 Quarter: 2018-06-30
10-Q 2018-03-31 Quarter: 2018-03-31
10-Q 2017-10-31 Quarter: 2017-10-31
10-Q 2017-07-31 Quarter: 2017-07-31
10-K 2017-04-30 Annual: 2017-04-30
10-Q 2017-01-31 Quarter: 2017-01-31
10-Q 2016-10-31 Quarter: 2016-10-31
10-Q 2016-07-31 Quarter: 2016-07-31
10-K 2016-04-30 Annual: 2016-04-30
10-Q 2016-01-31 Quarter: 2016-01-31
10-Q 2015-10-31 Quarter: 2015-10-31
10-Q 2015-07-31 Quarter: 2015-07-31
10-K 2015-04-30 Annual: 2015-04-30
10-Q 2015-01-31 Quarter: 2015-01-31
10-Q 2014-10-31 Quarter: 2014-10-31
10-Q 2014-07-31 Quarter: 2014-07-31
10-K 2014-04-30 Annual: 2014-04-30
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8-K 2019-03-29 Amendment
8-K 2019-03-08 Shareholder Rights, Amend Bylaw, Exhibits
8-K 2019-02-14 Officers
8-K 2019-02-06 Officers
8-K 2019-01-15 Earnings, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-12-23 M&A, Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-12-10 Enter Agreement, Exhibits
8-K 2018-11-15 Shareholder Vote
8-K 2018-11-14 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-09-25
8-K 2018-08-31 Enter Agreement, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-16 Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-08-14 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-26 Amend Bylaw, Exhibits
8-K 2018-07-11 Officers, Exhibits
8-K 2018-05-15 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-19 Enter Agreement, Sale of Shares, Shareholder Rights, Exhibits
8-K 2018-04-18 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-03-12 Other Events
8-K 2018-03-08 Enter Agreement, Sale of Shares, Shareholder Rights, Amend Bylaw, Regulation FD, Exhibits
8-K 2018-02-16 Earnings, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-30 M&A, Shareholder Rights, Accountant, Control, Officers, Amend Bylaw, Code of Ethics, Other Events, Exhibits
8-K 2018-01-17 Shareholder Vote, Other Events, Exhibits
HES Hess 20,090
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DCAR 2018-12-31
Part 1
Item 1 – Business
Item 1A – Risk Factors
Item 1B – Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2 – Properties
Item 3 – Legal Proceedings
Item 4 – Mine Safety Disclosures
Part II
Item 5 – Market for Registrant’S Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Item 6 - Selected Financial Data
Item 7 – Management’S Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
Item 7A – Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
Item 8 – Financial Statements
Item 9 – Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
Item 9A – Controls and Procedures
Item 9B – Other Information
Part III
Item 10 – Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
Item 11 – Executive Compensation
Item 12 – Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
Item 13 – Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
Item 14 – Principal Accounting Fees and Services
Part IV
Item 15 – Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules
Item 16 – Summary
EX-3.1 dcar_ex31.htm
EX-23.1 dcar_ex231.htm
EX-31.1 dcar_ex311.htm
EX-31.2 dcar_ex312.htm
EX-32.1 dcar_ex321.htm

Dropcar Earnings 2018-12-31

DCAR 10K Annual Report

Balance SheetIncome StatementCash Flow

10-K 1 dcar_10k.htm ANNUAL REPORT Blueprint
 

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
[ X ]  ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
 
OR
 
[ ]  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the transition period from   to          
 
Commission file number: 001-34643
 
DROPCAR, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
1412 Broadway, Suite 2105
New York, New York
(Address of principal executive offices)
98-0204758
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
10018
(Zip Code)
 
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code (646) 342-1595
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act:
 
  Title of each class   
 
  Name of each exchange on which registered
 
 
 
  Common Stock, $0.0001 Par Value Per Share
 
  The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act: None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes  ☐   No ☑
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Yes  ☐    No ☑
  
 
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes  ☑   No  ☐
 
 Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes   ☑    No   ☐
 
 Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  ☐
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one).
 
Large accelerated filer ☐
Accelerated filer ☐
Non-accelerated filer ☑
Smaller reporting company ☑
 
Emerging growth company ☐
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ☐
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes  ☐ No  ☑
 
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant (without admitting that any person whose shares are not included in such calculation is an affiliate) computed by reference to the price at which the common stock was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of the common stock, as of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter was $5,724,980.
 
As of March 27, 2019 there were 3,440,258 shares of registrant’s common stock outstanding.
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
 
Certain information called for in Item 12 of Part III will be included in an amendment to this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
 
 
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS 
 
 
 
PAGE
 
 
 
PART I
 
 
Item 1.
Business
1
Item 1A.
8
Item 1B.
23
Item 2.
23
Item 3.
23
Item 4.
23
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
Item 5.
24
Item 6.
25
Item 7.
25
Item 7A.
38
Item 8.
38 [F1- F30]
Item 9.
39
Item 9A.
39
Item 9B.
41
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
Item 10.
42
Item 11.
48
Item 12.
53
Item 13.
53
Item 14.
54
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
Item 15.
55
Item 16.
59

58
 
 
 
 
NOTE ABOUT FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
 
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, our business strategy and plans, and our objectives for future operations, are forward-looking statements. The words "believe," "may," "will," "estimate," "continue," "anticipate," "intend," "expect," and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, short-term and long-term business operations and objectives, and financial needs. These forward-looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties, and assumptions, including those described in Part I, Item 1A, "Risk Factors" in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties and assumptions, the future events and trends discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.
 
We assume no obligation to revise or publicly release the results of any revision to these forward-looking statements, except as required by law. Given these risks and uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements.
 
This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes the accounts of DropCar, Inc. (“DropCar”) and its current and former wholly and majority-owned subsidiaries collectively referred to as “we”, “us”, “our” or the "Company". United States-based subsidiaries include or included WPCS International – Suisun City, Inc. (the “Suisun City Operations”). The Suisun City Operations has been sold and is treated as a discontinued operation.
 
 
 
 
PART 1
 
ITEM 1 – BUSINESS
 
Recent Developments
 
Intention to Explore Strategic Opportunities
 
On March 8, 2019, we announced that we had initiated a process to evaluate strategic opportunities to maximize shareholder value. While management continues to focus on our business activities and operations, this process will consider a range of potential strategic opportunities including, but not limited to, business combinations.
 
Sale of Suisun City Operations
 
On December 24, 2018, we completed the previously announced sale of WPCS International – Suisun City, Inc., a California corporation (the “Suisun City Operations”), our wholly-owned subsidiary, pursuant to the terms of a stock purchase agreement, dated December 10, 2018 (the “Purchase Agreement”) by and between us and World Professional Cabling Systems, LLC, a California limited liability company (the “Purchaser”). Upon the closing of the sale, the Purchaser acquired all of the issued and outstanding shares of common stock, no par value per share, of Suisun City Operations, for an aggregate purchase price of $3,500,000.
 
Departure and Appointment of Chief Financial Officer
 
On February 14, 2019, our Board approved (1) the termination of Paul Commons as Chief Financial Officer and any other positions on which he served with respect to us and our subsidiaries and affiliates, and (2) the appointment of Mark Corrao as our new Chief Financial Officer, in each case effective as of February 28, 2019.
 
Reverse Stock Split
 
On March 8, 2019, we filed a certificate of amendment to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware to effect a one-for-six reverse stock split of our outstanding shares of common stock. Such amendment and ratio were previously approved by our stockholders and board of directors, respectively. As a result of the reverse stock split, every six shares of our outstanding pre-reverse split common stock were combined and reclassified into one share of common stock. Proportionate voting rights and other rights of common stock holders were not affected by the reverse stock split. Stockholders who would otherwise have held a fractional share of common stock received payment in cash in lieu of any such resulting fractional shares of common stock, as the post-reverse split amounts of common stock were rounded down to the nearest full share. Unless otherwise noted, all share and pershare data included in these financial statements retroactively reflect the 1-for-6 reverse stock split.
 
Business
 
Merger
 
On January 30, 2018, we completed our business combination with DropCar, Inc. (“Private DropCar”) in accordance with the terms of the Agreement and Plan of Merger and Reorganization, dated as of September 6, 2017, as subsequently amended, by and among us, DC Acquisition Corporation (“Merger Sub”), and Private DropCar (as amended, the “Merger Agreement”), pursuant to which Merger Sub merged with and into Private DropCar, with Private DropCar surviving as our wholly owned subsidiary (the “Merger”). On January 30, 2018, in connection with, and prior to the completion of, the Merger, we effected a 1:4 reverse stock split of our common stock (the “Reverse Stock Split”), and on January 30, 2018, immediately after completion of the Merger, we changed our name to “DropCar, Inc.”
 
 
1
 
 
Under the terms of the Merger Agreement, we issued shares of our common stock to Private DropCar’s stockholders, at an exchange ratio of 0.3273 shares of our common stock, after taking into account the Reverse Stock Split, for each share of (i) Private DropCar common stock and preferred stock and (ii) Private DropCar warrants, in each case, outstanding immediately prior to the Merger. The exchange ratio was determined through arms’-length negotiations between us and Private DropCar.
 
Immediately after the Merger, there were 1,301,987 shares of our common stock outstanding. Immediately after the Merger, the former security holders of Private DropCar, together with Private DropCar advisors in connection with the Merger, Alpha Capital Anstalt and Palladium Capital Advisors, owned approximately 77.1% of our outstanding common stock, with our stockholders immediately prior to the Merger owning approximately 22.9% of our outstanding common stock.
 
In connection with the Merger, Private DropCar was deemed to be the accounting acquirer because the stockholders of Private DropCar effectively control the combined company following the Merger. The Merger was treated as a reverse acquisition.
 
We issued 22,850 warrants and paid approximately $208,000 in cash to Palladium Capital Advisors, LLC for services rendered in connection with the exercise of outstanding warrants prior to the merger.
 
DropCar
 
We are a New York City based corporation incorporated in the State of Delaware on December 18, 1997 under the name “Internet International Communications Ltd.” Pursuant to a Certificate of Amendment to our Certificate of Incorporation filed on December 23, 2004, our name was changed to “WPCS International Incorporated.” On January 30, 2018, we completed the Merger (as described above) and our name was changed to DropCar, Inc.
 
We provide consumer and enterprise solutions to urban automobile-related logistical challenges. The DropCar business is a provider of automotive vehicle support, fleet logistics and concierge services for both consumers and businesses in automotive-related industries. In 2015, we launched our cloud-based Enterprise Vehicle Assistance and Logistics (“VAL”) platform and mobile application (“App”) to assist customer consumers and companies in reducing the costs, hassles and inefficiencies of owning or servicing vehicles in urban centers. Our VAL platform is a web-based interface facilitating our core service by coordinating the movements and schedules of our trained valets who pick up and drop off cars at dealerships, customer and other locations. The App tracks progress and provides real-time email and/or text notifications on status to customers, increasing the quality of communication and customer satisfaction. To date, we operate our business-to-consumer (“B2C”) services within the greater New York City metropolitan area and operate our business-to-business (“B2B”) services across the greater New York City metropolitan area, New Jersey, Washington D.C., Baltimore, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Expanding city populations have created a growing dependence on cars for urban mobility; however, the supply of vehicle services (i.e., garages, service centers, etc.) has continued to decrease as rising costs and other factors have made access to such services increasingly limited. To solve for these systemic urban mobility challenges, our technology captures and analyzes real-time data to dynamically optimize a rapidly growing network of professional valets across a suite of vehicle transport and high-touch support services.

We believe that consumers value the flexibility and comfort of having a personal vehicle but are restricted by dependence on the location of garages, service centers, parking solutions and maintenance. The continued population migration into cities and corresponding general increase in real estate prices are compounding this consumer burden. We seek to solve this problem by freeing consumers from the reliance on the location of automotive infrastructure generally necessary to own a vehicle in an urban area.
 
 
2
 
 
For our consumer customers, we provide a balance of increased consumer flexibility and lower cost by aggregating demand for parking and other automotive services and facilitating their fulfillment through our network of vendor partners in and around urban areas providing access and convenience to areas not currently being served. Beyond the immediate unit economic benefits of securing discounts from vendor partners based on their excess capacity, we believe there are significant opportunities for our platform to expand throughout the vehicle lifecycle and supply chain.
 
Our business customers, including, among others, original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”), dealers and other service providers in automotive-related industries are increasingly challenged with consumers who have limited time to bring their vehicles for maintenance and service, making it difficult to retain valuable post-sale service contracts or scheduled consumer maintenance and service appointments with many urban customers. Additionally, many of the vehicle support centers for automotive providers (i.e., dealerships and bodywork and diagnostic shops) have moved out of urban areas, making it more challenging for these OEMs and dealers to provide convenient and efficient service for their consumer and business clientele. Similarly, shared mobility providers and other fleet managers, such as rental car companies, face a similar urban mobility challenge: transporting cars to and from service bays, rebalancing vehicle availability to meet demand and transporting vehicles from dealer lots to fleet locations.
 
In response to this growing urban, automotive mobility challenge, we work directly with our business customers operating in automotive related industries to provide them with the option to have our valets transport vehicles to and from their businesses or their customer locations. Our business customers can leverage our services to drive new revenue from new and existing customers, including customers from within our consumer subscription base.
 
We offer our business services at a fraction of the cost of many alternatives, including other third party services and expensive in-house resources, because our pricing model reduces and/or eliminates downtime expense while also giving clients access to a network of trained valets on demand that can be scaled up or down based on the business customer’s real-time needs. We support this model by maximizing the utilization of our employee-valet workforce across a curated pipeline available to both our consumer and business customer network.
 
While our current business-to-business (“B2B”) and business-to-consumer (“B2C”) services generate revenue and help meet the unmet demand for vehicle support services, we are also building out a platform and customer base that positions us well for future application in automotive-related industries where vehicle ownership and utilization may become increasingly car-shared or subscription-based with transportation services and concierge service options customized to match a customers’ immediate needs. For example, certain car manufacturers are testing new services in which customers pay the manufacturer a flat fee per month to have access to a number of different vehicle models for a specified length of time. We believe that our unique blend of B2B and B2C services make us well suited to introduce and provide the services necessary to add value in this next generation of automotive subscription services.
 
 
3
 
 
 How DropCar Works
 
 Business-to-Consumer (“B2C”)
 
Our customers use DropCar to reduce the cost and hassles of owning a car. We have three core B2C services:
 
Self-Park Storage — When a B2C customer living within Manhattan or Brooklyn needs to find a monthly parking spot near their residence or other desired location, the B2C customer uses the DropCar App to locate a nearby garage with available space and can sign up for garage access on a monthly basis. This monthly self-park storage subscription ranges in price from $249 to $600 per month based on garage location, a discount to what we believe to be the typical cost of garage parking in New York City.
Hourly Parking and Driver Services “WILL” Service — We offer a separate service for B2C customer car owners who want to avoid the hassle of finding a parking space in Manhattan, Brooklyn and surrounding cities during short time windows (i.e., for a meeting, dinner, sports game, etc.). Using the App, a B2C customer can schedule a valet to meet at a specific location and time, and the valet will remain with the vehicle until the owner returns, or the valet can continue to drive with the owner to other locations, as is common using the services provided by Uber or Lyft, except under this service, the B2C customer is in their own personal vehicle. This service turns B2C customers vehicles into a true personal mobility solution.
Maintenance and Other Services (“DropCar 360”) — Our valets can also provide for our B2C customers’ other vehicle service-related needs, such as fueling, car washing, scheduled maintenance, and detailing. We believe these services result in higher customer satisfaction when compared to simple valet services, as well as an increased average revenue per B2C customer because of the incremental revenue generated on such services, including revenue generated by the valets time, and any additional a la carte service fees.
 
Business-to-Business (“B2B”)
 
Our B2B customers rely on us to facilitate selling, leasing, renting and sharing their vehicles at scale in urban centers. While the types of businesses we work with are continuing to expand, our current primary B2B customers include:
 
OEMs, Dealers, and Leasing Agents — Using our technology platform and large network of readily available valets, we enable branded automobile dealerships, leasing companies, peer to peer platforms and OEMs to offer a unique level of convenience for their service center operations and customers by providing efficient pick-up and drop-off service. We also enable automotive-related companies to track and digitize the lifecycle of their vehicle movements; many of these companies have never had the technology or resources to track such data prior to our engagement. The combination of easy to access high-touch service fulfillment plus data maturation is allowing our B2B customers the ability to more quickly launch new service offerings without the need to incur the heavy up-front investments or long-term commitments historically associated with building and managing a dedicated in-house workforce. Dealers, peer to peer market places and manufacturers can leverage our fully hosted middleware and mobile App or can integrate our service into their own consumer mobile apps (or directly into the vehicle’s native software (e.g., OnStar®)) for seamless scheduling, maintenance and delivery services. In addition, our B2B customers can integrate our cost saving and convenient consumer support services and subscriptions (i.e., parking, fueling and washing, etc.) directly into their showroom sales and leasing offerings to increase the likelihood of a sale.
 
 
4
 
  
Fleets and Car Sharing — Strong growth in “e-hailing” and shared mobility/car sharing services, along with the burgeoning response from the traditional rental car industry, has increased consumer expectations for more flexibility and reliability from their automotive and transportation service providers. At the same time, consumers continue to increase their sensitivity to price. As a result, businesses in these industries are moving quickly to identify opportunities to protect their operating margin while building competitive differentiation through the integration of services attractive to consumer needs.
 
This trend has created highly fertile ground for us to establish ourselves as a backbone partner with companies and platforms seeking to compete in this highly competitive sector by providing the same set of logistical support services and consumer facing add-on services that our service provides to OEMs, peer to peer platforms, dealers and leasing agents. In 2018, we entered into several service agreements to provide transport, prep, vehicle registration, cleaning and maintenance services for a customer’s fleet of vehicles in a metropolitan area to support its on-demand car sharing service. These services will be provided and coordinated through access to our VAL platform, which enables the fleet managers to schedule and track movements and services via a dedicated, secure portal.
 
Real Estate — We understand that parking spots in on-site garages often decrease the overall value of property. Developers are often able to add value by using the space that would otherwise be used for parking spots for other alternatively valuable purposes. At the same time, certain cities across the United States are placing caps on the total number of parking spaces per unit for new developments. While this may benefit developers, it may be negative for prospective tenants who own cars.
 
We believe that our vehicle storage and delivery service positions us well within the new ecosystem — where our “virtual garage” provides consumers greater flexibility with transportation related solutions while helping reduce stress and costs associated with existing garages and crowded street parking.
 
DropCar Informatics
 
We also enable automotive-related businesses to capture, analyze and catalog critical data that is compiled into searchable databases about their customers and operations, including real time vehicle tracking, vehicle photos, vehicle inspection summaries as well as consumer profiles and preferences.
  
We are actively integrating new tools into our platform to help businesses launch new products and services to deepen their customer relationships beyond the point of sale, including consumer facing scheduling websites and tools for marketing into our own consumer subscriber base.
 
Vertical Integration and Future of Automotive Space
 
Vertical Integration — Today, we leverage our ability to aggregate demand around our core services alongside our logistics and fulfillment infrastructure to form margin attributive relationships with third party vendors looking to grow their businesses. However, as our databases expand and we increase the predictability of our clients’ needs across these respective services, we may seek to acquire assets and service businesses to further try and increase margins and synergies while generating incremental investment returns derived from these assets.
 
 
5
 
 
Future of Automotive Industry — Many automotive companies, rental car companies and car sharing programs are developing subscription models, peer to peer models and service portfolios to cater to increasingly personalized customer preferences. These trends are symptomatic of the broader market shift towards a car share and subscription-based economy to accommodate the greater value consumers are placing on the flexibility and option of paying for products and services on demand as opposed to traditional automobile ownership. We continue to offer our “micro logistics support services” for the vehicle lifecycle which may eventually go beyond our current mobile App, and into vehicles directly.
 
Sales and Marketing
 
We currently use select digital marketing efforts to drive awareness of our B2C and B2B businesses. B2C business development has been driven by these marketing efforts and word-of-mouth referrals. The B2B business development has been achieved through the traditional direct sales efforts by our executives to companies in the automotive supply chain, rental car, fleet, shared and peer to peer mobility industries.
 
Employees
 
As of March 11, 2019, our DropCar business had 88 full time employees and 5 part time employees, including 70 licensed drivers. We believe that our relations with our employees are good.
 
Properties
 
For our DropCar self-park business we have month to month agreements with a number of garage companies strategically located throughout Manhattan and Brooklyn, which among other items, permit our customers parking access. Through our large inventory of monthly subscriptions, we are able to favorably negotiate underutilized parking spaces throughout our coverage areas and cost effectively store vehicles for our B2C customers. We also have certain arrangements from time to time with garage facilities for specific event days and other parking needs where an event is seeking our valet services.
 
Intellectual Property
 
Our primary source of revenue is generated by our service offerings through our proprietary mobile App, available for download on the Apple iTunes App Store and the Google Play Store. We developed our App using a dedicated third-party code development team. We own the software code associated with our mobile App. The DropCar App centralizes and automates the management of our reservations, vehicle locations, customer service and payment to optimize customer experience, minimize costs and leverage efficiencies.
 
Our reservation system is built on a mix of open source web applications and in-house technology developed by our technology team to enable existing users to reserve our services using mobile applications on the iPhone or Android platforms. Through our reservation system, customers have around-the-clock access to the complete, real-time availability of our services and can manage all necessary transactions electronically.
 
We use third party software for our credit card payment processing which has been integrated directly into our application platform. This third-party payment processing software allows us to provide for accurate billing and timely payment and gives us the flexibility to scale the business.
 
 
6
 
 
We designed and built our technology with the goal of providing the most convenient, efficient and reliable service possible. Our iPhone and Android applications are examples of how we continue to seek ways to improve and simplify the customer experience. We continue to invest in improving our technology platform to meet the needs of our growing business.
 
In addition, the DropCar name and design mark are federally registered U.S. trademarks, with registrations effective until November 30, 2022 and May 1, 2023, respectively, subject to renewal.
 
Competition
 
With respect our B2C services, our competitors include traditional parking garages and service centers, emerging maintenance and repair mobile application providers and alternatives to traditional car ownership and leasing for personal mobility (i.e., e-hailing. car sharing, renting, etc.).
 
While these alternatives to traditional car ownership and leasing are competitors to our B2C business, they are target clients for our B2B business services and as such are not seen as true competitors. There are, however, separate B2B focused automotive logistics and support platforms that compete with our B2B business.
 
Traditional Parking Garages and Service Centers — Our B2C offering competes directly with on-site parking garages. Our service offering presumes that parking a car in an urban setting remains challenging and expensive. We compete with traditional valet parking facilities as well as on-site parking garages which may offer more convenient options to consumers than our services. The same competitive risks exist for local repair shops and service centers.
 
We believe, however, that consumers and businesses alike are increasingly looking for vehicle support services to help clients avoid sacrificing valuable time and convenience.
 
Historically, companies such as Luxe, which closed operations in July 2017 and subsequently sold their technology to Volvo in September 2017, and Valet Anywhere, which closed operations in July 2016, have unsuccessfully tried to build similar on-demand service models. We believe these companies failed due to multiple factors, including the use of expensive in-city garages, a parking-only focus and low valet utilization rates directed only to servicing consumers (B2C). Unlike these historical competitors, we attempt to solve for these issues by offering a self-service option priced at a positive gross margins and billed in advance of the month’s usage, and by seeking to more effectively optimize valet utilization across both B2C and B2B clients. We believe that this diversification of services and revenue streams is critical for building a more compelling and scalable vehicle support platform that is positioned to benefit from larger urban mobility trends.
 
Emerging Maintenance and Repair Mobile Apps — Our B2C offering competes directly with new mobile applications that seek to connect local repair shops and mechanics with customers for on-site car service fulfillment, including companies such as YourMechanic, Wrench, SQKY, Filld and RepairPal. Our 360 Repair Services has been de-emphasized for the consumer since the middle of 2018 and we are assessing the future direction of this offering. We continue to offer simple maintenance services.
 
Many of these competitors do not include transportation of the vehicle for servicing but bring the service to the vehicle. We believe this limits the scope of services that can be provided and also poses significant logistical challenges in busy urban environments that is likely to limit the ability to grow such operations. Moreover, our approach to consolidating such support services in parallel with our short-term and long-term parking solutions creates a simpler “one stop shop” experience which we believe is attractive to time-pressed consumers and businesses.
 
 
7
 
 
B2B Automotive Logistics and Transport — Our B2B offering competes directly with other automotive logistics and transport companies such as RedCap, MyKarma and Stratim (formerly Zirx). These companies, like us, seek to work with OEMs, dealers, car sharing programs, and other automotive companies to assist in the management of fleet transportation and servicing.
 
Many of these B2B competitors, including Stratim and RedCap, rely on third-party firms to provide independent contractors to ultimately fulfill their vehicle transportation services. Unlike these competitors, we are investing in our own employee-based workforce which not only increases the speed at which we can respond to the needs of our B2B clients, but we also believe that it is critically important for attracting the best talent and ensuring the highest levels of reliability. Moreover, our B2B clients enjoy the security of a clear vendor relationship, which avoids the uncertainties associated with independent contractor relationships. We believe our unique B2C value proposition and services supports confidence in our value as a logistics partner as well as provides additional opportunities to partner with us as a lead generation partner for new business.
 
Government Regulation
 
Other than to maintain our corporate good standing in the jurisdictions in which we operate and laws and regulations affecting employers generally, we do not believe we are currently subject to any direct material government regulations or oversight. We do not own the vehicles that are used in DropCar’s business service (other than the vehicles we own to deploy valets), nor do we currently own any of the facilities used to store or service such vehicles. Although various jurisdictions and government agencies are considering implementing legislation in response to the rise of other ride- and car-sharing enterprises, such as Uber Technologies Inc., currently no such legislation exists that we believe has jurisdiction over, or applicability to, our operations.
 
ITEM 1A – RISK FACTORS
 
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risk factors set forth in our most recent annual and quarterly filings with the SEC before purchasing our securities. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our operations. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities.
 
Risks Related to Our DropCar Business
 
We have a history of losses and may be unable to achieve or sustain profitability.
 
We have incurred net losses in each year since our inception and as of December 31, 2018, we had an accumulated deficit of $29.8 million. Such losses are continuing to date. We do not know if our business operations will become profitable or if we will continue to incur net losses in the future. Our management expects to incur significant expenses in the future in connection with the development and expansion of our business, which will make it difficult for us to achieve and maintain future profitability. We may incur significant losses in the future for a number of reasons, including the other risks described herein, and we may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other unknown events. Accordingly, there can be no certainty regarding if or when we will achieve profitability, or if such profitability will be sustained.
 
 
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Historical losses and negative cash flows from operations raise doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.
 
Historically, we have suffered losses and have not generated positive cash flows from operations. This raises substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. The audit report of EisnerAmper LLP for the year ended December 31, 2018 on our financial statements contained an explanatory paragraph expressing doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.
 
We have a limited operating history which makes it difficult to predict future growth and operating results.
 
We have a relatively short operating history which makes it difficult to reliably predict future growth and operating results. We face all the risks commonly encountered by other businesses that lack an established operating history, including, without limitation, the need for additional capital and personnel and intense competition. There is no relevant history upon which to base any assumption as to the likelihood that our business will be successful.
 
We will require substantial additional funding, which may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all.
 
We have historically used substantial funds to develop our VAL platform and will require substantial additional funds to continue to develop our VAL platform and expand into new markets. Our future capital requirements and the period for which we expect our existing resources to support our operations may vary significantly from what we expect. Our monthly spending levels vary based on new and ongoing technology developments and corporate activities. To date, we have primarily financed our operations through sales of our securities. We may intend to seek additional funding in the future through equity or debt financings, credit or loan facilities or a combination of one or more of these financing sources. Our ability to raise additional funds will depend on financial, economic and other factors, many of which are beyond our control. Additional funds may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all.
 
If we raise additional funds by issuing equity or convertible debt securities, our stockholders will suffer dilution and the terms of any financing may adversely affect the rights of our stockholders. In addition, as a condition to providing additional funds to us, future investors may demand, and may be granted, rights superior to those of existing stockholders. Debt financing, if available, may involve restrictive covenants limiting our flexibility in conducting future business activities, and, in the event of insolvency, debt holders would be repaid before holders of equity securities received any distribution of corporate assets.
 
If we are unable to obtain funding on a timely basis or on acceptable terms, or at all, we may have to delay our plans for expansion, limit strategic opportunities or undergo reductions in our workforce or other corporate restructuring activities.
 
Because our VAL platform operates in a relatively new market, we must actively seek market acceptance of our services, which we expect will occur gradually, if at all.
 
We derive, and expect to continue to derive, a substantial portion of our revenue from our VAL platform, which is part of a relatively new and evolving market. Our services are substantially different from existing valet, parking, maintenance and car storage services and many potential clients may be reluctant to utilize our services until they have been tested in more established commercial operations over a significant period. As a result, we may have difficulty achieving market acceptance for our platform. If the market for our services fails to grow or grows more slowly than we currently anticipate, our business would be negatively affected. To date, we primarily operate in the New York City, New Jersey, Washington D.C., Baltimore, Los Angeles and San Francisco metropolitan areas. We have targeted expansion into markets we believe are most likely to adopt our platform. However, our efforts to expand within and beyond our current market may not achieve the same success, or rate of adoption, that we have achieved to date.
 
 
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Future growth may place significant demands on our management and infrastructure.
 
Our business is logistically and technologically complex. This complexity has placed and may continue to place significant demands on our management and our operational and financial infrastructure, and it may be challenging to sustain in future growth periods. Many of our systems and operational practices were implemented when we were at a smaller scale of operations. In addition, as we grow, we must implement new systems and software to help run our operations and must hire additional personnel. As our operations grow in size, scope and complexity, we will need to continue to improve and upgrade our systems and infrastructure to offer an increasing number of clients enhanced services, solutions and features. We may choose to commit significant financial, operational and technical resources in advance of an expected increase in the volume of our business, with no assurance that the volume of business will increase. Growth could also strain our ability to maintain reliable service levels for existing and new clients, which could adversely affect our reputation and business in the future. For example, in the past, we have experienced, and may in the future experience, situations where the demand for our services exceeded our estimates and our employee base was, and may in the future be, insufficient to support this higher demand. Our client experience and overall reputation could be harmed if we are unable to grow our employee base to support higher demand.
 
In addition, the financial results for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, include the impact of reflecting the results of operations, financial condition and cash flows of WPCS International – Suisun City, Inc., as discontinued operations. We completed the sale on December 24, 2018, and accordingly, we reflected income from operations of discontinued component of $315,119 and loss on sale of component of $4,169,718 for a total loss on discontinued operations of $3,854,599.
 
Competition for staffing, shortages of qualified drivers and union activity may increase our labor costs and reduce profitability.
 
Our operations are conducted primarily with employee drivers. Recently, there has been intense competition for qualified drivers in the transportation industry due to a shortage of drivers. The availability of qualified drivers may be affected from time to time by changing workforce demographics, competition from other transportation companies and industries for employees, the availability and affordability of driver training schools, changing industry regulations, and the demand for drivers in the labor market. If the industry-wide shortage of qualified drivers continues, we will likely have difficulty attracting and retaining enough qualified drivers to fully satisfy customer demands. Due to the current highly-competitive labor market for drivers, we may be required to increase driver compensation and benefits in the future, or face difficulty meeting customer demands, all of which could adversely affect our profitability.
 
If our labor costs increase, we may not be able to raise rates to offset these increased costs. Union activity is another factor that may contribute to increased labor costs. We currently do not have any union employees, and any increase in labor union activity could have a significant impact on our labor costs. Our failure to recruit and retain qualified drivers, or to control our labor costs, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
 
 
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Deterioration in economic conditions in general could reduce the demand for our services and damage our business and results of operations.
 
Adverse changes in global, national and local economic conditions could negatively impact our business. Our business operations are concentrated and will likely continue to be concentrated in large urban areas, and business could be materially adversely affected to the extent that weak economic conditions result in the elimination of jobs and high unemployment in these large urban areas. If deteriorating economic conditions reduce discretionary spending, business travel or other economic activity that fuels demand for our services, our earnings could be reduced. Adverse changes in local and national economic conditions could also depress prices for our services or cause individual and/or corporate clients to cancel their agreements to purchase our services. Moreover, mandated changes in local and/or national compensation as it relates to minimum wage, overtime, and other compensation regulations may have an adverse impact on our profitability.
 
We expect to face intense competition in the market for innovative logistics, valet and car storage services, and our business will suffer if we fail to compete effectively.
 
While we believe that our platform offers a number of advantages over existing service providers, we expect that the competitive environment for our logistics, valet and storage services will become more intense as companies enter the market. In addition, there are relatively low barriers to entry into our DropCar business. Currently, our primary competitors are public transportation, logistics, traditional valet and car storage providers, car sharing services and traditional rental car companies that have recently begun offering more innovative services. Many of our competitors have greater name recognition among our target clients and greater financial, technical and/or marketing resources than we have. Our competitors have resources that may enable them to respond more quickly to new or emerging technologies and changes in client preferences. These competitors could introduce new solutions with competitive prices or undertake more aggressive marketing campaigns than us. Failure to compete effectively could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.
 
Our long-term sustainability relies on our ability to anticipate or keep pace with changes in the marketplace and the direction of technological innovation and customer demands.
 
The automotive industry, especially the vehicle support segment of the automotive industry in which we operate, is subject to intense and increasing competition and rapidly evolving technologies. We believe that the automotive industry will experience significant and continued change in the coming years. In addition to traditional competitors, we must also be responsive to the entrance of non-traditional participants in the automotive industry. These non-traditional participants, such as ride-sharing companies and autonomous vehicles, may seek to disrupt the historic business model of the industry through the introduction of new technologies, new products or services, new business models or new methods of travel. To compete successfully, we will need to demonstrate the advantages of our services over alternative solutions and services, as well as newer technologies. Failure to adapt to innovations in technology and service offerings in the automotive space could have a material adverse impact on our ability to sustain our business and remain competitive.
 
 
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Our growth depends on our ability to gain sustained access to a sufficient number of parking locations on commercially reasonable terms that offer convenient access in reaching our clients.
 
We currently operate Self-park in New York City and expect that our future growth may focus on expansion into other large cities. We must therefore compete for limited parking locations. Many cities are densely populated and parking locations may not be available at locations that provide convenient access to our clients or on terms that are commercially reasonable. If we are unable to gain sustained access to a sufficient number of parking locations that are convenient to our clients, our ability to attract and retain clients will suffer. This challenge of finding adequate parking will grow if we are able to successfully grow our subscriber base. If we are unable to gain sustained access to a sufficient number of parking locations, or we are unable to gain such access on commercially reasonable terms, this could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
If we fail to successfully execute our growth strategy, our business and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.
 
To date, we primarily operate in the New York metropolitan area. Our growth strategy includes expanding our services to new geographic locations, which may not succeed due to various factors, including one or more of the following: competition, our inability to build brand name recognition in these new markets, our inability to effectively market our services in these new markets or our inability to deliver high-quality services on a cost-effective and continuous and consistent basis. In addition, we may be unable to identify new cities with sufficient growth potential to expand our network, and we may fail to attract quality drivers and other employees and/or establish the necessary commercial relationships with local vendors that are required in order to deliver our services in these areas. If we fail to successfully execute our growth strategy, we may be unable to maintain and grow our business operation, and our business and prospects may be materially and adversely affected.
 
We may experience difficulties demonstrating the value to customers of newer, higher priced and higher margin services if they believe existing services are adequate to meet end customer expectations.
 
As we develop and introduce new services, we face the risk that customers may not value or be willing to purchase these higher priced and higher margin services due to pricing constraints. Owing to the extensive time and resources that we invest in developing new services, if we are unable to sell customers new services, our revenue could decline and our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flows could be negatively affected.
 
If efforts to build and maintain strong brand identity are not successful, we may not be able to attract or retain clients, and our business and operating results may be adversely affected.
 
We believe that building and maintaining our brand is critical to the success of our business. Consumer client and automotive awareness of the brand and its perceived value will depend largely on the success of marketing efforts and the ability to provide a consistent, high-quality client and business experience. Conversely, any failure to maximize marketing opportunities or to provide clients with high-quality valet, logistics, maintenance and storage experiences for any reason could substantially harm our reputation and adversely affect our efforts to develop as a trusted brand. To promote our brand, we have made, and will continue to make, substantial investments relating to advertising, marketing and other efforts, but cannot be sure that such investment will be successful.
 
 
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Furthermore, as the primary point of contact with clients, we rely on our drivers to provide clients and business partners with a high-quality client experience. The failure of our drivers to provide clients and business partners with this trusted experience could cause customers and business partners to turn to alternative providers, including our competitors. Any incident that erodes consumer affinity for our brand, including a negative experience with one of our valets or damage to a customer’s car could result in negative publicity, negative online reviews and damage our business.
 
We rely on third-party service providers to provide parking garages for our clients’ cars. If these service providers experience operational difficulties or disruptions, our business could be adversely affected.
 
We depend on third-party service providers to provide parking garages for our clients’ cars. In particular, we rely on local parking garage vendors to provide adequate convenient parking locations. We do not control the operation of these providers. If these third-party service providers terminate their relationship with us, decide to sell their facilities or do not provide convenient access to our clients’ vehicles, it would be disruptive to our business as we are dependent on suitable parking locations within relative proximity of our clients’ residences and business locations. This disruption could harm our reputation and brand and may cause us to lose clients.
 
If we are unsuccessful in establishing or maintaining our business-to-business (B2B) model, our revenue growth could be adversely affected.
 
We currently depend on corporate clients and the B2B market for a significant portion of our revenue. The success of this strategy will depend on our ability to maintain existing B2B partners, obtain new B2B partners, and generate a community of participating corporate clients sufficiently large to support such a model. We may not be successful in establishing such partnerships on terms that are commercially favorable, if at all, and may encounter financial and logistical difficulties associated with sustaining such partnerships. If we are unsuccessful in establishing or maintaining our B2B model, our revenue growth could be adversely affected.
 
We face risks related to liabilities resulting from the use of client vehicles by our employees.
 
Our business can expose us to claims for property damage, personal injury and death resulting from the operation and storage of client cars by our drivers. While operating client cars, drivers could become involved in motor vehicle accidents due to mechanical or manufacturing defects, or user error by the DropCar-employed driver or by a third-party driver that results in death or significant property damage for which we may be liable.
 
In addition, we depend on our drivers to inspect the vehicles prior to driving in order to identify any potential damage or safety concern with the vehicle. To the extent that we are found at fault or otherwise responsible for an accident, our insurance coverage would only cover losses up to a maximum of $5 million, in certain instances, in the United States.
 
We may experience difficulty obtaining coverage for certain insurable risks or obtaining such coverage at a reasonable cost.
 
We maintain insurance for workers’ compensation, general liability, automobile liability, property damage and other insurable risks. We are responsible for claims exceeding our retained limits under our insurance policies, and while we endeavor to purchase insurance coverage corresponding to our assessment of risk, we cannot predict with certainty the frequency, nature or magnitude of claims or direct or consequential damages, and may become exposed to liability at levels in excess of our historical levels resulting from unusually high losses or otherwise. Additionally, consolidation of entities in the insurance industry could impact our ability to obtain or renew policies at competitive rates, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, as would the incurrence of uninsured claims or the inability or refusal of our insurance carriers to pay otherwise insured claims. Any material changes in our insurance costs due to changes in frequency of claims, the severity of claims, the costs of premiums or for any other reason could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
 
 
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Our success depends on the continued reliability of the internet infrastructure.
 
Our services are designed primarily to work over the internet, and the success of our platform is largely dependent on the development and maintenance of the internet infrastructure, along with our clients’ access to low-cost, high-speed internet. The future delivery of our services will depend on third-party internet service providers to expand high-speed internet access, to maintain a reliable network with the necessary speed, data capacity and security, and to develop complementary products and services for providing reliable and timely internet access. Any outages or delays resulting from damage to the internet infrastructure, including problems caused by viruses, malware and similar programs, could reduce clients’ access to the internet and our services and could adversely impact our business.
 
System interruptions that impair access to our website or mobile application could substantially harm our business and operating results.
 
The satisfactory performance, reliability and availability of our website and mobile application, which enable clients to access our services, are critical to our business. Any systems interruption that prevents clients and visitors from accessing our website and mobile App could result in negative publicity, damage to our reputation and brand and could cause our business and operating results to suffer. We may experience system interruptions for a variety of reasons, including network failures, power outages, cyber-attacks, problems caused by viruses and similar programs, software errors or an overwhelming number of clients or visitors trying to reach our website during periods of strong demand. Because we are dependent in part on third parties for the implementation and maintenance of certain aspects of our systems and because some of the causes of system interruptions may be outside of our control, we may not be able to remedy such interruptions in a timely manner, or at all. Any significant disruption to our website, mobile application or internal computer systems could result in a loss of clients and adversely affect our business and results of operations.
 
If we are unable to protect confidential client information, our reputation may be harmed and we may be exposed to liability and a loss of clients.
 
Our system stores, processes and transmits confidential client information, including location information and other sensitive data. We rely on encryption, authentication and other technologies to keep this information secure. We may not have adequately assessed the internal and external risks posed to the security of our systems and may not have implemented adequate preventative safeguards. In the event that the security of our system is compromised in the future, we may not take adequate reactionary measures. Any compromise of information security could expose our confidential client information, damaging our reputation and exposing us to costly litigation and liability that could harm our business and operating results.
 
Security breaches, loss of data and other disruptions could compromise sensitive information related to our business, prevent us from accessing critical information or expose us to liability, which could adversely affect our business and our reputation.
 
We utilize information technology systems and networks to process, transmit and store electronic information in connection with our business activities. As the use of digital technologies has increased, cyber incidents, including deliberate attacks and attempts to gain unauthorized access to computer systems and networks, have increased in frequency and sophistication. These threats pose a risk to the security of our systems and networks and the confidentiality, availability and integrity of our data, all of which are vital to our operations and business strategy. There can be no assurance that we will be successful in preventing cyber-attacks or successfully mitigating their effects.
 
 
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Despite the implementation of security measures, our internal computer systems and those of our contract research organizations and other contractors and consultants are vulnerable to damage or disruption from hacking, computer viruses, software bugs, unauthorized access or disclosure, natural disasters, terrorism, war, and telecommunication, equipment and electrical failures. In addition, there can be no assurance that we will promptly detect any such disruption or security breach, if at all.  Unauthorized access, loss or dissemination could disrupt our operations, including our ability to conduct research and development activities, process and prepare company financial information, and manage various general and administrative aspects of our business. To the extent that any such disruption or security breach results in a loss of or damage to our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure or theft of confidential, proprietary or personal information, we could incur liability, suffer reputational damage or poor financial performance or become the subject of regulatory actions by state, federal or non-US authorities, any of which could adversely affect our business.
 
We may not be able to adequately protect our intellectual property rights or may be accused of infringing the intellectual property rights of third parties.
 
Our business depends substantially on our intellectual property rights, the protection of which is crucial to our business success. To protect our proprietary rights, we rely or may in the future rely on a combination of trademark law and trade secret protection, copyright law and patent law. We also utilize contractual agreements, including, in certain circumstances, confidentiality agreements between the company and our employees, independent contractors and other advisors. These afford only limited protection, and unauthorized parties may attempt to copy aspects of our website and mobile application features, software and functionality, or to obtain and use information that we consider proprietary or confidential, such as the technology used to operate our website, its content and company trademarks. We may also encounter difficulties in connection with the acquisition and maintenance of domain names, and regulations governing domain names may not protect our trademarks and similar proprietary rights.
 
In addition, we may become subject to third-party claims that we infringe the proprietary rights of others. Such claims, regardless of their merits, may result in the expenditure of significant financial and managerial resources, injunctions against us or the payment of damages. We may need to obtain licenses from third parties who allege that we have infringed their rights, but such licenses may not be available on terms acceptable to us or at all.
 
Future legislation or regulations may adversely affect our business and results of operations.
 
Although various jurisdictions and government agencies are considering implementing legislation in response to the rise of other ride- and car-sharing enterprises, such as Uber Technologies Inc., currently no such legislation exists that we believe has jurisdiction over, or applicability to, our operations. We do not believe we are subject to any material government regulations or oversight, but regulations impacting parking and traffic patterns in the areas of our operations could impact the services we provide. We are also subject to various U.S. federal, state and local laws and regulations, including those related to environmental, health and safety, financial, tax, customs and other matters. We cannot predict the substance or impact of pending or future legislation or regulations, or the application thereof. The introduction of new laws or regulations or changes in existing laws or regulations, or the interpretations thereof, could increase the costs of doing business for us or our clients or otherwise restrict our actions and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
 
 
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Seasonality may cause fluctuations in our financial results.
 
We generally experience some effects of seasonality due to increases in travel during the summer months and holidays such as Thanksgiving and Christmas. Accordingly, the use of our services and associated revenue have generally increased at a higher rate during such periods. Our revenue also fluctuates due to inclement weather conditions, such as snow or rain storms. This seasonality may cause fluctuations in our financial results.
 
We depend on key personnel to operate our business, and the loss of one or more members of our management team, or our failure to attract, integrate and retain other highly qualified personnel in the future, could harm our business.
 
We believe our future success will depend in large part upon our ability to attract and retain highly skilled managerial, technical, finance and sales and marketing personnel. We currently depend on the continued services and performance of the key members of our management team, including Spencer Richardson, our Co-Founder and Chief Executive Officer, and David Newman, our Co-Founder and Chief Business Development Officer. The loss of any key personnel could disrupt our operations and have an adverse effect on our ability to grow the business.
 
Prior to the second quarter in 2018 we have relied on outside consultants and other service providers for the majority of our accounting and financial support. During 2018, we hired new members to our management team. In February of 2019, we terminated our Chief Financial Officer and on the same day engaged a consultant to serve as our Chief Financial Officer going forward. We compete in the market for personnel against numerous companies, including larger, more established competitors who have significantly greater financial resources and may be in a better financial position to offer higher compensation packages to attract and retain human capital. We cannot be certain that we will be successful in attracting and retaining the skilled personnel necessary to operate our business effectively in the future.
 
We may become engaged in legal proceedings that could result in unforeseen expenses and could occupy a significant amount of management’s time and attention.
 
From time to time, we may become subject to litigation, claims or other proceedings that could negatively affect our business operations and financial position. Litigation disputes could cause us to incur unforeseen expenses, could occupy a significant amount of management’s time and attention and could negatively affect our business operations and financial position. See “Business — Legal Proceedings.”
 
Our business is subject to interruptions, delays and failures resulting from natural or man-made disasters.
 
Our services, systems and operations are vulnerable to damage or interruption from earthquakes, volcanoes, fires, floods, power losses, telecommunications failures, terrorist attacks, acts of war, human errors, break-ins and similar events. A significant natural disaster could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results and financial condition. We may not have sufficient protection or recovery plans in certain circumstances and our insurance coverage may be insufficient to compensate for losses that may occur. As we rely heavily on our servers, computer and communications systems and the internet to conduct our business and provide a high-quality client experience, such disruptions could negatively impact our ability to run the business, which could have an adverse effect on our operating results.
 
 
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We have incurred significant increased costs as a result of operating as a public company, and our management is required to devote substantial time to public company compliance requirements.
 
As a public company, we face increased legal, accounting, administrative and other costs and expenses that we did not incur as a private company. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, including the requirements of Section 404, and rules and regulations subsequently implemented by the SEC, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, and The Nasdaq Capital Market require public companies to meet certain corporate governance standards. A number of those requirements require our management to carry out activities it has not done previously. For example, we have adopted new internal controls and disclosure controls and procedures. Our management and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time to these requirements. Moreover, these rules and regulations have increased our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costlier. These increased costs will require us to divert a significant amount of money that we could otherwise use to expand our business and achieve our strategic objectives.
 
Failure to establish and maintain effective internal controls in accordance with Sections 302 and 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could have an adverse effect on our business and stock price.
 
We are required to comply with the SEC’s rules implementing Sections 302 and 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which require management to certify financial and other information in our quarterly and annual reports and provide an annual management report on the effectiveness of controls over financial reporting. We are required to disclose changes made in our internal controls and procedures on a quarterly basis. We are required to make our annual assessment of our internal controls over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 as of December 31, 2018.
 
To comply with the requirements of Sections 302 and 404, we have undertaken or may in the future undertake various actions, such as implementing new internal controls and procedures and hiring additional accounting or internal audit staff. Testing and maintaining internal controls can divert our management’s attention from other matters that are important to the operation of our business. In addition, when evaluating our internal controls over financial reporting, we may identify material weaknesses that we may not be able to remediate in time to meet the applicable deadline imposed upon us for compliance with the requirements of Sections 302 and 404. If we identify material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting or are unable to comply with the requirements of Sections 302 and 404 in a timely manner or assert that our internal controls over financial reporting are effective, or if it becomes necessary for our independent registered public accounting firm to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting and is unable to do so, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our common stock could be negatively affected. In addition, we could become subject to investigations by The Nasdaq Capital Market, SEC or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.
 
A material weakness in our internal controls could have a material adverse effect on us.
 
Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reasonable assurance with respect to our financial reports and to adequately mitigate risk of fraud. If we cannot provide reasonable assurance with respect to our financial reports and adequately mitigate risk of fraud, our reputation and operating results could be harmed. Internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements because of its inherent limitations, including the possibility of human error, the circumvention or overriding of controls, or fraud. Therefore, even effective internal controls can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements. In addition, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting to future periods are subject to the risk that the control may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
 
 
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A material weakness is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. A material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting could adversely impact our ability to provide timely and accurate financial information. If we are unable to report financial information timely and accurately or to maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures, we could be subject to, among other things, regulatory or enforcement actions by the SEC, any one of which could adversely affect our business prospects.
 
Our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures are not effective due to the material weaknesses resulting from a limited segregation of duties among our employees with respect to our control activities and this deficiency is the result of our limited number of employees. We also identified material weaknesses surrounding the financial closing process and the recording of debt and equity transactions that occurred in the quarters ended March 31, 2018, June 30, 2018, and September 30, 2018. These deficiencies may affect management’s ability to determine if errors or inappropriate actions have taken place.
 
Our ability to use net operating loss carryforwards may be limited.
 
At December 31, 2018, we had approximately $3.3 million of operating loss carryforwards for federal and $1.1 million New York state tax purposes that may be applied against future taxable income. The net operating loss carryforwards will begin to expire in the year 2035 if not utilized prior to that date. To the extent available, we intend to use these net operating loss carryforwards to reduce the corporate income tax liability associated with our operations. The ability to utilize this net operating loss carryforwards may be limited under Section 382 of the Code, which apply if an ownership change occurs. To the extent our use of net operating loss carryforwards is significantly limited, our income could be subject to corporate income tax earlier than it would if we were able to use net operating loss carryforwards, which could have a negative effect on our financial results.
 
The recently passed comprehensive federal tax reform bill could adversely affect our business and financial condition.
 
On December 22, 2017, President Trump signed into law the “Tax Cuts and Jobs Act,” or TCJA, which significantly reforms the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code. The TCJA, among other things, includes changes to U.S. federal tax rates, imposes significant additional limitations on the deductibility of interest and net operating loss carryforwards, allows for the expensing of capital expenditures, and puts into effect the migration from a “worldwide” system of taxation to a territorial system. Our net deferred tax assets and liabilities were revalued at the newly enacted U.S. corporate rate, and the estimated impact was recognized in our tax expense in 2017. We continue to examine the impact this tax reform legislation may have on our business. However, the effect of the TCJA on our business, whether adverse or favorable, is uncertain, and may not become evident for some period of time. We urge investors to consult with their legal and tax advisers regarding the implications of the TCJA on an investment in our common stock.
 
 
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Our principal stockholders and management own a significant percentage of our common stock and are able to exert significant control over matters subject to stockholder approval.
 
Based on the beneficial ownership of our common stock as of March 1, 2019, our officers and directors, together with holders of 5% or more of our common stock outstanding and their respective affiliates, beneficially own approximately 61.90% of our common stock. Accordingly, these stockholders have significant influence over the outcome of corporate actions requiring stockholder approval, including the election of directors, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets or any other significant corporate transaction. The interests of these stockholders may not be the same as or may even conflict with your interests. For example, these stockholders could delay or prevent a change of control of the company, even if such a change of control would benefit the other stockholders, which could deprive such other stockholders of an opportunity to receive a premium for their common stock as part of a sale of the company or its assets and might affect the prevailing market price of our common stock. The significant concentration of stock ownership may adversely affect the trading price of our common stock due to investors’ perception that conflicts of interest may exist or arise.
 
The price of our common stock may be volatile and fluctuate substantially, and you may not be able to resell your shares at or above the price you paid for them.
 
The trading price of our common stock is highly volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control, such as reports by industry analysts, investor perceptions or negative announcements by other companies involving similar technologies. The stock market in general and the market for smaller companies, like DropCar in particular, have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. As a result of this volatility, our stockholders may not be able to sell their common stock at or above the price they paid for it. The following factors, in addition to other factors described in this “Risk Factors” section of our most recent filings with the SEC, may have a significant impact on the market price of our common stock:
 
issuances of new equity securities pursuant to a future offering, including issuances of preferred stock;
the success of competitive products, services or technologies;
regulatory or legal developments in the United States and other countries;
adverse actions taken by regulatory agencies with respect to our services we provide;
developments or disputes concerning patent applications, issued patents or other proprietary rights;
the recruitment or departure of key personnel;
actual or anticipated changes in estimates as to financial results, development timelines or recommendations by securities analysts;
variations in our financial results or those of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;
variations in the costs of the services we provide;
market conditions in the market segments in which we operate;
variations in quarterly and annual operating results;
announcements of new products and/or services by us or its competitors;
the gain or loss of significant customers;
changes in analysts’ earnings estimates;
short selling of shares of our common stock;
litigation;
changing the exchange or quotation system on which shares of our common stock are listed;
trading volume of our common stock;
sales of our common stock by us, our executive officers and directors or our stockholders in the future;
changes in accounting principles; and
general economic and market conditions and overall fluctuations in the U.S. equity markets.
 
 
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In addition, broad market and industry factors may negatively affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance, and factors beyond our control may cause our stock price to decline rapidly and unexpectedly.
 
We may be subject to securities litigation, which is expensive and could divert management attention.
 
Companies that have experienced volatility in the market price of their stock have frequently been the objects of securities class action litigation. We may be the target of this type of litigation in the future. Class action and derivative lawsuits could result in substantial costs to us and cause a diversion of our management’s attention and resources, which could materially harm our financial condition and results of operations.
 
Provisions in our Charter and Bylaws and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of us, which may be beneficial to our stockholders, more difficult and may prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management. 
 
Provisions in our certificate of incorporation, as amended, or Charter, and amended and restated bylaws, or Bylaws, may discourage, delay or prevent a merger, acquisition or other change in control of us that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which you might otherwise receive a premium for your shares. These provisions could also limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares of our common stock, thereby depressing the market price of our common stock. In addition, because our board of directors is responsible for appointing the members of our management team, these provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult for stockholders to replace members of our board of directors. Among other things, these provisions state that:
 
the authorized number of directors can be changed only by resolution of our board of directors;
our Bylaws may be amended or repealed by our board of directors or by our stockholders;
stockholders may not call special meetings of the stockholders or fill vacancies on our board of directors;
our board of directors is authorized to issue, without stockholder approval, preferred stock, the rights of which will be determined at the discretion of the board of directors and that, if issued, could operate as a “poison pill” to dilute the stock ownership of a potential hostile acquirer to prevent an acquisition that our board of directors does not approve;
our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights, and therefore stockholders holding a majority of the shares of our common stock outstanding are able to elect all of its directors; and
our stockholders must comply with advance notice provisions to bring business before or nominate directors for election at a stockholder meeting.
 
Moreover, because we are incorporated in Delaware, we are governed by the provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL, which prohibits a person who owns in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock from merging or combining with us for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person acquired in excess of 15% of our outstanding voting stock, unless the merger or combination is approved in a prescribed manner.
 
 
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Our failure to meet the continued listing requirements of The Nasdaq Capital Market could result in a delisting of our common stock.
 
The continued listing standards of Nasdaq provide, among other things, that a company may be delisted if the bid price of its stock drops below $1.00 for a period of 30 consecutive business days or if stockholders’ equity is less than $2.5 million. On September 25, 2018, we received a notification letter from The Nasdaq Stock Market informing us that for the last 30 consecutive business days, the bid price of our securities had closed below $1.00 per share, which is the minimum required closing bid price for continued listing on The Nasdaq Capital Market pursuant to Listing Rule 5550(a)(2). In order to regain compliance, on March 8, 2019, we filed a certificate of amendment to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware to effect a one-for-six reverse stock split of our outstanding shares of common stock. On March 26, 2019, we received a notification letter from The Nasdaq Stock Market informing us that we had regained compliance with Listing Rule 5550(a)(2).
 
While we have exercised diligent efforts to maintain the listing of our common stock on Nasdaq, there can be no assurance that we will be able to continue to meet the continuing listing requirements of The Nasdaq Capital Market. If we are unable to meet the continuing listing requirements, Nasdaq may take steps to delist our common stock. Such a delisting would likely have a negative effect on the price of our common stock and would impair your ability to sell or purchase our common stock when you wish to do so. Further, if we were to be delisted from The Nasdaq Capital Market, our common stock would cease to be recognized as covered securities and we would be subject to regulation in each state in which we offer our securities.
 
Delisting from Nasdaq could adversely affect our ability to raise additional financing through the public or private sale of equity securities, would significantly affect the ability of investors to trade our securities and would negatively affect the value and liquidity of our common stock. Delisting could also have other negative results, including the potential loss of confidence by employees, the loss of institutional investor interest and fewer business development opportunities.
 
If our common stock becomes subject to the penny stock rules, it may be more difficult to sell those shares.
 
The SEC has adopted rules that regulate broker-dealer practices in connection with transactions in penny stocks. Penny stocks are generally equity securities with a price of less than $5.00 (other than securities registered on certain national securities exchanges or authorized for quotation on certain automated quotation systems, provided that current price and volume information with respect to transactions in such securities is provided by the exchange or system). The inter-dealer quotation system maintained by OTC Markets, Inc., including OTCQX, OTCQB and OTC Pink, do not meet such requirements and if the price of our common stock remains less than $5.00 and we are no longer listed on a national securities exchange, our common stock may be deemed a penny stock. The penny stock rules require a broker-dealer, prior to a transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from those rules, to deliver a standardized risk disclosure document containing specified information. In addition, the penny stock rules require that prior to effecting any transaction in a penny stock not otherwise exempt from those rules, a broker-dealer must make a special written determination that the penny stock is a suitable investment for the purchaser and receive: (i) the purchaser’s written acknowledgment of the receipt of a risk disclosure statement; (ii) a written agreement to transactions involving penny stocks; and (iii) a signed and dated copy of a written suitability statement. These disclosure requirements may have the effect of reducing the trading activity in the secondary market for our common stock, and therefore stockholders may have difficulty selling their shares.
 
 
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An active trading market for our common stock may not develop.
 
The listing of our common stock on The Nasdaq Capital Market does not assure that a meaningful, consistent and liquid trading market exists. Although our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market, trading volume in our common stock has been limited and an active trading market for shares of our common stock may never develop or be sustained. If an active market for our common stock does not develop, it may be difficult for investors to sell their shares without depressing the market price for the shares or at all.
 
We have a substantial number of shares of authorized but unissued capital stock, and if we issue additional shares of capital stock in the future, existing shareholders will be diluted.
 
Our Charter authorizes the issuance of up to 100,000,000 shares of common stock and up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock with the rights, preferences and privileges determined by our board of directors from time to time. Based on our capitalization as of March 27, 2019, (i) 3,400,258 shares of our common stock and 7,225 shares of our convertible preferred stock are issued and outstanding and (ii) 79,557 shares of our common stock are reserved for future issuance.
 
Thus, approximately 97 million shares of our common stock and 5 million shares of our preferred stock are available for future issuance. Shares of our capital stock could be used for a variety of purposes including raising capital to fund growth or operations, for acquisitions, for strategic alliances, to attract and retain key employees, for anti-takeover purposes or to delay or prevent changes in control to our management or other transactions and corporate purposes that our board of directors deems appropriate. In most cases, our board of directors may have the authority to authorize issuances of our capital stock without getting advance approval from our stockholders. Any future issuances of shares of our capital stock may not be made on favorable terms, may not enhance stockholder value, may have rights, preferences and privileges that are superior to those of our common stock and may have an adverse impact on our business or the trading price of the shares of our common stock. Additionally, any such issuances will reduce the proportionate ownership and voting power of existing stockholders.
 
Future sales of our common stock, or the perception that future sales may occur, may cause the market price of our common stock to decline, even if our business is doing well.
 
Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that these sales may occur, could materially and adversely affect the price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. We maintain several registration statements on Form S-3 with the SEC pursuant to which the holders of our Series H-1, Series H-2, Series H-3 and Series H-4 convertible preferred stock and the warrants issued in connection with those securities may resell the shares of our common stock into which the preferred stock is convertible and which is issuable upon the exercise of those warrants.
 
Because we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future, capital appreciation, if any, will be your sole source of gain.
 
We do not anticipate paying future dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all of our future earnings, as applicable, to finance the growth and development of our business. In addition, the terms of any future debt agreements may preclude us from paying dividends. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be the sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.
 
 
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ITEM 1B – UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
 
None.
 
ITEM 2 – PROPERTIES
 
Our principal executive office is located at 1412 Broadway, Floor 21, New York City, New York 10018. We operate under a month to month lease requiring 60 days’ notice. We believe our current facility is suitable and adequate to meet our business requirements. We intend to continue working from this or a nearby facility in the same geographic location.
 
ITEM 3 – LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
 
We are subject to various legal proceedings and claims, either asserted or unasserted, which arise in the ordinary course of business that it believes are incidental to the operation of its business. While the outcome of these claims cannot be predicted with certainty, other than as set forth below, management does not believe that the outcome of any of these legal matters will have a material adverse effect on its results of operations, financial positions or cash flows.
 
In February 2018,  DropCar was served an Amended Summons and Complaint in the Supreme Court of the City of New York, Bronx county originally served solely on an individual, a former DropCar customer, for injuries sustained by plaintiffs alleging such injuries were caused by either the customer, a DropCar valet operating the customer’s vehicle or an unknown driver operating customer’s vehicle. DropCar to date has cooperated with the NYC Police Department and no charges have been brought against any employee of DropCar. DropCar has referred the matter to its insurance carrier.
 
On February 9, 2016, a DropCar employee was transporting a customer’s vehicle when the vehicle caught fire. On November 22, 2016, an insurance company (as subrogee of the vehicle’s owner) filed for indemnification and subrogation against the Company in the Supreme Court of the State of New York County of New York. Management believes that it is not responsible for the damage caused by the vehicle fire and that the fire was not due to any negligence on the part of the DropCar. In 2018, the parties reached a settlement the case was closed.
 
As of December 31, 2018, we had accrued approximately $232,000 for the settlement of multiple employment disputes. As of December 31, 2018, approximately $70,000 of this amount was for settled matters. From January 1, 2019 through March 15, 2019, we agreed to other matters for an additional $207,000.
 
ITEM 4 – MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
 
Not applicable.
 
 
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PART II
 
ITEM 5 – MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
 
Price Range of Common Stock
 
Our common stock is currently traded on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “DCAR”.
 
As of March 29, 2019 we had 32 holders of record of our common stock. As of March 29, 2019 the closing bid price of our common stock was $2.96 per share.
 
Dividend Policy
 
We have never paid a cash dividend on our common stock and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. We intend to retain future earnings to fund ongoing operations and future capital requirements of our business. Any future determination to pay cash dividends will be at the discretion of the Board, in compliance with Delaware corporate law and will be dependent upon our financial conditions, results of operations, capital requirements and such other factors as the Board deems relevant. Our preferred stock has the right to participate in any declared dividend on common shares to the same extent as if such preferred holders had converted each preferred share to common stock.
 
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
 
On December 24, 2018 Regal Consulting, LLC entered into an agreement to provide investor relation services for two months for $20,000 in cash and 33,333 shares of common stock issuable at the conclusion of the agreement.
 
On January 10, 2019 Lyons Capital LLC entered into an agreement to provide investor relation services for 75,000 shares of common stock for up to six months of services.
 
On January 28, 2019 Bear Creek Capital, LLC entered into an agreement to provide investor relation services for 8,333 shares of common stock for up to six months of services.
 
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
None.
 
 
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ITEM 6 - SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
 
We are a smaller reporting company as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act, and are not required to provide the information required under this item.
 
ITEM 7 – MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
 
The following management’s discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our historical financial statements and the related notes thereto. This management’s discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements, such as statements of our plans, objectives, expectations and intentions. Any statements that are not statements of historical fact are forward-looking statements. When used, the words “believe,” “plan,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “target,” “estimate,” “expect” and the like, and/or future tense or conditional constructions (“will,” “may,” “could,” “should,” etc.), or similar expressions, identify certain of these forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, including those under “Risk Factors” in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission that could cause actual results or events to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Our actual results and the timing of events could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of several factors.
 
Overview
 
Strategy
 
Prior to January 30, 2018, DropCar was a privately-held provider of automotive vehicle support, fleet logistics and concierge services for both consumers and the automotive industry. In 2015, we launched our cloud-based Enterprise Vehicle Assistance and Logistics (“VAL”) platform and mobile application (“App”) to assist consumers and automotive-related companies reduce the costs, hassles and inefficiencies of owning a car, or fleet of cars, in urban centers. Our VAL platform is a web-based interface to our core service that coordinates the movements and schedules of trained valets who pickup and drop off cars at dealerships and customer locations. The App tracks progress and provides email and/or text notifications on status to customers, increasing the quality of communication and subsequent satisfaction with the service. To date, we operate primarily in the New York metropolitan area and may expand our territory in the future.
 
We achieve this balance of increased consumer flexibility and lower consumer cost by aggregating demand for parking and other automotive services and redistributing their fulfillment to partners in the city and on city outskirt areas that have not traditionally had access to lucrative city business. Beyond the immediate unit economic benefits of securing bulk discounts from vendor partners, we believe there is significant opportunity to further provide additional products and services to clients across the vehicle lifecycle.
 
 On the enterprise side, original equipment manufacturers (“OEMs”), dealers, and other service providers in the automotive space are increasingly being challenged with consumers who have limited time to bring in their vehicles for maintenance and service, making it difficult to retain valuable post-sale service contracts or scheduled consumer maintenance and service appointments. Additionally, many of the vehicle support centers for automotive providers (i.e., dealerships, including body work and diagnostic shops) have moved out of urban areas thus making it more challenging for OEMs and dealers in urban areas to provide convenient and efficient service for their consumer and business clientele. Similarly, shared mobility providers and other fleet managers, such as rental car companies, face a similar urban mobility challenge: getting cars to and from service bays, rebalancing vehicle availability to meet demand and getting vehicles from dealer lots to fleet locations.
 
 
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We are able to offer our enterprise services at a fraction of the cost of alternatives, including other third parties or expensive in-house resources, given our pricing model that reduces and/or eliminates any downtime expense while also giving clients access to a network of trained valets on demand that can be scaled up or down based on the real time needs of the enterprise client. We support this model by maximizing the utilization of our employee-valet workforce across a curated pipeline for both the consumer and business network.
 
While our business-to-business (“B2B”) and business-to-consumer (“B2C”) services generate revenue and help meet the unmet demand for vehicle support services, we are also building-out a platform and customer base that positions us well for developments in the automotive space where vehicle ownership becomes more car-shared or access based with transportation services and concierge options well-suited to match a customer’s immediate needs. For example, certain car manufacturers are testing new services in which customers pay the manufacturer a flat fee per month to drive a number of different models for any length of time. We believe that our unique blend of B2B and B2C services make us well suited to introduce, and provide the services necessary to execute, this next generation of automotive subscription services.
 
Our Ability to Continue as a Going Concern
 
Our financial statements as of December 31, 2018 were prepared under the assumption that we will continue as a going concern. The independent registered public accounting firm that audited our 2018 financial statements, in their report, included an explanatory paragraph referring to our recurring losses since inception and expressing substantial doubt in our ability to continue as a going concern. Our financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty. Our ability to continue as a going concern depends on our ability to obtain additional equity or debt financing, attain further operating efficiencies, reduce expenditures, and, ultimately, to generate additional revenue. We cannot assure you, however, that we will be able to achieve any of the foregoing.
 
Merger with WPCS
 
On January 30, 2018, we completed our business combination with DropCar, Inc. (“Private DropCar”) in accordance with the terms of the Agreement and Plan of Merger and Reorganization, dated as of September 6, 2017, as subsequently amended, by and among us, DC Acquisition Corporation (“Merger Sub”), and Private DropCar (as amended, the “Merger Agreement”), pursuant to which Merger Sub merged with and into Private DropCar, with Private DropCar surviving as our wholly owned subsidiary (the “Merger”). On January 30, 2018, in connection with, and prior to the completion of, the Merger, we effected a 1:4 reverse stock split of our common stock (the “Reverse Stock Split”), and on January 30, 2018, immediately after completion of the Merger, we changed our name to “DropCar, Inc.”
 
Under the terms of the Merger Agreement, we issued shares of our common stock to Private DropCar’s stockholders, at an exchange ratio of 0.3273 shares of our common stock, after taking into account the Reverse Stock Split, for each share of (i) Private DropCar common stock and preferred stock and (ii) Private DropCar warrants, in each case, outstanding immediately prior to the Merger. The exchange ratio was determined through arms’-length negotiations between us and Private DropCar.
 
In connection with the Merger, Private DropCar was deemed to be the accounting acquirer because the stockholders of Private DropCar effectively control the combined company following the Merger. The Merger was treated as a reverse acquisition.
 
 
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Consumer Services Product Offering Change
 
In July 2018, we began assessing demand for a Self-Park Spaces monthly parking plan whereby consumers could designate specific garages for their vehicles to be stored at a base monthly rate, with personal 24/7 access for picking up and returning their vehicle directly, and the option at certain times of the day to pay a la carte on a per hour basis for a driver to perform functions such as picking up and returning their vehicle to their front door. This model aligns more directly with how we have structured the enterprise B2B side of our business, where an interaction with a vehicle on behalf of its drivers typically generates net new revenue. Our consumer Self-Park Spaces plan combined with our on-demand hourly valet service are the only consumer plans offered from September 1, 2018 onwards. Subscriber plans prior to this date continued to receive service on a prorated basis through the end of August 2018. Additionally, we are scaling back our 360 Services for the Consumer portion of the market. As a result of this shift, in August 2018, we began to significantly streamline its field teams, operations and back office support tied to our pre-September 1, 2018 consumer subscription plans.
 
Divestiture of Suisun City Operations, a wholly owned subsidiary of Dropcar, Inc.
 
On December 24, 2018, we completed the sale of 100% of the corporate capital of WPCS International - Suisun City, Inc. (the “Suisun City Operations”), our wholly owned subsidiary. In accordance with accounting guidance, a business segment that is disposed of meets the criteria to be classified as a discontinued operation. As all of the required criteria for the discontinued operation classification were met, the revenue and expenses for this operation were included in the income from operations of discontinued component, on the Consolidated Statement of Operations. All discontinued operations relate to the disposition of Suisun City Operations. The net sales of this business in 2018 prior to the divestiture were approximately $13.7 million. The sale price was $3.5 million paid in cash and resulted in a loss on the sale in the amount of $4.2 million. This loss is presented as part of discontinued operations, separate from continuing operations, on the Consolidated Statement of Operations, resulting in an increase in loss per share of approximately $2.85 for the year ended December 31, 2018.
 
Recent Developments
 
Intention to Explore Strategic Opportunities
 
On March 8, 2019, we announced we had initiated a process to evaluate strategic opportunities to maximize shareholder value. While management continues to focus on the Company’s business activities and operations, this process will consider a range of potential strategic opportunities including, but not limited to, business combinations.
 
Sale of Suisun City Operations
 
On December 24, 2018, we completed the previously announced sale of WPCS International – Suisun City, Inc., a California corporation (the “Suisun City Operations”), our wholly-owned subsidiary, pursuant to the terms of a stock purchase agreement, dated December 10, 2018 (the “Purchase Agreement”) by and between us and World Professional Cabling Systems, LLC, a California limited liability company (the “Purchaser”). Upon the closing of the sale, the Purchaser acquired all of the issued and outstanding shares of common stock, no par value per share, of Suisun City Operations, for an aggregate purchase price of $3,500,000.
 
 
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Departure and Appointment of Officer
 
On February 14, 2019, our Board approved (1) the termination of Paul Commons as Chief Financial Officer and any other positions on which he served with respect to us and our subsidiaries and affiliates, and (2) the appointment of Mark Corrao as our new Chief Financial Officer, in each case effective as of February 28, 2019.
 
Reverse Stock Split
 
On March 8, 2019, we filed a certificate of amendment to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware to effect a one-for-six reverse stock split of our outstanding shares of common stock. Such amendment and ratio were previously approved by our stockholders and board of directors, respectively. As a result of the reverse stock split, every six shares of our outstanding pre-reverse split common stock were combined and reclassified into one share of common stock. Proportionate voting rights and other rights of common stock holders were not affected by the reverse stock split. Stockholders who would otherwise have held a fractional share of common stock received payment in cash in lieu of any such resulting fractional shares of common stock, as the post-reverse split amounts of common stock were rounded down to the nearest full share. Unless otherwise noted, all share and per share data included in these financial statements retroactively reflect the 1-for-6 reverse stock split.
 
Securities Offerings
 
Private Placement
 
On March 8, 2018, we entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement (the “Securities Purchase Agreement”) with certain institutional and accredited investors (collectively, the “Investors”), pursuant to which we issued to the Investors an aggregate of 26,843 shares of our newly designated Series H-4 Convertible Preferred Stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Series H-4 Shares”), and warrants to purchase 447,383 shares of our common stock, with an exercise price of $15.60 per share, subject to adjustments (the “Warrants”). The purchase price per Series H-4 Share was $235.50, equal to (i) the closing price of the common stock on the Nasdaq Capital Market on March 7, 2018, plus $0.125 multiplied by (ii) 100. The aggregate purchase price for the Series H-4 Shares and Warrants was approximately $6.0 million. Subject to certain ownership limitations, the Warrants are immediately exercisable will be exercisable for a period of five years from the issuance date. The Series H-4 Shares are convertible into 447,383 shares of common stock.
 
On March 8, 2018, we filed the Certificate of Designations, Preferences and Rights of the Series H-4 Convertible Preferred Stock (the “Certificate of Designation”) with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware, establishing and designating the rights, powers and preferences of the Series H-4 Convertible Preferred Stock (the “Series H-4 Stock”). We designated up to 30,000 shares of Series H-4 Stock and each share has a stated value of $235.50 (the “Stated Value”). Each share of Series H-4 Stock is convertible at any time at the option of the holder thereof, into a number of shares of common stock determined by dividing the Stated Value by the initial conversion price of $2.355 per share, subject to a 9.99% blocker provision. The Series H-4 Stock has the same dividend rights as the common stock, and no voting rights except as provided for in the Certificate of Designation or as otherwise required by law. In the event of any liquidation or dissolution of the Company, the Series H-4 Stock ranks senior to the common stock in the distribution of assets, to the extent legally available for distribution.
 
 
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Warrants
 
On April 19, 2018, we entered into separate Warrant Exchange Agreements (the “Exchange Agreements”) with the holders (the “Merger Warrant Holders”) of existing merger warrants (the “Merger Warrants”) to purchase shares of common stock, pursuant to which, on the closing date, the Merger Warrant Holders exchanged each Merger Warrant for 1/18 of a share of common stock and 1/12 of a warrant to purchase a share of common stock (collectively, the “Series I Warrants”). The Series I Warrants have an exercise price of $13.80 per share. In connection with the Exchange Agreements, we issued an aggregate of (i) 48,786 new shares of common stock and (ii) Series I Warrants to purchase an aggregate of 73,178 shares of common stock.
 
On August 31, 2018, we offered (the “Repricing Offer Letter”) to the holders (the “Holders”) of our outstanding Series H-4 Warrants to purchase common stock issued on March 8, 2018 (the “Series H-4 Warrants”) the opportunity to exercise such Series H-4 Warrants for cash at a reduced exercise price of $3.60 per share (the “Reduced Exercise Price”) provided such Series H-4 Warrants were exercised for cash on or before September 4, 2018 (the “End Date”). In addition, we issued a “reload” warrant (the “Series J Warrants”) to each Holder who exercised their Series H-4 Warrants prior to the End Date, covering one share for each Series H-4 Warrant exercised during that period. The terms of the Series J Warrants are substantially identical to the terms of the Series H-4 Warrants except that (i) the exercise price is equal to $6.00, (ii) the Series J Warrants may be exercised at all times beginning on the 6-month anniversary of the issuance date on a cash basis and also on a cashless basis, (iii) the Series J Warrants do not contain any provisions for anti-dilution adjustment and (iv) we have the right to require the Holders to exercise all or any portion of the Series J Warrants still unexercised for a cash exercise if the volume-weighted average (as defined in the Series J Warrant) for our common stock equals or exceeds $9.00 for not less than ten consecutive trading days.
 
On September 4, 2018, we received executed Repricing Offer Letters from a majority of the Holders, which resulted in the issuance of 260,116 shares of our common stock and Series J Warrants to purchase up to 260,116 shares of our common stock. We received gross proceeds of approximately $936,000 from the exercise of the Series H-4 Warrants pursuant to the terms of the Repricing Offer Letter.
 
On September 5, 2018, we received a request from Nasdaq to amend our Series H-4 Warrants to provide that the Series H-4 Warrants may not be exercised until we have obtained stockholder approval of the issuance of Common Stock underlying the Series H-4 Warrants pursuant to the applicable rules and regulations of Nasdaq. In response to the request, on September 10, 2018, we entered into an amendment (the “Warrant Amendment”) with the holders of the Series H-4 Stock to provide for stockholder approval as described above prior to the exercise of the Series H-4 Warrants. We received stockholder approval of the issuance of common stock underlying the Series H-4 Shares on November 15, 2018.
 
On November 14, 2018, we entered into a Securities Purchase Agreement with an existing investor, pursuant to which we issued, in a registered direct offering, Pre-Funded Series K Warrants (the “Series K Warrants”) to purchase 277,778 shares of common stock, in lieu of shares of common stock because the purchase of common stock would have caused the beneficial ownership of the purchaser, together with its affiliates and certain related parties, to exceed 9.99% of our outstanding common stock.   The price to the purchaser for each Series K Warrant was $3.54 and the Series K Warrants are immediately exercisable at a price of $0.06 per share of common stock.  The Series K Warrants and shares of common stock for which they may be exercised were offered pursuant to a registration statement on Form S-3 (File No. 333-227858).
 
 
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Consulting Agreement, Related Party
 
On July 11, 2018, we entered into a consulting agreement (the “Consulting Agreement”) with Ascentaur, LLC (“Ascentaur”). Sebastian Giordano is the Chief Executive Officer of Ascentaur, LLC. Mr. Giordano has served on our board of directors since February 2013 and served as our Interim Chief Executive Officer from August 2013 through April 2016 and as our Chief Executive Officer from April 2016 through January 2018.
 
Pursuant to the terms of the Consulting Agreement, Ascentaur has agreed to provide advisory services with respect to our strategic development and growth, including advising us on market strategy and overall strategy, advising us on the sale of our WPCS International business segment, providing assistance to us in identifying and recruiting prospective employees, customers, business partners, investors and advisors that offer desirable administrative, financing, investment, technical, marketing and/or strategic expertise, and performing such other services pertaining to our business as we and Ascentaur may from time to time mutually agree. As consideration for its services under the Consulting Agreement, Ascentaur is entitled to receive (i) a fee of $10,000 per month for a period of nine months from the effective date of the Consulting Agreement, (ii) a lump sum fee of $90,000 upon the closing of the sale of our WPCS International business segment and (iii) reimbursement for reasonable and customary business expenses incurred in connection with Ascentaur’s performance under the Consulting Agreement. The term of the Consulting Agreement commenced on July 11, 2018 and will continue until April 9, 2019 or until terminated in accordance with the terms of the Consulting Agreement. Through December 31, 2018, Ascentaur has been paid $50,929.
 
Results of Operations
 
We have never been profitable and have incurred significant operating losses in each year since inception.
Overall loss for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, were as follows:
 
 
 
2018
 
 
2017
 
 
 
In millions
 
Continuing operations
 $ 
 $ 
Revenues
  6.1 
  4.3 
Cost of revenues
  7.9 
  4.6 
Gross loss
  (1.8)
  (0.3)
 
    
    
Operating expenses
  12.0
  6.0
Interest expense
  1.1 
  1.3 
Loss from continuing operations
  (14.9)
  (7.6)
 
    
    
Income from operations of discontinued component
  0.3 
  - 
Loss on sale of component
  (4.2)
  - 
Consolidated net loss
  (18.8)
  (7.6)
Deemed dividend on exchange of warrants
  (1.4)
  - 
Consolidated net loss attributable to common stockholders
 $(20.2)
 $(7.6)
 
Substantially all of our operating losses from continuing operations resulted from expenses incurred in connection with our valet workforce, parking and technology development programs and from general and administrative costs associated with our continuing operations. As of December 31, 2018, we had a net working capital of approximately $2.3 million. We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses from continuing operations for at least the next several years as we continue the development of our comprehensive Vehicle Assistance & Logistics (“VAL”) across business-to-consumer (“B2C”) and business-to-business (“B2B”) clientele. Accordingly, we will continue to require substantial additional capital to continue our commercialization activities. The amount and timing of our future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including the timing and results of our commercialization efforts.
 
 
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Components of Statements of Operations
 
Net Services Revenue
 
We generate substantially all of our revenue from on-demand vehicle pick-up, parking and delivery services, providing automobile maintenance, care and refueling services and through our B2B fleet management services. The majority of our consumer contracts are month-to-month subscription contracts with fixed monthly or contract term fees.
 
Cost of Services
 
Cost of services consists of the aggregate costs incurred in delivering the services for our customers, including, expenses for personnel costs, parking lot costs, technology hosting and third-party licensing costs, vehicle repair and damage costs, insurance, merchant processor fees, uniforms, customer and transportation expenses associated with providing a service.
 
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses consist primarily of technology, sales and marketing and general and administrative expenses.
 
Technology. Technology expenses consist primarily of labor-related costs incurred in coding, testing, maintaining and modifying our technology platform. We have focused our technology development efforts on both improving ease of use and functionality of our reservation, back-end system and mobile (i.e., iOS, Android) applications. We expect technology to increasingly become a key part of our overall value proposition to B2C and B2B clients.
 
Sales and Marketing.   Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of labor-related costs, online search and advertising, trade shows, marketing agency fees, and other promotional expenses. Online search and advertising costs, which are expensed as incurred, include online advertising media such as banner ads and pay-per-click payments to search engines. We expect to continue to invest in sales and marketing activities to increase our membership base and brand awareness. We expect that sales and marketing expenses will continue to increase in the future but decrease as a percentage of revenue as certain fixed costs are leveraged over a larger revenue base. 
 
General and Administrative.   General and administrative expenses consist primarily of labor-related expenses for administrative, human resources, internal information technology support, legal, finance and accounting personnel, professional fees, training costs, insurance and other corporate expenses. We expect that general and administrative expenses will increase as we continue to add personnel to support the growth of our business. In addition, we anticipate that we will incur additional personnel expenses, professional service fees, including audit and legal, investor relations, costs of compliance with securities laws and regulations, and higher director and officer insurance costs related to operating as a public company. As a result, we expect that our general and administrative expenses will continue to increase in the future but decrease as a percentage of revenue over time as our membership base and related revenue increases.
 
 
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Discontinued Operations. On December 10, 2018, we signed a definitive agreement with a private corporation and completed the sale on December 24, 2018 of 100% of the Suisun City Operations, our wholly owned subsidiary, for a total cash consideration of $3.5 million. We recognized the following loss on sale of component on the date of sale:
 
Sales price
 $3,500,000 
Commissions and various transaction costs
  (332,220)
Net sales proceeds
 3,167,780
 
    
Carrying amounts of assets, net of liabilities*
 7.337,498
Loss on sale of Suisun City Operations
 $(4,169,718)
 
* The carrying amounts of assets included cash of $1,504,366; accounts receivable and contract asset of $4,177,568; prepaid expenses and other current assets of $57,486; property and equipment of $295,206; intangibles and goodwill of $5,048,247; carrying amounts of liabilities included accounts payable and accrued liabilities of $3,688,831and loans of $56,544.
 
The operations and cash flows of the Suisun City Operations were eliminated from ongoing operations following its sale. The operating results of the Suisun City Operations for the consolidated period between January 30, 2018 and December 24, 2018 were as follows:
 
Revenues
 $13,730,252 
Cost of revenues
  10,836,754 
Gross profit
  2,893,498 
 
    
Selling, general and administrative expenses
  2,285,661 
Depreciation and amortization
  287,830 
Total Operating Expenses
  2,573,491 
 
    
Interest expense, net
  4,888 
 
    
Net income from operations of discontinued component
 $315,119 
 
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
 
Our financial statements are prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The preparation of our financial statements and related disclosures requires us to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the reported amount of assets, liabilities, revenue, costs and expenses and related disclosures. We believe that the estimates, assumptions and judgments involved in the accounting policies described below have the greatest potential impact on our financial statements and, therefore, we consider these to be our critical accounting policies. Accordingly, we evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Our actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions and conditions. See Note 2 to our audited financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 for information about these critical accounting policies, as well as a description of our other significant accounting policies.
 
 
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Accounts receivable
 
Accounts receivable are carried at original invoice amount less an estimate made for holdbacks and doubtful receivables based on a review of all outstanding amounts. We determine the allowance for doubtful accounts by regularly evaluating individual customer receivables and considering a customer’s financial condition, credit history and current economic conditions and set up an allowance for doubtful accounts when collection is uncertain. Customers’ accounts are written off when all attempts to collect have been exhausted. Recoveries of accounts receivable previously written off are recorded as income when received. At December 31, 2018 and 2017, the accounts receivable reserve was approximately $2,000 and $40,000, respectively.
 
Capitalized software
 
Costs related to website and internal-use software development are accounted for in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 350-50 — Intangibles — Website Development Costs. Such software is primarily related to our websites and mobile apps, including support systems. We begin to capitalize our costs to develop software when preliminary development efforts are successfully completed, management has authorized and committed project funding, and it is probable that the project will be completed, and the software will be used as intended. Costs incurred prior to meeting these criteria are expensed as incurred and recorded within general and administrative expenses within the accompanying statements of operations. Costs incurred for enhancements that are expected to result in additional features or functionality are capitalized. Capitalized costs are amortized over the estimated useful life of the enhancements, generally between two and three years.
 
We evaluate our long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset group to future undiscounted net cash flows expected to be generated by the asset group. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets.
 
Revenue Recognition
 
The Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, codified as ASC 606: Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which provides a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers. We adopted ASC 606 effective January 1, 2018, using modified retrospective basis and the cumulative effect was immaterial to the financial statements.
 
Under the previous revenue recognition methodology, revenue was recognized when all of the following criteria were met: (1) persuasive evidence that an arrangement existed; (2) delivery had occurred or services had been rendered; (3) the seller’s price to the buyer was fixed and determinable; and (4) collectability was reasonably assured.
 
Revenue from contracts with customers is recognized when, or as, we satisfy our performance obligations by transferring the promised goods or services to the customers. A good or service is transferred to a customer when, or as, the customer obtains control of that good or service. A performance obligation may be satisfied over time or at a point in time. Revenue from a performance obligation satisfied over time is recognized by measuring our progress in satisfying the performance obligation in a manner that depicts the transfer of the goods or services to the customer. Revenue from a performance obligation satisfied at a point in time is recognized at the point in time that we determine the customer obtains control over the promised good or service. The amount of revenue recognized reflects the consideration we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those promised goods or services (i.e., the “transaction price”). In determining the transaction price, we consider multiple factors, including the effects of variable consideration. Variable consideration is included in the transaction price only to the extent it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainties with respect to the amount are resolved. In determining when to include variable consideration in the transaction price, we consider the range of possible outcomes, the predictive value of its past experiences, the time period of when uncertainties expect to be resolved and the amount of consideration that is susceptible to factors outside of our influence, such as the judgment and actions of third parties.
 
 
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Our contracts are generally designed to provide cash fees to us on a monthly basis or an agreed upfront rate based upon demand services. Our performance obligation is satisfied over time as the service is provided continuously throughout the service period. We recognize revenue evenly over the service period using a time-based measure because we are providing a continuous service to the customer. Contracts with minimum performance guarantees or price concessions include variable consideration and are subject to the revenue constraint. We use an expected value method to estimate variable consideration for minimum performance guarantees and price concessions.
 
Monthly Subscriptions
 
We offer a selection of subscriptions and on-demand services which include parking, valet, and access to other services. The contract terms are on a month-to-month subscription contract with fixed monthly or contract term fees. These subscription services include a fixed number of round-trip deliveries of the customer’s vehicle to a designated location. We allocate the purchase price among the performance obligations which results in deferring revenue until the service is utilized or the service period has expired. In July 2018, we began assessing demand for a Self-Park Spaces monthly parking plan whereby consumers could designate specific garages for their vehicles to be stored at a base monthly rate, with personal 24/7 access for picking up and returning their vehicle directly, and the option to pay a la carte on a per hour basis for a driver to perform functions such as picking up and returning their vehicle to their front door. This model aligns more directly with how we have structured the enterprise B2B side of its business, where an interaction with a vehicle on behalf of its drivers typically generates net new revenue. The total revenue amount of $6,077,667 recognized for the period ended December 31, 2018 is comprised of $4,409,037 from subscription service and $1,668,630 from on-demand service.
 
Sales and marketing
 
Sales and marketing costs are expensed as incurred.
 
Stock-based compensation
 
We account for all stock options using a fair value-based method. The fair value of each stock option granted to employees is estimated on the date of the grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model and the related stock-based compensation expense is recognized over the vesting period during which an employee is required to provide service in exchange for the award. The fair value of the options granted to non-employees is measured and expensed as the options vest.
 
Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2018 and 2017– Continuing Operations
 
Net Services Revenues
 
Net services revenues during the year ended December 31, 2018 totaled $6.1 million, an increase of $1.8 million, compared to $4.3 million recorded for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase was primarily due to our continued efforts to increase monthly consumer subscriptions and B2B markets expansion.
 
 
34
 
 
Cost of Services
 
Cost of services during the year ended December 31, 2018 totaled $7.9 million, an increase of $3.3 million, compared to $4.5 million recorded for the year ended December 31, 2017. This increase was primarily due to increased investment in our valet workforce and the renting of additional parking spaces based on increased demand in valet services and was primarily attributable to increases of $2.2 million in wages and related, $0.5 million in parking garage fees, $0.2 million in repairs and damages, $0.1 million in insurance, $0.1 million in travel, $0.1 million in cost of gas and other services sold, and $0.1 million in other costs.
 
Research and Development
 
Research and development expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018 totaled $0.3 million, an increase of $0.2 million, compared to $0.1 million recorded for the year ended December 31, 2017. This was primarily attributable to an increase of $0.1 million in professional and consulting fees and $0.1 million in other costs.
 
Sales and Marketing
 
Sales and marketing expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018 totaled $4.5 million, an increase of $3.3 million, compared to $1.3 million recorded for the year ended December 31, 2017. This was primarily attributable to an increase of $1.0 million in wages and related expenses, $1.6 million in stock-based compensation and $0.6 million in marketing and training.
 
General and Administrative
 
General and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018 totaled $6.8 million, an increase of $2.4 million, compared to $4.5 million recorded for the year ended December 31, 2017. This was primarily attributable to an increase of $2.2 million in stock-based comp, $0.6 million in investor relations, $0.3 million in insurance, and $0.3 million in other costs, partially offset by a decrease of $0.7 million in professional services and $0.3 million in wages and related costs.
  
Depreciation and Amortization
 
Depreciation and amortization during the year ended December 31, 2018 totaled $0.4 million, an increase of $0.1 million, compared to $0.2 million recorded for the year ended December 31, 2017. This increase was primarily attributable to our increased capitalization of software costs related to our software platform.
 
Interest expense, net
 
Interest expense, net during the year ended December 31, 2018 totaled $1.1 million, a decrease of $0.2 million, compared to $1.3 million recorded for the year ended December 31, 2017. Interest expense, net decreased by $0.9 million in relation to the conversion of outstanding convertible notes into equity upon the Merger, offset by an increase of $0.7 million in relation to the lock-up agreements. There were no outstanding convertible notes as of December 31, 2018.

 
35
 
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
Since the inception of Private DropCar in September 12, 2014, we have incurred significant net losses and negative cash flows from operations. Further, our sales and income potential of our business and market remain unproven. For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, we had net losses from continuing operations of approximately $14.9 million and $7.6 million, respectively. At December 31, 2018, we had an accumulated deficit of $29.8 million. We anticipate that we will continue to incur net losses into the foreseeable future and will need to raise additional capital to continue. At December 31, 2018, we had cash and cash equivalents of $4.3 million. At these capital levels, we believe we do not have sufficient funds to continue to operate through March 2020, by which point we will need to become profitable, improve cash flow from operations, begin selling property and equipment, or complete a new capital raise. These factors raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern for the twelve months following the date of the filing of this Form 10-K.
 
Our plans include raising funds from outside investors. However, there is no assurance that outside funding will be available to us, outside funding will be obtained on favorable terms or will provide us with sufficient capital to meet our objectives. These financial statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability and classification of assets, carrying amounts or the amount and classification of liabilities that may be required should the Company be unable to continue as a going concern. As such, the consolidated financial statements have been prepared under the assumption the Company will continue as a Going Concern.
 
On January 18, 2018, we sold 10,057 shares of common stock for proceeds of $300,000 to an individual investor.
 
On March 8, 2018, we entered into the Securities Purchase Agreement with the Investors, pursuant to which we issued to the Investors an aggregate of 26,843 shares of our newly designated Series H-4 Convertible Preferred Stock and warrants to purchase 447,383 shares of our common stock (the “Private Placement”). We received proceeds of approximately $6.0 million in connection with the Private Placement.
 
On September 4, 2018, we issued 260,116 shares of common stock upon the exercise of 260,116 Series H-4 Warrants for proceeds of approximately $936,000.
 
On November 14, 2018, we sold 277,778 Series K Warrants to purchase shares of common stock, at an offering price of $3.54 per share for gross proceeds of $983,333.
 
Our independent registered public accounting firm included an explanatory paragraph about the existence of substantial doubt concerning our ability to continue as a going concern in its report on our financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2018. Note 2 to our financial statements includes management’s discussion on the continuation of our activities and our ability to fulfill our obligations as dependent upon our ability to raise additional financing and/or increase sales volume that will generate sufficient operating profit and cash flows to fund operations.
 
Our future capital requirements and the period for which we expect our existing resources to support our operations may vary significantly from what we currently expect. Our monthly spending levels vary based on new and ongoing technology developments and corporate activities.
 
 
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We have historically financed our activities through the sale of our equity securities (including convertible preferred stock) and the issuance of convertible notes. We will need to raise significant additional capital and we plan to continue to fund our current operations, and the associated losses from continuing operations, through future issuances of debt and/or equity securities and potential collaborations or strategic partnerships with other entities. The capital raises from issuances of convertible debt and equity securities could result in additional dilution to our stockholders. In addition, to the extent we determine to incur additional indebtedness, our incurrence of additional debt could result in debt service obligations and operating and financing covenants that would restrict our operations. We can provide no assurance that financing will be available in the amounts we need or on terms acceptable to us, if at all. If we are not able to secure adequate additional working capital when it becomes needed, we may be required to make reductions in spending, extend payment terms with suppliers, liquidate assets where possible and/or suspend or curtail operations. Any of these actions could materially harm our business.
 
Cash Flows
 
Operating Activities – Continuing Operations
 
We have historically experienced negative cash outflows as we have developed and expanded our business. Our primary source of cash flow from operating activities is recurring subscription receipts from customers and, to a lesser extent, monthly invoice payments from business-to-business customers. Our primary uses of cash from operating activities are the recruiting, training, equipping and growing our workforce to meet market demand, securing infrastructure for operating activities such as garage parking spaces, technology investment to grow our platform, as well as to support other operational expenses while we aggressively expand.
 
Net cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2018 was approximately $9.7 million, which includes a net loss from continuing operations of approximately $14.9 million, offset by non-cash expenses of approximately $5.0 million principally related to $0.5 million related of depreciation and amortization,$3.8 million of stock-based compensation expense, and $0.7 of non-cash interest expense, and approximately $0.2 million of cash provided from a change in net working capital items principally related to $0.5 million related to the increase in accounts payable, deferred revenue and accrued expenses, partially offset by $0.3 million of cash used from a change in net working capital items principally related to the increase in accounts receivable and prepaid expenses and other assets.
 
Net cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2017 was approximately $4.2 million, which includes a net loss of approximately $7.6 million, offset by non-cash expenses of approximately $2.2 million principally related to depreciation and amortization of $0.2 million amortization of debt discount of $1.2 million and stock-based compensation expense of $0.7 million, and approximately $1.5 million of cash provided from a change in net working capital items principally related to the increase in accounts payable, deferred revenue and accrued expenses, and approximately $0.2 million of cash used from a change in net working capital items principally related to the increase in accounts receivable and prepaid expenses.
 
 
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Investing Activities – Continuing Operations
 
Cash used in investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2018 of approximately $6.5 primarily resulted from capitalization of software costs and cash received from the acquisition of $5.0 million, proceeds from sale of the business net of cash relinquished of $2.0 million, and investment into software development and equipment of $0.5 million.
 
Cash used in investing activities during the year ended December 31, 2017 of approximately $0.3 million primarily resulted from capitalization of software costs.
 
Financing Activities – Continuing Operations
 
Cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2018 totaled approximately $8.1 million, primarily resulting from proceeds of $6.0 million from the sale of the Series H-4 Shares and warrants, $0.9 million from the issuance of common stock in connection with exercise of Series H-4 Warrants, $0.3 million from the sale of common stock and $1.0 million for the sale of Series K Warrants, offset by financing costs related to the Series H-4 Shares and warrants of approximately $0.1 million.
 
Cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2017 totaled approximately $4.8 million. In January and February of 2017, we sold 225,636 shares of our Series A Preferred Stock in a private placement which resulted in net proceeds to us totaling approximately $0.2 million. During 2017, we issued convertible notes and warrants to acquire 111,805 shares of common stock at an exercise price $77.28 per share which resulted in net proceeds to us totaling approximately $4.6 million. These notes were converted into 136,785 shares of common stock in connection with the Merger.
 
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
 
We did not engage in any “off-balance sheet arrangements” (as that term is defined in Item 303(a)(4)(ii) of Regulation S-K) and do not have any holdings in variable interest entities as of December 31, 2018.
 
ITEM 7A – QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
 
We are a smaller reporting company as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act, and are not required to provide the information required under this item.
 
ITEM 8 – FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
Our audited consolidated financial statements as of, and for the years ended December 31, 2018, and December 31, 2017 are included beginning on Page F-1 immediately following the signature page to this report. See Item 15 for a list of the financial statements included herein.
 
 
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ITEM 9 – CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE
 
None.
 
ITEM 9A – CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
 
(a) Evaluation of disclosure controls and procedures.
 
The Company maintains disclosure controls and procedures as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act") that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in our reports filed under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in SEC rules and forms and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including the Chief Executive Officer ("CEO") and Chief Financial Officer ("CFO"), as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.
 
Our management, including the CEO and CFO, evaluated the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures pursuant to Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Exchange Act as of December 31, 2018. Based on such evaluation, our CEO and CFO concluded the disclosure controls and procedures were not effective due to the material weaknesses in internal control over financial reporting described below.
 
 (b) Management’s report on internal control over financial reporting.
 
Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as defined in Rules 13a-15(f) and 15d-15(f) under the Exchange Act. Our internal control over financial reporting is a process designed under the supervision of our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("GAAP").
 
Management’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP and that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the Company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
 
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements on a timely basis. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with policies and procedures may deteriorate.
 
 
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A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the Company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. Management conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018 based on the criteria set forth in Internal Control—Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission ("COSO"). Based on management’s assessment, the Company’s Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer concluded that the Company did not maintain effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2018 as a result of the material weaknesses described below:
 
A.
Control environment, control activities and monitoring:
 
The Company did not design and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting related to control environment, control activities and monitoring based on the criteria established in the COSO Framework including more specifically:
 
Competency of resources: Management did not effectively execute a strategy to hire, train and retain a sufficient complement of personnel with an appropriate level of training, knowledge and experience in certain areas important to financial reporting; and
Deployment and oversight of control activities: Management did not implement effective oversight to support deployment of control activities due to (a) failure to establish clear accountability for the performance of internal control over financial reporting responsibilities in certain areas important to financial reporting and (b) a limited segregation of duties amongst Company employees with respect to the Company’s control activities, primarily as a result of the Company’s limited number of employees.
 
B.
Review of the Financial Reporting Process:
 
The Company did perform an adequate review of the financial reporting process (i.e., untimely accounting for certain significant transactions, inadequate review of journal entries, and financial statements and related footnotes) which resulted in material corrected misstatements and disclosure adjustments.
 
Remediation Efforts
 
Management is committed to the remediation of the material weaknesses described above, as well as the continued improvement of our internal control over financial reporting. We have identified and implemented, and continue to implement, the actions described below to remediate the underlying causes of the control deficiencies that gave rise to the material weaknesses. As we continue our evaluation and improve our internal control over financial reporting, management may modify the actions described below or identify and take additional measures to address control deficiencies. Until the remediation efforts described below, including any additional measures management identifies as necessary, are completed, the material weaknesses described above will continue to exist.
 
To address the material weakness noted above, the Company is in the process of:
 
hiring additional personnel who possess the requisite skillsets in certain areas important to financial reporting;
 
assessing the required training needs to ascertain continuous development of existing personnel;
 
 
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performing a comprehensive review of current procedures to ensure a lack of segregation of duties and compliance with the Company’s accounting policies and GAAP;
 
hiring additional personnel in order to mitigate the risk of a lack of segregation of duties.
 
We believe these measures will remediate the material weaknesses noted. While we have completed some of these measures as of the date of this report, we have not completed and tested all of the planned corrective processes, enhancements, procedures and related evaluation that we believe are necessary to determine whether the material weaknesses have been fully remediated. We believe the corrective actions and controls need to be in operation for a sufficient period of time for management to conclude that the control environment is operating effectively and has been adequately tested through audit procedures. Accordingly, the material weaknesses have not been fully remediated as of the date of this report. As we continue to evaluate and work to remediate the control deficiencies that gave rise to the material weaknesses, we may determine that additional measures or time are required to address the control deficiencies or that we need to modify or otherwise adjust the remediation measures described above. We will continue to assess the effectiveness of our remediation efforts in connection with our evaluation of our internal control over financial reporting.
This annual report does not include an attestation report by EisnerAmper LLP, our independent registered public accounting firm, regarding internal control over financial reporting. As a smaller reporting company, our management's report was not subject to attestation by our independent registered public accounting firm pursuant to rules of the SEC that permit us to provide only management's report in this annual report.
 
(c) Changes in internal control over financial reporting.
 
Our remediation efforts were ongoing during the fiscal quarter ended December 31, 2018. Other than the remediation steps described above, there were no other material changes in our internal control over financial reporting identified in management’s evaluation pursuant to Rules 13a-15(d) and 15d-15(d) of the Exchange Act during the quarter ended December 31, 2018 that materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
 
ITEM 9B – OTHER INFORMATION
 
Not applicable.
 
 
 
 
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PART III
 
ITEM 10 – DIRECTORS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
 
The Board of Directors
 
On November 15, 2018, at our annual meeting our shareholders approved Spencer Richardson, David Newman, Sebastian Giordano, Brian Harrington, Zvi Joseph, Solomon Mayer, Joshua Silverman and Greg Schiffman to a term of one year to serve until the 2019 annual meeting of stockholders, and until their respective successors have been elected and qualified. Officers are elected annually and serve at the discretion of the Board. Mr. Harrington subsequently resigned on February 6, 2019.
 
Set forth below are the names of the directors, their ages, their offices in the Company:
 
Name
 
 
Age
 
 
Position(s)
Employee Directors
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Spencer Richardson
 
 
34
 
 
Chief Executive Officer; Director
David Newman
 
 
58
 
 
Chief Business Development Officer; Director
Mark Corrao
 
 
64
 
 
Chief Financial Officer
 
Leandro Larroulet
 
 
36
 
 
Chief Information Officer
 
 
Non-Employee Directors
 
 
 
 
Joshua Silverman
 
 
48
 
 
Director; Chairman of the Board of Directors
Sebastian Giordano
 
 
61
 
 
Director
 
Zvi Joseph
 
 
52
 
 
Director
Solomon Mayer
 
 
65
 
 
Director
Greg Schiffman
 
 
61
 
 
Director
 
On January 30, 2018, the Company completed its business combination with DropCar, Inc. (“Private DropCar”) in accordance with the terms of the Agreement and Plan of Merger and Reorganization, dated as of September 6, 2017, as subsequently amended, by and among the Company, DC Acquisition Corporation (“Merger Sub”), and Private DropCar (as amended, the “Merger Agreement”), pursuant to which Merger Sub merged with and into Private DropCar, with Private DropCar surviving as a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company (the “Merger”). The information below includes information regarding each director’s service on the boards of directors of WPCS, Private DropCar and the Company.
 
Employee Directors
 
Spencer Richardson
 
Mr. Richardson has served as our Chief Executive Officer and a member of the Board of Directors since the closing of the Merger, and prior to that time, served as a member of the board of directors of Private DropCar since September 2014. Mr. Richardson served as Co-Founder and Chief Executive Officer of Private DropCar since its inception in September 2014 through the closing of the Merger. Mr. Richardson also served as the Chairman of our Board of Directors from January 2018 to May 2018. Prior to his service with DropCar, from March 2009 through February 2016, Mr. Richardson served as Co-Founder and Chief Executive Officer of FanBridge, Inc., a platform that enables clients, such as musicians, comedians, influencers, and anyone with a fan base, to manage fan acquisition, retention, and engagement. In 2012, Forbes Magazine selected Mr. Richardson as a “30 Under 30” innovator. Mr. Richardson currently serves on the boards of directors of numerous private companies. Mr. Richardson holds a B.S. in Finance and Marketing from New York University Stern School of Business.
 
 
42
 

David Newman
 
Mr. Newman has served as our Chief Business Development Officer and a member of the Board of Directors since the closing of the Merger, and prior to that time, served as a member of the board of directors of Private DropCar since its inception in September 2014. Mr. Newman served as Co-Founder and Secretary of Private DropCar since its inception and as Chief Business Development Officer since April 2017. Mr. Newman also served as Treasurer and Chairman of the Board of Directors of Private DropCar from its inception until January 2018. Mr. Newman has served as President of David B. Newman Consultants, Inc., a New York-based consulting corporation, as President of Rockland Westchester Legal Services, PC, a New York-based legal services company, and as a Senior Managing Director of Brock Securities LLC, a broker-dealer that provides investment banking and advisory services, in each instance since February 2014. He previously served as a director of United Realty Trust Inc., a public real estate investment trust, from August 2012 through September 2015. Mr. Newman holds a B.B.A. in Business Management from Hofstra University and a J.D. from Fordham University School of Law.
 
Non-Employee Directors
 
Sebastian Giordano
 
Mr. Giordano currently serves as a consultant to the Company and has served as a member of the Board of Directors since the closing of the Merger, and prior to that time, served as a director of WPCS since February 2013. Mr. Giordano served as the Interim Chief Executive Officer of WPCS from August 2013 until April 25, 2016, when the interim label was removed from his title. He served as the Chief Executive Officer of WPCS since such time through the closing of the Merger. Since 2002, Mr. Giordano has been Chief Executive Officer of Ascentaur, LLC, a business consulting firm providing comprehensive strategic, financial and business development services to start-up, turnaround and emerging growth companies. From 1998 to 2002, Mr. Giordano was Chief Executive Officer of Drive One, Inc., a safety training and education business. From 1992 to 1998, Mr. Giordano was Chief Financial Officer of Sterling Vision, Inc., a retail optical chain. Mr. Giordano received B.B.A. and M.B.A. degrees from Iona College.
 
Mr. Giordano’s qualifications to sit on the Board of Directors include his broad management experience, including having served as Chief Executive Officer of WPCS.
 
Greg Schiffman
 
Mr. Schiffman has served as a member of the Board of Directors since the closing of the Merger. Mr. Schiffman served as the Chief Financial Officer of Vineti, Inc. from October 2017 through April 2018. He previously served as the Chief Financial Officer of each of Iovance Biotherapeutics (formerly Lion Biotechnologies), from October 2016 through June 2017, Stem Cells, Inc., from January 2014 through September 2016, and Dendreon Corporation, from December 2006 through December 2013. He currently serves on the boards of directors of several private companies. Mr. Schiffman holds a B.S. in Accounting from DePaul University and an MM (MBA) from Northwestern University Kellogg Graduate School of Management.
 
Mr. Schiffman’s qualifications to sit on the Board of Directors include his financial background, business experience and education.
 
 
43
 
 
Zvi Joseph
 
Mr. Joseph has served as a member of the Board of Directors since the closing of the Merger. He has served as Deputy General Counsel of Amdocs Limited, a publicly traded corporation that provides software and services to communications and media companies, since October 2005. He received his A.A.S. in Business Administration from Rockland Community College, his B.A. in Literature from New York University and his J.D. from Fordham University School of Law. He also holds a Certificate in Business Excellence from Columbia University School of Business.
 
Mr. Joseph’s qualifications to sit on the Board of Directors include his legal experience and education.
 
Solomon Mayer
 
Mr. Mayer has served as a member of the Board of Directors since the closing of the Merger and, prior to that time, served as a member of the Board of Directors of Private DropCar. He has served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Mooney Aviation Company, a private company that manufactures four-place, single-engine and piston-powered aircraft, since 1999. Prior to that time, he held the position of Chief Executive Officer of, and consultant to, Overseas Trading, a department store wholesaler. Mr. Mayer serves as a director of Laniado Hospital, a voluntary, not-for-profit hospital in Kiryat Sanz, Netanya, Israel, as well as a director of several private companies. He previously served as a consultant to and director of each of Innovative Food Holdings, a provider of sourcing, preparation and delivery of specialty/fresh food for both professional chefs and consumers, and BlastGard International Inc., which manufactures and markets proprietary blast mitigation materials, in each case, from 2002 until 2016.
 
Mr. Mayer’s qualifications to sit on the Board of Directors include his and extensive management experience as an executive and director of a variety of companies.
 
Joshua Silverman

Mr. Silverman has served as a member of the Board of Directors since the closing of the Merger, and prior to that time, served as a director of WPCS since August 2016. Mr. Silverman currently serves as the Managing Member of Parkfield Funding LLC. Mr. Silverman was the co-founder, and a Principal and Managing Partner of Iroquois Capital Management, LLC, an investment advisory firm. Since its inception in 2003 until July 2016, Mr. Silverman served as Co-Chief Investment Officer of Iroquois. While at Iroquois, he designed and executed complex transactions, structuring and negotiating investments in both public and private companies and has often been called upon by the companies solve inefficiencies as they relate to corporate structure, cash flow, and management. From 2000 to 2003, Mr. Silverman served as Co-Chief Investment Officer of Vertical Ventures, LLC, a merchant bank. Prior to forming Iroquois, Mr. Silverman was a Director of Joele Frank, a boutique consulting firm specializing in mergers and acquisitions. Previously, Mr. Silverman served as Assistant Press Secretary to The President of the United States. Mr. Silverman currently serves as a director of WPCS, Protagenic Therapeutics, Neurotrope, Inc., and TapImmune Inc., all of which are public companies. He previously served as a Director of National Holdings Corporation from July 2014 through August 2016, MGT Capital Investments, Inc. from December 2014 to May 2016, and Alanco Technologies Inc. from March 2016 through August 2016. Mr. Silverman received his B.A. from Lehigh University in 1992.

Mr. Silverman’s qualifications to sit on the Board of Directors include his experience as an investment banker, management consultant and as a director of numerous public companies.

 
44
 

Officers
 
Mark Corrao
 
Mr. Corrao has served as our Chief Financial Officer since February 28, 2019. He has served as Chief Financial Officer of KannaLife Sciences, Inc. since 2012. Prior to that time, Mr. Corrao served as Chief Financial Officer of each of Business Efficiency Experts, Inc., from 2010 through 2012, StrikeForce Technologies, Inc., from 2001 through 2010, and Advanced Communication Sciences, Inc. from 1997 through 2000. Mr. Corrao also has experience in accounting, having previously served as a partner at Frank T. LaFauci, CPAs, as controller at Design Production Management, Inc., as assistant controller at Greenfield Arbitrage Partners, as internal auditor at Spear, Leeds & Kellogg and as an accountant at A.L. Wellen & Co., CPAs. He holds a B.S. in Public Accounting from the City University of New York – Brooklyn College.
 
Leandro Larroulet
 
Mr. Larroulet joined Private DropCar in July 2017 as its Chief Information Officer. Prior to joining Private DropCar, Mr. Larroulet served as Chief Operating Officer (COO) for the Argentina based global technology development and consulting firm FDV Solutions from September 2016 to June 2017. Previously Mr. Larroulet held roles at FDV including Senior Project Manager, Software Developer and Network Operator, dating back to September 2007. Mr. Larroulet graduated from FIUBA (Engineering University of Buenos Aires), and also currently serves as both a member of their curricular commission for Information Systems as well as an auxiliary teacher for their Information Analysis program.
 
Director Independence
 
Our Board of Directors has reviewed the materiality of any relationship that each of our directors has with DropCar, Inc. either directly or indirectly. Based upon this review, our Board of Directors has determined that the following members of the Board of Directors are “independent directors” as defined by The Nasdaq Stock Market: Zvi Joseph, Solomon Mayer, Joshua Silverman and Greg Schiffman.
 
Meetings and Committees of the Board of Directors
 
During the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, the Board held 13 meetings and approved certain actions by unanimous written consent. We expect our directors to attend all board and committee meetings and to spend the time needed and meet as frequently as necessary to properly discharge their responsibilities. Each director attended, either in person or telephonically, at least 75% of the aggregate Board meetings and meetings of committees on which he served during his tenure as a director or committee member, except Mr. Harrington attended 58% of the board meetings and Mr. Mayer attended 60% of the audit committee meetings.
 
Audit Committee
 
During the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, the Audit Committee held 5 meetings. The Audit Committee of the Board (the “Audit Committee”) consists of Greg Schiffman, Zvi Joseph and Solomon Mayer, with Mr. Schiffman appointed as Chairman of the Committee. The Board has determined that all of the members are “independent” as that term is defined under applicable SEC rules and under the current listing standards of The Nasdaq Stock Market and that Mr. Schiffman qualifies as an “audit committee financial expert” pursuant to Item 407(d)(5) of Regulation S-K.
 
 
45
 
 
The Audit Committee is responsible for overseeing the Company’s corporate accounting, financial reporting practices, audits of financial statements, and the quality and integrity of the Company’s financial statements and reports. In addition, the Audit Committee oversees the qualifications, independence and performance of the Company’s independent auditors. In furtherance of these responsibilities, the Audit Committee’s duties include the following: evaluating the performance and assessing the qualifications of the independent auditors; determining and approving the engagement of the independent auditors to perform audit, reviewing and attesting to services and performing any proposed permissible non-audit services; evaluating employment by the Company of individuals formerly employed by the independent auditors and engaged on the Company’s account and any conflicts or disagreements between the independent auditors and management regarding financial reporting, accounting practices or policies; discussing with management and the independent auditors the results of the annual audit; reviewing the financial statements proposed to be included in the Company’s annual or transition report on Form 10-K; discussing with management and the independent auditors the results of the auditors’ review of the Company’s quarterly financial statements; conferring with management and the independent auditors regarding the scope, adequacy and effectiveness of internal auditing and financial reporting controls and procedures; and establishing procedures for the receipt, retention and treatment of complaints regarding accounting, internal accounting control and auditing matters and the confidential and anonymous submission by employees of concerns regarding questionable accounting or auditing matters. The Audit Committee is governed by a written charter approved by the Board, which complies with the applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and related rules of the SEC and the Nasdaq Stock Market.
 
Executive Committee
 
During the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, the Executive Committee of the Board (the “Executive Committee”) held 3 meetings. The Executive Committee consists of Zvi Joseph and Solomon Mayer with Mr. Joseph appointed as Chairman of the Committee. The Board has determined that all of the members are “independent” as that term is defined under applicable SEC rules and under the current listing standards of The Nasdaq Stock Market. The Board has adopted a written charter setting forth the authority and responsibilities of the Executive Committee.
 
The Executive Committee has responsibility for assisting the Board in, among other things, evaluating and making recommendations regarding the compensation of our executive officers and directors, assuring that the executive officers are compensated effectively in a manner consistent with our stated compensation strategy, producing an annual report on executive compensation in accordance with the rules and regulations promulgated by the SEC, periodically evaluating the terms and administration of our incentive plans and benefit programs and monitoring of compliance with the legal prohibition on loans to our directors and executive officers. The Executive Committee is governed by a written charter approved by the Board.
 
Nominating Committee
 
During the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, the Nominating Committee of the Board (“Nominating Committee”) held 2 meetings. The Nominating Committee consists of Zvi Joseph and Solomon Mayer with Mr. Mayer appointed as Chairman of the Committee. The Board has determined that all of the members are “independent” as that term is defined under applicable SEC rules and under the current listing standards of The Nasdaq Stock Market.
 
 
46
 
 
The Nominating Committee is responsible for assisting the Board in identifying individuals qualified to become members of the Board and executive officers of the Company; selecting, or recommending that the Board select, director nominees for election as directors by the stockholders of the Company; developing and recommending to the Board a set of effective governance policies and procedures applicable to the company; leading the Board in its annual review of the Board’s performance; recommending to the Board director nominees for each committee; making recommendations regarding committee purpose, structure and operations; and overseeing and approving a managing continuity planning process. During the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, there were no changes to the procedures by which holders of our common stock may recommend nominees to the Board. The Nominating Committee is governed by a written charter approved by the Board.
 
Section 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance, and Code of Conduct and Ethics
 
Section 16(a) of the Exchange Act requires the Company’s officers and directors, and persons who own more than ten percent of a registered class of the Company’s equity securities, to file reports of securities ownership and changes in such ownership with the SEC.
 
Officers, directors and greater than ten percent stockholders also are required by SEC rules to furnish the Company with copies of all Section 16(a) forms they file.
 
Based solely upon a review of the copies of such forms furnished to the Company, and on written representations from the reporting persons, the Company believes that all Section 16(a) filing requirements applicable to the Company’s directors and officers were timely met during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018, except that one Form 4 for each of the following directors was not timely filed, in each case with respect to a single transaction: Spencer Richardson, David Newman, Gregory Schiffman, Sebastian Giordano, Zvi Joseph, Solomon Mayer and Joshua Silverman.
 
Code of Ethics
 
The Company adopted a Code of Ethics that applies to all employees, including the Company’s principal executive officer, principal financial officer, and principal accounting officer, as well as to the Board. A copy of the Code of Ethics is posted on the Company’s website.
 
 
47
 
 
ITEM 11 – EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION
 
Summary Compensation Table
 
The following table sets forth all compensation earned, in all capacities, during the fiscal years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 by the Company’s (i) Chief Executive Officers and (ii) two most highly compensated executive officers other than the Chief Executive Officer who was serving as an executive officer at the end of the 2018 fiscal year and whose salary as determined by Regulation S-K, Item 402, exceeded $100,000 (the individuals falling within categories (i) and (ii) are collectively referred to as the “named executive officers”).
 
Name and Principal Position
Year
 
Salary ($)
 
 
Bonus ($)
 
 
Stock Awards ($)
 
 
Option Awards ($) (1))
 
 
All Other Compensation
($)
 
 
Total ($)
 
Spencer Richardson
2018
  273,471 
  387,500 
  1,621,983 
  100,000 
  26,957 
  2,409,911 
Chief Executive Officer (2)
2017
  17,308 
  250,000 
  273,050 
  - 
  176,365 
  716,723 
 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
Sebastian Giordano
2018
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
former Chief Executive Officer (3)
2017
  180,000 
  - 
  - 
  104,000 
  - 
  284,000 
 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
Paul Commons
2018
  208,152 
  15,000 
  - 
  234,139 
  - 
  457,291 
former Chief Financial Officer (5)
2017
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
David Allen
2018
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
former Chief Financial Officer (3)
2017
  140,000 
  - 
  - 
  78,000 
  - 
  218,000 
 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
Robert Roller
2018
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
President of WPCS Suisun City International Inc. (6)
2017
  170,000 
  100,000 
  - 
  78,000 
  - 
  348,000 
 
 
    
    
    
    
    
    
David Newman
2018
  273,471 
  395,972 
  1,621,983 
  100,000 
  27,233 
  2,418,659 
Chief Business Development Officer (4)
2017
  17,308 
  250,000 
  273,050 
  - 
  156,615 
  696,973 
 
(1)
The dollar amounts in this column represents the aggregate grant date fair value computed in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718. The assumptions underlying the determination of fair value of the awards are set forth in Note 8 the financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
(2)
Mr. Richardson was CEO of Private DropCar until taking over as CEO of the Company upon the Merger.
(3)
Mr. Giordano was CEO of WPCS International Inc. until the Merger.
(4)
Mr. Newman was CBDO of Private DropCar until taking over as CBDO of the Company upon the Merger.
(5)
Mr. Commons was CFO from January 22, 2018 of Private DropCar until taking over as CFO of the Company upon the Merger, until the February 28, 2019.
 
 
48
 
 
Employment Contracts and Termination of Employment and Change-In-Control Arrangements
 
Employment Agreement with Spencer Richardson
 
In connection with the Merger, the Company entered into an employment agreement with Mr. Richardson pursuant to which he serves as the Company’s Chief Executive Officer. The employment agreement provides for an initial term of three (3) years with automatic one (1) year renewals. The employment agreement provides for the following cash-based compensation: (a) an annual base salary equal to $275,000, subject to a 10% increase per year; (b) a bonus payment of $250,000 in connection with the closing of the Merger; (c) quarterly bonuses of at least $12,500; (d) milestone bonus payments based on the Company’s achievement of certain specified milestones; and (e) allowances for automobile, medical and dental.
 
Mr. Richardson is also entitled to annual option grants equivalent to 1% of the outstanding shares of the Company. Subject to continued employment through each vesting date, these annual grants will vest and become exercisable with respect to 1/8th of the shares on each 90th day following the date of grant; provided that all options will vest on a change of control of the Company. In addition to annual option grants, Mr. Richardson is eligible to receive additional option grants based on the Company’s achievement of certain specified milestones.
 
In the event that Mr. Richardson’s employment with the Company is terminated (a) by the Company without “cause” (including as a result of death or disability) following the end of the initial term, (b) by Mr. Richardson for “good reason”, or (c) due to non-renewal of the initial term by the Company, then the Company shall pay or provide (x) 24 months’ of salary continuation, (y) $100,000 (such amount representing the guaranteed quarterly bonus for 24 months), and (z) to the extent unvested, full acceleration of the vesting of any outstanding options.
 
In addition, Richardson has entered into a non-solicitation and non-competition agreement that applies during the term of employment and for 12 months thereafter.
 
Employment Agreement with David Newman
 
In connection with the Merger, the Company entered into an employment agreement with Mr. Newman pursuant to which he serves as the Company’s Chief Business Development Officer. The employment agreement provides for an initial term of three (3) years with automatic one (1) year renewals. The employment agreement provides for the following cash-based compensation: (a) an annual base salary equal to $275,000, subject to a 10% increase per year; (b) a bonus payment of $250,000 in connection with the closing of the Merger; (c) quarterly bonuses of at least $12,500; (d) milestone bonus payments based on the Company’s achievement of certain specified milestones; and (e) allowances for automobile, medical and dental.
 
Mr. Newman is also entitled to annual option grants equivalent to 1% of the outstanding shares of the Company. Subject to continued employment through each vesting date, these annual grants will vest and become exercisable with respect to 1/8th of the shares on each 90th day following the date of grant; provided that all options will vest on a change of control of the Company. In addition to annual option grants, Mr. Newman is eligible to receive additional option grants based on the Company’s achievement of certain specified milestones.
 
 
49
 
 
In the event that Mr. Newman’s employment with the Company is terminated (a) by the Company without “cause” (including as a result of death or disability) following the end of the initial term, (b) by Mr. Newman for “good reason”, or (c) due to non-renewal of the initial term by the Company, then the Company shall pay or provide (x) 24 months’ of salary continuation, (y) $100,000 (such amount representing the guaranteed quarterly bonus for 24 months), and (z) to the extent unvested, full acceleration of the vesting of any outstanding options. 

In addition, Newman has entered into a non-solicitation and non-competition agreement that applies during the term of employment and for 12 months thereafter.
 
Employment Agreement with Paul Commons
 
On January 22, 2018, the Company entered into an employment agreement with Mr. Commons pursuant to which Mr. Commons agreed to serve as the Company’s Chief Financial Officer. The employment agreement provided for an initial term of three (3) years with automatic one (1) year renewals. The employment agreement for Mr. Commons provided for an annual base salary equal to $220,000 and quarterly bonuses equal to $5,000. Mr. Commons was also entitled to annual option grants equivalent to 1% of the outstanding shares of the Company. Subject to continued employment through each vesting date, these annual grants would vest and become exercisable with respect to 1/3 of the shares on the first anniversary of the effective date of the employment agreement, with the remaining 2/3 vesting in equal installments on a quarterly basis beginning on the last day of the next calendar quarter after the date on which the initial 1/3 of the shares vested.
 
In the event that Mr. Commons’s employment with the Company was terminated (a) by the Company without “cause” or (b) by Mr. Commons for “good reason” at any time during the 90 days following the effective date of the employment agreement, then for the nine month period following the termination date, the Company agreed to continue to pay to Mr. Commons (i) one-twelfth of his annual base salary each month and (ii) his quarterly bonus payments.
 
In addition, Mr. Commons entered into a non-solicitation and non-competition agreement that applies during the term of employment and for 12 months thereafter.
 
Mr. Commons’s employment as the Company’s Chief Financial Officer terminated on February 14, 2019.
 
Employment of Mark Corrao
 
On February 14, 2019, the Board approved (1) the termination of Paul Commons as Chief Financial Officer of the Company and any other positions on which he serves with respect to the Company and its subsidiaries and affiliates, and (2) the appointment of Mark Corrao as the Company’s new Chief Financial Officer, in each case effective as of February 28, 2019.
  
Mr. Corrao is employed in at-will capacity and does not have an employment agreement with the Company. As consideration for his services to the Company, Mr. Corrao will receive compensation in the amount of $1,500 per month.
 
 
50
 

Employment Agreement with Sebastian Giordano
 
The compensation arrangement of Sebastian Giordano, Chief Executive Officer of the Company, is set forth in a letter agreement, dated July 29, 2013, as amended on February 3, 2015. Pursuant to that agreement, Mr. Giordano is entitled to a base salary of $180,000 per year (effective as of January 1, 2015) and was granted options to purchase 2,273 shares of common stock, which were subject to vesting upon the Company meeting certain performance goals. As of April 30, 2017, the 2,273 options have expired. Future option grants are at the discretion of the Board. In addition, on January 31, 2017, the Executive Committee approved a bonus plan which allows Mr. Giordano to earn a yearly bonus of 50% of base salary of which 50% of the bonus is based upon achievement of the approved budget, 25% of the bonus is based upon certain performance targets and 25% of the bonus is based upon the discretion of the Board.
 
Change in Control Agreements with Sebastian Giordano and David Allen
 
The company entered into change in control agreements on September 29, 2015 with both Mr. Giordano and Allen. Pursuant to the terms of the agreements, both Mr. Giordano and Allen are entitled to payments of $350,000 and $150,000 respectfully, upon a change in control (as defined in their respective agreements) of the company. All payments under this agreement are contingent upon the respective officers’ execution and non-revocation of a general release of claims against the company.
 
As of January 30, 2018, immediately following the merger with Dropcar, Inc. both Mr. Giordano and Allen resigned from their respective positions and ceased serving as an employee of the company. In conjunction with their resignations and pursuant to the terms their change in control agreements, both Mr. Giordano and Allen were entitled to severance payment of $350,000 and $150,000, respectively.
 
Change in Control Agreement with Robert Roller
 
On October 21, 2015, the company’s subsidiary, Suisun City Operations, entered into a change in control agreement with Robert Roller, president of the Suisun City Operations. His agreement has an initial term of two years and automatically extends for additional one-year periods at the expiration of the initial term and on each anniversary thereafter unless either party notifies the other party of non-renewal no later than 30 days prior to such anniversary. Upon a change in control of the company or the Suisun City Operations, the agreement will continue for a term of two years and then terminate. This agreement entitles Mr. Roller to a severance payment of $150,000 and any unpaid compensation and benefits.
 
As of December 24, 2018, immediately following the divesture of Suisun City Operations to its management team, Mr. Robert Roller had voluntarily agreed to forfeit and released all claims against the company in connection with his change in control agreement.
 
 
51
 
 
OUTSTANDING EQUITY AWARDS AT FISCAL YEAR-END
 
The following table includes certain information with respect to all unexercised stock options and unvested shares of common stock outstanding owned by the named executive officers as of December 31, 2018.
 
Name
 
Number of Securities
underlying Unexercised
Options (#) Exercisable
 
 
Number of Securities
underlying Unexercised
Options (#) Unexercisable
 
 
Option Exercise Price ($/Share)
 
Option Expiration Date
 
Number of Shares or Units of
Stock that have not vested (#)
 
 
Market Value of Shares or units
of Stock that have not vested ($)
 
Spencer Richardson
  11,057 
  - 
 $9.72 
December 23, 2028
  20,387 
  154,125 
David Newman
  11,057 
  - 
 $9.72 
December 23, 2028
  20,387 
  154,125 
Paul Commons
  - 
  3,236 
 $79.56 
February 28, 2018
  - 
  - 
Leandro Larroulet
  - 
  626 
 $79.56 
February 28, 2018
  - 
  - 
 
Director Compensation
 
The following table sets forth summary information concerning the total compensation earned by the non-employee directors during the year ended December 31, 2018 for services to the Company.
 
Name
 
Fees Earned or Paid in Cash ($)
 
 
Option Awards ($) (1)
 
 
Non-equity incentive plan Compensation ($)
 
 
Nonqualified deferred compensation ($)
 
 
All other compensation
 
 
Total ($)
 
Brian Harrington
  25,588 
  20,042 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  45,630 
Greg Schiffman
  25,588 
  20,042 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  45,630 
Joshua Silverman
  81,838 
  30,046 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  111,884 
Sebastian Giordano
 56,667 
 20,042
  - 
  - 
  91,087(2)
  167,796 
Solomon Mayer
  25,588 
  20,042 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  45,630 
Zvi Joseph
  25,588 
  20,042 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  45,630 
 
(1) The dollar amounts in this column represents the aggregate grant date fair value computed in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718. The assumptions underlying the determination of fair value of the awards are set forth in Note 3 the financial statements included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
(2) Mr. Giordano earned $147,754 through the consulting agreement between the Company and Ascentaur, LLC. $90,000 of these earnings was tied to the successful sale of WPCS Suisun City International Inc. in December 2018.
 
 
52
 
 
From January 31, 2018 through May 14, 2018 the Board earned cash compensation at the rate of $2,000 per month. Effective on May 15, 2018, the Company’s directors’ receive annual compensation of $30,000 and the Chairperson receives annual compensation of $120,000 per year for their service on the Board, with the exception that Mr. Giordano’s compensation was addressed through the consulting arrangement between Ascentaur LLC and the Company through March 10, 2019. Additionally, in May of 2018, option grants were awarded based upon the value of $30,000 for the Chairperson and $20,000 for the other non-employee directors.
 
ITEM 12 – SECURITY OWNERSHIP OF CERTAIN BENEFICIAL OWNERS AND MANAGEMENT AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS
 
Information relating to this item will be included in an amendment to this Annual Report on Form 10-K and is incorporated by reference in this report.
 
ITEM 13 – CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS, AND DIRECTOR INDEPENDENCE
 
Our Board of Directors must approve in advance of all future transactions between us and any director, executive officer, holder of 5% or more of any class of our capital stock or any member of the immediate family of, or entities affiliated with, any of them, or any other related persons, as defined in Item 404 of Regulation S-K, or their affiliates, in which the amount involved is equal to or greater than $120,000. Any request for such a transaction must first be presented to our Board of Directors for review, consideration and approval. In approving or rejecting any such proposal, our Board of Directors is to consider all available information deemed relevant by the Board of Directors, including, but not limited to, the extent of the related person’s interest in the transaction, and whether the transaction is on terms no less favorable to us than terms we could have generally obtained from an unaffiliated third party under the same or similar circumstances.
 
Indemnification Agreements
 
We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and executive officers. These agreements, among other things, require us to indemnify each director and executive officer to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law, including indemnification of expenses such as attorneys’ fees, judgments, penalties fines and settlement amounts incurred by the director or executive officer in any action or proceeding, including any action or proceeding by or in right of the Company, arising out of the person’s services as a director or executive officer.
 
Ascentaur LLC Agreement
 
On July 11, 2018, we entered into a consulting agreement (the “Consulting Agreement”) with Ascentaur, LLC (“Ascentaur”). Sebastian Giordano is the Chief Executive Officer of Ascentaur, LLC. Pursuant to the terms of the Consulting Agreement, Ascentaur has agreed to provide advisory services with respect to the strategic development and growth of the Company, including advising the Company on market strategy and overall Company strategy, advising the Company on the sale of the Company’s WPCS International business segment, providing assistance to the Company in identifying and recruiting prospective employees, customers, business partners, investors and advisors that offer desirable administrative, financing, investment, technical, marketing and/or strategic expertise, and performing such other services pertaining to the Company’s business as the Company and Ascentaur may from time to time mutually agree. As consideration for its services under the Consulting Agreement, Ascentaur shall be entitled to receive (i) a fee of $10,000 per month for a period of nine months from the effective date of the Consulting Agreement, (ii) a lump sum fee of $90,000 upon the closing of the sale of the Company’s WPCS International business segment and (iii) reimbursement for reasonable and customary business expenses incurred in connection with Ascentaur’s performance under the Consulting Agreement.
 
 
53
 
 
ITEM 14 – PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTING FEES AND SERVICES
 
The Audit Committee has a policy concerning the approval of audit and non-audit services to be provided by our independent registered public accounting firm. The policy requires that the Audit Committee pre-approve all audit services and all permitted non-audit services (including fees and terms thereof), except as otherwise prohibited pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. These services may include audit services, audit-related services, tax services and other services. For each proposed service, the Audit Committee reviews a description of the service and sufficient information to confirm the determination that the provision of such service will not impair the independent registered public accounting firm’s independence. The Chairman of the Audit Committee is authorized to grant such pre-approvals in the event there is a need for such approvals prior to the next full Audit Committee meeting, provided all such pre-approvals are then reported to the full Audit Committee at its next scheduled meeting.
 
The following table presents fees for professional audit services rendered by EisnerAmper LLP for the audit of the Company’s annual financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 and fees billed for other services rendered by EisnerAmper LLP and other professional accounting firms during those periods.
 
 
 
2018
 
 
2017
 
Audit Fees:(1)
 $421,373
 $307,654 
Audit-Related Fees:(2)
 59,986
   
Tax Fees:(3)
   
   
All Other Fees:(4)
   
   
Total
 $481,359
 $307,654 
 
(1) Audit Fees include fees for services rendered for the audit of our annual financial statements, the review of financial statements included in our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, assistance with and review of documents filed with the SEC and consents and other services normally provided in connection with regulatory filings. In 2018, $399,299 was billed for audit fees, of which $46,200 was billed by Marcum LLP in connection with regulatory filings.
 
(2) Audit-Related Fees principally include fees incurred for due diligence in connection with potential transactions and accounting consultations.
 
(3) Tax Fees would include fees for services rendered for tax compliance, tax advice, and tax planning. There were no tax fees incurred with EisnerAmper LLP in 2018 and 2017.
 
(4) All Other Fees would include fees that do not constitute Audit Fees, Audit-Related Fees, or Tax Fees.
 
 
54
 
 
PART IV
 
ITEM 15 – EXHIBITS, FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES
 
(a). The following documents are filed as part of this annual report on Form 10-K:
 
(a)(1) and (2). See “Index to Consolidated Financial Statements and Financial Statement Schedules” at Item 8 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Other financial statement schedules have not been included because they are not applicable, or the information is included in the financial statements or notes thereto.
 
(a)(3) Exhibits
 
The following is a list of exhibits filed as part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
Exhibit
 
 
Number
 
Description
 
 
 
 
Agreement and Plan of Merger and Reorganization, dated September 6, 2017, by and among WSP International Incorporated, DC Acquisition Corporation, and the Company (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 2.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on September 6, 2017).
 
 
 
 
Amendment No. 3 to Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated December 4, 2017, by and among WSP International Incorporated, DC Acquisition Corporation, and the Company (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 2.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on December 6, 2017).
 
 
 
 
Form of Support Agreement, dated as of September 6, 2017, by and between the Company and certain stockholders named therein (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 2.2 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on December 6, 2017).
 
 
 
 
Form of Support Agreement, dated as of September 6, 2017, by and between the Company and certain stockholders named therein (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 2.3 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on December 6, 2017).
 
 
 
 
Form of Support Agreement, dated as of September 6, 2017, by and between the Company and certain stockholders named therein (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 2.4 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on December 6, 2017).
 
 
55
 
 
 
Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Company, as amended, dated March 8, 2019.
 
 
 
 
Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant, as amended on July 26, 2018 (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 3.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on August 1, 2018).
 
 
 
 
Form of Series K Common Stock Purchase Warrant (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 4.4 to the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on November 14, 2018).
 
 
 
 
Form of Warrant to Purchase Common Stock (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 4.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K/A filed with the SEC on September 10, 2018).
 
 
   
 
Form of Warrant Amendment to Series H-4 Warrant (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 4.2 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K/A filed with the SEC on September 10, 2018).
 
 
 
 
Form of Series I Warrant to Purchase Common Stock (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 4.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on April 20, 2018).
 
 
 
 
Form of Warrant to Purchase Common Stock of WPCS International Incorporated (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 10.2 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed December 22, 2016).
 
 
     
 
Form of Warrant to Purchase Common Stock (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 10.2 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed April 4, 2017).
 
 
 
 
Stock Purchase Agreement, dated as of December 10, 2018, between DropCar, Inc. and World Professional Cabling Systems, LLC (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 10.1 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed December 14, 2018).
 
 
 
 
Form of Securities Purchase Agreement, dated as of November 14, 2018, between DropCar, Inc. and Alpha Capital Anstalt (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 10.2 of the Company’s Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed November 14, 2018).
 
 
56
 
 
 
Securities Purchase Agreement, dated December 21, 2016, between WPCS International Incorporated and each purchaser identified therein (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 10.1 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed December 22, 2016).
 
 
     
 
Registration Rights Agreement, dated December 21, 2016, by and among WPCS International Incorporated and the investors listed therein (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 10.3 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed December 22, 2016).
 
 
 
 
Securities Purchase Agreement, dated March 30, 2017 (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 10.1 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed April 4, 2017).
 
 
 
 
Registration Rights Agreement, dated March 30, 2017, by and among WPCS International Incorporated and the purchasers listed therein (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 10.3 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed April 4, 2017).
 
 
 
 
Final form of the Repricing Offer Letter, dated December 4, 2017, from WPCS International Incorporated to each of Iroquois Master Fund, Iroquois Capital Investment Group, LLC and American Capital Management, LLC (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 10.1 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed December 6, 2017).
 
 
 
 
Form of Indemnification Agreement, by and between the Company and each of its directors and officers (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 10.1 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed February 5, 2018.).
 
 
 
 
Separation Agreement, dated January 30, 2018, by and between the Company and Sebastian Giordano (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 10.2 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed February 5, 2018).
 
 
 
 
Separation Agreement, dated January 30, 2018, by and between the Company and David Allen (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 10.3 of Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed February 5, 2018).
 
 
 
 
Employment Agreement, by and between the Company and Spencer Richardson, dated as of September 6, 2017 (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 10.4 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed February 5, 2018).
 SPLIT
 
 
 
 
57
 
 
 
Employment Agreement, by and between the Company and David Newman, dated as of September 6, 2017 (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 10.5 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed February 5, 2018).
 
 
 
 
Employment Agreement, by and between the Company and Paul Commons, dated as of January 22, 2018 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.6 of Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed February 5, 2018).
 
 
 
 
Securities Purchase Agreement, dated March 8, 2018, between the Company and the purchasers named therein (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 10.1 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed March 9, 2018).
 
 
 
 
Registration Rights Agreement, dated March 8, 2018, by and among the Company and the purchasers named therein (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 10.2 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed March 9, 2018).
 
 
 
 
Form of Warrant Exchange Agreement (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 10.1 of Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed April 20, 2018).
 
 
 
 
Consulting Agreement, dated as of July 11, 2018, by and between the Company and Ascentaur, LLC (incorporated by reference from Exhibit 10.1 of the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed July 13, 2018).
 
 
 
 
Consent of EisnerAmper LLP
 
 
 
 
Rule 13(a)-14(a)/15(d)-14(a) Certification of Principal Executive Officer
 
 
 
 
Rule 13(a)-14(a)/15(d)-14(a) Certification of Principal Financial And Accounting Officer
 
 
 
 
Section 1350 Certification of Principal Executive Officer and Principal Financial Officer (This certification is being furnished and shall not be deemed “filed” with the SEC for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liability of that section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any filing under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, except to the extent that the registrant specifically incorporates it by reference).
* Filed herewith.
† Management contract or compensatory plan or arrangement.
 
 
ITEM 16 – SUMMARY
 
None.
 

 
 
58
 
 
SIGNATURES
 
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
 
 
DROPCAR, INC.
 
 
 
 
 
Date: April 2, 2019
By:  
/s/ Spencer Richardson
 
 
 
Spencer Richardson 
 
 
 
(Principal Executive Officer) 
 
 
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, this report has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities indicated below and on the dates indicated.
  
Signature
 
Title
 
Date
 
 
 
 
 
 /s/ Spencer Richardson
 
Chief Executive Officer
 
April 2, 2019
Spencer Richardson
 
(Principal Executive Officer)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 /s/ Mark Corrao
 
Chief Financial Officer
 
April 2, 2019
Mark Corrao
 
(Principal Financial Officer)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 /s/ Joshua Silverman
 
Chairman of the Board of Directors
 
April 2, 2019
Joshua Silverman
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 /s/ Sebastian Giordano
 
 
 
 
Sebastian Giordano
 
Director
 
April 2, 2019
 
 
 
 
 
 /s/ David Newman
 
 
 
 
David Newman
 
Director, Chief Business Development Officer
 
April 2, 2019
 
 
 
 
 
 /s/ Zvi Joseph
 
 
 
 
Zvi Joseph
 
Director
 
April 2, 2019
 
 
 
 
 
 /s/ Solomon Mayer
 
 
 
 
Solomon Mayer
 
Director
 
April 2, 2019
 
 
 
 
 
 /s/ Greg Schiffman
 
 
 
 
Greg Schiffman
 
Director
 
April 2, 2019
 
 
 
59
 
 
INDEX TO
CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
Contents
 
 
 
Page
 
 
 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Financial Statements:
 
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2018 and 2017
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit) for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017
 
 
 
 
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017
 
 
 
 
Notes to consolidated financial statements
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
 
 
To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of
DropCar, Inc
 
Opinion on the Financial Statements
 
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of DropCar, Inc. and Subsidiaries (the "Company") as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the related consolidated statements of operations, stockholders' equity (deficit), and cash flows for each of the years then ended, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the "financial statements"). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, and the consolidated results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the years then ended, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
 
Going Concern
 
The accompanying financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. As discussed in Note 2 to the financial statements, the Company has an accumulated deficit of approximately $29.8 million and negative cash flow from operations of approximately $10.6 million and anticipates additional losses in fiscal year 2019, that raise substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern. Management's plans in regard to these matters are also described in Note 2. The financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.
 
Adoption of ASU No. 2014-09
 
As discussed in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company has changed its method of for recognizing revenue in the accompanying consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 due to the adoption of Accounting Standard Update No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), as amended.
 
Basis for Opinion
 
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) ("PCAOB") and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
 
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.
 
 
F-1
 
 
Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements.

Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
 
 
/s/ EisnerAmper LLP
 
We have served as the Company's auditor since 2017.
 
EISNERAMPER LLP
New York, New York
April 1, 2019
 
 
F-2
 
 
DropCar, Inc., and Subsidiaries
Consolidated Balance Sheets
 
 
 
 December 31,     
 
 
 
 2018   
 
 
 2017   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
ASSETS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CURRENT ASSETS:
 
 
 
 
 
 
    Cash
 $4,303,480 
 $372,011 
    Accounts receivable, net
  295,626 
  187,659 
    Prepaid expenses and other current assets
  328,612 
  51,532 
                Total current assets
  4,927,718 
  611,202 
 
    
    
    Property and equipment, net
  39,821 
  5,981 
    Capitalized software costs, net
  659,092 
  589,584 
    Other assets
  3,525 
  3,000 
 
    
    
                TOTAL ASSETS
 $5,630,156 
 $1,209,767 
 
    
    
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY (DEFICIT)
    
    
 
    
    
CURRENT LIABILITIES:
    
    
    Accounts payable and accrued expenses
 $2,338,560 
 $1,820,731 
    Deferred revenue
  253,200 
  236,433 
    Accrued interest
  - 
  135,715 
                Total current liabilities
  2,591,760 
  2,192,879 
 
    
    
    Convertible note payable, net of debt discount
  - 
  3,506,502 
                TOTAL LIABILITIES
  2,591,760 
  5,699,381 
 
    
    
COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
    
    
 
    
    
STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY (DEFICIT):
    
    
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value, 5,000,000 shares authorized
     
    
Series seed preferred stock, 275,691 shares authorized, zero and 275,691 issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively
  - 
 27
Series A preferred stock, 642,728 shares authorized, zero and 611,944 issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively
  - 
 61
Convertible Series H, 8,500 shares designated, 8 and zero shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively
  - 
  - 
Convertible Series H-1, 9,488 shares designated zero shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively
  - 
  - 
Convertible Series H-2, 3,500 shares designated zero shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively
  - 
  - 
Convertible Series H-3, 8,461 shares designated 2,189 and zero shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively
  - 
  - 
Convertible Series H-4, 30,000 shares designated 26,619 and zero shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively
 3
  - 
Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 100,000,000 shares authorized, 1,633,394 and 374,285 issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively
  163 
  37 
Additional paid in capital
  32,791,951
  5,115,158
Accumulated deficit
  (29,753,721)
  (9,604,897)
 
    
    
TOTAL STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY (DEFICIT)
  3,038,396 
  (4,489,614)
 
    
    
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY (DEFICIT)
 $5,630,156 
 $1,209,767 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements. 
 
F-3
 
 
 
DropCar, Inc., and Subsidiaries          
 
 
Consolidated Statements of Operations          
 
 
           
 
 
           
 
 
 
Years Ended December 31      
 
 
 
2018  
 
 
2017  
 
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
NET REVENUES
 $6,077,667 
 $4,285,514 
 
    
    
COST OF REVENUES
  7,863,673 
  4,543,456 
 
    
    
GROSS LOSS
  (1,786,006)
  (257,942)
 
    
    
OPERATING EXPENSES
    
    
    Research and development
  322,269 
  90,075 
    Selling, general and administrative expenses
  11,350,406 
  5,747,969 
    Depreciation and amortization
  354,657 
  218,660 
        TOTAL OPERATING EXPENSES
  12,027,332 
  6,056,704 
 
    
    
        OPERATING LOSS
  (13,813,338)
  (6,314,646)
 
    
    
Interest expense, net
  (1,081,226)
  (1,326,160)
 
    
    
        LOSS FROM CONTINUING OPERATIONS
  (14,894,564)
  (7,640,806)
 
    
    
DISCONTINUED OPERATIONS
    
    
    Income from operations of discontinued component
  315,119 
  - 
    Loss on sale of component
  (4,169,718)
  - 
        LOSS ON DISCONTINUED OPERATIONS
  (3,854,599)
  - 
 
    
    
 
    
    
NET LOSS
  (18,749,163)
  (7,640,806)
 
    
    
Deemed dividend on exchange of warrants
  (1,399,661)
  - 
 
    
    
NET LOSS ATTRIBUTABLE TO COMMON STOCKHOLDERS
 $(20,148,824)
 $(7,640,806)
 
    
    
 
    
    
 
    
    
 
    
    
 
    
    
AMOUNTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO COMMON STOCKHOLDERS
    
    
    Loss from continuing operations
 $(16,294,225)
 $(7,640,806)
    Loss from discontinued operations
  (3,854,599)
  - 
NET LOSS
 $(20,148,824)
 $(7,640,806)
 
    
    
 
    
    
NET LOSS PER COMMON SHARE, BASIC AND DILUTED
    
    
    Continuing operations
 $(12.04)
 $(23.61)
    Discontinued operations
  (2.85)
  - 
NET LOSS PER COMMON SHARE, BASIC AND DILUTED
 $(14.89)
 $(23.61)
 
WEIGHTED AVERAGE NUMBER OF COMMON SHARES OUTSTANDING, BASIC AND DILUTED 1,352,826
 
 1,352,826
  323,633 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements. 
 
F-4
 
 
 
DropCar, Inc., and Subsidiaries
 
 
Consolidated Statement of Changes in Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
 
 
                                                                                   
 
 
                                                                                   
 
 
 
       
 
 
       
 
 
       
 
 
       
 
 
       
 
 
     
 
 
 
 
 
Additional
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Series Seed Preferred Stock  
 
 
Series A Preferred Stock  
 
 
Series H Preferred Stock  
 
 
Series H-3 Preferred Stock
 
 
Series H-4 Preferred Stock
 
 
Common Stock    
 
 
Subscription
 
 
Paid-in
 
 
Accumulated
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shares
 
 
Amount
 
 
Shares
 
 
Amount
 
 
Shares
 
 
Amount
 
 
Shares
 
 
Amount
 
 
Shares
 
 
Amount
 
 
Shares
 
 
Amount
 
 
Receivable
 
 
Capital
 
 
Deficit
 
 
Total
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balances, January 1, 2017
 275,691
 $27
 530,065
 $53
  - 
 $- 
  - 
 $- 
  - 
 $- 
  272,720
 $27 
 $(69,960)
 $2,117,237
 $(1,964,091)
 $83,293 
Issuance of Series A Preferred stock
  - 
  - 
 73,845
 7
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  69,960 
  150,001
  - 
  219,968
Issuance of Series A Preferred stock for services
  - 
  - 
 8,034
 1
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  24,999
  - 
  25,000 
Fair value of warrants issued with convertible notes
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  - 
  2,138,931 
  - 
  2,138,931 
Issuance of common stock to offficers
  - 
  - 
  - 
  -